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Augustine is a Christian father of the late oman Empire -- the traditional date of the "fall" of the oman Empire is about a half-century after Augustine's death -- while Thomas Aquinas is a thinker of the medieval period. It is worth noting this substantially large time difference -- eight hundred years separates Augustine from Aquinas, just as another eight hundred years separate Aquinas from ourselves -- because we need to see Christian thought within its proper historical context. Augustine helped to consolidate early Christian doctrine, while almost a century later Aquinas served to make Christian doctrine congruent with classical (i.e., Aristotelian) science.
To understand Augustine's ethical thought within its proper context, we need to understand the centrality of the concept of original sin in Augustine's thinking. One of the clearest ways in which Augustine personally tried to clarify the doctrine of original sin was in his context with Pelagius…… [Read More]
First year contribution
Heater/Blower Contribution (1,401,955) +
Blanket Contribution (x1000) (16,908)=
Price (discounted) - Direct Costs
Breakeven in systems (units)
B/E Units (year one) = 799 units
Fixed Cost ($500,000) / System Contribution = 2.44
2) $1,499 for the blower and $20 for the blanket
This is a variable pricing strategy as it considers the costs incurred in the production and distribution of the Bair Hugger Patient Warming System
First year contribution
Heater/Blower Contribution (2,112,091) +
Blanket Contribution (x1000) (28,180)=
Price (discounted) - Direct Costs
Breakeven in systems (units)
B/E Units (year one) = 439 units
Fixed Cost ($500,000) / System Contribution = 0.52
3) $3,995 for the blower and $22 for the blanket
This a skimming pricing strategy as it implements a significantly higher price than the competition.
First year contribution
Heater/Blower Contribution (5,628,955) +
Blanket Contribution (x1000) (28,180)=
Price…… [Read More]
AUGUSTINE'S STUGGLE FO SALVATION
Augustine's Struggle for Salvation
The eighth book of Augustine's Confessions represents the internal dialog of a man in search of spiritual and religious enlightenment in the form of a very long prayer. The first chapter in Book Eight provides insight into Augustine's anguish over having failed to become a faithful servant of God, while he continued to search for a path towards salvation. Augustine recognized that God's love is what he truly desires and believed wholeheartedly in the virtues of a spiritual path, yet continued to succumb to worldly desires, trivial concerns, and emotional turmoil. This state of desire for spiritual enlightenment in the face of his earthly trappings is captured in his statement "Of thy eternal life I was now certain, although I had seen it 'through a glass darkly'" (Confessions, VIII.i.1). The sentiment "through a glass darkly" comes from 1 Corinthians (13:12),…… [Read More]
Q and a on Confessions
What is Augustine confessing, why, and to whom?
Augustine is confessing to God, because he was a public sinner and in order to justify himself as a Catholic it is necessary to confess and in this sense he is renouncing his old views and letting it be known to both God and man that he now believes as a Catholic. The Confessions is written to God, whom Augustine addresses at length: "Accordingly, my God, I would have no being, I would have no existence, unless you were in me" (Augustine, 2008, p.4)
What book by what author does Augustine read at age 18 that changes his life?
Augustine reads Hortensius by Cicero and this makes him want to pursue philosophy rather than mere sensual pleasure: "That book of his…Hortensius…it altered my prayers" (Augustine, 2008, p. 39).
What method does Augustine learn from the…… [Read More]
Thus while he does allow for some Aristotelian influence of the value of sensory experience so he does not fall back into a Manichean divide between good and evil, heaven and earth -- there is some 'good' to be learned with the senses -- Augustine's mistrust of his old sinning life and the world of the senses makes him fundamentally Platonic rather than Aristotelian in nature.
In contrast, Aquinas whole-heartedly embraced the Aristotelian approach to the world. True, some philosophers have since stressed the "prominence in Thomas of such Platonic notions as participation, have argued that his thought is fundamentally Platonic, not Aristotelian. Still others argue that that there is a radically original Thomistic philosophy which cannot be characterized by anything it shares with earlier thinkers, particularly Aristotle. " However, by and large, because of Thomas' emphasis on natural philosophy and the need to proceed from the observable to what…… [Read More]
Augustine relates the common human condition of procrastination directly to himself. It thus serves the dual purpose of expounding both the phenomenon of procrastination as experienced by humanity, and of illuminating for the reader the process that Augustine went through at this time. The significance of this is that Augustine is honestly reviewing his life and the mental processes that brought about his conversion.
The way in which he treats his development throughout the work is thus entirely honest and frank. In ook 3 and 4 for example Augustine explains his infatuation with a variety of different philosophical interests, including the Manichaen heresy, astrology and material influences. These, along with his search for an ever-illusive happiness and peace, are what keep him from fulfilling his mother's dream to become a true convert. He confesses to a sense of hunger that brought him to his endless journey of searching for pleasure:…… [Read More]
Look on y Works, Ye ighty, and Despair
Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud's seminal student, wrote that "Bidden or unbidden God is present." This motto of his might well stand in for the ways in which Freud, St. Augustine, and Sallie cFague write about the ways in which they conceive God -- or rather the ways in which they conceive people conceive of God. Each of these writers describes how the idea of God is fundamental to the way in which many people experience their lives, even though not all people recognize a connection between themselves and the kind of personified God that Judaism and Christianity posit. This paper examines the ways in which these three different thinkers address the ways in which individuals understand (but do not necessarily accept) the concept of God and the implications of living in a society that itself clings to the idea of divinity.…… [Read More]
philosophy of St. Augustine on "Free will as the cause of all evil." The paper will analyze this philosophy as compared to the thinking of other philosophers.
Augustine's "Free Will as the Cause of Evil"
Augustine believed that evil is not something positive and God is not the cause of evil, because evil is not a thing. His whole answer on the problem of evil is related to God. He believed that God did not will moral evil in any sense but only permitted it for the greater good that could not be obtained by preventing it. That is why he made man free. He also believes God did not will physical evil for its own sake.
Free Will the Cause of Evil"
The problem of evil can be phrased in several ways. One approach addresses the origin of evil, prompting the syllogism i.e. A series of statements that form…… [Read More]
People often say that the end of world is coming. Although this may be true to some extent, this is merely a way of people interacting with society that has happened multiple times in history. A kind of death and rebirth that categorizes a shift in mentality and spirituality. Political idolatry and the weakness of the contemporary subject have become growing problems in today's modern society. A good example of this is Sharia law and the introduction of fundamentalist Islamic beliefs into government. While most of the world is modernizing, some countries have adopted a more dedicated religious perspective that has been corrupted and altered to suit the needs of those who want power.
Secularization theory in essence is the belief that as a society progresses, specifically through rationalization and modernization, so will the authority of religion be lost in evolution. However, there exist various grounds for the revision of…… [Read More]
Augustine contributed greatly to Christianity. He was a man who held beliefs that transcended his turbulent beginnings and manifested into insightful philosophy. Such philosophy became deeply embedded in Christianity and would lend the way for further examination of Biblical text in the future. This essay will discuss Augustine's beliefs- through his contributions to the Church's beliefs and practices.
Augustine contributed not just in the religious sense, but in the philosophical sense. For example, one of his main contributions was Theory of Time seen in Book 11 of Confessions. In it, he developed what some may say a challenging concept of time. From there he examined and tried to explain how young children express language, learn. One of his famous lines "Believe in order that you may understand" can be seen again interspersed in Confessions, with a clear example concerning a crime committed. "hen, then, we ask why a crime was…… [Read More]
Monica was honored for her forbearance in marriage to an undisciplined, often cruel pagan man. Augustine's father suffers by comparison to Augustine's mother, but rather than suggest that she should have left his father because of his mistreatment, Monica's quiet example of patient endurance is praised by her son.
Augustine's turning towards his mother was seen, through hindsight, as the major development of his life, but he went through several stages of spiritual development, first paganism, and then a cultish version of Christianity called Manichaeism, which was later characterized as a heretical view of the world as evil, as opposed to the goodness of heaven. It also involved a number of highly elaborate eating practices. Augustine was particularly vehement in his later denunciations of the Manicheans and other Christian heretics when he became a bishop in North Africa, very likely because of his own past affiliation with them. Augustine was…… [Read More]
Augustine as Mentor
In writing a book about a figure who played a fairly eminent role in the ecclesiastical history of Christianity such Aurelius Augustine, who lived from 354-430 A.D., Edward Smither has a wide body of thematic issues with which to choose from in his work of non-fiction entitled Augustine as a Mentor, A Model for Preparing Spiritual Leaders. As the title of this manuscript implies, the author is largely concerned with the detailing of various aspects of mentorship related to Augustine. In doing so, he highlights the important figures who were able to mentor Augustine, as well as the plethora of ways in which Augustine was able to mentor others. Not surprisingly, the principle themes in Smither's work revolve about the varying effects and ramifications of mentoring. His primary concern is providing a definition, or model, of what effective mentorship actually is, and then applying this…… [Read More]
Individuals in the city of god are "predestined to reign eternally with God" (p. 7) whereas people living in the earthly city are fated to "suffer eternal punishment with the devil" (p. 7).
Order in the city of God is different from how it is in the earthly city, given that people in the former respect each-other and God and because they are not motivated by fear or by their desire to rule. In spite of the fact that Augustine aimed at associating the city of God with the Christian church and with Christianity in general while the earthly city was a reference to Ancient Rome and to the part of society that was driven by material values, he does not actually want readers to relate to a physical matter when discussing the two cities. His perspective in regard to the psychological fight between people focused on material values and…… [Read More]
Augustine and Science
Science in the modern sense did not exist for Augustine, or indeed for any of his contemporaries, nor were the events of the material universe and the physical-temporal bodies located within it of any great importance to him. Nor was his purpose in writing the Confessions to explain the natural world, but rather to uphold the Truth (in the sense of absolute and eternal Truth as revealed by God) of the Bible and Christianity against its opponents, particularly the Manichean dualists. Augustine has no interest in the natural world in and of itself, or even any real curiosity about nature except as it turns the mind to reflection about the enteral nature of God and the soul (Confessions, 10.6). He rejects the pride, lust and vanity of the material world, including the pride that philosophers took on their wisdom and learning, in favor of following the example…… [Read More]
Augustine, The City of God
hich one do you think that he is living in?
In The City of God, Saint Augustine of Hippo references two cities. These cities are Rome which he references as the new Babylon and Jerusalem which he calls the city of Heaven because it symbolizes the Christian community. Based upon the way in which he references the two cities, it is likely that St. Augustine lives in Jerusalem. Since he depicts this city in a far more positive light, it is likely that this is where he would choose to live.
According to Augustine, what is the source of human suffering?
Augustine asserts that human suffering is caused by the will of God. He blesses some while cursing others. God does not make people suffer because he is punishing them for wrongs, nor does he grant blessings because he is rewarding them for good deeds.…… [Read More]
ugustine was far from an austere man of the Church, however. His thinking betrays a kind, loving, and even lustful heart. The aspects of his thinking that led more towards individual expression and aesthetic enjoyment found and continue to find resonance with later philosophers. ugustine believed that love should be the central motive to all human actions, even war, and there is another line from one of his sermons that is often quoted: "To sing once is to pray twice." The joy ugustine took in God and life, as well as the serious consideration he gave to theological issues, show how much he cared about his religion and his fellow man. This caring, and the amazing intellect behind it, influenced both his own era and every period of human thought since, making it clear that ugustine of Hippo is the most influential man of his time.
Internet Encyclopedia of…… [Read More]
The first is $995 for the unit and $12 for the blankets. The second is $1,499 for the unit and $20 for the blankets. The third is $3,995 for the unit and $22 for the blankets. The fourth is $5,000 for the unit and $25 for the blankets. Fixed costs are $500,000. The contribution margin is expected to be 70% on the units and 60% on the blankets on the delivered price.
Our demand estimates are derived based on the price relative to the main competitors, and take into consideration the impact of having to gain formal approval beyond the $1,500 price point. We have also assumed that wherever we set our price point, we will need to offer a discount. Buyers expect to receive a discount, so we believe that even if we offer a low price point there will be a psychological need on the part of the…… [Read More]
Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome EV
The rigid hierarchy that governed the oman Empire -- in which a oman Emperor like Tiberius would have imperial governors like Pontius Pilate stationed locally in subject provinces -- is reflected to this day in the "rigidly hierarchical structure" of the oman Catholic Church, which has a Pope in ome who has Cardinals, Bishops and Archbishops that oversee smaller geographical regions (Babcock 142). This social structure is no accident: historically speaking as the oman empire declined, the early Christian church grew in influence and reach. To some extent, then, the early Church would take over the functions of the Empire, if only to fill the vacuum. It is important to recognize, however, that the oman Empire covered a vast amount of territory: it encompassed North Africa and Egypt, the Middle East, and the vast majority of continental Europe, including England. (The omans did not take much…… [Read More]
" When these words of mine were repeated in Pelagius' presence at ome by a certain brother of mine (an Episcopal colleague), he could not bear them and contradicted him so excitedly that they nearly came to a quarrel. Now what, indeed, does God command, first and foremost, except that we believe in him? This faith, therefore, he himself gives; so that it is well said to him, "Give what thou commandest." Moreover, in those same books, concerning my account of my conversion when God turned me to that faith which I was laying waste with a very wretched and wild verbal assault, do you not remember how the narration shows that I was given as a gift to the faithful and daily tears of my mother, who had been promised that I should not perish? I certainly declared there that God by his grace turns men's wills to the…… [Read More]
(Alypius was not necessarily being disobedient, of course, but was not doing what his father might have ideally wished) Friendship can even move one to do what is good and right, as Augustine's friendship for Alypius is what motivated the later to give up circuses in he first place. On the other hand, Augustine sees that friendships can lead one (through peer pressure and mutual encouragement of the baser instincts) into sin. He also believes that when a relationship is based entirely on the physical, so that "ut no restraint was imposed by the exchange of mind with mind, which marks the brightly lit pathway of friendship," (24) then that friendship can not only lead one into evil but an also be evil in itself. As he says when remembering his early gang of ill-mannered friends: "Friendship can be a dangerous enemy, a seduction of the mind lying beyond the…… [Read More]
Anselm also added the passion of repentance and the exhilaration of praise to the bare texts, involving the supplicant in an intensity of feeling and a deepening of understanding. In the intensity of sorrow for sin, he is the heir of Augustine of Hippo, and the language of the Confessions is very close to Anselm's self-revelation and repentance.
(McGinn, Meyendorff, and Ledercq 202)
So, in City of God the textual concepts from his earlier works became the stuff of reformative language that would apply itself not only to the personal but to how the person was meant to build upon the institutions that surrounded him, influenced him and in turn was influenced by him. Bernard of Clairvaux was a direct descendant of Augustine in his ideas. He strove to recreate the church not as a calling of finery and social stratification but of one that encompassed a monastic tradition of…… [Read More]
Augustine's main problem when it came to conceiving of the spiritual nature of God? What solution did he find?
Before answering this question, it is important to clarify what exactly is meant by "spiritual nature of God." Many things could be meant by this phrase, but for the purposes of this essay, I stipulate that it refers to "any substance... other than that which the eyes normally perceive" (Conf., VII.i.1). In many senses, Augustine was rather positivistic in his inability to imagine that things existed beyond what his physical eyes could see. He relied completely on his physical senses for information concerning the nature of reality, and was intent on describing the world around him strictly in human terms. Thus his difficulties with understanding what people meant when they portrayed God in ways that were not readily evident to his five senses:
was becoming a grown man. But the older…… [Read More]
Norman . Augustine has played an influential role in the world of engineering and in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a biographical sketch of Augustine. In addition we will discuss his career accomplishments and how they have impacted America and the World. Finally we will focus on Augustine's theories and the book Augustine Laws.
Norman Augustine Biography
Norman Augustine was born in 1935 in Denver Colorado and grew up during World War II. (Outside experts Norman Augustine 2004) He was an exceptional student and entered Princeton in 1953 and received his bachelors of science in engineering in 1957. Augustine also received a master's degree from Princeton in 1959. (Norman . Augustine)
He has also received several honorary doctorates in Engineering and Science from several institutions of learning throughout the country. (Norman . Augustine)
In 1958, while still obtaining…… [Read More]
In Chapter 5, the great churchman informs us that Water is in fact an apt designation for the Divinity, better than any of the other elements.
Water possess the unique properties of being more moveable than earth (though less movable than air) while at the same time being essential to the creation and sustaining of life, as in the way water must be added to the soil in order for plants to grow.
This signification of matter first conveys its end, that is, that for the sake of which it was made; secondly, its formlessness; thirdly, its service and subjection to the Maker. Therefore, it is first called heaven and earth; for its sake matter was made. Secondly, the earth invisible and without form and darkness over the abyss, that is, the formlessness itself without the light, as a result of which the earth is said to be invisible. Thirdly,…… [Read More]
In ook Eleven, Augustine contemplates the possibilities that lay in wait upon his death, possibilities that surely would have come to fruition if he had not converted to Christianity, being damnation and eternal punishment at the hands of Satan and his hosts in Hell. In Part 16, Augustine poses the question, "ut do I ever pass away? O. my soul, commit whatsoever you have to him, for at long last, you are now becoming tired of deceit. Commit to Truth... And you will lose nothing. What is decayed will flourish again; your diseases will be healed; your perishable parts shall be reshaped and renovated and made whole again... " (Hutchins, 153). Certainly, Augustine came to understand that death was nothing to be feared if a person puts his entire trust and faith in God. Augustine is also relating what Jesus Christ told his disciples in the New Testament, namely, that…… [Read More]
St. Augustine's autobiography Confessions is an honest, if not severe, work of introspection. Although many of its themes and motifs are outmoded, there are core elements that remain relevant to modern readers, which is why Confessions remains critical reading as literature and religious studies. The primary focus of Confessions is on the transformation of a sinful boy into a devout Christian man. Because St. Augustine's Confessions is so compelling, the themes in the autobiography have inextricably woven themselves into the life and evolution of the Catholic Church. In particular, the theme of guilt is one that the Catholic Church may have derived from its internalization of St. Augustine's Confessions. However, there is more to Confessions than the self-lamentations of a guilt-ridden man and there is much in the autobiography that I can relate to. St. Augustine discusses morality at great length, for instance. He talks about the fact that he…… [Read More]
St. Augustine's Character as Illustrated ithin His Confessions
The character of St. Augustine (354-430) as seen within his Confessions (begun 397), which he wrote as a long epistle to God, in midlife, marks a distinct turning point in the life, attitudes, and values of Augustine the man. The content of Augustine's Confessions itself points to personality traits of Augustine's including honesty, sincerity, humility, piety, a capacity for self-reflection, and a desire for self-improvement. Augustine spent his youth licentiously, and up to the point of his midlife, remained far more interested in hedonistic pursuits than in being of service to God. All of that changed for him midlife, however, precipitated by a sort of "midlife crisis" (as we would call it nowadays). At that point in his life, when he was about 43, Augustine realized that none of the activities from which he derived temporary pleasure were genuinely fulfilling, and that…… [Read More]
Conversion of St. Augustine comes about it would seem, as the result of three major forces. Augustine's mother was a Christian and never quit praying for him or witnessing to him; Augustine himself, spent, it would seem, every day of his life, in a search for something he could identify as Truth; and finally as he continued to "hold out against God," there were a series of witnesses to him where people shared either their own conversion or the conversion of others including some famous teachers.
A major factor in Augustine's whole life is the influences his mother had on him. She was Christian, and through his whole time of seeking for truth she made no secret of her wishes and prayers for him.
In Book III of Saint Augustine: Confessions, Augustine relates his life at the time he went to Carthage to continue his studies. He opens this Book…… [Read More]
Origin of Evil
The origin of evil has been a controversial issue not only in the contemporary Christian circles but also among the ancient Greek Christians. The point of contention in the discussion about the origin of evil is why a good God would have created evil. The Judeo-Christians struggled to understand how a good, powerful, and all-knowing God could allow evil to exist. The logical conclusions were that either God did not exist or God was not good[footnoteRef:1]. However, Augustine sought to clarify this erroneous notion about the existence of God. Saint Augustine believed that the discussion on the origin of evil and whether a good God has a role in its creation and existence must first begin with the understanding of evil and God. He explained that if evil was not necessarily a thing, then it may not have been created although it negates the notion that God…… [Read More]
He describes a battle of the wills in the formation of his faith: "So my two wills, one old, one new, one carnal, one spiritual, were in conflict, and they wasted my soul by their discord" (168). Only when he was listening to Ponticianus describe the monastic joys of serving God in chastity did Augustine see the damage that his carnal indulgences had done to his soul. He saw in his mind's eye that he was "crooked, filthy, spotted, and ulcerous" (173).
Not that the bodily urges did not serve a good purpose as well as an evil one in Augustine's philosophy. Central to his faith was the idea that all things come of God, and that all things that come of God must be good. This includes the senses and their desires. He conceded that sexual activity does indeed have its place in the creation of children, but only…… [Read More]
It was not simply that his body did not obey his will and that he possessed a stronger spiritual and a physical will after his conversion, but that before his conversion his will was not fully sincere internally. He had not yet accepted God's grace, and submitted to God. Before he was converted he said: "the power of willing is the power of doing; and as yet I could not do it. Thus my body more readily obeyed the slightest wish of the soul in moving its limbs at the order of my mind than my soul obeyed itself to accomplish in the will alone its great resolve" (10.VI.20). hen his spiritual will truly accepted Christ, his body followed and God freed him from unwanted desire. He accepted his lack of ability to master his body, and accepted that he needed grace to be good.
Thus although he speaks of…… [Read More]
St. Augustine's Confessions: Passage Explication from Book III
Aurelius Augustine, or St. Augustine (354-430), one of the most important historical figures of the Roman Catholic Church and a major author of its doctrines (Lawall et al.) is the author of Confessions (begun in 397, when he was about 43). Confessions is a lengthy, detailed personal epistle addressed to God by Augustine, about the sins and mistakes of his earlier life, combined with a mature acknowledgement to God of his present understanding of his true purpose: to serve God. Augustine "did not convert to Christianity until he had reached midlife" (Lawall et al., p. 1221). Confessions, then, is a sort of autobiographical midlife accounting of Augustine's past sins and misplaced energies up to this point. Midlife marks a distinct turning point in Augustine's life and attitudes, and in the internal direction of Augustine the man. In this essay, I will explicate…… [Read More]
Augustine and Aquinas
Saint Augustine and Aquinas are both very well-known because of their theological and philosophical explorations, with Augustine writing in late fourth to the early fifth century while Aquinas in the thirteenth century. They are both well-known for their efforts of trying to reconcile ancient philosophy and Christianity however they did these using different ways. Augustine took Platonic route while Aquinas was more focused on the Arstotelian way. We will examine their different thoughts on the human nature by looking at various sections.
Augustine drew much of his theory about human knowledge from Plato especially when it comes to the desire for particular knowledge as opposed to impermanent or changing knowledge. Unlike Aquinas Augustine was not an empiricist, Augustine held the belief that truth only comes from within through an illumination process and not the observation of the world of nature. Plato held the view that this…… [Read More]
And reason is achieved when we are able to find the balance between two things, which are often the extreme ends of the spectrum. We can infer that good is something created by men. It is the product of reason. If Aristotle places that much responsibility to the faculty of reason, St. Augustine place that weight in God's hands as he maintained that the only way for men to be good, for men to be happy is through the grace of God. Good, then, cannot come from men but from God's grace.
St. Augustine's denial of the very existence of evil (it cannot be a substance) even dismissing it as simply an illusion of some sort, is a bit of a problem for me. Again, here we can find the utility of Aristotle's pragmatic view on things. If you hurt a person for example, can we not consider…… [Read More]
Even if they may not have the same force as divine law, the laws should not contradict the laws of heaven. This binding injunction to the people to obey also applies to rulers -- monarchs should not contradict the will of the divine, and endeavor to create a state that mirrors that of God. For example, Aquinas prohibited usury, or charging money at interest given Christ's condemnation of money changing, and stated that the governments should not allow such transactions to take place.
Although Aquinas at times cites Augustine in support of his ideas, Augustine's own ideas regarding the correct relationship between state and humankind seem to suggest that the laws of the state are less crucial and less significant in creating a moral framework for human beings. After all the state, human property, and the concerns of worldly affairs are transient. In his remarks upon the Gospel of John,…… [Read More]
Aquinas argues that the fact that man can perceive himself to be true serves as a validation for God's existence; however this is dissimilar to Descartes impressions of the Mediator who, according to the philosopher, is capable of mistaking that which is certain and uncertain.
It is important to remember to distinguish fact from fiction; will from intellect. In this presentation I believe that Aquinas and Anselm intermingled the two, suggesting that intellect and will are more similar than different. This clearly offers a different interpretation of what is certain and uncertain as Descartes might argue that the intellect is certain but the will or mind may interpret that which is certain incorrectly.
Descartes, ene. The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. II. Trans. John Cottingham, obert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1984.
Egan, David. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. 3, May 2007 http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/meditations.
S. This…… [Read More]
St. Augustine and the Buddha
A Comparison of orld Views
ere St. Augustine and the Buddha to have a conversation, they might find their points-of-view quite interesting. Of course, Augustine might feel a bit inconvenienced by having to crouch down under a bodhi tree, but once there he could easily find common ground with this introspective Easterner. Both the Buddha and Augustine were in agreement regarding the deplorable conditions faced by much of humanity in this world. At the core of the Buddha's teaching was the belief that the physical world represents little more than an aspect of continual suffering and trial. Imperfect beings all, we human beings desire too much, and it is because of our desires that we imprison ourselves in this physical shell. e will suffer so long as we want, and so long as we want we shall remain moored in this imperfect world. Yet the…… [Read More]
Despite his guilty attitude towards loving the excitement of Latin pagan literature, Augustine is a man who is converted through reading. He struggles with the intellectual side of pagan life that attracts him, as opposed to what he regards as the simplicity of Christianity. He reminds himself it was "was even "the least of the apostles" by whose tongue thou didst sound forth these words." (VIII.6.245) Words from the Bible eventually gave Augustine guidance to put away his old life and take joy in the words of God. "Not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying, but put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh to fulfill the lusts thereof." (VIII.12.265)
Augustine writes a story of a journey of his own spiritual, like the pagan texts of Virgil. Augustine's story is of spiritual wanderings, homecomings, and…… [Read More]
Plotinus, Augustine, Aquinas
The school of thought of Neoplatonism has had much influence in the philosophies of three major characters, all of which have studied heftily under the same overall pretense of the existence of God and his relation to nature. Plotinus, St. Augustine, and Thomas Aquinas all have certain reasoning regarding the nature of human existence and the hierarchies of creation. In their writings, the three men have indicated the direct and indirect links of the abstract form of existence and the concrete human world. Their ethical worldviews function solely in the prospect of humanity's closeness to the divine through the use of wisdom and intellect.
Plotinus was the founder of Neoplatonism, though he himself called himself a Platonist. In his philosophical studies, Plotinus focused solely on the concept of the One and the Nous, with which the One ruled in classical hierarchy. According to him, the One is…… [Read More]
ugustine assumes the will is free and wants to determine how we choose good or evil (Murray, 2004). His approach to the "free choice of the will" assumes that "there can be no denying that we have a will." Rather, he defines "good will" as "a will by which we seek to live a good and upright life and to attain unto perfect wisdom" which assumes that it is free.
In fact, a free will that does not seek God is obsessed with material things, which can be easily lost or ruined (Murray, 2004). Those who choose evil are ruled by their passion and desire for material things. This is pointless because they only have, according to ugustone, "the love of things which each one can lose against his will." He believed that those who choose to do good gain everything because there is no fear of losing "things"…… [Read More]
Aurelius Augustinus, commonly known as "St. Augustine of Hippo," was simulataneously a Christian Neoplatonist, a North African Bishop, and doctor of the oman Catholic Church. One of the most important developments in western philosophy was the merging of the Greek philosophical tradition and the Judeo-Christian religion, and St. Augustine was instrumental in making this connection. He had a profound influence on the subsequent development of Western thought and culture and singularly shaped and defined the issues that have characterized the Western tradition of Christian Theology.
In his life up to the year 391, St. Augustine's life was devoted to reconciling his Christian faith with his classical culture. He was raised as a Christian, and although religion did not hold an important place in his early life, he never completely turned his back on his faith. While he was a student, he encountered the classical ideal of philosophy's search…… [Read More]
For instance Plato believed that rulers should only rule based on truth and reason and that the way to best live life itself was also based on truth and reason. This is something I agree with very strongly. When it comes to the Iraq war, for example, I feel that America's current leaders decided to start the war based not on truthfulness and reason, but for baser motives, such as coercion and a desire to expand their geographical and financial power. I strongly disagree with the war and neither Socrates nor Plato would have felt the war was justified, based on their ideas of truth, reason, and (for Plato) virtue. Plato believed that truth and reason led to virtue, and that therefore people who lived good lives were truthful, reasonable and virtuous. Like Plato, I agree that living a good life must be based on a foundation of truthfulness, about…… [Read More]
Saint Augustine's conversion, as recounted in his Confessions
This paper will explore the factors leading to Saint Augustine's conversion. This conversion was believed to be the result of an ultimate battle of sexual desire with spirit.
Augustine Biography Info
Augustine of Hippo was born on November 13, in AD 354, in Thagaste (modern day Souk Ahras, Algeria), and died on August 28, in AD 430, in modern-day Annaba, Algeria (then known as Hippo egius). It was in the latter city where he was named Bishop 35 years prior to his death. It is a challenge to encapsulate renowned personalities, and with St. Augustine, this task is even more difficult (Augustine of Hippo).
A theologian and philosopher, Augustine dithered between an earlier, positive Hellenistic outlook, and a pessimistic Christian outlook later on in his life. Shifting from one extreme to another, Augustine accommodated several diverse disciplines and philosophies into his comprehensive…… [Read More]
Similarities and Contrasts
Marcus Tullius Cicero had been born on January 3, 106 B.C.E; and he demised on December 7, 43 B.C.E. in a murder. His life overlapped with the downfall and eventually decimation of the Roman realm, during which time he has been a significant factor in political affairs, and as such, his writings are a valued source of information and knowledge regarding those events. He was a philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, among other things. To grasp the logic of his work and to appreciate his philosophy necessitates us to have that in mind. Philosophical study was important but it was even more significant as a way to a more effectual action politically, so he put politics higher than philosophical study. During times when he was inhibited to take part in politics against his will, he made his philosophical writings. St. Augustine's submission that Hortensius (an…… [Read More]
Plato and Augustine vs. Socrates
It has been argued that Plato was the best student that Socrates ever had. There have been many instances to justify this view; Plato's works form the core of elements that inform such a claim. Plato described his mentor in his many works and made him stand out. Plato wrote in Dialogue. He observed that good rules everything else. St. Augustine was later converted to Christianity after following some pagan religion for some time (Kavteladze, 2011). St. Augustine emulated Plato's Good in several ways. Like any good student, St. Augustine borrowed several ideas from his mentor; Plato. There are many striking resemblances between Plato's concept of good and Augustine's philosophy of the Christian God. It is not surprising to cite such resemblance because a lot of Augustine's ideas were drawn from the ible and his mentor Plato. He also incorporated Neo-Platonism concepts in his philosophies.…… [Read More]
The first ten books are mostly autobiographical, as Augustine describes in them episodes from his earlier life, and how his position concerning religion and philosophy had changed throughout his existence.
All across the book, Augustine refrains from portraying himself in a way that would glorify him. Instead, he chooses to present himself as the worst individual possible, emphasizing the sins he committed until eventually being saved by Christianity and Neoplatonistic philosophy.
The fact that Augustine insists on how his entourage was mostly responsible for his immoral behavior strengthens the theory that he tended to overestimate himself through considering that he was much better than anyone he came in contact with. Nonetheless, he admits his faults and does not attempt to claim that he is innocent. One can be inclined to believe that the author was actually determined to highlight his character as a Christian and as an intellectual.
While it…… [Read More]
Moreover, unlike Augustine who criticized the mysticism, the Jewish faith embraces it, however Judaism is more concerned about actions that beliefs (Judaism). In the Jewish law, sex is not considered shameful, sinful or obscene, nor is it a necessary evil for the sole purpose of procreation (Judaism). Although sexual desire comes from the evil impulse, it is no more evil than hunger or thirst, and like hunger, thirst and other basic instincts, sexual desire should be controlled and channeled, satisfied at the proper time, place and manner (Judaism). The primary purpose of sex is to reinforce the marital bond between husband and wife, and since the first and foremost purpose of marriage is companionship, sexual relations play an important role (Judaism). Although procreation is a reason for sex, it is not the only reason (Judaism).
Growing up Catholic, my views of the world, including sex, have been formed much from…… [Read More]
Group A: The situation with the journalist reflects on the ethical implications of a contract. A contract is an agreement, and is legally binding. Under law, there are provisions for how and when a contract may be broken -- a more lucrative offer from a competitor is unlikely to be among these. Morally, a contract is an obligation that should be upheld. But that is, ultimately a rather weak morality in that in the grand scope of right vs. wrong, breaking a contract is relatively irrelevant. Even the aggrieved party will recover just fine; nobody got hurt, nobody got killed; nobody's rights were trampled.
But ethically, this situation is more interesting. This is business, and there are not a lot of ethics in business. The legal wrangling about the contract is an accepted tactic in business -- you use the system to your advantage when you can, and…… [Read More]
La Berceuse (Woman Rocking
Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.
incent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,
Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996
The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of an Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.
The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. ery near the time of his breakdown at Arles.
La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle…… [Read More]
Letter From a Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr., and St. Thomas Aquinas' views on law. Specifically it will discuss the structure of law according to Aquinas. Aquinas divided law into four specific types, but both men agree there are just and unjust laws. Both men talk about the types of laws and whether they are just or unjust, and both have distinct philosophies about when to follow laws and when to ignore them.
Aquinas believed there were four basic types of law (1) eternal law, (2) natural law, (3) human law, and (4) Divine law. Each type of law carried certain characteristics and responsibilities, and each could be interpreted differently. His concept of eternal law is caught up in Divine law and argues that because of Divine eason, a law can indeed be eternal. That natural law is a result of Divine law, and it is purely rational…… [Read More]
VA and Medical Care
One key factor to be taken into account, while evaluating the healthcare structure of the United States (U.S.) Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), is the number of veterans actually availing themselves of VA medical services. Over 9.1 million, out of a total of over 21.6 million, U.S. veterans are registered with the VA healthcare system (Coburn, n.d.). Moreover, every enrollee doesn't necessarily receive medical attention. The Congressional udget Office (CO), in 2013, established that terminating enrollment of Priority Group 7 and 8 veterans could aid in reducing the federal deficit. These veteran groups, who gained VA healthcare access only during the mid-90s, include higher income veterans not requiring any service-related medical assistance (Options for Reducing the Deficit, 2013).
y the year 2003, VA found it nearly impossible to appropriately cater to the needs of every veteran enrollee, with wait lists for seeking healthcare becoming larger…… [Read More]
Parableman. 11 Aug etrieved from: http://parablemania.ektopos.com/archives/2008/08/rightreason2.html]
Machiavelli notes how the smart and successful ruler never allows the public to know his true intentions. This brings to the light of day the knowledge that what one sees is not what one always gets and that the most pleasing ruler might in reality be the most evil and corrupt ruler but who is smart enough and strategic enough to pull a sleight of hand and deceive those over whom he rules. Suppose for instance that Lucifer is already residing in a major world city. Then consider what city he might choose. According to Machiavelli, the city would be one that demonstrated "great enterprises" and from the view of Machiavelli's theory the city would exude the magnificence of its ruler. Two cities come to mind in the contemporary age and those being the cities of New York City and the city of Dubai…… [Read More]
St. Augustine's "Confessions"
The idea that sex should be equated with sin is a Catholic tradition that has its roots in the writings of Saint Augustine. Prior to this there was little opposition or shame associated with sexual activity, especially in the Classical world. Augustine's Confessions is a book that detailed the early part of his life, his paganism, his obsession with sex, and his ultimate conversion to Christianity. Although born into a world where sex was a common and open part of life, Augustine seemed to transfer his obsession with sexual activity into an equally vehement campaign for celibacy. To Augustine, sex had been the focus of his pagan life but upon his conversion to Christianity sex became equated with the sinfulness of paganism and the corruptibility of humankind. In this role sex plays an important part in the Confessions and Augustine's Christian philosophy.
Augustine was born into a…… [Read More]
Conception of the Good
One of the most critical and central aspects to human activity has presumably been the search for a good life and happiness. In attempts to understand and explain the quest for a good life and happiness, various philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Augustine have tried to explain the conception of good. Most of these philosophers have carried out their work in Athens, which is a great city that marked the pinnacle of the careers of these philosophers. Socrates was one of the philosophers from Athens who considered philosophy or the love of wisdom as a sacred path that should not be taken lightly. Plato was Socrates famous student who reconstructed some of Socrates' writings or discussions and describe him as the best of all men. On the contrary, Augustine was a philosopher from North Africa who received Christian education and went through a progression of…… [Read More]
Confessions of Augustine, The Life of Saint Teresa of Avila by Herself, "On the Oration and Dignity of Man," Petrarch's poetry, and Shakespeare's drama "King Lear" are both products of societies in which the dominant religious ethos was Christian rather than pagan. However, although all texts share this similar historical feature, fundamentally opposing views of the self are articulated through the theological texts in contrast with the works of lyric and dramatic poetry.
This may seem counter-intuitive to a casual reader, as both Augustine's Confessions and "King Lear" makes use of pagan and Christian modalities of selfhood. A closer reading suggests that while the former does so to validate the Christian concept of the supreme value of the inner life of the self as illuminated by God, the latter does so in a way that ultimately expresses a view of human inner life that is nihilistic, confusing, and cannot necessarily…… [Read More]
Asceticism and Its Influence in the Middle Ages on the Church
Saint Jerome, known for his austerity in the spiritual life, wrote to Celantia in the fourth century that the extent of one's "abstinence and fasting" is not to be confused with his state of perfection. In other words, a life of asceticism or penance is merely a means to perfection and not an example of perfection in and of itself. Asceticism was a term borrowed from the Greeks by the early Christians, who applied askesis, the Greek word for athletic training, to the spiritual life (Campbell). As men like Benedict and Augustine developed the ascetic lifestyle, the Church began to refine its sense of the practice of penance, meant to lead one to a state of holiness in the Middle Ages. This paper will describe the beliefs and practices of the major ascetics and how their ideas affected the…… [Read More]
Christianity started as a literary faith, one firmly rooted in Scripture. Scriptural adherence grew out of the Jewish appreciation for sacred text. Therefore, it is no wonder that Christianity evolved as a literary and literate faith. The evolution of Christianity from the fall of the Temple in 70 CE to the 21st century is one punctuated and formed by writing and historical documents. Christian historiography reveals both the development of Christian religious thought including cosmology, theology, and metaphysics. Ethics and philosophy are also covered in the Christian canon. However, Christian historiography also goes beyond sacred wisdom. Christian texts have laid out methods by which Christianity -- and the Catholic Church in particular -- can and should function in the world as a political institution. Both spiritual and the political debates have led to conflicts in Christian identity development. Conflicting views of theological matters such as the nature of Christ's…… [Read More]
St. Augustine, "Even those with a just grievance cannot go to war out of hatred or thirst for vengeance." The war in Iraq fails to meet this reasonable criterion and is therefore not a "just war." hile the typical excuse for the invasion of Iraq hones on the presence of weapons of mass destruction, the main motivation for military action in the Middle East had much to do with both hatred and a thirst for vengeance. The events of September 11 preceded the war by no coincidence: vengeance was therefore a major cause for the attack on Iraq, even though no plausible connection was made. Moreover, the spurious search for weapons of mass destruction clarifies primary reasons for waging war. Underlying the rhetoric about weapons of mass destruction rests an obvious desire for power and domination. President Bush, Prime Minister Blair, and those who support them, hearken to the theories…… [Read More]
Negative Aspects of Society
The author of this report is asked to review Augustine, Dante and Machiavelli when it comes to their views about the negative aspects of society. Indeed, they are major figures throughout history and their views are similar in many ways. However, they are also very different as well. Over the four total pages of this report, each of those three will be viewed one at a time. While some people dismiss what the people of the past have to say about society, the prior and current critics of the negative aspects of society have a right to say what they are saying.
One thing that dominated the words of Augustine was his challenging of the secular (non-religious) world with his Christian views. James O'Donnell had some words to say about Augustine and what he felt. Indeed, he notes that "ordinary men and women, left to their…… [Read More]
Religion in Rome vs. Religion in the City of God
In Augustine's The City of God against the Pagans, the theologian-philosopher asserts that the true religion should be identifiable by its fruits -- i.e., the products of its practice. He compares the outcomes of the duties of propitiation practiced in the pagan rituals to the more wholesome duties practiced in the Christian religion to show the main difference between Christian and pagan worship. He notes that the former is respectable and the latter unrespectable. The fault of the pagans, he asserts, is located not necessarily in their lack of reason (as Cicero was highly rational and valued the virtue of truth, as shall be shown) but rather in the faith they placed in the false religion. This paper will show how Augustine distinguishes a true religion from a false religion.
The duty to identify that which is "true" or "most…… [Read More]