Atrial Fibrillation Essays (Examples)

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Warfarin vs Debagatrin

Words: 1986 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56680608

Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran vs. Warfarin for Stroke

After more than five decades as the preferred anticoagulant worldwide, warfarin is being challenged by a new rival that doesn't require careful dosage monitoring. Pradaxa (dabigatran) was unanimously approved by the FDA on October 19, 2010 for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, who are at an increased risk for suffering stroke and systemic embolisms (.S. Food and Drug Administration). Dabigatran acts by binding directly to thrombin. Warfarin (Coumadin) is an anticoagulant that functions by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors (Lemos et al., 770-771). Variations in the levels of vitamin K in the diet can influence how effective a given dose of warfarin is for a patient, so appropriate therapeutic dosages are determined on an individual basis periodically through a standardized clotting test (international normalized ratio [INR]). Even though warfarin can reduce the risk of stroke in AF patients…… [Read More]

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "FDA News Release: FDA approves Pradaxa to prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 19 Oct. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2011.

Schulman, Sam, Kearon, Clive, Kakkar, Ajay K., Mismetti, Patrick, Schellong, Sebastian, Eriksson, Hentry, Baanstra, David, Schnee, Janet, and Goldhaber, Samuel Z. "Dabigatran vs. warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism." New England Journal of Medicine 361 (2009): 2342-2352. Web.

Wallentin, Lars, Yusuf, Salim, Ezekowitz, Michael D., Alings, Marco, Flather, Marcus, Franzosi, Maria Grazia, Pais, Prem, Dans, Antonio, Eikelboom, John, Oldgren, Jonas, Pogue, Janice, Reilly, Paul A., Yang, Sean, Connolly, and Stuart J., on behalf of the RE-LY investigators. "Efficacy and safety of dabigatran compared with warfarin at different levels of international normalized ratio control for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the RE-LY trial." Lancet 376 (2010): 975-983. Web.
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Neuman Health Care Systems Model Preventative Care

Words: 1131 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6216492

Neuman Health Care Systems Model:

Preventative Care for Mr. H

The Neuman Health Care Systems Model was created by Betty M. Neuman in an effort to help nursing students focus on wellness for the client system (McHolm & Geib, 1998). In order to create wellness for a client system, the nursing students use an Assessment and Analysis Tool, which will help in identifying Mr. H's problems (McHolm & Geib, 1998).

First, a nurse must find out Mr. H's profile and define his stressors. This must be done by the nurse and by the concerns expressed by the client (NeumanSystemsModel.org, 2011). It is clear that stressors in this 72-year-old widower's life are affecting his overall health. ecent changes in his life, such as the loss of his wife of 45 years, are a factor in his health changes. It is good that Mr. H is still trying to maintain his normal…… [Read More]

References

A.D.A.M. (2011). Hypotension. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from https://health.google.com/health/ref/Hypotension.

McHolm, F.A. & Geib, K.M. (1998, January-March). Nursing diagnosis: Application of the Neuman systems model of teaching health assessment and nursing process. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3836/is_199801/ai_n8792656/?tag=content;col1

NCBI. (2010, July 1). Pubmed health - Atorvastatin. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH

NCBI. (2008, September 1). Pubmed health -- Furosemide. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0000791
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Problems and Interventions

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16949402

Interventions

Home health visits can be a useful method of identifying potential and actual health issues. Visiting the patient's home may provide the opportunity to identify issues which may not be readily apparent at a medical office. The home health visit is meant to assist in the promotion of the patient's health maintenance; limit further disability, and increase baseline health.

The visiting nurse will gain the ability to build a caring, professional, trusting, patient focused relationship. The home health nurse will be able to assist the patient by identifying, procuring and providing education for interventional items. The nurse will also know how to facilitate the communication of identified patient needs, in the home, to interdisciplinary members of the health care team (Liebel, Powers, Friedman, & Watson, 2012, p. 80).

Problem #1

The patient has been prescribed oxygen for home use by her physician. The patient states the she has not…… [Read More]

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Sallie Mae Fisher Ms Fisher Is an

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22623704

Sallie Mae Fisher

Ms. Fisher is an 82-year-old female with a history of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF), atrial fibrillation, and hypertension. With her age, and such an acute medical condition, she may undergo substantial changes in function and living standards.

Ms. Fisher has been hospitalized four times for exacerbation of her CHF in the last 6 months. One of her primary problems is most likely to be decline in function in activities of daily living (ADLs). During Post hospitalization, older patients experience changes in functional status, Mary seems not to recover well after hospitalization revealed by her frequent hospitalizations.

In addition, Ms. Fisher seems to gain weight fast an indication that her body is retaining extra fluid. This is a common complication associated with CHF. It appears that Ms. Fisher is not strict with her diet or in not monitoring her diet well to eliminate salt (De Lorgeril, Salen,…… [Read More]

References

De Lorgeril, M., Salen, P., & Defaye, P. (2005). Importance of nutrition in chronic heart failure patients. European Heart Journal, 2215-2217.

Mahoney, J.E., Eisner, J., Havighurst, T., Gray, S., & Palta, M. (2000). Problems of Older Adults Living Alone After Hospitalization. Journal Gen Intern Med, 611 -- 619.
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Primary and Secondary Assessment

Words: 2293 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84681736

Secondary Assessment

Tracy Folsom is a 28-year-old female who was brought to the Emergency Department by her neighbor. The neighbor stated that Miss Folsom was found lying semi-conscious in the shower. The patient was received in the ED by the on call nurse. The nurse's performance with Miss Folsom's management is reviewed in this article.

Emergency evaluation of a patient is supposed be in a systematic manner. A systemic approach prevents the examiner from missing out important clues that may point to a patient's diagnosis. This approach is divided into primary and secondary.

As part of the Primary Assessment, the patient's Airway, Breathing, Circulation and degree of Disability was evaluated, as per protocol. Miss. Folsom's airway was patent, breathing was shallow, and her skin color was pink, indicating good perfusion. She was obeying commands and pupils were equal in size and reactive to light. It is also helpful to state…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Canadian Medical Association. (2007, July). Putting patients first ®: patient-centred collaborative care a discussion paper. Retrieved from  http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/surgery/documents/CollaborativeCareBackgrounderRevised.pdf 

Dean, R & Mulligan, J, 2009, 'Initial management of patients in an emergency situation', Nursing Standard, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 35-41, (Academic Search Complete).

Gilbert, G., Souza, P., & Pletz, B. (2009). Patient assessment routine medical care primary and secondary survey. San Mateo County EMS Agency, 1-5. Retrieved from  http://smchealth.org/sites/default/files/docs/243322118Patient_Assessment.pdf 

Institute of Medicine. (2001) Crossing the quality chasm. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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Relationship Between Cardiac Disorders and Sleep Apnea

Words: 3079 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27014487

Cardiac Disorders and Sleep Apnea

The objective of this study is to ascertain the relationship between cardiac disorders and sleep apnea. Toward this end, this work will examine the research on this area of study.

An American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High lood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Strike Council, and Council on Cardiovascular nursing report states that "Sleep-related breathing disorders are highly prevalent in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects an estimated 15 million adult Americans and is present in a large proportion of patients with hypertension and in those with other cardiovascular disorders, including coronary artery disease, stroke, and atrial fibrillation." (Somers, et al., 2008, p.1080) Central sleep apnea occurs primarily in patients with heart failure. (Somers, et al., 2008, paraphrased)

The work of Halberstadt (2010) states that many…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Halberstadt, Jerry (2010) Sleep Apnea, The Phantom Cause of Heart Disease and Accidents. Healthy Resources. 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.healthyresources.com/sleep/apnea/articles/protect.html 

Kohnlein, T., Welte, T., Tan, LB and Elliott, MW (2002) Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Heart Disease: A Critical Review of the Current Literature. Thorax 2002, 57:547-554. Retrieved from: http://thorax.highwire.org/content/57/6/547.full

Lugaresi E, Cirignotta F, Coccagna G, Piana C. Some epidemiological data on snoring and cardiocirculatory disturbances. Sleep 3: 221 -- 224, 1980

Marin JM, Carrizo SJ, Vicente E, Agusti AG. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study. Lancet 365: 1046 -- 1053, 2005
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Cardiology Telemetry Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26541553

Compendium to Research in Cardiology and elemetry

Cotiga, D., et al. (2007). Acute Conversion of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation During Dofetilide Initiation. Pacing & Clinical Electrophysiology, 30(12), 1527-1530. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.2007.00902.x.

he researchers look at the role of Dofetilide (D) as "a highly selective blocker of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current;" approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). he study is a replication of clinical trials that concluded in a satisfactory safety/efficacy profile in patients with left ventricle (LV) dysfunction or heart failure. he participants to the investigation all received at least 6 dosing intervals D. while admitted in the elemetry unit. Seventy seven percent (77%) of the patients converted to sinus rhythm (SR) after the first 2.2 ± 1.2 doses. Findings to the investigation revealed that: 1) D. had an unusually high pharmacological conversion rate; 2) demonstrated response with incremental dosage; and 3) correlated with a high…… [Read More]

The stent-based antenna can be used in monitoring of blood pressure from a minimally invasive device inserted for tracking the pulmonary artery in diagnostic and early warning system for cardiac health. In cardiac diagnostics, the foremost challenge in using a like device is the wireless transfer of data and power from within the blood vessel to external devices; whilst maintaining unrestricted blood flow through the artery.

Paoletti, R., Suess, T., Lesko, M., Feroli, A., Kennel, J., Mahler, J., et al. (2007). Using bar-code technology and medication observation methodology for safer medication administration. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(5), 536-543. doi:10.2146/ajhp060140.

A three (3) inpatient nursing unit study on the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach to systematically decrease medication errors through the use of observation methodology and the deployment of electronic medication administration records (EMARs) and bar-coded-medication administration (BCMA) is discussed. Testing of two (2) intervention groups: 1) 20-bed cardiac control group in the telemetry unit; 2) a 36-bed medical-surgical unit. Testing was conducted utilizing a direct observation technique for data collection, the measurement of medication errors used the observation process was conducted in two (2) phases: 1) reimplementation; and 2) postimplementation. In the first phase of the study evaluating the medication administration process associated with a manual five (5) day medication administration record (MAR), a total of 188 errors were reported. During the second phase of the study, evaluation of the MAR process using EMAR and BCMA technology implemented under direct-observation. Accuracy rate in reporting before BCMA concluded at (86.5%); after BCMA, the rate rose to (97%). A (54%) reduction of errors to the MAR was observed following implementation the group's approach to medication safety.
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Staffing Shortages in Nursing Are a Consequence

Words: 4317 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6266637

Staffing shortages in nursing are a consequence of poor nurse retention and nurse satisfaction. Being a nurse requires a lot of dedication, patience, and ability to keep updated in a constantly evolving world. When hospitals and other medical facilities have staffing shortages or shortages in qualified nurses, the healthcare delivery of that particular place dwindles. Nurses are the backbone of any healthcare facility.

Especially in recent times, nurses provide prescriptions, treatment protocols, and diagnosis when doctors are away or busy. This literature review is meant to explain such a phenomena and how it relates directly to nurse satisfaction and nursing retention. From here, the connection crosses over to nursing care and healthcare delivery as standards of practice. Things like arrhythmias will be viewed to understand how nursing shortages attribute to lower quality of care. Utilizing Polk's theory of esilience, this review will allow a look into performance improvement concerns and…… [Read More]

References

Bosch, R., Kirch, W., Theuer, J., Pittrow, D., Kohlhaussen, A., Willich, S., & Bonnemeier, H. (2013). Atrial fibrillation management, outcomes and predictors of stable disease in daily practice: Prospective non-interventional study. International Journal Of Cardiology, 167(3), 750-756. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.03.053

GIANFERMI, R., & BUCHHOLZ, S. (2011). Exploring the relationship between job satisfaction and nursing group outcome attainment capability in nurse administrators. Journal Of Nursing Management, 19(8), 1012-1019. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01328.x

Hudgins, T. (2015). Resilience, job satisfaction and anticipated turnover in nurse leaders. Journal Of Nursing Management, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/jonm.12289

Minhas, R., Vogelaar, G., Wang, D., Almansoori, W., Lang, E., & Blanchard, I. et al. (2015). A prehospital treat-and-release protocol for supraventricular tachycardia. CJEM, 1-8. doi:10.1017/cem.2014.53
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Mortality Morbidity Heart Conditions

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48574328

Care Plan

Morbidity and Mortality Statistics:

Hypertension affects around 1 in 3 Americans and according to the CDC only 52% of people have this condition under control (CDC.gov, 2016). In older men, two-thirds have hypertension, and one-third of white men have hypertension. There are nearly 1000 deaths from hypertension daily in the United States, around 360,000 per year. Hypertension is related to first heart attacks, strokes and chronic heart failure.

The patient also suffers from orthostatic hypotension, which is when blood pressure drops when going from a lying or sitting position to standing. The largest risk for elderly people is the increased risk of falling that this brings. The patient may have fallen because of this condition. It is caused by, or linked to, high blood pressure and prolonged bed rest, as well as other conditions not faced by this patient. Anemia or vitamin B12 deficiency is another potential contributor…… [Read More]

References

CDC.gov (2015). Postural hypotension. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/steadi/pdf/postural_hypotension-a.pdf

CDC.gov (2016). Atrial fibrillation fact sheet. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fs_atrial_fibrillation.htm

CDC.gov (2016) Heart disease facts. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

CDC.gov (2016). High blood pressure. CDC.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/index.htm
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Autoimmune President George H W Bush

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50143410

Te tyroid is regulated by te pituitary gland. Autoimmune diseases, infections, ormonal imbalance or ereditary conditions can result in tyroid malfunction. Tese tyroid disorders usually come in one of two forms: functional, suc as ypotyroidism and ypertyroidism, and structural, suc as nodules and goiters, as in te case of te former President. Earlier tis year, Barbara Bus ad a mild relapse of er Graves' disease. Se began experiencing eartbeat irregularities tat can lead to cardiac arrest in older patients.

Graves' disease is te most common cause of ypertyroidism in te United States. Symptoms of te disease, suc as anxiety, restlessness, irritability, emotional instability, fatigue, muscle weakness or cramps, increased appetite, palpitations and eate intolerance can be accompanied by a quickened eartbeat, atrial fibrillation, tremor, an eye stare or canges in te air. Oter symptoms include increased sweating and bowl movements, sortness of breat on exertion and weigt canges.

(Dwyer)

First…… [Read More]

http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/barbara-bush-mild-relapse-graves-disease-released-houston/story?id=10249550 

3. Fitzgerald, Paul. Graves Disease. 16 December 2003.

Accessed at:   http://www.nytimes.com/2000/06/25/health/your-thyroid-may-be-talking-but-is-the-doctor-listening.html?pagewanted=2
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Strokes and Their Causes Stroke

Words: 2130 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86971451



Signs and Symptoms of Stroke

Patients with stroke symptoms are advised to seek out for emergency cure without any dilly-dallying. Definite signs of a stroke rely on the kind of stroke. However all kinds of stroke share several attributes. Warlow (1996, p.2) stated that cerebral embolism stroke generally comes on rather abruptly and is extreme right from the beginning. On the other hand schemic strokes signs consist of reduced vision in one eye or both eyes and stern headache. Other symptoms include feebleness, numbness or facial paralysis or arm and leg paralysis which are normally restricted on one side of the body.

Furthermore, other symptoms of schemic strokes include faintness, stability or coordination failure particularly when pooled with other signs. Hemorrhagic strokes are a bit different and the signs include loss of realization, distorted mental condition and seizure. Other signs include vomiting or stern nausea and extreme hypertension. Lastly, the…… [Read More]

Reference List

American Heart Association and American Stroke Association (n.d.). Stoke diagnosis

Retrieved May 14, 2010, from http://www.americanheart.org

Caplan, L. R, Dyken, M.L., & Easton, J.D. (1996). American Heart Association Family

Guide to Stroke Treatment, Recovery, and Prevention. New York: Times Books.
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Management of Left Ventricular Heart

Words: 3436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90872428

(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are

Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html

Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at: http://www.cks.nhs.uk/heart_failure_chronic/evidence/references#

NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk.

NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. www.nice.org.uk [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
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Exercises 10 Points Each How

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8076657

The patient should drink less, participate in more physical activity and should eat a better diet. The blood pressure and cholesterol both need to come down immediately.

Question 6

The patient needs to take the recommendations in question 5 or he likely has a very dim future if his BP and cholesterol is not lowered a lot. Blood pressure should be measured after the patient has rested for at least five minutes. He should be instructed in advance of the appointment what not to eat or drink so that the test result is not improperly influenced (e.g. drinking caffeine).

Question 7

There is no advancement or progression in symptoms but blood pressure is still entirely too high. It needs to drop by at least 30 points to be within a non-hypertension range. Needs to be made clear to patient that while he is feeling fine for now, that will change…… [Read More]

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An Overview of Pacemakers and Other Cardiac Devices

Words: 1288 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14223708

Implantable Cardiac Devices

Heart disease remains one of the leading causes of death in the United States but there are a number of different implantable cardiac devices (ICDs) available today, including pacemakers, defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization devices, that can help people with heart disease or failure go on to lead normal lives by regulating their heart beats through a series of electric shocks. To determine the facts about these devices, this paper provides a review of the literature to explain the respective indications for these devices as well as their differences. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these implantable cardiac devices are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Indications for each of the following: Pacemaker, ICD (defibrillator) & Cardiac esynchronization Devices

Pacemaker. According to Gregoratos et al. (1), this type of ICD is indicated for patients suffering from abnormalities of atrioventricular (AV) conduction which may…… [Read More]

References

1. Gregoratos, G et al. American Heart Association [Internet] ACC/AHA Practice Guidelines 2016 [cited 2016 April 26] Available from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/97/13/1325.full.

2. American Heart Association. [Internet] What is a pacemaker. 2016 [cited 2016 April 26] Available from https://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@hcm/documents / downloadable/ucm_300451.pdf.

3. Perry, P ICD -- The Beat Goes On: Experts Call for Expanded Coverage of ICDs, the Most Effective Method to Date for Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death in High-Risk Coronary Patients. The Saturday Evening Post 2004, March-April 276(2): 28-29.

4. Medtronic [Internet] 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS Guidelines for Implantable Defibrillator and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities. 2012. [cited 2016 April 26] Available from http://www.medtronic.com/content/dam/medtronic-com-m/mdt/crdm / documents/2012-accf-aha-hrs-guidelines.pdf.
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Stroke Is One of the

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36611783

Patients with aphasia struggle with language disorders including both oral and written communication problems. Also, clinical depression is found to be common among many stroke victims. [NINDS]

Stroke Prevention

Given the high stakes involving both mortality and morbidity, stroke prevention is considered a very vital health care policy. Prevention strategies are usually targeted on controlling the important 'first tier risk factors' which were mentioned earlier. First and foremost among these is to control hypertension. ased on evidence-based practices, the American Heart association recommends that antihypertensive treatment including the use of diuretics and class 1 ACEI drugs be standardized for all patients to prevent recurrent strokes as well as to serve as a proactive intervention against other cardiovascular complications. Since diabetes is considered a high risk factor for stroke, clinical practice also recommends that glucose levels for all diabetic patients with ischemic stroke be maintained near-normoglycemic levels. The AHA guidelines also…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Washington University, (2010) 'Stroke Information for Patients and Families: U.S. Statistics: ', retrieved Aug 2nd 2010, from, http://www.strokecenter.org/patients/stats.htm

2) Larry B. Goldstein, (2009), 'A Primer on Stroke Prevention and Treatment', Pub by American Heart Association.

3) NINDS, 'Post Stroke Rehabilitation Factsheet', retrieved Aug 2nd 2010, from, http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/stroke/poststrokerehab.htm

4) Ralph L. Sacco, MD, MS, @ Robert Adams MD et.al (2006), 'Guidelines for Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack', Stroke. 37:577, available online at, http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/37/2/577
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Beta Blockers Invented by Sir

Words: 1964 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19181337



1958

After studying the cardiovascular effects of various catecholamines, Moran and his research partner, Perkins, are published in the same journal as Ahlquist arguing "that DCI's activity belonged to Ahlquist's 'beta-adrenergic' type, and coined the term 'beta-adrenergic blocking drug', later shortened to 'beta-blocker'"

1959

Sir James Black joins the cardiovascular team at Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., reads Moran's research and realizes the possibilities of synthesizing an analog to DCI that would be clinically useful.

1959

Black's ICI report contradicts Waring's arguing that the "altered fat metabolism with associated changes in blood coagulability interact, permissively, with sympathetic neurohumoural stress responses to produce fatal damage."

1962

Black synthesizes propranolol (Inderal)

1963

ICI launches Black's first beta blocker treatment -- pronethalol (Alderlin).

1964

The first clinical studies are conducted for the use of proopranolol.

1965

ICI launches propranolol, the replacement for propranolol as it was found to cause thymic tumors in mice.

1966…… [Read More]

References

Altman, L. (2 Feb 1982), New class of drugs revolutionizes therapy for heart disease, [Online], Available: http://www.nytimes.com/1982/02/02/science/new-class-of-drugs-revolutionizes-therap-y-for-heart-disease.html?&pagewanted=print [22/10/09].

Archard, G. (2005), Beta-Blocker Use in CHF Patients: History of CHF Treatments, [Online], Available: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/510212_2 [22/10/09].

Betaxolol, (2008), [Online], Available:  http://www.medicinenet.com/betaxolol/article.htm  [22/10/09].

Bisoprolol, (2008), [Online], Available:  http://www.medicinenet.com/bisoprolol/article.htm  [22/10/09].
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Coumadin Warfarin Sodium Better Known

Words: 776 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26343619

It is easily absorbed through the digestive tract and is therefore almost always administered orally; the substance can also be absorbed through the skin, so gloves would be worn when handling large quantities of warfarin sodium (WHO 1995). Warfarin works in the body to disrupt Vitamin K's role in synthesizing certain blood clotting factors, and for ths reason levels of Vitamin K ingestion must be monitored to ensure safe blood clotting times without reduced effectiveness (Newcomer 2003).

Patient Info and FAQ Site

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, the manufacturer of the Coumadin brand name, operates a website at coumdin.com that provides a basic overview of the drugs use, dosages, possible side effects and dangers, and frequently asked questions (BMSC 2008). As the information here necessarily comes form a biased source, verifying its claims and conclusions on a site such as drugs.com -- which answers to its advertisers, admittedly, but which trades on…… [Read More]

References

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. (2008). "Coumadin." Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.coumadin.com/for_hcp.aspx

Drugs.com. (2009). "Coumadin." Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://www.drugs.com/coumadin.html 

Newcomer, J. (2003). "A Short History and Useful Factoids about Warfarin (Coumadin)." Flounder. Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://www.flounder.com/warfarin.htm 

WHO. (1995). "International Programme n Chemical Safety: Warfarin." Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://www.inchem.org/documents/hsg/hsg/hsg096.htm#PartNumber:6
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Stroke Prevention Prevalence in U S

Words: 1822 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4744688

The most common cause is blockage of an artery, usually by a piece of atherosclerotic plaque in one of the brain's main arteries that ahs broken off and gotten stuck "downstream." TIA are also caused by blood clots that originate in the heart, travel to the brain, and become lodged in a small artery there. By definition, the symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours, in contrast to the symptoms of a stroke, which last longer -- and are often permanent. (Komaroff, 2006, p. 88)

An individual may have one or more experiences with a TIA, though they may have none, prior to the actual stroke vent, often leading up to it, within a year or more of the stroke event. If these symptoms are noted, and even if they go away an individual should still seek care to begin treatment for medical stroke prevention. Individuals should also…… [Read More]

References

Better Control of Hypertension Has Reduced Stroke Deaths. (1987, July/August). FDA Consumer, 21, 2.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Heart Disease and Stroke (2008). Stroke Fact Sheet. Retrieved, December 5, 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/library/fs_stroke.htm

Ha, M., Lee, D., & and Jr.,. R. (2007). Association between Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(8), 1204.

Health; Blood Pressure Drugs Can Prevent Strokes, Heart Attacks - Studies. (2008, April 2). Manila Bulletin, p. NA.
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Gerontological & Griatric Nursing Nursing Paper-Gerontological &

Words: 1693 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9956260

GEONTOLOGICAL & GIATIC NUSING

Nursing Paper-Gerontological & Griatric Nursing

End of Life Issues and the Elderly

(2) "Identify and discuss the role of the nurse in providing family centred care to an elderly client who is palliative and living at home with his/her spouse or another family member."

Palliative care is an approach to provide a coordinated medical, nursing, and allied health service to address the patient's physical, social emotional and spiritual needs for people with progressive incurable illness. Palliative care seeks to deliver allied health service within the environment of person's choice to improve quality of life for both an ill person and the family or friends. In the United States, Europe and other part of the world, number of people reaching the advanced age and having the need of specialities for the management of pain control continues to increase. (oyal College of Nursing, 2004).

Meanwhile, a nurse plays…… [Read More]

References

Bliwise, D.L. Bliwise, N.G. Partinen, M. et al.(1988). Sleep Apnea and Mortality in an Aged Cohort. Am J. Public Health.78:544-547.

Bruce, S.D. & Hendrix, C.C. (2006). Palliative Sedation in End-of-Life Care: The Role of The Nurse in Palliative Sedation. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing.8(6):320-327.

Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life. Ottawa Canada.

Davies, E. & Higginson, I.J. (2004). Better Palliative Care for Older People. World Health Organization.
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Care Needs Concerns and Treatment

Words: 4512 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58816657



Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).

Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret

The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…… [Read More]

References

Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.

Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.

Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.

Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
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Stroke Is Widely Regarded One of the

Words: 2569 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54959389

Stroke is widely regarded one of the leading causes of deaths in the U.S. Indeed, recent statistical figures paint a grim picture with regard to the number of people who suffer a stroke in the U.S. each year. In basic terms, strokes are triggered by an interruption of blood flow into the brain. In this text, I concern myself with the physiological processes associated with stroke. In so doing, I will amongst other things define the disease and the body systems it affects, its causes, manifestation, and complications. Further, I will also discuss the hereditary or familial factors commonly associated with stroke.

Stroke: An Overview

In basic terms, stroke is said to be "an abrupt onset of neurological functions caused by a sudden reduction of cerebral blood flow, which is due in turn to either an ischemic occlusion or a hemorrhagic episode" (Gulini, Gianelli, Quaglia, and Marrucci, 2000, p. 239).…… [Read More]

References

Eisenberg, M.G., Glueckauf, R.L. & Zaretsky, H.H. (Eds.). (1999). Medical Aspects of Disability: A Handbook for the Rehabilitation Professional (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Gulini, M., Gianelli, M., Quaglia, W. & Marrucci, G. (Eds.). (2000). Receptor Chemistry Towards the Third Millennium. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Huether, S.E. & Mccance, K. (2012). Understanding Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science.

Mohr, J.P., Grotta, J.C., Wolf, P.A., Maskowitz, M.A., Mayberg, M.R. And Kummer, R.V. (2011). Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
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Maggot Debridement Therapy Is Maggot

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94862551

Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).

(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).

(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Courtenay, M., Churdh, J.D.T., and Ryan, T.J. (2000). Larva therapy in wound management.

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 93, 72-74.

Fenn-Smith, P. (2008). Case Study: Maggot Debridement Therapy. Wound Practice and Research, 16(4), 169-170.

Paul, Aaron G., Ahmad, Nazi W., Lee, H.L., Ariff, Ashraff M., Saranum, Masri, Naicker,
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Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Is a Sometimes-Lethal Disease Affecting

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24372280

Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a sometimes-lethal disease affecting primarily the lungs and thoracic lymphatic system, and its hallmark feature is noncaseating granulomas in multiple tissues and organs (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36; American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 736). Over 90% of all sufferers have pulmonary involvement, but granulomas are frequently found in other organs and tissues, including the skin, eyes, liver, spleen, parotid glands, central nervous system, muscles, bones, and genitourinary tract (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36). When death does result, it is typically due to pulmonary fibrosis. What follows is a review of pulmonary sarcoidosis from a clinical perspective.

Causes and isk Factors

The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but research into the nature of the resulting granulomas suggests immune dysregulation in genetically susceptible individuals is the primary causative factor (American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 738-740). The genetic contribution appears to be significant, as evidenced by an…… [Read More]

References

American Thoracic Society. (1999). Statement on Sarcoidosis. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 160, 736-755.

American Lung Association. (2010). State of lung disease in diverse communities 2010. Lung.org. Retrieved 5 Mar. 2012 from http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/lung-disease-data/solddc_2010.pdf.

Baughman, Robert P., Lower, Elyse E., and du Bois, Roland M. (2003). Sarcoidosis. Lancet, 361, 1111-1118.

Drent, Marjolein, De Vries, Jolanda, Lenters, Merinke, Lamers, Rob J. s., Rothkranz-Kos, Snjezana, Wouters, Emiel F.M. et al. (2003). Sarcoidosis: Assessment of disease severity using HRCT. European Radiology, 13, 2462-2471.
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Cardiovascular Case Study Management

Words: 3112 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51501524

Although the severities of congestive signs may be similar, medical evaluation should be instructed to determine whether there is accompanying proof of cardiovascular disease. Physical proof of cardiovascular disease contains the narrow pulse pressure, cool arms, and legs, and sometimes changed mentation, with supporting proof sometimes provided by reducing serum sodium level and deteriorating renal function. Cardiovascular disease is frequently difficult to recognize through phone contact but may be suspected when previously effective diuretic increases fail, nurses report lower blood pressure, or patients explain improved lethargy.

Facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes

Environmental factors and cultural beliefs; motivators and hinders

In this case, the client thought he was suffering from a heart attack and feared to come to the hospital. The symptoms had presented for four days before the patient sought help. The patient had been suffering from similar symptoms for the past six months, but thought…… [Read More]

References

American Association of Cardiovascular (2013). Guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs. John Wiley & Sons.

Bunting-Perry, L.K., & Vernon, G.M. (2007). Comprehensive nursing care for Parkinson's disease. New York: Springer Pub.

Holloway, N.M. (2014). Medical-surgical care planning. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gulanick, M. (2007). Nursing care plans: Nursing diagnosis and intervention. St. Louis: Mosby.
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Discharge Education After HF

Words: 2817 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24277540

Discharge Education to Promote Self-Efficacy in Heart Failure

An Education Intervention For Patients With Heart Failure

Management of congestive heart failure (CHF) continues to be a financial burden on the economy of the United States of America (USA); responsible for multiple hospital admissions and readmissions of patients with HF within thirty days post discharge. The disease has been associated with personal, physical, and economic challenges. As the population increases, the number of individuals affected with this condition is also increasing. According to the American Heart Association (2009), an estimated 400,000 to 500.000 new cases occur annually, with additional annual cost of more than $33 billion dollars added to the U.S. economy.

Discharge education, which attempts to reduce readmission rate, has become a valuable metric in the provision of health care. For effective management of heart failure symptoms, patient education is a necessity (Gruszczynski, 2010). Sara Paul (2008) discussed the importance…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, C., Deepak, B.V., Amoateng-Adjepongn, Y.,Zarich, S., (2005). Benefits of Comprehensive inpatient education and discharge planning combined with outpatient

Support in elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Congestive Heart Fail, 11(6),

315-321

Annema, C, Luttik ML, Jaarsma, T, (2009), Reasons for readmission in heart failure:
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Palliative Case Study Example

Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18524835

A.J., an 82-year-old female, was admitted three weeks ago with acute on chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) after presenting to the emergency department (ED) with c/o progressive worsening SOB, leg edema, and fatigue. She has a history of severe CHF, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction (MI), renal insufficiency, and hypothyroidism. Since admission, A.J. has needed intubation and ventilation for acute decompensated heart failure due to a massive MI. She is alert when not sedated but has been too unstable for a cardiac catheterization and has needed vasoactive medications to support her blood pressure. Her renal function has declined and plans are being made for hemodialysis. Today when speaking with A.J.'s husband, he conveys to you her nurse that "she would not have wanted all of this." "

Discuss the pros and cons of continued therapy and what role nursing can play in helping the patient and family.

This case deals with…… [Read More]

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The Diagnosis and Treatment of Arrhythmia

Words: 1461 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76244417

Arrhythmias cause irregular hearts beats in ways that can be life-threatening but there are a number of different types of arrhythmias that require different interventions. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide the etiology and pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic pathways and optimal therapeutic approaches for paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and Brady arrhythmias, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these three disease states in the conclusion.

Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia

Etiology & Pathogenesis. This type of arrhythmia can occur in individuals who have normal hearts as well as in people who have structurally abnormal hearts including those with congenital heart disease, especially following surgical repair of valvular or congenital heart disease (Budzikowski & ottman 2015).

Common causes of the arrhythmia, risk factors, definition of rhythm via EKG findings. Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia (PAT) is caused by irregular firing of…… [Read More]

References

Brady arrhythmias. Boston Medical Center. [cited 2016]. Available: https://www.boston cardiovascular.org/handler.cfm?event=practice, template&cpid=50108.

Budzikowski, AS, Rottman, JN. Atrial Tachycardia. Medscape: News and Perspectives. [cited 2016]. Available: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/151456-overview.

Burke, MM, Laramie, JA. Primary Care of the Older Adult: A Multidisciplinary Approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2009.

Gialama, F, Prezerakos, P. The Cost Effectiveness of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, February 2104, 12(1), 41-45.
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Heart Transplant Asthma & Pulmonary

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74860934

Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%

in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#

ILIOGRAPHY

Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1

adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041

Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac

Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,

March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1

Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1

Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
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Lee She Faces a Number

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61242717

¶ … Lee she faces a number of problems related to: her hypertension, coronary artery disease, Parkinson's disease, the loss of memory and her lack of compliance. This is problematic for most health care professionals, because they need to create some kind of strategy that can address these issues. While at the same time, motivating her to embrace the fact that she needs some help to: prevent the situation from becoming even more serious. To deal with these challenges nurses must be able to use a number of different tools and tactics. To determine how to achieve these objectives requires: discussing the concerns about the various complications, interpreting the result of the Fall Risk Assessment, how one could subtly encourage her to seek outside care and prioritizing the best way an intervention will take place. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how the trained health…… [Read More]