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Fences" August ilson
The Influence of Sports in Fences
Sports is one of the principle motifs in Fences, a play written by August ilson, and is utilized to facilitate the other themes that this work of drama explores. The protagonist, Troy Maxson (Gilmore), is a former Negro leagues baseball player who is still attempting to reconcile his attempts at a career in professional baseball with the fact that he was not permitted to pursue this option due to a racial barrier at the time he was playing. His son, Cory Maxson, is a high school football player with promise who has the potential to play collegiate ball. Due to these facts and their effects upon the characterization of both of these individuals, ilson utilizes the motif of sports to demonstrate a lot of the pertinent themes that Fences is based upon -- such as questions of race and justice (Burbank…
Burbank, Sergei. "The Shattered Mirror: What August Wilson Means and Willed to Mean." College Literature 36.2 (2009): 117-29. Print
Dobie, Ann B., ed. Theory Into Practice: An Introduction to Literary Criticism. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 2009. Print
Gantt, Patricia M. "Putting Black Culture on Stage: August Wilson's Pittsburgh Cycle." College Literature 36.2 (2009): 1-25. Print
Gilmour, Nathan. "Troy Maxson Goes To Heaven." The Christian Humanist. 2010. Web. http://www.christianhumanist.org/chb/2010/11/troy-maxson-goes-to-heaven/
August ilson's Fences allows the ordinary objects of domestic life to acquire a larger symbolic significance in their dramatic use. The play uses these symbols to dramatize a crucial moment in African-American history: the 1950s, when the great advances of the Civil Rights era are taking place, but when an audience might very well question what tangible effect they had on the lives of actual African-Americans. In presenting the story of Troy Maxson, ilson's story predominantly dramatizes a story about justice: arguably, all of the symbols relate to this central theme.
The chief symbol that encapsulates the play's central themes of justice is, of course, baseball. Troy Maxson -- in his fifties at the time of the play -- is presented as having been a magnificent baseball player in his youth: Troy's friend Bono suggests only "two men ever played baseball as good as you. That's Babe Ruth…
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Plume, 1986. Print.
August ilson introduces the importance of Christianity in African-American lives, especially in the characters of Toledo, Cutler, and Levee in the play "Ma Rainey's Black Bottom." This play is not overtly about religion, but it is about the African-American experience and cultural identity. Religion plays a major role in the personal and collective identities of African-Americans. Christianity has an ambiguous and paradoxical position within African-American culture. As the religion of the white oppressor, it has ironically been embraced as a primary means of spiritual solace, social support, and existential salvation. However, Toledo, Cutler, and Levee occupy precarious positions in African-American society. Their relationship with Christianity reflects the conflicts embedded in African-American identity.
Christianity is indelibly part of the African-American experience, because of the ways Churches have become central to black community development and maintenance. As Toledo challenges Cutler and Levee about knowing the Lord's Prayer, Cutler responds that…
DuBois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Bartleby, 1903.
Elkins, Marilyn Roberson. August Wilson: A Casebook. New York: Garland, 2000.
Wilson, August. Ma Rainey's Black Bottom. Samuel French, 1985.
Fences" August Wilson
Breaking Out: Autonomous Independence in Fences
One of the principle characters of August Wilson's play entitled Fences is Cory Maxson, whose role as the son of the play's protagonist, Troy Maxson (Gilmour 2010), is fairly integral to the thematic issues that the author chooses to demonstrate within this dramatic work. As one of Troy's several sons, Cory represents the distinct ideology that is fairly endemic to all parents -- that of their offspring having a better life than they had. However, there are a number of similarities between Cory and Troy that seemingly suggest that Cory may be fated to incur a fate that is painfully similar to that of his father -- a fact that Troy is dutifully cognizant of and tries his hardest to prevent. Wilson imbues both of these characters with a powerful sense of responsibility and self-identity that revolves about their conception of…
Gilmour, Nathan. "Troy Maxson Goes To Heaven." The Christian Humanist. 2010. Web. http://www.christianhumanist.org/chb/2010/11/troy-maxson-goes-to-heaven/
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Plume. 1986. Print.
His father cannot see him as a new hope; because he is too busy trying to protect him from the past. However, he cannot protect him, and in fact, he lets the past influence his own decisions. Wilson seems to be saying that many black men cannot learn from their past, instead they keep perpetuating the same mistakes generation to generation.
Troy is a liar, which also gives a clue to Wilson's ideas on fatherhood. Throughout the play he says he loves ose and does not run around on her, yet he has an affair with Alberta, sires a daughter with her, and ose has to raise the daughter when Alberta dies. Thus, he shows that he is not trustworthy - instead, he is cunning and sly. His life is about self-gratification at any cost, and he does not consider the feelings of others in his decisions. Wilson's cynical view…
Alexander, Elizabeth. "The One Who Went Before: Remembering the Playwright August Wilson, 1945-2005." American Scholar Wntr 2006: 122+.
Perry, Shauneille. "Manhandled: African-American Masculinity -- And Black Womanhood-Are Examined in August Wilson's Oeuvre." American Theatre Apr. 2005: 64+.
Shannon, Sandra G. The Dramatic Vision of August Wilson. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1995.
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Plume, 1986.
When a person understands the history of baseball, much of what Wilson has to say makes more sense, because the jargon of the book can be problematic for others who have no concept of the game. This does not mean that the book cannot be enjoyable to people who have no real concept of baseball, but most people in America today at least know the basics about the game of baseball and how much significance it has had throughout history. Having a basic knowledge of baseball is good before reading Wilson's work. Having a strong knowledge of baseball is even better, because it makes it much more likely that a reader will get all of the references that are made and have a much better idea of the deeper meanings that Wilson is imparting in his work.
From the very beginning of Wilson's work, the audience is dropped right into…
Block, David (2006). Baseball Before We Knew it: A look at something I don't remember. Bison Books. 0803262558.
Sullivan, Dean (1997). Early Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1825-1908. U of Nebraska Press.
Ward, Geoffrey C. (1994). Baseball an Illustrated History. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.
Wilson, August (1986). Fences. New York: Plume
In August ilson's play The Piano Lesson, Berniece is the protagonist or the heroine and main character, who represents the traditions and heritage of the family going back to the times of slavery and even to Africa itself. illie on the other hand is the antagonist, a violent and angry man, a thief and a murderer who takes revenge on the Sutter family but now intends to use the money from the sale of the piano to buy their land. In short, he is a young capitalist who intends to move up in America and take the place of Sutter, but Berniece decides against this. From the start, she refuses to cooperate with illie, but for most of the play she is reluctant to accept the piano at all during the first two acts of the play, but in the climactic scene at the end, she uses its…
Wilson, August. The Piano Lesson. Penguin, 1990.
Ma Rainey's Black Bottom august wilson. Plume publishing New York Mr. ison a poet a playwrighter. His play
Levee's physical appearance is very important to his conception of self-identity, which helps him to make up for the fact that he has no distinguishable identity of his own. For instance, he appears in the first act of the play with a pair of extremely expensive shoes. The importance of these shoes is underscored by the fact that they are identified by manufacturer (they are Florsheim shoes). Additionally, they are more expensive than the shoes that most of the other band members have on, and perhaps even more so than the rest of their clothes as well. It is also extremely significant to note that the money used to earn these shoes was partly illicit, since the musician won some of the funds he splurged on his footwear the previous night in…
Wilson, August. "Ma Rainey's Black Bottom." New York: Plume. 1985.
Piano Lesson, by August Wilson, who one a Pulitzer Prize for the work in 1990. Specifically, it will address the form, protagonist, and analyze a character in the play.
THE PIANO LESSON
The Piano Lesson," written by August Wilson is a climatic play with the climax coming when Berniece finally sits down to play the piano, something she has not done for many years. She conjures up the spirits of her dead ancestors to help her save the piano, and let go of her own personal turmoil. "I want you to help me Mama Esther... I want you to help me Papa Boy Charles... I want you to help me Mama Ola" (Wilson 107). She calls forth the ghost that Willie Boy literally wrestles at the end of the play, leading up to their ultimate reconciliation. Boy Willie gives up the piano because he finally realizes the importance it plays…
Ma ainey's Black Bottom
Ma ainer's Black Bottom
Ma ainey's Black Bottom is an ancient play set through chronological and sequential events from the real experiences of the people represented. It is a playwright by August Wilson. It has a characterization of musical characters with 8 males -5 white and 2 blacks- and 2 African-American females. This musical presentation presents the undying thematic concerns of racism, art, religion, self-hate and exploitation (Wilson 1985). The play has brought to the limelight humorous, salty, carnal and expressive experiences from its characterization. The music-oriented play lightens up a dramatic blend that snakes through agonized periods of blacks to the American life. This context concentrates more on the role of representation of Levee, a young band member and a central character that bring out the odds portrayed by collaborations of the whites and blacks in the music entity.
As rendered by reading and…
Wilson, A. 1985. Ma Rainey's Black Bottom. Chicago: Samuel French.
ilson's play Fences, one of the primary conflicts is between father and son, a conflict of a sort that recalls many such encounters between fathers and sons. Troy is the father and Cory the son. They are much alike, which is likely where the conflict develops in their case. As is often true between father and son though, the primary conflict derives from their different experiences, with Troy having a long history to remember, a history of hardship and hard lesson, s while Cory has had a softer life and is not learning the lessons that Troy learned, at least not soon enough to satisfy his father.
Troy's experience is clear in the play because he and Bono talk endlessly about it, recalling the days of their youth. Troy has particular memories of his own relationship with his father, a man who taught him much and who was also harsh…
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Samuel French, 1986.
The interaction between father and son allow ilson to introduce the bonding aspect of sports. Troy is so hurt from what has happened to him in prison and afterward, that he cannot believe that things could be any different for anyone else. hen it is pointed out to him that there are successful African-American sportsmen, such as es Covington and Hank Aaron, Troy scoffs and says, "Aaron ain't nobody... Hell, I could hit forty-three home runs right now!" (1619). His clouded perception of the world refuses to let him see a future for any African-American male in football. It is important to realize that part of this refusal to accept that the world has changed would also mean Troy admitting his defeat. Furthermore, if Troy accepted the fact that Cory could be successful, it would mean that he was a failure. Troy's need for control does not allow Cory to…
Wilson, August. Fences. The Norton Introduction to Literature W.W. Norton and Company. 1991. pp. 1603-51.
She hid the severity of ilson's condition from the public, controlling access to him to everyone except herself and his doctors for a time (Thurston). However, historical evidence suggests that ilson was incredibly weakened by the stroke. Even controlling what reached him and what did not gave her a considerable amount of power. Her actions were barely within the confines of acceptability at the time. It is not surprising that many saw her as "President" at the time.
Historians debate whether to call her the first woman president, or whether, as she stated, she was only acting as ilson's help mate at the time. Certainly, in the context of her time period, she was acting as no women had ever dared in the past. Instead of going to the President's advisors and asking them for advice, she took on the role herself, essentially snubbing their authority as males. She did…
Ashby, R. Woodrow and Edith Wilson. Canada: Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc. 2005.
Cory at first refuses to attend his own father's funeral, but his mother convinces him that will not make him any more of a "man." In fact, allowing himself to be so stubborn and unforgiving is just like his father, so he is more like his father than he might care to admit. It takes Troy years, but he finally comes to terms with his relationship with his own father, and begins to give up his feelings of anger and hatred. He says, "I got to the place where I could feel him kicking in my blood and knew that the only thing that separated us was the matter of a few years" (Wilson 53). The reader can only hope that someday, Cory will have the same revelation, and when he does, he will do things differently when he has his own son. As the two brothers talk before the…
Jacobus, Lee a. The Bedford Introduction to Drama, Fourth Edition.
Savran, David. "Interview with August Wilson." In Their Own Words: Contemporary American Playwrights. New York: Theater Communications Group, 1988. 288-
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: New American Library, 1987.
Boy Willie's father, Boy Charles, set out to steal the piano with pictures of his family carved by his father, to return it to the rightful owners. As far as Boy Charles was concerned, the piano "was the story of [their] whole family and as long as Sutter had it . . . he had [them]," (Wilson, 1990, p. 45). Similarly, Boy Willie wishes to sell the family piano in order to receive something far more valuable to him -- Sutter's land -- in a move which would symbolically avenge the slavery his family endured under Sutter in the past. Boy Willie's impetuousness to this end and defiance of anyone to stand in his way, along with his fierce ambition to avenge his family's traumatic past allows him to carry on a legacy begun by his father.
Even if Berniece and Boy Willie were not so adamant about manifesting the…
Wilson, August. 1990. The Piano Lesson. New York: Penguin Group.
But the piano is also inlaid with carvings made by her father's own hands. Bernice's ambivalence is also exemplified in the fact that Bernice refuses to sell the piano, yet she also refuses to play the instrument, for fear of waking the spirits within it. "I don't play that piano 'cause I don't want to wake them spirits" (70).
Bernice's brother illie scoffs "ain't no ghost," which demonstrates his often limited understanding of the need to still retain a connection to his family's past struggles and legacy (104). However, when the ghost of Sutter comes, Bernice is able to gain the courage to play, and eventually she and her brother establish a kind of peace between themselves and their ancestors. hether the ghost is real or not does not matter, what matters is that both sister and brother have exorcized the evil demons of the past, and resurrected the influence…
Wilson, August. "The Piano Lesson." New York: Plume, 1990.
Playwright August ilson won two Pulitzers in his illustrious career. In The Pittsburgh Cycle, ilson wrote a series of plays each depicting a different decade in the lives of African-Americans living in the United States. Of these, Fences, takes place in the 1950s and features the problems not only of the African-American experience, but also the situation of societal oppression indicative of that period. At the heart of the play is protagonist Troy Maxson. His actions result in comedy and tragedy for all of the characters around him, making him the center of this universe that ilson has created, representing the tumultuous time period in which the play takes place. August ilson has stated that the character is based upon his own step-father, David Bedford providing the story with an autobiographical context. ilson uses his own perception of his step-father in order to illustrate a story about the difficulties…
Bryer, Jackson R., and Mary C. Hartig. Conversations with August Wilson. Jackson: University
of Mississippi, 2006. Print.
Clark, Keith. "Reflections on Baseball, Gunshots, and War Wounds in August Wilson's Fences."
Contemporary Black Men's Fiction and Drama. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2001.
This is certainly suggested in Boy illie's ruthless and callous demeanor with respect to an heirloom for which his father gave his life. Doaker reports at one point that "he say he gonna cut it in half and go on and sell his half. They been around here three days trying to sell them watermelons. They trying to get out to where the white folks live but the truck keep breaking down. They go a block or two and it break down again. They trying to get out to Squirrel Hill and can't get around the corner. He say soon as he can get that truck empty to where he can set the piano up in there he gonna take it out of here and go sell it." (ilson, 29)
Boy illie's representation of the blind ambition to advance casts this path in a particularly negative light, but also denotes…
Boan, D. (1998). Call-and-Response: Parallel 'Slave Narrative' in August Wilson's 'The Piano Lesson.' African-American Review, 32(2), 263-272.
Kubitschek, M.D. (1994). August Wilson's Gender Lesson. Essays on the Drama of August Wilson: University of Iowa Press.
Nadel, A. (1994). May All Your Fences Have Gates: Essays on the Drama of August Wilson. University of Iowa Press.
Wilson, A. (1990). The Piano Lesson. Plume.
At the same time Bernice doesn't tell her daughter the history of the heirloom, in fear of waking the spirit. This means that even Bernice is not using her legacy positively, but is afraid of it. Both characters are able to embrace their history with pride by the end of the play, as Boy illie comes to understand the Piano's significance and Bernice begins to play it again (Sparknotes.com)
3. The Little Foxes
a. Significance of the Title
Lillian Hellman was born in New Orleans and educated at New York and Columbia University. Her first success was the play 'The Children's Hour'; she was an active part of political activities and spoke openly about her ideals. 'The Little Foxes' brought her greater fame and reflects her opinion of and her remembrances of the South (kirjasto.sci.fi).
The play is a satire or a criticism of the machinations of capitalists who live…
Bradford, W. The Piano Lesson: Study Guide. 2012. 11 June, 2012. http://plays.about.com/od/plays/a/pianolesson.htm
Cannon, J. "Local Women's History Celebrated." "The Dernopolis Times." 2011. Web. 11 June, 2012.
Cliffnotes.com. A Raisin in the Sun. 2012. Web. 11 June, 2012.
Enotes.com. The Little Foxes: Introduction. 2012. 11 June, 2012. http://www.enotes.com/little-foxes
Fences (Wilson, 1986) August Wilson, one of America's preeminent black playwrights presents the mercurial nature of one, Troy Maxson. Not much effort is needed before the real and metaphorical fences become evident. Delving deeper into Troy's character unearths the fence that distinguishes his "makeup": vacillation between a sober, responsible person from one that is self-destructive.
Troy Maxson, a son of a share-cropper, leaves the deep-south, escaping from his father's brutality. He reaches Pittsburgh where a black man does not find a place among a burgeoning, blue-collar, middle class. He lives on the streets. He steals. In this part of his life he finds a woman, gets married and has a son -- Lyons. He then spends fifteen years in jail for stealing. eing rehabilitated, he plays baseball and becomes a star in the Negro Leagues -- though no note-worthy financial compensations are forthcoming; he considers himself better than "Jackie Robinson."…
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Penguin, 1986.
The National Guard, as anticipated by the Constitution's framers, was now a military reserve ready to serve the national interest. The National Guard, while getting large amounts of federal funds and growing in size, continued to struggle to find its true role in military operations and readiness. The natural disasters and civil disorder incidents in which Guardsmen were called to help supported their cause. These included such events as the San Francisco earthquake in 1906; over 21 times" (Smith 1990 P. 11-12).
In Florida, National Guard served the role of preventing the lynching of black, and they maintained order during worker strike in several states. Despite the Dick Act, the National Guard became less favorable before many Americans. Typically, when citizens went into labor strikes across the country and action taken by the undisciplined National Guard against the strikers was very questionable. Typically, National Guard underwent massive massacre of citizens…
Bowman, S. Kapp, L. & Belasco, a. Hurricane Katrina: DOD Disaster Response. CRS Report for Congress.2005.
Doubler, M.D. Listman, J.W., & Goldstein, D.M. "An Illustrated History of America's Citizen-Soldiers the National Guard".. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. 2007.
Doubler. M.D. The Guard Century Series: 1900-1920 Century of Change, Century of Contribution: A Militia Nation Comes of Age. National Guard Association of the United States. 2011.
Coasts, J.A. Base Closure and Realignment: Federal Control over the National Guard. University of Cincinnati Law Review. Vol 75. P 343-370. 2006.
BATTLE OF ILSON'S CREEK
Understanding the Battle of ilson's Creek
Location: Approximately 10 miles southwest of Springfield, Missouri
The Battle of ilson's Creek, (Aug. 10, 1861) was a battle of the Civil ar and was considered the second major battle that occurred two weeks after the First Bull Run Battle that happened in Virginia. It is the first major battle that took place west of the Mississippi River. The war was between an aggressive Union army and a superior force, the Confederate soldiers plus the pro-secessionist Missouri State Guard (MSG) who were looking to Missouri's future. The war erupted due to Nathaniel Lyon's aggressiveness that was a fierce pro-Union officer of the federal army anxiously looking at crushing the secessionist forces. At this time, the state of Missouri had been fractured leading to the division that had followed the election of Lincoln. As such, much of the army population…
Jeffrey L. Patrick, Campaign for Wilson's Creek: The Fight for Missouri Begins (Buffalo Gap, TX: Mcwhiney Foundation Press, 2011).
Louis S. Gerteis, The Civil War in Missouri: A Military History (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2012).
For Bush, the "formation and refining of policy proposals" (Kingdon's second process stream in policymaking) came to fruition when he got elected, and began talking to legislators about making educators and schools accountable. Bush gave a little, and pushed a little, and the Congress make its own changes and revisions, and the policy began to take shape. The third part of Kingdon's process stream for Bush (politics) was getting the necessary votes; Bush had his handlers buttonhole certain conservative politicians, and united them with Democrats, to get enough votes to pass the NCLB.
Meantime, it was truly "organized anarchy" as the debate in the House and Senate lasted seven weeks, and some members of Congress rejected the idea of having the NAEP double check state statistics that show whether test scores have gone up or not. Civil rights groups attacked the bill, saying it would be unfair to minorities.
American Federation of Teachers. "NCLB - Let's Get it Right." Retrieved 7 Dec. 2007 at http://www.aft.org/topics/nclb/index.htm .
American Teacher. "Harvard study cites NCLB implementation flaws." (April 2004) Retrieved Dec. 2007 through http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_teacher/apr04/nclb.html .
Nation at Risk. "An Open Letter to the American People: The Imperative for Educational
Reform." April 1983. Department of Education. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 at http://www.ed.gov /pubs/natAtRisk/findings.html.
Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students.
May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students…
Beukelman, D.R., Beukleman, H.M., Ranklin, J.L., Wood, L.A. (2003). Early Computer Literacy: First Grades Use the "Talking" Computer. Reading Improvement. 40: 3. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Castek, J., Coiro, J., Henry, L.A., Leu, D.J., Mcmullan, M. (2004). The Lessons That Children Teach Us: Integrating Children's Literature and the New Literacies of the Internet. The Reading Teacher. 57: 5. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Doering, a., Hughes, J., & Huffman. D. (2003). Preservice teachers: Are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(3), 342-362. In Speaker, K. (2004). Student Perspectives: Expectations of Multimedia Technology in a College Literature Class. Reading Improvement. 41: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Dowrick, P.W. Kim-Rupnow, W.S, and Power, T.J. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. Journal of Special Education. 39: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Thirdly, the approach Woodrow Wilson had put forward at the Peace Conference was based on the mutual agreement between the states of the world to avoid any military confrontation in the future. The final point which demanded for the creation of a world body to guarantee "political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike" would have implied certain equality between the parts of this Pact. The actual situation on the ground however could not have supported such a claim because the states present in Paris were split between winners and losers of the war and automatically between countries that were satisfied with the status quo the war had established and the ones that were unsatisfied with the post war situation. Part of the first category, France and ritain, as well as the U.S. tried to keep to the results the armed conflict had reached, while Russia and…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Brigham Young University Library. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. 1996. Accessed 2 August, 2007 at http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1918/14points.html
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003
Growth Strategies and Handling a Downsizing:
As a seasoned marketing veteran, Mr. Terry Wilson has decided to examine growth options for an importer of Italian furniture known as Tuscan Treasures. This imitative by Mr. Terry Wilson has largely been fueled by the recent decline in profits for the company. As part of his examination, Mr. Wilson seeks to identify the possible causes of the decline and whether downsizing or expansion could be the most suitable measure to improve the situation.
Possible Growth Strategies:
If Mr. Wilson and Tuscan Treasures choose to either downsize or expand the business, some of the possible growth strategies would include:
Evaluation of the Core Business:
As one of the customer-focused growth strategies, the evaluation of the overall performance of the core business involves analyzing and benchmarking profitability, revenue growth rate, and the company's reputation with the most important customers (Liabotis, 2007). The evaluation of the…
Jennings, D.K. (2008, July 31). When Company Downsizing and Layoffs Become Necessary.
Retrieved January 16, 2012, from http://www.hrtools.com/benefits_and_compensation/insights/when_company_downsizing_and_layoffs_become_necessary.aspx
Liabotis, B. (2007, August). Three Strategies for Achieving and Sustaining Growth. Ivey Business Journal. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/strategy/three-strategies-for-achieving-and-sustaining-growth
Competency of Offender
Evaluating an individuals competence to stand trial can become a daunting task when hideous crimes have been committed. From a forensic psychologist's point-of-view, complete unbiased, non-judgmental, and purely scientific fact must be considered when providing such an evaluation (Greene & Heilbrun, 2011). In the given case, many things are to be taken into consideration before being able to fully judge the extent of the disturbance in the offenders state of mind.
In order to make a complete judgment about the offender's competency to stand trial, there are a couple of things that I would like to ask him or know more about in order to make a better decision about the issue. I would want to know what his actions were a couple of weeks or days before he committed his crimes. This would give me an idea of how he was behaving before committing the crimes,…
Elkins, J.R. (2010). Criminal Law. In West Virginia University: College of Law. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from
Greene, E., & Heilbrun, K. (2011). Wrightman's Psychology and the Legal System. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning: Belmont, CA.
Ewing, C.P., & McCann, J.T. (2006). Minds on trial: Great cases in law and psychology. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.
Kapardis, A. (2010). Psychology and law: A critical introduction. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.
orld ar One ultimately killed 35 million people -- this alone might have merited its being called "The Great ar," although to a large degree it was the astonishing way in which the deaths happened. On the first day of the Battle of the Somme alone, Britain suffered almost sixty thousand casualties. The ten-month stalemate of the Battle of Verdun resulted in seven hundred thousand (700,000) dead, with no discernible tactical advance made by either side (Tuchman 174). The immediate causes of orld ar One were complicated but fairly straightforward. Many of the long-standing political institutions of Europe were badly outmoded, in particular two of the oldest: the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Each of these institutions were the inheritors of previous large-scale imperial institutions (the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire accordingly) which dated back nearly a thousand years -- and each was failing badly.…
Karp, Walter. The Politics of War: The Story of Two Wars Which Altered Forever the Political Life of the American Republic. New York: Franklin Square Press, 2010. Print.
Tuchman, Barbara. The Guns of August. New York: Ballantine, 1962. Print.
eciprocal relationship can be simply defined as a relationship in which the two parties make an association on the basis of mutual privileges, emotions etc. There are different relationships between people and they influence their emotional development. These reciprocal relationships influence a person's life till the end of time. As far as children are concerned, their learning is mainly dependent on the engagement of family as it is the members of the family that enhance a child's experiences and family well being. Family engagement is responsible for the continuous, mutual and strong association between children and other adult members of the family (Bell and Wolfe, 2004).
When a child is of six months, he/she develops a sense of identity and agency. This whole growth mechanism is responsible for the transformation of his/her infancy-related associative original secondary emotions to the advanced levels. This system is focused on the first stable and…
Bell, M., and Wolfe, C. (2004). "Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process," Child Development, Vol. 75, No. 2, 366 -- 70.
Social-Emotional Development in Young Children. (2012). Michigan.gov. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Social_Emotional_Development_in_Young_Children_Guide_88553_7.pdf
Wilson, R.L. (2003). The Emotional Life of Children. Wagga, NSW: Keon Publications.
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
On the other hand, a new business plan should not be so unrealistic as to fail to take note of existing market conditions and real economic pressures. The balance of personalities of team members, between the more practical and introverted, to the more feeling and extroverted individuals gave our team an excellent personality blend of boldness and caution. There was methodological weight behind the market research we conducted, yet there was also innovative thinking in terms of how the product was structured.
Another great strength of our team was the balance of people who enjoyed beginning new projects, and people who enjoyed bringing tasks to completion. One problem with creative idea-generating techniques such as laddering and SWOT is that so many ideas and potential innovations and obstacles can be generated that idea sessions spiral out of control and there is no grounding in reality and no sense of refining the…
Allen, K.R. (2010). New venture creation (International Edition). 5th ed. South-Western
Bolton, B. & J. Thompson. (2004). Entrepreneurs: Talent, temperament, technique. 2nd ed.
normal I offer. hy? Because I potential a false flag attack London Olympics worth researching. Okay,'s deal. You write a paper length normal extra credit assignment explained Extra Credit Unit.
Conspiracy theory or terrorism? -- The 2012 London Olympics
There has been a lot of controversy in the recent years regarding conspiracies and how some of the world's most influential individuals are actively engaged in a plot to exploit mankind. False flag attacks are believed to be attempts performed by these individuals with the purpose of justifying their intervention in particular areas that they are interested in. This year's London Olympics represents one of the most intriguing opportunities for certain actors to put their strategies into work, considering that the world's attention is focused on the event and that the number of people present there would surely draw significant responsiveness from an international public concerned in penalizing individuals and groups…
Donald, Brooke, "Q&A: Stanford terrorism expert Martha Crenshaw on Olympic security," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Stanford University Website: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2012/july/terrorism-expert-olympics-072712.html
Jennings, Will, "London 2012: Olympic Risk, Risk Management, and Olymponomics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the University of Southampton Website: http://soton.academia.edu/WillJennings/Papers/132752/London_2012_Olympic_Risk_Risk_Management_and_Olymponomics
Joseph Watson, Paul, "Whistleblower Reveals Plan To Evacuate London During Olympics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the InfoWars Website: http://www.infowars.com/whistleblower-reveals-plan-to-evacuate-london-during-olympics/
Nieuwhof, Adri, "UK security firm G4S provides services to Israeli prisons, police and army," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Open Democracy Website: http://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/adri-nieuwhof/uk-security-firm-g4s-provides-services-to-israeli-prisons-police-and-army
Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.
According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…
Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.
Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.
Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.
Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.
Corruption Within the Criminal Justice System
Although the American system of criminal justice and jurisprudence is widely regarded as a model for democratic nations across the globe to emulate, with its guarantee of due process and protection from illegal search and seizure standing as pillars of liberty, glaring defects still exist which warrant further improvement. From the disturbing trend of disproportionate arrest and sentencing among minorities, to the inability of courts to adequately enforce prohibitions levied against sexual predators, America's criminal justice system is imperfect at best, and inherently broken at worst. Widely publicized court cases such as the recent trial of George Zimmerman, a Florida vigilante charged with, and late acquitted of, murdering a young African-American man named Trayvon Martin, only serve to expose the fundamental flaws which are still far too prevalent within corrupt law enforcement agencies, an aging and outmoded judiciary, legions of overburdened prosecutors and defense…
Associated Press. (2013, August 29). Montana judge's remarks about raped teen prompt outrage. BBC News, Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23882735
Feinstein, R. (2013). Juvenile Justice and the Incarcerated Male Minority: A Qualitative
Examination of Disproportionate Minority Contact.
Spitzer, E. (1999). The New York City Police Department's Stop & Frisk Practices: A Report to the People of the State of New York from the Office of the Attorney General. DIANE Publishing.
Brown's Shooting And Organizational Deviance
Michael Brown was fatally shot dead by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri on August 9. While the circumstances surrounding the shooting remain under investigation, the incident contributed to several days of protests and conflicts between citizens and law enforcement officers that have been covered extensively by the media. During the time of the shooting, Michael Brown was shot six times and murdered despite presenting no threat to the life of the officer or any other individual. Therefore, the use of deadly or brutal force by the police officer was not immediately necessary to enforce the arrest of the suspect. The series of protests in the aftermath of the incident was fueled by the fact that the police officer presumably killed an innocent individual and endangered the lives of others by discharging his weapon several times in an area with a high population.
Alba, M. (2014, September 5). Ferguson Police Force Faces Civil Rights Investigation. NBC
News. Retrieved September 8, 2014 from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/michael-brown-shooting/ferguson-police-force-faces-civil-rights-investigation-n196236
Pazzanese, C. (2014, August 21). The Fumbles in Ferguson. Retrieved from Harvard University
qualified and motivated to enter the field of optometry through study at the Pennsylvania College of Optometry. My experiences as a veterinarian's assistant, and vigorous research have fueled my desire to enter the field of optometry. Further, I have demonstrated both the academic ability, and the will and dedication to reach my goal, and I feel that the Pennsylvania College of Optometry will provide an excellent environment to study optometry.
Academically, I have a long-standing commitment to excellence in education. Currently, I am pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology at West Virginia State College. Prior to my enrolment at West Virginia State, I earned associate degrees in Physics / Chemistry and Biology from the Southern West Virginia Community College.
I have been interested in the biology of the eye from a young age, and this interest was piqued during my college experience working with Dr. Koch, a veterinarian.…
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
istory from 1865 to te present day. To focus te researc, select six subtopics (specific events or developments related to te topic, separated in time); tree from before 1930 and tree from after.
Tere are more tan 50 million immigrants (legal and illegal) and teir U.S.-born cildren (under 18) in te United States as of August 2012. As of te last decade, most immigrants come from te following countries: Honduras (85%), India (74%), Guatemala (73%), Peru (54%), El Salvador (49%), Ecuador (48%), and Cina (43%). Approximately, 28% of tese immigrants are in te country illegally. Rougly alf of Mexican and Central American and one-tird of Sout American immigrants are ere illegally.
Te Center for Immigration Studies (Rigt Side news) finds tat immigration as dramatically increased te population of low-income individuals in te United States, altoug many immigrants, te longer tey live in te country, make significant progress. However, immigrants…
Pula, James S. "American Immigration Policy and the Dillingham Commission," Polish-American Studies (1980) 37#1 pp 5-31
Yakushko, O et al. (2008) Stress and Coping in the Lives of Recent Immigrants and Refugees: Considerations for Counseling International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 3, 167-178
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.
Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory
To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-
Quality of Supervision
These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.
The motivation factors include:
esponsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.
Another related motivational model that…
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531
Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
Bass, P., ilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.
Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. ashington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
Chew, L., Bradley, K., and Boyko, E.. (2004). Brief Questions to Identify Patients with Inadequate Health Literacy. Family Medicine, 36(8), 588-94.
Chew, L., Griffin, J., Partin, M., et al. (2008). Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5), 561-6.
Davis, T. And olf, M.. (2004). Health Literacy Implications for Family Medicine. Family Medicine, 36(8), 595-8.
Davis, T., Long, S., and Jackson, R. (1993). Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Family Medicine, 25(1), 391-95.
Dowse, R., Lecoko, L. And Ehlers, M. (2005). Applicability of the REALM Health Literacy Test. Pharmacy orld, 32(4), 464-71.
Ibrahim, S., Reid, F., Shaw, A., et al. (2008). Validation of a…
Health Litarcy: Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. (1999). Journal of the American Medical Association, 28(1), 552-7.0
Arozulla, Y., Benett, S., Soltysilk, T., et al. (2007). Development and Validation of a Short-Form, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Medical Care, 5(11), 1026-33.
Bass, P., Wilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.
Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. Washington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
This change is subtle but it is important because, with this change, Laura has the most hope from her brother or her mother. Tom speaks at the end of the play as he does in the beginning of the play. He has not evolved not has he experienced anything that deepens his character. He is still as lost as he was before. Amanda, too, remains unchanged at the end of the play. It is Laura who emerges from some insular place to find her strength. However, she does not win a prize for doing so. She represents an aspect of the world that includes arbitrary catastrophes at every corner. She also represents one of illiams' finest characters because she does what many of us in the world want to do: "withdraw from the blinding light of reality into the softer world of illusion" (Stein). The darkness at the end of…
Stein, Roger B. "The Glass Menagerie' Revisited: Catastrophe without Violence." Western
Humanities Review 18.2.1964. Gale Research. 1992. Literature Resource Center. Web.
Information Retrieved August 12, 2010.
Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie. An Introduction to Literature. 8th ed. Barnett,
This work is a consummate discussion of the strain that immigration has placed on the public and social systems of Denmark, as another example of the strain and stress pulling public opinion in favor of anti-immigration.
Kirkwood, R. Cort. "The Gathering Storm: Islamic Violence in France, Fostered by French nti-Christian Political and Cultural Elites, Gives a Glimpse of What Our Own Elites re Bringing upon Us Via Uncontrolled Immigration." The New merican 23 Jan. 2006: 23+. Questia. 21 May 2009 .
This work offers a discussion of how Islamic violence is effecting Europe, with brief but essential discussions of Denmark.
Kvist, Jon, and Lisbeth Pedersen. "Danish Labour Market ctivation Policies." National Institute Economic Review (2007): 99+. Questia. 21 May 2009 .
This work is an overall discussion of the Danish labor market and where immigrants fit into it.
Kymlicka, Will, and Keith Banting. "Immigration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State."…
A editorial discussion of the issue of street level crime with regard to Islamic immigrant groups in Denmark.
Tierney, Jack. "The Right Becomes a Major Factor - the European Right Has Attracted Voters in Western Europe Who Feel the Center-Left Parties Are out of Touch and Even Corrupt." World and I Dec. 2002: 18. Questia. 21 May 2009 .
Another discussion of Denmark's political shift toward right-wing conservative politics in representation, largely as a result of anti-immigration sentiment.
mith, CA & Crowther, CA (2009) Acupuncture for induction of labour, Cochrane Database of ystematic Reviews, 1, 1-26
The pregnant woman is induced when the pregnancy is becoming dangerous either for herself or for the unborn child. Generally done by drugs, mith and Crowther (2009) reviewed the effects of induction that has been impelled by acupuncture which has been historically used to help induce labor and to reduce labor pain. mith and Crowther (2009) conducted a review that included three trials involving 212 women. They concluded that clinical evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture as applied to this situation is limited, although some qualitative small studies do suggest that women who receive acupuncture receive fewer methods of induction than do women who receive the standard care of induction.
This article is particularly significant given that we are living in a period when increasingly more people turn to holistic or alternative…
Ernst, E. (2002), A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 54 (6): 577 -- 82
Eysenck, HJ (1994) Systematic Reviews: Meta-analysis and its problems BMJ,309:789
Livestrong.com. How does massage therapy work?
(BSA's Policies On Homosexuality)
The Boy Scout of America's policy on homosexuality has been revised multiple times with the most recent revision taking place in 2012.
Because of their position against homosexuality, the Boy Scouts of America have been subject to four separate lawsuits: Curran v. Mount Diablo Council of Boy Scouts of America, 952 P.2d 218 (1998), Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U.S.640 (2000), Chicago Area Council of Boy Scouts of America v. City of Chicago Commission on Human Relations, 748 N.E. 2d 759 (2001), and Boy Scouts of America v. District of Columbia Commission on Human Rights, 809 A.2d 1192 (2002). In each of these cases, homosexual men who were stripped of their leadership positions within the Boy Scouts sued the organization for discrimination and claimed that their civil rights had been violated. However, in each of these cases, it was determined that the "Boy Scouts…
Boy Scouts of America. 2013. Web. 13 July 2013.
BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA V. DALE, (99-699) 530 U.S. 640 (2000).
"BSA's Policy on Homosexuals." BSA-Discrimination.org. 28 April 2013. Web. 13 July 2013.
Leitsinger, Miranda. "Eagle Scouts Return Badges to Protest Policy Banning Gays." U.S. News.
European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations
The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.
Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.
Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
Further increases are planned in the UK, wherein a 50% of 17 to 30-year-olds would enter higher education by the year 2010, and the fact that the acceptance rates to universities has increased to more than 14% in recent years shows that it would be infinitely easier for the UK to achieve its target for increases in the number of students enrolling for higher education. (Search View, Education, Higher)
Furthermore, since it is a fact that dropout rates remain significantly lower in the UK than in any other European country, and four out of five students complete their graduation courses successfully, Britain produces the largest number of graduates in Europe. The number of universities in the UK has also increased after the binary division between traditional universities and higher education institutions was abandoned in the year 1992, and today, all British institutions come as a part of a single system,…
Baker, Mike. 2004. The University Market is here. 3 April. Retrieved 11 August, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/3595049.stm
Chapter 6, Future Demands for Higher Education. Retrieved 10 August, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ncihe/nr_087.htm
Coughlan, Sean. 2004. UK must sell education to the world. 8 December. Retrieved 10 August, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/4080219.stm
David Blunkett's Speech on Higher Education at Maritime Greenwich University. 2000.
In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).
The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…
Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Binkley, Wilfred E. And Malcolm C Moos. A Grammar of American Politics: The National Government. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949.
Bernhard, Virginia, David Burner and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. A College History of the United States, St. James: Brandywine Press, 1991.
Brant, Irving. The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.
When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class
Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.
Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?
Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…
Australasian Business Intelligence. (2004, May 4). Guilty plea follows workplace death.
Bauman, Margaret. (2004). Alaska leads nation in workplace death rate, report says.
Alaska Journal of Commerce.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999). Improvements in workplace safety
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
Employment otivation and Engagement: How to Recruit and Retain Top-Quality Talent in a Competitive arketplace
Because employee performance and productivity are closely aligned with corporate profitability, there has been a great deal of research over the years concerning optimal approaches to motivating people in the workplace. The analysis of what motivates people to perform to their maximum effort, though, has becoming increasingly complex as the result of a growing number of theories concerning the antecedents of motivation and optimal job performance and motivational methods to achieve it. While the debate concerning which motivational approaches produce the best results continues, there is a consensus among organizational behavior researchers that pay ranks among the top factors that include employee motivation, perhaps the overarching factor in most cases. Despite these findings, studies have shown time and again that money talks when it comes to employee motivation. When people become convinced that their efforts…
Murphy, C., Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. & MacCurtain, S. 2006, July 1. Organizational Justice Perceptions and Employee Attitudes among Irish Blue Collar Employees: An Empirical Test of the Main and Moderating Roles of Individualism/Collectivism. Management Revue, 17(3), 329.
Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
The international political perspectives of free trade
A Global Analysis
International Trade Impact on Tunisia
The Export of agricultural products
International trade and development of Tunisia
Balance in the Trade egime
Imports and exports of Tunisia
Coping With External and Internal Pressures
The Common External Tariff (CET)
Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)
ules of origin
The New Commercial Policy Instrument
Sector Based Aspects
GATT/WTO's Main Principles
Multilateral negotiation and free trade
The Trading Policies of European Union
Critical Political Economy
The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia
The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia
The Smith Co Company
The Softkim and Lovers Limited
The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43
Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific
Alternative Mediterranean Conference
Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776
Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database:
The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:
- easily approachable
- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information
- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe
- the power for the user to remain…
Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02
Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA:
Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article: http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=432&trv=1
human resource development within the context of the learning and growth perspective of this approach to strategic management to be employed within university settings. This perspective will draw a strategic management and measurement tool, while also exploring available options, at least options to discuss in an open marketing setting by which to integrate strategy and execution.
This perspective alternates around The Greatbatch Management Team's ability to continue to theoretically improve and create value for its stakeholders, as well as the organization's human resource development in the context of the evolutionary process involving a shift from training to a learning orientation in libraries so as to shoot for optimal advantages and earn percentages for their stakeholders.
Quite simply, the proposition herein stated is to create value for their institution's stakeholders. The impasse belief that companies will not generally generate income through accounting terminology, through intangible assets, and their role in strategy…
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
nations all over Europe made mutual defense treaties, which would pull them into war. These agreements implied that in case one nation was invaded, associated nations had to protect them. The following alliances existed prior to World War 1 (Kelly):
Japan and Britain
ussia and Serbia
France and ussia
Germany and Austria-Hungary
Britain and France and Belgium
The Triple Alliance was created in 1882 by Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. These three nations agreed to support one another in case of an attack from either ussia or France. France, in particular, felt intimidated by this alliance. The main aim of the alliance was to support collaboration against Germany's thought threat. After three years, ussia that was scared of the growth of the German Army, united with France and Britain, to create the Triple Entente (Triple Entente). Contrary to the Triple Alliance, the terms of the Entente did not need each nation…
"Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated - Jun 28, 1914 - HISTORY.com." History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. Web. 14 Oct 2015. .
"First World War.com - Feature Articles - The Planning of the War." First World War.com - A Multimedia History of World War One. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
Advance Practice oles in Nursing
The Main oles Within Advanced Practice Nursing
They are charged with the responsibility to provide primary health care for clinics, hospitals and similar settings. They diagnose and treat common illnesses and immunize, examine the patients and deal with high blood pressure cases among others (Macdonald, Schreiber & Davis, 2005).
Certified Nurse-Midwives: They are the ones that give gynecological care and prenatal attention to the normal women with little or no health complications. They assist the women deliver in a range of places including hospitals, homes, clinics and health centers. They also give postpartum care (Macdonald et al., 2005).
Clinical Nurse Specialists: They are the ones involved in specialty areas such as neonatal, oncology, cardiac, pediatric, gynecological nursing or obstetric service (Macdonald et al., 2005).
Certified egistered Nurse Anesthetists: They provide and administer over 65% of all anesthesia administered to patients every year. They…
Federal Register, (n.d.). The Constitutional Amendment Process, National Archives. Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/constitution/ on August 30, 2016
Graduatenursingedu.org, (n.d.). Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP). Retrieved from http://www.graduatenursingedu.org/family-nurse-practitioner/ on August 30, 2016
Huston C. (2008) Preparing nurse leaders for 2020. Journal of Nursing Management 16, 905 -- 911
Jennings, B.M. (2008). "Work Stress and Burnout Among Nurses: Role of the Work Environment and Working Conditions." In: Hughes, R.G. (editor). Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (U.S.).
America and the Great War
How the Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism Irrevocably Led to World War I
At face value, it can be concluded that WW started as a result of increasing military power in the participating European nations. It may also be argued that the arms race played a role too. However, an in-depth interrogation of the circumstances that surrounded the outbreak of the war reveals that there were more reasons why countries rose against each other.
To begin with, countries in Europe experienced a strong sense of nationalism that set them apart from the rest. This euphoric nationalistic tendencies and patriotism was also the seed for hatred for other countries. It seemed to the people of that age that for one to excel, the other must be under subjugation or eliminated altogether. Economic competition that existed at the time also played a major role in fuelling…
Wilson, W. (1914). President Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality, issued by The World War I. Retrieved from http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson%27s_Declaration_of_Neutrality