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living with chronic low back pain." (Snelgrove & Liossin, 2009 P. 735). Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major health problem with enormous economic and social costs. In the United States, between 60% and 80% of the people suffer from back pain in their life of which 30% develop into CLBP. Despite the widespread occurrence of CLBP, the traditional treatments which include back exercises, drug, physical treatment, and education do not always help. (Hadi, Ali, Isa et al. 2009).
Weiss, & Werkmann, (2009) define CLBP as the pain in the lumbosacral region and the sacroiliac joints. Typically, the radicular symptoms and iliolumbar ligaments may also be part of syndrome in the CLBP, and there is prevalent of CLBP in the aged population. CLBP is a type of chronic pain that results to diverse painful and benign condition. Chronic pain may occur despite no evidence of tissue damage in the…… [Read More]
Mixed-Design ANOVA: Assessing the Effectiveness of Acupuncture and Massaging
Programs in Treating Back Pain
Assessing the Effectiveness of Acupuncture and Massaging Programs in Treating Back Pain: Mixed-Design ANOVA
Chronic back pain has become a serious health concern for health professionals in the U.S. It is estimated that 8 in every 10 Americans will suffer some form of back pain at some time in future. For this reason, researchers are increasingly studying the causes, prevention strategies and effective treatment approaches for addressing back-related problems. This text presents the basic proposal for a research study seeking to assess the effectiveness of two commonly-used strategies for treating back pain -- acupuncture and massaging.
Assessing the Effectiveness of Acupuncture and Massaging Programs in Treating Back Pain
Chronic back pain has become a serious problem for the health fraternity in America -- the American Chiropractic Association estimates that approximately 31 million Americans experience chronic back…… [Read More]
The problems at the work place were detected over a long period of time and are a part of the history of development. The development of technology was very rapid which must also have brought in the needed changes in the workplace functions and norms. Unfortunately the basic structure of health protection came to be discussed only in the beginning of 1960s. The occupational medicine became a separate field of study since then and the occupational health service was born. The motto which the service wanted to achieve was an ergonomic system that could fit the job and the worker and simultaneously identify and eliminate health hazards. (Wilkinson, 50) There were many statues passed that created safety at the workplace. The greatest step in this regard was the OSHA regulations.
The OSHA act of 1970 was the single piece of legislation that gave an impetus to the work…… [Read More]
feasible to measure pain because it is located in the thalamus. Is pain able to be measured objectively? Just as a blood pressure of 220/110 will give us some information about the cardiovascular system, assessing the peripheral pain pathway can help in the diagnosis and treatment of a patient's pain. Part of this paper will discuss the pain problem. People tend to view reports of pain with suspicion and disbelief. How is pain assessed at this time? Are there any objective markers of pain? How efficient are the current measurements of pain? Is the electromyography (EMG) test a good measurement of the nerve pain pathway? The pain pathway from the free nerve ending in the amydala hypothalamus will also be reviewed. The following section will discuss various instrumentations that currently exist, and how the pain sensory of the a-delta fibers can be measured. Another section will discuss the pathophysiology and…… [Read More]
Therefore, the research offers reliable data supporting the emerging medication.
The sample included 878 patients with low back pain or pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Patients were randomly assigned to Tapentadol or control drug oxycodone and took their medications for 90 days Doses for Tapentadol were flexible with either 50 or 100 mg offered every 4 to 6 hours, up to a maximum of 600 mg/day. Instances of nausea, vomiting, and constipation were significantly lower in the Tapentadol group vs. The oxycodone group. Doses were flexible and mimicked real life administrations of the medications.
However, the control group was given 10 mg or 15 mg of oxycodone IR every four to six hours. The lack of standardization of doses and the flexible administration of the drugs compromise the reliability and validity of the study. Nurses should also take note that rates of other side-effects such as drowsiness…… [Read More]
Alternatives to Pain Medication
Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…… [Read More]
Prevention of Back Injuries
Twenty percent of the injuries experienced in the work place in America are back injuries. In some areas, such as EMS, these injuries are responsible for the fact that at any point in time, ten percent of their workers are not working. Statistics from the Center for Disease Control actually reveal that the EMS had over 20% of all 27,000 work related sicknesses, being specifically lower back injuries (CDC, 2015). The nation pays dearly for back related injuries from the bills that are incurred as well as the income lost when workers are away from work. This amounts to about $50 billion of which $20 billion emanates from the injuries occurring in the medical field. Ironically, this surpasses the cost of similar injuries occurring in less surprising places, such as manufacturing, mining and construction industries. For a physician who is injured, the costs are estimated at…… [Read More]
Non-Cardiac Chest Pain
Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…… [Read More]
Ingenious Pain Andrew Miller
prompt: One major themes discussed Alain de
One of the central philosophical components of Friedrich Nietzsche's varied stance is the fact that pain is integral to providing meaning to the human life. This basic tenet is echoed in Andrew Miller's Novel, Ingenious Pain, which chronicles a protagonist who is born with a marked inability to perceive suffering or physical pain -- whether it is his or that of someone else (Barnard). Although the life of James Dyer -- the protagonist -- is highly eventful and full of action, it is curiously devoid of much meaning from Dyer's perspective, until a change encounter with a woman named Mary bestows upon him the capacity to feel pain. The sudden transition for the young man, and the fledgling empathy he eventually develops as a result, eventually overrides his life and leads to his death. Yet in the process, Dyer's…… [Read More]
Acute Abdominal Pain -- Assessment
Nurses are very often the first medical aid providers that most patients see. In today's interprofessional healthcare set up, a nurse's approach in collecting a patient's history and diagnosing if the pain is acute or non-acute would assuredly help in providing the patient with appropriate treatment. It is therefore primary that nurses be fully equipped to diagnose the various ailments and start on the care to be provided. Nurses are also the first information gatherers and it is vital that they acquire the patient's past medical history. The importance of a structured approach in gathering this information is very vital as it forms the basis of analysis and also influences the care provided. Abdominal pain is one of the most common ailments that people complain of and seek medical care for. In most cases the pain's primary cause of pain may be ascertained almost immediately…… [Read More]
suffer anymore: Access to pain treatment as a human right, Human ights Watch author Diederick Lohman discusses the issue of pain management as a human rights issue. Lohman addresses the fact that it has long been established that pain relieving drugs, particularly narcotics, are an essential element of healthcare. In fact, he points out that in 1961, the world community adopted the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which instructed countries to make pain relieving medications available to people (Lohman, 2009). However, the reality is that, even now the majority of the world's people lack access to pain-relieving medication. This is particularly true in low and middle income countries. Moreover, the lack of access impacts patients at all levels, even those whose conditions are terminal, so that they literally die in pain.
In the article, Lohman cites an extraordinary amount of facts and figures to back up his assertion that…… [Read More]
History of RSD
The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]
Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate
The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…… [Read More]
Patient’s chief complaint: A man aged 69 comes to the emergency room with a sharp pain to his chest’s left side, lasting between 30 and 40 mins and then subsiding.
History of present illness: The pain has woken him up thrice in the last 7 days. He claims the pain first started roughly six months ago. Initially, however, the pain used to surface only occasionally, commonly while he was doing gardening. The patient’s past medical history reveals a diagnosis of hypertension twenty-five years back.
Precipitating/alleviating factors: The patient has been smoking a half-cigarette pack daily for the last forty-five years.
Family History: The patient has lost two brothers and his dad to heart disease. The patient does not report any other significant illness history in the family.
Social History: His typical pastimes include sharing a drink with pals and gardening.
Review of Systems: From a physical examination of…… [Read More]
The existence of human suffering poses a unique theological problem. If God is omniscient, omnipotent, and all-loving, then why does suffering exist? Indeed, this difficulty is confronted in scripture itself: perhaps the most important look into the problem of suffering comes in the Old Testament story of Job. Mainstream Christianity continues to have a variety of ways of approaching this theological question, although historically Christians had a much broader spectrum of responses. For example, today's mainstream Christianity is a result of the establishment of orthodoxy in the face of Gnostic Christians, who used the existence of suffering as a way of questioning whether God was indeed omnipotent or all-loving. Gnosticism instead posits a "demiurge" or "alien god" that created this world and its suffering without being omnipotent or good. ut the oldest mainstream form of Christian orthodoxy today -- represented by the Roman Catholic faith…… [Read More]
Assessing the Abdomen
The chief complaint of JR is that his “stomach hurts” and he is experiencing diarrhea, from which he has been unable to obtain any relief. His pain in his abdomen started 3 days earlier and he has taken no medication for it. The pain is midrange, though it was very high today when it began. He ate but experienced nausea afterwards. JR is 47, suffers from hypertension, diabetes and had an issue of gastrointestinal bleeding four years ago. He is on a number of medications to address his high blood pressure and diabetes. He has no known drug allergies, no history of colon cancer. His father and mother both had hypertension; his father has type 2 diabetes; his mother suffered from Gastroesophageal reflux disease and high fatty concentration in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
JR occasionally imbibed alcohol. He is overweight at 248 lbs with a 5’10” height. He…… [Read More]
It should be no surprise that the United States often takes the "convenient" and "short-term" solution to many problems; this is part of the American character. However, at times inzer seems to be on a pulpit, leading the reader by the nose at whom to laud and at whom to hiss. Since this is not written as a historical book, there is also an expectation that the reader will already have a semblance of the "basic facts" from at least Panama and Guatemala forward.
This is perhaps the largest weakness of the book. There are 14 different regime changes that are critically analyzed, yet some clearly fit his argument more than others. In fact, Grenada and Panama seem like different foreign policy goals than Afghanistan and Iraq. On the other hand, one of the strengths of the book is the manner in which inzer outlines the "propagandistic" manner in which…… [Read More]
There have been several well-publicized incidents of blatant racism in the news lately, including the bigoted remarks by the owner of the Los Angeles Clippers, Donald Sterling, and the racist rant (suggesting that blacks were better off as slaves) by Nevada rancher, Cliven Bundy. Meanwhile other nationally known figures have also made statements about racism, including billionaire Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks NBA team, who claimed he, too, is bigoted against African-Americans (especially when he sees a black youth in a "hoody"). These remarks -- and the media's coverage of the verbally expressed racism -- have piqued my interest in the subject. So I have in this paper referenced the position of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) on racism, and have also presented some of my own views as well.
Section One: What is your person opinion on racism and what led you to this…… [Read More]
The practice of manipulative thrust therapy can be dangerous and cases of injuries and tragic events have been recorded. Cases of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) have been recorded in people that had the cervical spine manipulation technique done and research on the cases from 1966 to 1993 concluded 30% could be attributed to the procedure (Cleland 2007). VADs are spontaneous and can be normally present at the initial onset of headaches or neck pain. This represents the conclusion that the VAD was present before the technique is performed on a patient complaining of neck pain. The debate over the truth is still being waged. Even authors have joined the debate but they are touted as biased and do not support the evidenced based in research (User's Guide 2008).
Other debates rage as well. The risks of the manipulative thrusts therapies are actually no worse the risks from NSAIDs and cervical…… [Read More]
MacPherson, Thorpe, and Thomas (2006) reported an interesting qualitative study on the use of acupuncture in the treatment of low back pain. They report the results of a qualitative study nested within a large quantitative study (there were actually tow qualitative studies performed but the current study only addresses one of them). The quantitative study design was one of a large randomized controlled trial that compared acupuncture against typical general practitioner care. The study was carried out York between the years 1999 and 2003. The acupuncture treatment for the study was founded on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using six acupuncturists who all had a minimum of three years of post-qualification clinical experience. The acupuncturists were encouraged by the researchers to provide their typical treatment so that the study would evaluate the effect of routine care for lower back pain, each acupuncturist making meticulous notes of the aspects…… [Read More]
There was also no statistically significant difference between the incidence of self-reported back pain among workers who wore back belts every day, and the incidence of self- reported back pain amongst workers who wore them no more than once or twice a month. Finally, there was no statistically significant difference between the rate of back injury claims in stores requiring the use of back belts and the rate in stores where back belt use was voluntary ("FAQ: Back belts," 2001, NIOSH).
hile there could be unrelated correlative factors that could create such a relationship for any one of these findings, the weight of the evidence seems to suggest that the use of back belts cannot be relied upon. To reduce back injuries, the study suggested employers should check the health history of their workers! A history of back injury was the strongest risk factor for predicting either a back-injury claim…… [Read More]
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…… [Read More]
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…… [Read More]
For all employees with chronic health problems such as arthritis, asthma, and diabetes, FedEx offered a disease management program to give them guidance. The emphasis is on health improvement and wellness maintenance, rather than treating on treating disease alone. Wellness promotion strategies reduce employee demand for higher-cost health-care services, improve productivity and reduce sick days. Employees get a sense that the company cares about them, which fosters loyalty. An employee will feel more favorably towards a company that supports him or her during a time of sickness with physical therapy and adequate services, so the employee does not have to worry him or herself 'sick' over wondering where he or she will get care.
FedEx offers a telephone hotline staffed by nurses 24-7 so employees can call with health-related questions. As it is a service-based, delivery organization FedEx is in operation around the clock, particularly during the holidays, and this…… [Read More]
Spinal vs. General Anesthesia
The outcome of patients after undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate is examined under varying clinical situations to assess whether spinal anesthesia is associated with greater likelihood of positive outcome. Also examined in great detail are the potential for increased morbidity and mortality based on whether patients underwent general or spinal anesthesia during surgery. A large body of evidence indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between patient outcomes regardless of choice of anesthetic technique. This paper concludes that patients should be well educated and informed so they may make the choice most appropriate to their personal situation and comfort level preferences. An equal number of adverse side effects are associated with each anesthetic technique; as such patients should choose the technique that will result in the greatest post-operative satisfaction. The implications for practice suggest that physicians and anesthetists have an obligation to educate and…… [Read More]
It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)
Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…… [Read More]
Nerves Damaged Spinal Tap
Nerves Damaged During Spinal Tap: Can a spinal tap cause a person pain, numbness and weakness in the right lower leg for life?
The complications resulting from lumbar puncture (spinal tap) have been well documented in the neurosurgical literature. These complications include mild backache, persistent headache, meningitis, and herniated disc, as well as inoculation of epidermal tissue, and the associated growth of epidermoid tumors (Siddiqi and Buchheit, 1982).
There have also been documented cases of nerve root injury associated with spinal tap. Siddiqi and Buchheit have reported a case of an impacted or herniated nerve root associated with lumbar puncture. The patient presented with pain in the lower left leg into the ankle. Their finding of an impacted herniated nerve root, presumably causing postmyelogram sciatica and worsening of the preexisting low-back pain, appears unique. The mechanism of such an injury is thought to be herniation of…… [Read More]
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]
Client Stressors Case Study
According to the Betty Neuman model, intrapersonal stressors are "internal environmental interaction forces occurring within the boundary of the client, between client sub-systems," (12). This commonly includes physical, psychological and emotional issues that become stressors for each particular case. The clear intra-factors in this case are the presence of a kidney infection, acute lower abdominal pain, the fact that she is not taking any medications. She has been staying hydrated, a previous back muscle injury in the past. The patient has been having heavier menstrual cycles with worse cramping, no breast tenderness, did not pass clogs, she believes she is getting close to experience menopause, no prior abnormal paps or STDs, normal mammogram and pap last year, did have surgery for PPTL in 1977 after her third child was born, does not douche, previous hospitalization for back pain 5 years ago, recently went to…… [Read More]
A review of the existing scientific literature
The use of magnets in medicine is long-standing. "Physicians from ancient Greece, China, Japan, and Europe successfully applied natural magnetic materials in their daily practice" (Marko 2007). This is "based on the belief that an imbalance of the electromagnetic frequencies or fields of energy can cause illness. By applying electrical energy to the body, the imbalance can be corrected. Many electrical devices are available on the market to treat a variety of symptoms" (Electromagnetic Therapy, 2012, New York Presbyterian Hospital). "With the advent of the commercial availability of electricity during the last 20 years of the Nineteenth Century with a push by inventors and visionaries like Thomas Edison, an increase in experimentation and applied research by means of electromagnetic fields became more intense during the middle of the twentieth century" (Pretorious et al. 2011). However, the therapy's full incorporation into contemporary…… [Read More]
Psychological Interventions Chronic Pain
Medical science is increasingly aligning with a biopsychosocial treatment perspective that understands pain and symptoms as coming from multifaceted experience characterized by the complexity that is inherently human (oditi & obinson, 2011). Many vectors come together in this biopsychosocial perspective: the physicological and emotional state of the individual tend to dominate, garnering most of the medical attention these variables align with conventional medical and behavioral training (oditi & obinson, 2011). In addition, the influence of culture, ethnicity, and society on the interpretation of health and disease are important considerations (oditi & obinson, 2011). The literature on mind-body connection provides strong evidence of the impact that an individual's emotions can have on their behavior and, interestingly, provides findings that the reverse can also be true (oditi & obinson, 2011).
Chronic pain is considered to be an illness from a biopsychosocial perspective, and not a disease (oditi &…… [Read More]
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…… [Read More]
Running on pavement that is cantilevered, such as on a road that is designed to 'run off' rainwater, is more apt to be a culprit in developing patellofemoral pain, regardless of the individual's foot type, while running downhill may exacerbate the tendency of an individual to develop IB syndrome. Improper running shoes for the individual's foot type can also exacerbate both conditions -- inflexible new running shoes again heightening the chance of developing IB syndrome (Hunter, Dolan & Davis, 1995, p.31).
Stress fractures are another common orthopedic plague. They are small fractures of the bone that develop over time, again often from overuse activities like running. Medical literature suggests that certain foot types are more apt to develop stress fractures in certain places than other areas of the body. For example, some believe that flat-footedness may actually guard against overuse injuries in certain places. One clinical study of fifty healthy…… [Read More]
Health Model and Healing Model
The healing model and health model have influenced the human belief for several decades, and the health model defines health as robust physical human fitness that is free of disease. On the other hand, healing is a functional restoration of repairing or conquering alien destroyer. In other word, health is the balance of spirit, mind and body. Since disease serves as an agent that disrupts the balance, healing serves as restoration of human balance. (Carpenter, 2010).
In essence, healing and spirituality are intimately connected. Healing is the spiritual process that influences the wholesome of an individual. In other word, healing is an intangible, experiential and spiritual that integrates human body, mind, soul and spirit. More importantly, healing is concerned with the wholesome of human being. For several thousand years, many people with different cultures have used the healing model for the well being of their…… [Read More]
Low back injuries are a common and costly concern for several companies, particularly manufacturing firms. These injuries have several causes taking into account wrenches and tensions from over-exertion, tumbles, material handling, and auto accidents. This analysis considers the most common injuries experienced in the manufacturing company, which is associated with material handling tasks. My response to the COO as to whether the manufacturing company should establish a policy that would require workers to wear back belts when performing lifting or other material handling tasks when at work would be a 'no'. This is largely because the efficacy of utilizing back belts to decrease the risk of back injury amongst uninjured workers continues to be unproven. Back belts do not alleviate the risks to workers posed by incessant lifting, pushing, pulling, twisting, or bending. Therefore, my response is to not recommend the utilization of back belts to preclude injuries amongst…… [Read More]
Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy
Diagnostic Statement for Nancy
Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.
DSM-IV-T (2000) Diagnosis
The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:
(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder
296.xx Major Depressive Disorder
301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder
300.23…… [Read More]
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]
hat It Takes To Be A Database Administrator
A database can be defined as an organized collection of data, most probably in digitized form. Data is organized within such databases primarily in such a way that it displays and supports the processing of the relevant aspects of the information as it is required by those who use the database. Databases are usually software management systems that are quite complex. The complexity is embedded in these databases to ensure the presence of security, and is also inherent due to the nature or quality of the information they carry, i.e., large amount of important data. [1: Microsoft. "Database Basics." Microsoft Office. March 2012 .]
Nowadays, the utilization of databases is so widespread amongst every sector of the business, that almost every other product, whether small or large, and technology, whether existing or latest, is dependent upon the usage of databases…… [Read More]
Initial Patient Analysis
Discomfort in lower back.
Patient is a 78-year-old woman presented as disheveled, with bug bites throughout her body, and exuding a foul odor. Cognitively, she orients only to her name with a BMI of 30 and a minimal understanding of the English language. She is able to nod "yes" or "no" to questions, but calls the nurse "Mother." She is unsteady on her feet, and has a fine "pill-rolling "tremor in her left hand. He legs are quite cool to the touch, hairless, and toe capillary refill is greater than 2 seconds.
Past Medical History
Unknown, but patient appears to be in distress both physically and psychologically.
Poor, disheveled, may not be receiving adequate care or living in an environment with enough food or warmth. BMI of 30 is technically obese, which also may indicate the patient is not…… [Read More]
Mr. B. was left in his room without appropriate monitoring following the administration of diaxepam and hydromrophone in order to permit reduction of his hip following a fall. The 67-year-old Mr. B. presented with several health concerns in addition to his recent fall that injured his hip.
was on a regimen of oxycodone for chronic back pain and atorvastatin, presumably for elevated cholesterol and lipids, has impaired glucose tolerance and prostate cancer. His injury notwithstanding, Mr. B.'s overall health was not optimal at the time of admission, and included risk of heart problems. The hospital policy for moderate sedation / analgesia or conscious sedation was violated. According to the policy, Mr. B. should have received continuous monitoring of B/P, ECG, and pulse oximeter throughout the procedure and until he met the specific discharge criteria, which include: fully awake, VSS, no N/V, and able to void. An experienced critical care nurse…… [Read More]
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…… [Read More]
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]
Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)
Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."
Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…… [Read More]
Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.
Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,
And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.
Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."
Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.
Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael
T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]
ANOVA: Mixed Design ANOVA
Mixed Design ANOVA: ANOVA
Mixed Design ANOVA
None of the questions used in the week 1 assignment qualify for the mixed-design ANOVA; for this reason, I have selected an entirely new question from an entirely different subject -- back pain. Chronic back pain has become a serious problem for the health fraternity in America -- it is estimated that approximately 31 million Americans experience chronic back pain at any given time, and that over 80% of adults are poised to experience some form of backache at some point in their lives. Currently, back pain stands as the leading cause of disability in the country, with the economy losing over 450 billion dollars as a direct result of the same every year. In this paper, we focus on the treatment aspect of back pain. Acupuncture and massage are the two leading treatment modalities for back pain --…… [Read More]
" Many times, women begin to feel a great deal of discomfort in their backs prior to delivery. Last year, the hospital allowed such patients to try a TENS unit, after seeing the positive results this technology had for controlling chronic pain with other people and ensuring that the procedure was safe for the fetuses. TENS is a non-invasive, drug-free method of controlling pain, which is important during pregnancy when it is necessary to minimise use of medication.
A TENS machine transmits impulses through electrodes that are applied to the skin, which causes a sensation like "buzzing" or "tingling." The electrodes are applied to the back at the site of the pain and the impulse can be controlled to be stronger or weaker by the patient or healthcare provider as needed. "I had a great deal of back pain with my first baby," recalls
-2-Mothers-to-Be Count by TENS…… [Read More]
popularity of Chinese Traditional acupuncture in the United Kingdom.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that treats people by insertion and handling of solid, usually thin needles into the body. Through its beginnings, acupuncture has been deep-rooted in the notions of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its general theory is based on the idea that bodily functions are synchronized by the flow of an energy-like entity called qi. Acupuncture tries to right inequities in the flow of qi by stimulus of anatomical locations on or under the skin called acupuncture points, most of which are linked by channels known as meridians. Scientific study has not found any bodily or organic correlate of qi, meridians and acupuncture points, and some modern practitioners needle the body without using an academic structure, instead choosing points because of their tenderness to pressure (Acupuncture: An Introduction, 2011).
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is becoming…… [Read More]
Combination Therapeutic Exercises with Manipulation for Reliving
Pain and Increasing Range of Motion for Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain
The lumbar spine is composed of the vertebrae as well as the ligaments beside the discs, nerves and muscles. This area is a common source of pain. This is one of reasons why people visit their physicians. Around seventy percent of people who live in advanced countries will have lower back pain at some point. Each year, approximately half of adult population present with low back pain and five percent of these patients see a clinician when a new episode occurs. Out of this population, ten percent still cannot work and twenty percent have persistent pain for a year.
There is no study combining these two interventions so we may have superior results if we combined both therapeutic and manipulation because therapeutic exercise and manipulation are the most…… [Read More]
e recommended the remedy Natrum muriaticum, as it applies readily to Roy's symptoms, including his responsiveness to massage, his suppressed emotion, and his tendency to keep his feelings concealed from those around him. e asked that Roy not alter anything about his exercise regime during the course of treatment. Six months after Roy started taking the remedy, he returned to us for follow-up. Roy's posture was noticeably improved and he sat upright in spite of having returned from a business trip just that morning. hen asked, Roy stated that he had been increasingly aware of his negative emotions and was making a conscious effort to consciously own up to his feelings by being more assertive at work, and by simply admitting to himself that he was angry. Roy's back problems had waned; although last week he had a sudden relapse, he could readily attribute the setback to a stressful incident…… [Read More]
The literature review was finally released in a document called "Scientific Support Documentation for the evised 1991 NIOSH Lifting Equation: Technical Contract eports, May 8, 1991." (Applications Manual for the evised NIOSH Lifting Equation) This is an update and contains information on the physiological, biomechanical, psychophysical, and epidemiological aspects of manual lifting. This led to the recommendation by the ad hoc committee of the criteria for defining the lifting capacity of healthy workers. Since the basis of the previous calculation changed, the new criteria were used to formulate the revised lifting equation. (Applications Manual for the evised NIOSH Lifting Equation)
At the same time, it should be clear that the NIOSH lifting equation is only one of the tools in the effort for prevention of work-related low back pain and related disability. It should also be realized that lifting is only one of the reasons for work-related low back pain…… [Read More]
Spinal Disc Herniation, also called slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition that affects the spine. This may be caused by trauma, injury, or idiopathic causes that are combinations of issues. Physiologically, an injury causes a tear in the outer ring of the intervertebral disc, more specifically in the fibrous ring that surrounds the disc. This injury then allows the softer, central portion of the disc to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. This tear sometimes causes the release of inflammatory chemicals causing intense pain, even with there is no severe root compression. In addition, herniated discs are almost always postero-lateral because of the way the ligaments are attached to the spinal cord (Postacchini, 1999).
Most minor herniations heal within several weeks using anti-inflammatory treatment for pain and swelling. However, severe herniations, the so-called slipped disc, even though it is not accurate from a medical…… [Read More]
Addictive Nature of Vicodin
According to statistics provided by the Department of Health and Human Services, an estimated one and one-half million people in the United States started taking prescription painkillers for "non-medical" purposes in 1998, three times as many as in 1990. One of the most heavily abused painkillers is Vicodin.
Properly used, Vicodin is one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications, especially for those suffering from lower back pain, arthritis, post-operative distress, malignant cancer or sports injuries. It is not time-released, and therefore provides almost instant relief. Vicodin is a compound of two drugs: acetaminophen (found in Tylenol) and hydrocodone bitartrate. Both are painkillers, but together they are far more effective than either one individually.
Twenty tons of Vicodin are produced annually, and it is marketed under a plethora of brand names including Anexsia, Bancap-HC, Ceta-Plus, Co-Gesic, Dolacet, Hydrocet, Hydrogesic, Hy-Phen, Lorcet, Lortab, Margesic-H, Maxidone, Norco and…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]
Safety within the workplace is a central issue that Occupational Safety and Health Authority hold with the highest consideration than any other matter within the workplace that can potentially affect the employees. OSHA has in place lucid rules and regulations guiding the safeguarding of the employees safety within organizations. There are various initiatives taken by organization to ensure that there is safety within the workplace. egardless of the safety initiative taken, employees should feel free to report any illnesses or injuries in the workplace if not then the entire workforce will be at risk. With a sound safety program in place there will be a reduction of accidents at the workplace. This paper will hence concentrate on the issue of workplace safety, its application and the different approaches that both the employees and the employers can always put into practice in order to ensure safety of the employees…… [Read More]
Ankylosing Spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that attacks young males. It may lead to the fusion of the spine (Sarker, 2016). The fusion can result in the spin being rigid thereby making the patient develop a hunched back. Subsequently, the patient may have breathing problems because of the posture. Other inflammatory signs may show up in other parts of the body such as the eyes (Sieper & Braun, 2010).
Etiology and Incidences
Ankylosing's etiology is still unknown but there are pointers to a genetic risk and component. esearchers have highlighted the association it has with the HLA B27 gene. They have proposed ineffective mechanisms but they are seen to be less apparent as is the case with reactive arthritis.
The prevalence of Ankylosing spondylitis in the general population is low (0.1% to 1.4%). It is more prevalent among Caucasians than in members of other races. Those suffering from chronic…… [Read More]
The aim of the following study was to conduct an ergonomic evaluation to identify contributing factors in the development of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in Ultrasound Sonographers involved in Obstetric and Gynecological scanning. The methodology involved a cross-sectional study of Sonographers in one hospital. The methodology included the use of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) to identify the exposure to postural risk, static muscle work and repetition, and the use of an adapted Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to evaluate the frequency and distribution of musculoskeletal problems,. Fourteen participants were assessed in the workplace. The RULA analysis identified that the task element with the highest risk factor within this sample was scanning patients; it was found that the participant spent between 31% and 39% of their working time doing this in a 26-hour week. The results from the questionnaire found that 64% had experiences one or more combined physical problems…… [Read More]
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…… [Read More]
Death has always been shrouded in mystery, the constant litanies of myth, science, curiosity, magic, fear, and of course, religion. Just as myths have always wound down to the pragmatic, the real, and core accurate factual reporting - summarily losing the romantic, whimsical, and magical elements - so has the inevitability of human death.
Death is the central theme to life, vitality, order of society, and even powers - through the use of fossil fuels - our industry! When one, therefore, examines death objectively, he or she finds that death is a catalytic contract propelling the core beliefs and motivations of a group of people.
This evaluation seeks to isolate one aspect of death - euthanasia and a person's right to choose the time, place, and circumstance of their death without interference from legal, moral, religious, family, or other groups of social or punitive nature - and defend…… [Read More]