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" He also appointed two individuals to distribute the grain, and like all political appointments during this time period, only individuals who met with Augustus' approval had any enforcement power. Thus he gave the appearance of being concerned with the people's welfare, of not wanting to be a dictator, yet gained more political and popular power.
Augustus' power was derived from a popular, if not an electoral mandate that extended even to the histories written about him after his death. For example, in what seems like a blatant contradiction, although Augustus substantially increased the territory of Rome, it was said: "he never made war on any nation without just and due cause" by Cassius Dio. Augustus was beloved because he restored many ancient works of art, because he spoke highly of Rome's great past, and commissioned many public acts of beautification and public works. He was also willing to delegate…… [Read More]
And besides, Suetonius had access to Augustus' personal correspondence and so had a better glimpse into the character of the man himself -- habitual grammatical lapses and all -- than we do. His vices and eccentricities are here along with his virtues.
So where is the coherent coverage of the civil wars? It may simply have been a casualty of Suetonius' "grammatical" biographical approach, which organizes its material along thematic and not chronological lines and so can mislead modern readers looking for a more straightforward year-to-year narrative. Significantly, the wars are the first of the "subject headings" (49) into which Suetonius dissects Augustus and his imperial career, and thus arguably the most important. It is only by accident that this section of the text follows immediately on the prefatory discussion of Augustus' upbringing and early career, just as it would in a chronological narrative. After this, it is easy for…… [Read More]
Gaius Octavius (Augustus)
Reformation of the Roman Empire under Augustus' Administration
Upon Julius Caesar's death in 44 BC, Gaius Octavius or Octavian ascended from being a senator to consul and eventually, in 29 BC, he became the emperor of the Roman Empire. Under his administration, social, cultural, and political reforms were implemented to restore Rome's glory after the political chaos that the empire had experienced over the past decade. The development of the Augustan Age, or more aptly called the Golden Age of Roman culture, vital social changes were created to deconstruct the existing structures and institutions that have always prevailed in Roman society.
In terms of political reform, the Augustan administration during this period has gradually shown flexibility in exercising the freedom of the civil society, as the power and influence of the monarchy had shown inconsistency in maintaining political stability and order in the Empire. Under his administration,…… [Read More]
The Campus was a busy place, a place where the remains of Augustus would have been a constant reminder of a once great emperor.
The view from Augustus' Mausoleum is looking out upon the garden side of the Campus Martius, not the city side (Lanciani; 1897). "His es gestae inscribed on two bronze pillars set up in front of his mausoleum, and elsewhere, gives a valuable account of his principate and, more relevantly, his building programme. The document is an impressive one. In it he records:
built the Curia [Julia, 29 BC]... The Temple of Divine Julius [29 BC]... I completed the Forum Julium and the Basilica [Julia]... I rebuilt eighty-two temples of the gods in the city during my sixth Consulship [28 BC] in accordance with a decree of the Senate... On [my] private land I built the Temple of Mars Ultor and the Forum of Augustus from the…… [Read More]
Baron Von Steuben
Friedrich ilhelm Augustus von Steuben was born to a military family in the Prussian garrison town of Magdeburg in 1730. King Friedrich ilhelm II was one of his godfathers, which indicated that the family stood high in royal favor at that time (Lockhart 2). Steuben's military credentials were genuine, since his father was an officer in the Prussian Army as were three of his uncles, and he served as an enlisted man then an officer for seventeen years. No one else on the American side had remotely the same amount of professional military experience, nor would any other officer have been as capable of carrying out the necessary training and organization of the new Continental Army from 1777. Although baptized a Calvinist, as an adult Steuben showed no interest in organized religion and was an admirer of French philosophes and skeptics like Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot. Prussia…… [Read More]
A humble Boston boot maker nicknamed the ‘Father of Probation’, John Augustus was a pioneer in his efforts to campaign for convicted criminals to receive more lenient sentences based on backgrounds. (Jones and Braswell) His attempt at rehabilitating the criminal was so successful that even today’s standards do not match it. Because of his noble efforts and high success rate, numerous Boston organizations and philanthropists aided and devoted themselves to his cause. He became the first probation officer, lasting eighteen years in helping convicted criminals gain a second chance. He helped almost 2,000 people with only 4 criminals proving unworthy of probation. (Jones and Braswell)
Back when probation was not practiced in the United States, criminals had no real chance at rehabilitation. This is because the United States Criminal Justice System had adopted a British means of handling criminals via applying to the king for a pardon. While the kind…… [Read More]
Octavian and oman Empire
oman Empire witnessed the rise and fall of so many emperors that it is hard to decide which one of them had the greatest influence on the empire. But historians have still made an attempt to found out just which ruler proved to be most influential in consolidating the empire and they unanimously agree that Octavian was the man who can be called the greatest emperor because of his numerous achievements and for the fact that unlike other rulers, he was never dethroned. It might appear strange to some but Octavian despite being the ruler of an immensely large empire did not encounter revolt and what never uprooted but history tells us that it was more due to his own cleverness and shred political skills than people's loyalty or devotion towards him. Shotter (1991) maintains that Augustus was so successful as oman emperor because he "displayed…… [Read More]
Lusnia characterizes this concept as the persistence of signs that foretell of one's "imperial destiny." (517) Namely, this refers to the adoption of personal signs and symbols with some likely connection to historical imperial iconography and suggesting the principles of strength, virility, valor and divinity. hether present or not throughout the life of the figure in question -- Augustus in this case -- the recurrence of certain specific images such as the laurel, retained within recurrent thematic contexts such as the Octavian 'garden,' would truly be intended to insist upon the hereditary and theological entitlement of Augustus to a seat atop the Roman Empire.
That unification, rebirth and flourishing growth would be themes of the Augustan rule should suggest to us that the images contained in Roman life and in the visual depiction of Roman life were not chosen in idle vanity. Instead, the must be a core psychological imperative…… [Read More]
Royal Magistrate courts were installed because of Henry II, making it easier for justice to be done, as local disputes no longer had to be arbitrated by the Crown. The English law system was antiquated during Henry's reign, given that people settled their disputes through trial by ordeal or through trial by combat. The King was supportive toward a system that would employ several individuals forming a jury meant to decide whether a particular individual was guilty or not.
Members of the church were advantaged during the early years of Henry II's reign, since they did not have to subject to the same laws applied to normal individuals. Being aware of this injustice, Henry set out several laws which were meant to limit the church's influence and to make the law equally applicable for everyone (Sherman & Salisbury, 258). In spite of his strength of mind, he experienced little success…… [Read More]
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…… [Read More]
growing power of the Patricians during the fifth century B.C. influenced the Plebeians in wanting to have political equality to the upper classes. The common people realized that they held great power in the state and that by emphasizing the important role they played they would succeed in persuading Patricians to share their power. The fact that ome was at war with neighboring tribes concomitantly with this conflict enabled Patricians to understand that they had to cede power in order to achieve success.
Plebeians were unsatisfied with the unimportant role they held in politics and they struggled to make Patricians provide them with the opportunity to occupy public offices. In spite of the fact that they were provided with access to all offices, the Plebeians continued to be control by Patricians through other means and the condition of the average Plebeian did not change significantly.
Augustus Caesar is the first…… [Read More]
Shepherd: Pastor, Elder, Overseer
The words elder, overseer, and pastor all describe the same authority of leadership within the universal church. However, since different denominations use these terms as though there are separate entities, the three offices are thought to have distinct meanings. Within the ultimate authority of the ible and the Scripture, the terms elder, overseer, and pastor overlap in meaning. Indeed, Apostles Paul and Peter continuously interchange the offices of elder and overseer with the gift of pastor or shepherd. From this, it is clear that -- for the people they minister to, for, and with -- pastors are intended to have oversight. Thus, it is possible to say with confidence that those who have the gift to pastor also hold the office of elder and overseer.
Table of Contents
Two Parallel Directions.
The Human Overseer.
Fitness to Lead.
"Then I…… [Read More]
Each and every one of these deeds may not have been universally good, some of them might even have been exaggerated, but Augustus needed to reconcile the supporters of the old forms to the ideas of a new era. The Republic was gone; the Augustinian state had replaced it. Augustus was self-serving in the greater interests of Rome, as well as of himself and his family, while Tacitus served only ideals that had, for better or worse, been replaced by dreams that suited the present time.
Achievements of the Divine Augustus. Trans. Brunt, P.A. & Moore, J.M. London: 1967.
Goodyear, F.R.D. The Annals of Tacitus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.
Haynes, Holly. The History of Make-Believe: Tacitus on Imperial Rome. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.
O'Gorman, Ellen. Irony and Misreading in the Annals of Tacitus. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Holly Haynes, The History of…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
But Augustus' real administrative breakthrough was to make the second element in the social and financial hierarchy, being the knights, into salaried employees of the State, both in civil jobs and in the army, for these men had already, over a long passage of time, been showing their talents for business and administration. But apart from their employment as judges, which was often highly contested by some senators, they had never before been systematically mobilized to occupy official posts. The knights, then, broadened the scope of Augustus' assistants in a very valuable way because they represented a whole class of new men from the towns of Italy and the provinces who felt somewhat unattached to the ideals of the traditional Republican leadership and were thus susceptible to the appeal of the new regime headed by none other than Augustus.
Unfortunately, this new system was doomed to failure, not so much…… [Read More]
i. The Civil War is over, Congress establishes peacetime troops, and arranges for black soldiers to serve in their own units led by white officers. The black troops, filthy, without uniforms, and underfed, meet their new Sargeant Major Roscoe Brassard. Brassard is angered by their sad appearance and the fact that they are hungry and quickly goes about correcting their living conditions. They make the trip to Fort Leavenworth in Kansas.
1. Augustus Talbot is a slave. He was kidnapped by Kiowi Indians and kept several years by them, then sold to a farmer, who required him to shoot buffalo for the skins. A party of Buffalo Soldiers comes upon him, there is an altercation, and Augustus' master dies. The soldiers take Augustus back to the fort with them and recommend that he be inducted because of his sharp shooting abilities and because his years living with…… [Read More]
King Herod, The Great
Quite a variety of members belonging to the royal dynasty had their names Herod being originated in Edom or Idumea after John Hyrcanus in 125 B.C was obligated to adopt the Jewish religion (1). The Herod family ruled in Palestine as vassals of the omans. Followed by Maccabees, the history of this dynasty mainly relates to the political history of Palestine during this whole era (1).
omans in 40 B.C made Herod I the Great, son of Antipater the king who managed to keep hold of his throne even during the times of changes in the government at ome (1). Herod's kingdom includes Idumea, Galilee, Judea, Batanea, Samaria and Peraea, which was more or less the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon (1).
Though Herod had outstanding leadership skills, yet he was greatly detested by the Jews. One of the reasons for disliking…… [Read More]
Julius and Octavian Caesar
The history of ancient Rome is divided into eras based on the leader at the time. Two such leaders were Julius Caesar and Octavian, later Augusts, Caesar. The two men were alike in genealogy, close in time and temperament, and yet one was a pronounced success, heralded centuries and even millennia later, while the other is considered a failure when it came to creating a role for himself as sole ruler. hat determines a man is successful or unsuccessful? Historically, little is considered of individual successes or failures or who gained or lost the most domains for their empire. It is the will of the people that ultimately decides which is the better man. A tyrant may be an angel if he wins over the people, so too a benefactor may become a monster. History is written by the memory of the survivors. In the case…… [Read More]
Both men suffer, and both men have to continue living with that suffering, while losing the people they care about the most. That tragedy is even more apparent in Dove's work, with the misunderstanding about Augustus and what he managed to do in the plantation house. His fate seems more tragic, somehow, because he is being commended for something that he did not do, and is being treated as a hero when in fact he is nothing of the sort. He will have to live up to that reputation in the slave community and it is clear that he will not be able to continue that pretense for very long.
In conclusion, both of these plays use the central theme of incest for different purposes. Dove uses it to illustrate the enduring images of slavery, relationships between blacks and whites and how they were skewed, and how slaves were abused…… [Read More]
The size of the army reached nearly 200,000 (Everitt 2007). Augustus also instituted programs to provide additional payments to both retired and active Roman soldiers for their duties.
idespread efforts were made by Augustus to reduce unnecessary excess by government while increasing spending on beneficial programs that presented utility rather than the perception of power (Everitt 2007). Consistent with these efforts, Augustus melted down dozens of silver and gold statues constructed in his likeness to emphasis the importance of modesty and the dangers of excess (Everitt 2007).
Augustus' institution of regulated taxation provided dramatically increased revenue for Rome and allowed for the increased expenses of social reform (Everitt 2007; Suetonius, Graves, and Grant 2002). Similarly, private taxation was abolished and increased the taxation purview of the Roman governance (Everitt 2007). Augustus prudently utilized the nascent taxation reform to provide funding for the maintenance of extensive road networks throughout Italy, among…… [Read More]
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…… [Read More]
..and it is unlikely that the military will attempt to take over the executive branch by a coup." (2007) the media is not informing the citizens of what is occurring in many cases and a recent attempt to make a citizens arrest by over 8,000 individuals in Washington of President ush relating to war crimes resulted in many of those individuals being tasered and arrested.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The future of the United States, according to what is known of the history of Rome, the predecessor upon which the U.S. originally based the form of its democratic government, appears to be bleak indeed. However, there is hope that the next presidential election will progress in a democratic manner and that the newly elected president will have the stamina and integrity required to see the United States return to the democracy upon which it was based and with the least pain…… [Read More]
Etruscans as a monolithic group, in fact, they covered a wide geographic area with a civilization that spans many centuries from a millennium BCE to their putative dissolution a couple of decades BCE (Time International, 2001). The sculpture Etruscan warrior supporting a wounded comrade, from the early fifth century BCE, was created in about the middle of the Etruscan era.
At the time this sculpture was created, the Etruscans had begun exploring the coast of what is now known as the Italian peninsula. The Etruscans enjoyed dominion on the seas at the time, giving them "tremendous potential for trade as well as piracy" (Time International, 2001). It is obvious from the embellishment on the clothing of the two warriors that the Etruscans enjoyed their sea-based wealth. It is also easy to believe, as Time (2001) contends, that the Etruscans were a more jovial people than were the omans who supplanted…… [Read More]
In this sense, the time and setting of these two plays are less significant because each of the two addresses universal questions of fate, destiny, free will, and the meaning of life, which are as current today as they were over 2000 years ago, when Oedipus Rex was written, for instance.
The arker Face of the Earth reflects many of the themes and plot elements that also occur in the ancient Greek play by Sophocles entitled Oedipus Rex. In both cases, although the protagonists are faced with challenges by the powerful forces of destiny, their fate is direct consequence of their choice regarding the exercise of free will. Both Augustus and Oedipus are victims of their own bloody choices. Because their actions are no longer controlled by rational thought, they exercise their free will poorly hence they must accept the consequences of their actions and suffer the painful fate that…… [Read More]
Anthony Blond in his book A Scandalous History of the Roman Emperors (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000), a book originally published in 1994, the author seems to have written a history of Rome for the current tabloid age, though in truth, the Roman Emperors lived that sort of life and were not shy about letting the world know it. The book is both a history of the Emperors and a characterization of the age, and the author manages to create a picture of the Roman era against which to set the stories he then tells of the Emperors from Julius Caesar to Nero. This is followed by a discussion of Rome as a city and an empire. The book covers the subject in a shorter space than many other books have done, and the tone taken by the author is less reverent than many other authors have used. The…… [Read More]
Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, born February 27, 272, is commonly known as Constantine I or Constantine the Great. He was proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306, and ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire to his death. Constantine is famous for his rebuilding of Byzantium as "Nova Roma" (New Rome), which was always popularly called "Constantine's City" (Constantinopolis, Constantinople). With the Edict of Milan in 313, Constantine and his co-Emperor Licinius removed all onus from Christianity. By taking the personal step of convoking the Council of Nicaea (325), Constantine began the Roman Empire's unofficial sponsoring of Christianity, which was a major factor in that religion's spread. His reputation as the "first Christian Emperor" was promulgated by Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, gaining ground in the succeeding generations.
He was born at Naissus, (today's Nis, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro) in Upper Moesia, to Constantius I Chlorus,…… [Read More]
The Transitions of Roman Culture (Romanitas) As It Interacted with Christian Culture (Christianitas) And Barbarian Cultures (Germanitas)
Christianity in late antiquity runs from the Christian Roman Empire when Christianity rose under the Emperor Constantine (c. 313) up to the end of the Western Roman Empire (c. 476). The sub-Roman period transition was gradual and occurred at varying times in different places. Therefore, the exact time the period ended is varied. The late ancient Christianity lasted up to the end of the 6th century. On the other hand, Justinian conquests of the Byzantine Empire occurred between 527 and 565. However, in 476, it ended when the last emperor, Romulus Augustus died. Christianity spread from the Roman Judaea without any endorsement or state support. It became Armenia’s state religion in 301 or 314, Georgia in 337 and Ethiopia 325.the The Thessalonica Edict saw it develop into the Roman Empire’s state religion in…… [Read More]
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…… [Read More]
Also, that the people as the public body, having elected their representation according to the laws of Rome, failed to compel the Republic to adhere to the laws, and thus, met with its demise. As Nifong discussed, the first tenet of the principle of natural law is the premise that promises made will be kept.
Heitland identified the indicators of the fallen republic by these marks:
The rise and predominance of Antony
The return and progress of Octavian
The relations between Antony, Octavian and Cicero
The collapse of Cicero's policy, and the formation of the Triumvirate and the doings of the Triumvirs
Given Heitland's depictions of the indicators of the fall of the Republic, and for the sake of argument ruling out other factors, what was the mood of the people that they allowed their republic to slip away from them? if, as Nifong's discussion on natural law suggests, the…… [Read More]
As the poem progresses Flecknoe blesses his son, which may make some wonder why the church did not perform the blessing. This slight against Flecknoe's character demonstrates that Dryden has no respect for Shadwell's virtues. Any individual, especially a king, who cannot have his son blessed by a priest, would be viewed in a negative light by the masses. Dryden illustrates that Flecknoe's failures are similar to Shadwell, insinuating that Shadwell's future work will be clouted by his personal issues with drugs and alcohol and thus continue to be garbage. Many playwrights like to introduce jokesters or fools into his or her plays to demonstrate the author's superior intellect. In the poem Mac Flecknoe the character resembling Shadwell is a bumbling idiot and constantly demeaned by Dryden (Cox, 2004).
According to dictonary.com plagiarism is "the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the…… [Read More]
Some of the issues that made Liu a favorite of many were the fact that he lowered taxes, he reduced the demand for labor from the state and the origin being from the peasants.
Liu appointed rich land owners as governors because of the distrust he had against merchants, he as well appointed officials that were loyal to him ensuring that he controlled all the powers within the dynasty. Liu died in 195 B.C and left a stable Han dynasty. Though there were power struggles within the dynasty after the death of Liu, they were resolved by capable leadership. The rule of Jingdi, Wendi and Wudi were predominantly peaceful, prosperous for peasants, expansion of China, art and trade thrived as well under Confucianism. The expansion saw northern Vietnam, Korean peninsula come under the Han dynasty. Trade routes to Asia were open including the famous Silk oad.
However, the wars of…… [Read More]
The formal name for Justinian I is Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus. Iustinianus is the name from which Justinian is derived and after Julius Caesar added Augustus to his surname as a mark of his emperorship, all subsequent Roman leaders had Augustus at the end of their names. He was an empire of the Byzantine Emperor from 527 -- 565 AD. He was the last Roman Emperor to speak Latin as his first language and he is most known for the Justinian code of law, known in Latin as Corpus Juris Civilis, translated as the body of civil law. The Corpus Juris Civilis is known as the ultimate codification of Roman law. This body of law has been passed down through numerous generations including into areas of Western Europe and is the basis of law today.
This controversy occurred in the 8th & 9th centuries. The topic…… [Read More]
Neo-French Gothic evival: The Fletcher-Sinclair Mansion
Over a century old, the Fletcher-Sinclair mansion in New York is a good example of late 19th century Gothic revival and today, the building is registered as a National Historic Landmark. The mansion was named for Isaac D. Fletcher, a prominent New York City investor and banker, and Harry F. Sinclair, an oil tycoon who was subsequently caught up in the scandal-ridden administration of President Warren G. Harding. Currently, the mansion serves as the long-time home for the Ukrainian Institute of America and remains a popular destination for students, architects and others who are interested in neo-Gothic evival architecture in the United States. This paper reviews the relevant literature to describe the building in informal and historical terms, relating it to larger trends in the 19th century architecture and society and to provide an analysis concerning how this building reflects the forms ideas and…… [Read More]
There are numerous reasons as to why terrorists deliberately target those who are considered innocent people, such as civilians and non-combatants. One can argue that the very definition of a terrorist organization is one which challenges "the peace of mind of everyday people" (Augustus & Martin, 2010), which is done effectively by targeting them. In many instances, terrorist organizations lack the resources to scale a full-fledged military assault -- such as that which typifies wars -- due to a paucity of numbers, dearth of finances, and lack of requisite hardware (weapons). In these instances, one of the most viable options for these organizations and their objectives (which are almost always political) is to make figurative 'statements' in the form of targeting innocents. There are fewer ways of expressing one's political ambitions and extremism for such causes than by destroying the lives of innocents who happen to represent the…… [Read More]
Greek Classical Era on Christian Art
The fifth century B.C.E. initiated a new philosophy in Greek art. hile before this era, Greek representations of the human form tended to be static and relatively stylized (much like Egyptian art), the Classical era exhibited a notable break with previous artistic images. Representations of the human form became much more realistic. Knowledge of anatomy combined with an ideology that celebrated and idealized the human form (while still keeping it recognizably human) characterized the style of this era, as can be seen in one of the wonders of the ancient world, the Tomb of Mausolus (Asia Minor, 359-351 B.C.E.). One famous relief on the Tomb depicts Greek warriors and Amazon women in combat. Both the soldiers and the women are intricately detailed in terms of the folds of their clothing and musculature. Both sides are also perfectly proportioned and while all look recognizably human,…… [Read More]
Haas, Christopher. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church,
257-260." Church History, vol. 52, no. 2 (June 1983): 133-144.
In this article, Haas discusses the persecutions of the Early Church under the emperor Valerian and identifies the main motive for Valerian's sudden persecution of Christians as being religious in nature. It was, according to Haas, a direct attack from the pagan Roman Emperor on the Christian religion in an effort to shore up "certain related social aims" of the Roman government at this time.[footnoteRef:1] Haas also compares Valerian's attitude and actions towards Christians to his predecessor's and examines why there was a severe shift away from relative tolerance to severe persecution. The result of Valerian's attack on Christians, which lasted more than 3 years, was the brutal martyrdom of many Christians, later revered as saints by the Church. It was a very difficult period for Christians, who were…… [Read More]
One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).
The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…… [Read More]
The reference to Montesquieu (as well as to Smith) in that part of the 'Dissertation' which deals with the 'Progress of Philosophy during the Seventeenth Century' was made just as a digression, and the further development of Jurisprudence by writers on Political Economy as well as 'the mighty influence which his [Montesquieu's] writings have had on the subsequent history of Scottish literature' (Stewart, 1854) were to be explained in the third Part of the 'Dissertation', which was never to be published.
A major task of the state is thus to ensure that the conditions of economic freedom are in fact satisfied, so far as possible, by sweeping away all legal and institutional impediments to it. Generally speaking, these obstructions can be condensed to four main groups. First, there is the problem that, in all societies subject to a course of evolution, 'Laws frequently continue in force long after the…… [Read More]
The consul was wounded in the battle. It was here that the one who will become Hannibal's greatest rival, the consul's son Publius Cornelius Scipio, did his first deed of valor, when he helped save his father (Livius also gives the alternate account of the Consul's rescue by a Ligurian slave, but he says he wishes the most popular account, accepted by most of the historians, to be correct). After this, the Roman cavalry retreated and their army broke camp the same night and crossed the Po River to the town of Placentia (Piacenza). Pursued by Hannibal, the Consul and his army retreated further over the river Trebia and set camp in a strong position, to await the arrival of his colleague, the Consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus, who had been recalled from the operations in Sicily.
On the front in Sicily, the actions were fought mainly by the navies, with…… [Read More]
S. Eliot to Robert Frost. According to Theodore Ziolkowski,"Virgil has permeated modern culture and society in ways that would be unimaginable in the case of most other icons of Western civilization" (ix).
In the Aeneid, Virgil through out the story emphasizes through his characters that responsibility is of higher precedence than of love. He makes it apparent in ook II, in which Aeneas focuses on his responsibilities rather than on his wife as they fled the city and even in ook IV Aeneas suppresses his feelings of love for Dido and rather prefers his fulfilling his duty. While women in "The Aeneid" by Virgil hold love in a higher position than responsibilities. As in book II when Aeneas and his family are escaping from the city, Aeneas' wife Creusa vanishes but as Aeneas was so determined to fulfill his duties that he doesn't even notice when or how she vanished.…… [Read More]
Carthage and Rome
Comparing Carthage and Rome
One of the greatest wars Rome ever fought was against Carthage -- and it was actually a war that happened three times. Called the Punic Wars (Punic another name for Phoenician -- the nationality of the men who founded Carthage), the contests revealed much about both nations, and created heroes and legends for all antiquity to marvel over. This paper will compare and contrast the two civilizations of Rome and Carthage from the standpoint of "persons within the community," showing just how such persons helped both powers came to be and how they went on to fare when they both began to war with one another.
Started near Tunis at around the end of the ninth century BC, Carthage took over the rule of "leader" amongst the colonies of Phoenicia nearly three hundred years later when in the sixth century BC Tyre…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, both heroes are very similar in their characterizations: they are both human and are subject to the whims of the gods. Odysseus confides his most troubling mistake: "From the start my companions spoke to men and begged me to take some of the cheeses, come back again, and the next time to drive the lambs and kids from their pens, and get back quickly to the ship again, and go off sailing across the salt water; but I would not listen to them," (Homer, 143). Despite the fact that Odysseus is responsible for the deaths of many of his men, once he manages to get them out of the predicament he still revels in his victory. So much so that he ends up exposing his identity to the Cyclops and opening himself and his men up to the retribution that the Cyclops' subsequent prayers to Poseidon incur. Similarly, Juno's…… [Read More]
If someone living 2,000 years from now wanted to know what took place in the year 2005, it would be necessary to go through impossible amounts of information. Today, scores of individuals with varying agendas write about day-to-day events. Thousands of publications and electronic media maintain records. Before the Common Era the situation was naturally much different. Because so few accounts exist of this time period, anthropologists and historians have to make educated guesses to fill in the blanks. This same problem exists with early ome and Italy. No account written earlier than the late 3rd century exists and no continuous account recorded before the age of Augustus now survives. Thus, most of the information concerning the Etruscan traditions either comes from individuals such as the oman historian Livy, the Greeks, and archaeological finds.
Born in Northern Italy in 59 BC, Livy wrote a 142-book history of ome called…… [Read More]
The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism
The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…… [Read More]
The more important someone's rank in society was, the bigger the obligations became and thus, the responsibility increased.
Mesopotamia was a region between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the swing of world's first civilization emerged. Various cultures occupied the region and were brought together solely by their customs and religion. Trade came in as the result of agriculture, it brought prosperity and urbanization. The rise of cities led to economic and political developments, one city being conquered by another until the establishment of the first Mesopotamian empire by Sargon that lasted about 150 years until outside powers such as the Hittites (who raided Babylon) gained control over some areas. During the Middle Bronze Age, the Assyrians conquered much of Mesopotamia and, with the rise of the Babylonian dynasty, trade was once again favoured and brought along warfare.
The Alexandrian Empire was favoured by a number of its king's…… [Read More]
Rise to Power of Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, Trajan Emperor of Rome
This is an essay on Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, Emperor of Rome. It discusses his rise to power and rein as emperor. Two sources are used. MLA.
Trajan Emperor of Rome
Marcus Ulpius Trajanus was born on "the fourteenth day before the kaleds of March" or in other words, September 18th, probably in the year AD 52 at Italica near Seville, Spain. Being of Spanish origin made him the first emperor who did not come from Italy, even though he was from an old Umbrian family from Tuder in northern Italy. Having chosen to settle in Spain, the family was not a purely provincial one (Empire, pg).
Trajan was the son of a Senator, Consul, and Governor of Asia and Syria. His father, also Macus Ulpius Trajanus, commanded the Tenth Legion "Fretensis" in the Jewish ar of AD 67-68. He…… [Read More]
In his discourse, The Republic, Plato describes the "ideal state" as composed of three social classes: the merchant class, military class, and philosopher-kings. The merchant class maintains and provides service to the society by safeguarding the people's economic activities, while the military class provides the society's security needs. However, in order to establish a stable society, the class of philosopher-kings must govern, having the knowledge, skills, and talent to govern and lead over the society politically. Moreover, the philosopher-king is appropriate for the role of a political leader because he (Plato assigns the role to men) possesses virtues of temperance, courage, wisdom, and justice. These three classes provide balance in the society in terms of the security, prosperity, and leadership, thereby establishing what Plato calls the "ideal state."
Aristotle's philosophy on happiness and the good life is illustrated in his discourse, the Nicomachean Ethics, wherein he posits that in…… [Read More]
Sumptuary Laws in the Roman Empire
The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire were both grandiose and both are a major part of the history of the world. However, they were quite different in many significant ways but they were also similar in some ways as it relates to social structure, the way people dressed and how society proceeded and developed. The major difference between the two was that the Senate and people had a lot of power in the Republic while the Emperor reigned supreme in the Roman Empire. However, the differences are a lot deeper than that in some ways. hile some people conflate the Roman Empire and Roman Republic, there is a lot more than meets the eye when it comes to Roman History.
The main differences between the Roman Empire and the Roman Republic are fairly easy to list. hen it came to the Roman…… [Read More]
Roman history like Augustus, Charlemagne, and Pericles have soared into Western historical tradition while others like Commodus have received a far less respected legacy, being banished and disgraced with stories of megalomania and decadence. Of the character portrayals of Commodus both in film and literature, only two primary literary sources of Commodus exist. They are from Herodian and Cassius Dio. With such little information available of how Commodus truly was, much was left to the imagination. What could have been a great Roman emperor is now a hedonistic caricature depicted by films like Gladiator and writers like Dio. ut why was Commodus depicted in that way? Was he truly a megalomaniac or a man wishing to gain true power?
Of the primary sources available, the information provided from these sources can lead someone to assume partial inaccuracy. Cassisus Dio for example, worked under Commodus as a senator. He wrote an…… [Read More]
There is a fixed amount of output possible for any given investment in production capacity, at all possible costs, and if we plot all the potential scales of output against the resulting average cost per unit of production, the result is a long run average total cost curve (LRATC). These economies and diseconomies of scale cause the LRAC to fall from a high origin to a minimum point, and then (theoretically) eventually begin to rise, where there is a minimum where slope is zero. This is the optimum enterprise scale (Petroff, 2002 n. pag.). Each combination of output and average per-unit cost represents a discrete, short-term, short-run ATC curve for that level of production, and optimum firm size is the SRATC curve where unit cost is minimal (7 units at 32$ each, in Table 6), the MC cost curve crosses both LRATC and SRATC, no other firms enter to capture…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
Yet in his own bust he is either wearing a wig (not unusual in Imperial ome) or has had his hair combed forward to hide his baldness. It would not have served him well to send a true likeness of a balding and bloated monarch to the far reaches of the empire.
Only knowing Domitian's character enables one to see a hint of the emperor's cruelty and vanity in the vague smile. One imagines that the artist, whoever he might have been, did attempt to sneak a bit of truth into the imperial image. Idealized or not, however, the bust stands not only as a historical monument to an emperor who had an enormous impact on the oman empire despite his vices, but also as a testament to the power of art then and now. The fact that it is the sole surviving bust of this emperor attests to the…… [Read More]
He was not just some compassionate liberal advocating freedom for the oppressed, he was an actual victim of the system who had risen above it. This strengthened his leadership abilities even further because he was able to use his personal experiences to relate the horrors of slavery to those who had only read about it.
When he tells about the cruelty of the slave overseer Mr. Gore, stating "His savage barbarity was equaled only by the consummate coolness with which he committed the grossest and most savage deeds upon the slaves under his charge" (p. 356), one cannot helped but be moved and outraged. There is no denying that his experiences were as horrendous as Harriet's. But there is also no denying that the male and female experiences of slavery were different. The fact is, the male and female experiences in just about any walk of life are different, no…… [Read More]
Even "Porter Alexander, Lee's ordnance chief and one of the most perceptive contemporary observers of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, called his decision to stand at Antietam 'the greatest military blunder that Gen. Lee ever made'" (Owens 2004). Historians are divided as to the real purpose behind the Maryland campaign, which seems like an "isolated maneuver, another manifestation of Lee's innate aggressiveness as a commander. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Lee's forays into Union territory were undertaken primarily to maintain his claim on scarce Confederate resources that might have been used to greater strategic purpose in the est" (Owens 2004).
hether a demoralization strategy or an effort merely to show Confederate aggression, the focus on Lee in most historians' analysis shows how Lee dominated this conflict, and defined the terms of the battle. Thus, even if Lee acted unwisely, he was clearly 'in control,'…… [Read More]
This is similar to the specifics of the legal case that Hansberry's father became engaged in over their house in an all white neighborhood. In the real-life version of events, however, things were far less polite. Hansberry's father was actually breaking a legal covenant between property owners of the area that they would not sell to African-Americans, and Carl Hansberry was actually sued for $100,000 -- a huge sum of money in 1937 (and not bad now) (SocialJusticeiki). Hansberry countersued, claiming that the covenant had denied him his right to be heard, and the Supreme Court agreed, allowing his family to stay in their home on a legal technicality, but not ending the discriminatory covenant (SocialJusticeiki). In the case of the Youngers, alter is given a temptation of money, and his ultimate refusal of it -- " e don't want to make no trouble for nobody or fight no causes,…… [Read More]
From its tribal stages in Jerusalem to the conversion of Augustus,
from the Crusades and Inquisition to the splintering Americanization of the
U.S. antebellum era, Christianity would be the province of both the
conquered and the conqueror over history, with either of these conditions
serving the cause to stimulate Christian faith. This would help us to
attach Christian history, importantly, to the moments at which human
movements, political systems or social parameters would invoke the
magnification of its influence. This is meaningful to us as a
demonstration of the crucial role played by the historical context in
framing the relationship between man and faith.
Barrett, David B. (2001). orld Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. orld Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. . (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
Sotkin, Joan. (1978) Vedanta Vedanta Society of Southern California: hat
is Vedanta? Online at…… [Read More]
Anselm also added the passion of repentance and the exhilaration of praise to the bare texts, involving the supplicant in an intensity of feeling and a deepening of understanding. In the intensity of sorrow for sin, he is the heir of Augustine of Hippo, and the language of the Confessions is very close to Anselm's self-revelation and repentance.
(McGinn, Meyendorff, and Ledercq 202)
So, in City of God the textual concepts from his earlier works became the stuff of reformative language that would apply itself not only to the personal but to how the person was meant to build upon the institutions that surrounded him, influenced him and in turn was influenced by him. Bernard of Clairvaux was a direct descendant of Augustine in his ideas. He strove to recreate the church not as a calling of finery and social stratification but of one that encompassed a monastic tradition of…… [Read More]
" (Raines and Leather, 2007) This goal was achievable through wealth acquisition derived from "monopoly profits from successful innovations."(Raines and Leather, 2007) Schumpeter held that the ability of these businessmen is that which determines how far they will rise "because in that schema rising to a position and doing well in it is one and the same thing." (1950: as cited in Raines and Leather, 2007) Schumpeter also discussed the 'human element' in the political democratic decision-making in his work "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy" and in one section which he entitled 'Human Nature in Politics' he stressed that the mindset of capitalism was one of rationalism and held a view of individual rationality as "consumers and in political activities as being quite limited." (Raines and Leathers, 2007) Schumpeter rejected the "idea of the human personality that is a homogeneous unit and the idea of the definite will that is the…… [Read More]
Waverley Park was designed for and reflected a demographic shift in Melbourne's population away from the inner suburbs to the south and east. Waverley Park was a symbol of, and a contributor to, the shift of the locus of power within the Victorian, later Australian, Football League from the clubs to the league, a change whose consequences are still being felt in 2000. The stadium reflected an Australian tradition of multi-sports facilities despite its genesis in Australian ules, both in its conception and subsequent development. Waverley Park played a significant role in the development of post-war Australian football, cricket and baseball. In April 2000 it was nominated for the Victorian Heritage egister by the City of Greater Dandenong (Hay et al.).
Waverley reflected also a major geographic shift, taking the game away from the traditional inner urban areas to outlying suburbs where a more affluent society with discretionary income…… [Read More]
From a study of Gibson's work, we learn, too, that there is a marked difference between illustrators and those artists who pursue their own creative inklings, like Picasso, Renoir, and others. The skill and expertise of illustrating is reflected in a much different sense than is formal portraiture, and while, as we see in the oil of Gibson's daughter, the illustrator might imitate formal portraiture, the skill and expertise of the illustrator do not lend themselves to that illustrator in attempts to create formal portraiture.
This is not to suggest that Gibson was not a gifted artist, because he clearly was. However his work shows an untrained gift, and a gift that restricted by the commercialism of the era in which lived and worked. It would have been very interesting to see Gibson's gift explored with formal training or the influences of the great artists of his time.
orks Cited…… [Read More]