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E-Finance: An Introduction" by Franklin Allen, James McAndrews and Philip Strahan (2002)
In sum, e-finance involves providing some type of financial services online or through other modern digital means. The journal article by Allen et al. provides a review of various types of research issues (e.g., the use of electronic payment systems, the operation of financial firms, and the operation of financial markets) related to e-finance that warrant further studies in the future. The authors describe the fundamental transformations that have taken place in the financial services industry and emphasize that a growing number of providers are operating online without a physical brick-and-mortar presence. In addition, a description concerning the respective impact of the Internet and other electronic banking systems on different sectors competing in the financial services industry (e.g., online banking, insurance companies, and electronic brokerage services).
The authors also make the point that electronic banking is not a…… [Read More]
Contributions of Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb to Egypt’s National Development and Banking System
Born on 25th November, 1867 in Cairo’s El- Gammalia, Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb is considered one among the greatest personalities who contributed to Egypt’s overall national growth and development. He studied art, science, economics, literature, and French. After acquiring a law degree, he commenced his career in the role of translator in the Royal Circuits’ Lawsuits Section, responsible for state- owned farmland. Though favoring free enterprise, he was quick to climb the rungs of the career ladder, landing the position of lawsuits section manager (53-75)3.
His subsequent posts as manager were at various organizations including Kom Ombo Company (a firm that actively reclaimed and sold land) and the Egyptian Real- Estate Company (where he ensured citizens of Egypt held most of the shares). He penned numerous books, including “The Economic Remedy of Egypt and Creating the…… [Read More]
Blockchain technology is an innovative addition to the financial market. What began as a brainchild by the people or person known as ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’, blockchain technology has evolved and become something far greater than most would have imagined. Blockchain technology allows for digital data to be distributed (not copied), allowing for it to become the foundation for a new kind of internet. Businesses have used the technology to implement the use of digital currency like Bitcoin and promote growth of blockchain companies. Some of these successful blockchain companies are: Aeternity, Bitfury, DFINITY, ContentKid, and Blockphase. These companies represent the future of blockchain technology and how far it will go.
Background: What is Block-Chain Technology?
A recent innovation within the financial world, the mastermind behind blockchain technology is ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’. He is the pseudonym for a person or a group of responsible for developing, authoring, making, and deploying bitcoin, bitcoin…… [Read More]
The existence of money makes exchange easier, compared with barter systems, because money provides a stable store of value. If exchange is conducted with physical goods only – as in a barter system – then there are many points of friction that will inhibit exchange. First, goods have different physical characteristics that can put limitations on exchange. Some goods are perishable, others too large to transport, still others difficult to transport. Two goods may have equivalent value, but these physical limitations create barriers to exchange. How does one exchange a house for a year's supply of fish, for example? They might have roughly the same value, but you can't take all the fish at once, you can't trust that the fish will be delivered later, and moreover if the person wishes to take back the house because the deal fell through, but the other person ate all the fish,…… [Read More]
The second and third runs, therefore, were largely based on making adjustments to the first run strategy. In each instance, the adjustments made increased the total profit over the four years and it is believed that continuing along that same path of making slight adjustments would consistently increase the profits earned. It is for this reason that the strategy changed little -- there was no insight that was believed to lead to a better strategy and in lieu of such major insight there was no reason to pursue a radically different strategy.
The most useful concepts in this exercise were contribution margin (CVP analysis) and elasticity of demand. Understanding the cost structure of each product allowed for more intelligent pricing decisions. For example, the price cut in the X7 was significant at 25% from the base price in the base case run to 31.5% of that price in the later…… [Read More]
shadow banking system, its role in the subprime mortgage crisis, and failures of regulation within the shadow banking system. The term "shadow banking system" was coined by PIMCO's Paul McCulley in 2007 (Spanos, 2012) and refers to a banking system that includes financial intermediaries that are involved in creating credit across the global financial system, whose functions are not subject to regulatory oversight (Investopedia, 2012). The question has been debated as to whether shadow banking meets the definition of true banking. Given that the two systems perform similar functions, including credit intermediation and maturity transformation, the two should be considered parallel systems (Noeth and Sengupta, 2011).
The term shadow banking is used to describe any provision of credit taking place outside of the traditional deposit-funded lending system. This definition includes institutions that range from pawnbrokers and consumer finance companies to securities dealers as well as firms that issue corporate bonds.…… [Read More]
USAA Online Banking Analysis:
Assessment of Positive & negative Impacts & ecommendations
The USAA online banking system has been specifically designed to provide the financial institution's customers with reliable, secure and virtual access to their accounts and supporting banking transactions globally. Through the use of any Internet browser, USAA banking customers can quickly sign in, access and view account information, transfer funds, and set up and use automated payments for their personal and business-related bills. There are also a series of preferences which can be configured by customers to further tailor their online bank accounts to their specific needs. This is particularly useful for creating automated bill payment alerts and transactions to make sure bills are paid on or before the due date, new loan or savings accounts are securely created and managed, and enabling cash transfers to USAA and other financial institutions' accounts. One of the most…… [Read More]
Shadow Banking on the International Level
A definition of international shadow banking
International shadow banking is a term that originated from pre-recessionary period in 2007 and was popularised in pose recession period. The term invited the attention of financial experts and researchers towards the emergence of non-banking entities playing banking role. Hence, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) formally identified their existence and role by defining the term shadow banking system (Pozsar et al., 2012).
It regarded non-banking entities as intermediaries in the financial system but external to the banking system. It is not only because they perform banking activities, but also because they perform certain other activities which are not part of the banking system. The definition was considered as valid and readily accepted (Pozsar et al., 2012).
No objection was raised upon the point that there are certain entities which are not banks but playing an active role in…… [Read More]
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…… [Read More]
Diversification of anking Returns Through
Greater Share of Non-Interest
Income and Off-alance Sheet Activities
The banking system was considered to be stable before the great financial crisis of 2007. The banking system faced the worst turmoil during that period due to the evolution of the nature of banking activities. anks started to employ diversify their sources of income. efore 2007, the one and only function of banks was to take deposits and lend money. Diversification of banking returns included many off-balance sheet activities and non-interest incomes into the features of the banks. The extra features are collectively known as shadow banking because of the lack of transparency in it. These activities increased the borrowing and lending and eventually, everyone was in a financial turmoil.
"The advent of shadow banking has fundamentally altered the nature of banking. Where once banks weremainly in the traditional business of taking deposits and making loans,…… [Read More]
Foreign Monetary System
A monetary system is any structure initiated by the government and mandated to issue currency, acknowledged as the medium of exchange by its citizens and governments of other nations. The central bank manages the monetary system of a country; this same bank has the responsibility of printing money and controlling the economy. Since the colonial period, coins from the European colonies had circulated in all the colonies. The Spanish coins gained dominance due to the scarcity of coins, during this time; the main form of trade was barter trade. The trade-involved items such as rice, tobacco, or animal skins, which took the form of money paper and notes, had varying rates of discount in different colonies rendering them of very low value (onald & Wright, 2006).
The high population in the U.S. called for increased trade and commerce. This forced the United States government to look for…… [Read More]
Credit isk Management
Banks are an important part of the economy of any nation. Traditionally, the banks operate as financial intermediaries serving to satisfy the demand of people in need of various forms of financing. Through this, banks enable people to purchase home and businesses to expand. These financial institutions therefore facilitate investment and spending that are responsible for fueling the growth of the economy. In spite of their vital role in the economy, they are nevertheless prone to failure and just like other types of businesses, they also go bankrupt. Unfortunately, the failure of banks can have many and significant implications than any other type of business. As witnessed during the great depression, and in recent times following the global economic crisis and recession, the stability or lack of it in the banking system could trigger economic epidemics that would impact millions of people. With respect to this, it…… [Read More]
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…… [Read More]
Online banking, the ability to conduct banking transactions on the Web, is revolutionizing the way that consumers bank. ehind this transformation is information technology. With its use, banks have been able to scale and secure transactions, provide the same and often more functionality than brick-and-mortar banks and evolve from mass marketing to one-to-one marketing.
The popularity of online banking is soaring with more than fifty million adults banking online in the United States as of November, 2004, an increase of forty-seven percent during the past two years (Sullivan, 2005). It is the fastest-growing Internet activity. Home broadband connections are credited with driving consumer adoption. Those with broadband access are about twice as likely to have tried online banking as users with dial-up connections because broadband encourages users to do more activities online. Demographic characteristics of those more likely to have broadband access include consumers between the ages of…… [Read More]
Another issue worth mentioning is that prior to the acquisition of 2007, the BB&T employees were already being offered training programs in convenience banking. The programs were basically revolving around the techniques which would be implemented by the organization. In this order of ideas, the most focus was placed on the De Le ue coin counting machine and the Datacard 150i instant issue debit card machine. Employees were taught how to operate, maintain, balance and audit the according operations. Emphasis was also placed on the elationship Bankers in reference to the new account bounding process including free gifts and the efer-a-Friend process. The improvement plan sees the continued training programs which teach staff members how to most efficiently operate the new systems and how to explain their benefits and functionality to the customers. Also, BB&T should remain channelled on the emergent changes affecting the market and the industry and should…… [Read More]
CS in Saudi Arabian Banking
Social esponsibility: Attitudes, Actualities, and Possible Areas of Advancement in Saudi Arabian Banking
The global financial system has become increasingly smaller and more complex, with individual countries and their financial and banking infrastructures more intertwined and mutually dependent on each other. Because of this, understanding the role that banking systems and entities play in the social and political spheres is essential for policy makers and for individuals working in the banking sector. Of special importance are the social responsibilities that are borne by banks and the banking industry, which can vary greatly from country to country, based on a multitude of factors. The research described and proposed herein will yield a greater understanding of how these responsibilities are viewed by bankers in Saudi Arabia.
Scholarship on Saudi Arabia's banking industry has focused almost entirely on the financial implications for the country and the globe of…… [Read More]
190). The Act also helped to create a "too-big-to-fail" mindset (Walter, 2004) that would have profound implications during the economic downturn of 2008 and beyond.
Why did you include this piece of legislation in your list? The Act is described by Sammin (2004) as being "the biggest revision in financial services law since the Great Depression" (p. 653).
iegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994
What were the problems/conditions giving rise to the legislation? apid consolidations among the nation's banks were creating the potential for diverting needed banking resources from communities (ose, 1997).
What were the major provisions of the Act? The iegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (hereinafter "the Act") contained the following major provisions:
A. Bank holding companies that are adequately capitalized and managed can acquire a bank anywhere in the United States one year after this law is enacted.…… [Read More]
Ethics, Values, Social esponsibility
Bailout of Banking Industry in United States
Ethical Compliance by Banking Industry
It is quite common in American history that government comes for the rescue of companies and organization in the time of financial crisis. General motors' acquisition was one such example where saving GM meant saving the nation. When Government takes measure for the welfare of any segment of the economy, it then becomes responsibility of the organizations that they comply with social responsibility and ethical standards so that it should respond to its social character and use the benefits provided by the government in the honest fashion. The recent bailout of banking sector by U.S. government, and the misappropriation and misuse of these funds, have raised a big question mark on the compliance to ethical standards by the bank.
United States government has a long history of bailing out its financial institutions. Some of…… [Read More]
This is the interest rate that banks lend their balances on at the Federal Reserve to other banks. It exercises this control by influencing the demand for and supply of these balances through the following means:
Open market operations -- the purchase or sale of securities, primarily U.S. Treasury securities, in the open market to influence the level of balances that depository institutions hold at the Federal Reserve anks (The oard's Publications Committee, 2005).
Reserve requirements -- requirements regarding the percentage of certain deposits that depository institutions must hold in reserve in the form of cash or in an account at a Federal Reserve ank.
Contractual clearing balances -- an amount that a depository institu-tion agrees to hold at its Federal Reserve ank in addition to any required reserve balance.
Discount window lending -- extensions of credit to depository in-stitutions made through the primary, secondary, or seasonal lending programs (The…… [Read More]
International Monetary System
In world trade, varied national currencies are swapped for each other by means of rules and procedures set by a system called the international monetary system. To delineate a general standard of value for the world's currencies, such a system is believed to be necessary.
The global monetary structure has always adhered to the organizational framework of the international discipline. In each stage of the financial capitalism there exists a corresponding monetary approach. The monetary structure during the postwar periods catered to the dominance of the United States. This was applied as a tool during the period to enforce the U.S. dominance over all its allies and the developing countries, irrespective of the socialist countries isolated themselves being unconnected from the influence of the financial and monetary disciplines of the global capitalism.
Gold standard was the first contemporary international monetary system. The gold standard contributed for the…… [Read More]
Technology has now become a euphemism for the information age. As individuals, information rarely escapes our grasp as now anybody can have access to its vast array of knowledge. More importantly, in the midst of our global society, technology has a profound role on our nation's ability to participate in a more competitive environment. As the age old adage states, "Knowledge is power," and in many instances this statement is correct. Information allows individuals to make better informed decisions regarding projects that can have grave implications on society if the solution is incorrect. Further, information allows more convenience in regards to access and search of particular concepts. Technology allows humans to live longer while allowing them to live more productive lives (Gregg, 2006). The benefits that technology derives are as difficult to enumerate as they are to fully comprehend. However, it is my contention that the information age…… [Read More]
The chance of collecting would be made significantly higher, and since the collection rates for electronic transactions are considerably higher, about 50% higher, to be precise than transactions on paper, it would only be more practical to take measures that would reduce this burden. The NACHA states that AC transactions would require the biller to store a copy for a period of two years, and destroy the original document, and the reason for this is that it would be easier for them to carry out electronic transactions in the future. The ACH method offers immense benefits to billers too, and some of these are: check processing costs would be greatly reduced if there were no checks to present, the availability of funds would also be greatly improved, and these funds would be higher than ever before. eturn items would be handled much faster and also with much more ease, and…… [Read More]
Financial system serves as the economic backbone of the country. Financial markets provide capital to businesses, and home owners and a safe haven for income. The financial system includes a variety of financial institutions (different types of banks, for example) as well as the central bank, the stock market and other peripheral types of businesses like mutual funds. For individuals, the system provides a safe place for deposits, and access to capital for things like mortgages, college education or cars. For businesses, banks are a critical source of investment capital that is used for expansion. Thus, the financial system allows for our economy to grow, and for consumers to be able to afford to live better. For the economy, it is critical to have a robust financial system. hen the financial system is weakened, as happened in 2008, the results for the economy can be devastating (Levine, 2010). This is…… [Read More]
" (Structure of the Federal eserve System)
The 12 Federal eserve Banks extend banking service to the depository institutions and also to the federal government. To the financial institutions it takes the responsibility of maintaining reserve and clearing out accounts and entails various payment services incorporating checks, electronically transferring funds and circulating and receiving coins and currency notes. As the banker of the Federal Government they function as fiscal agents. They maintain the Treasury Department's transaction account; they pay treasury checks; enable to process electronic payments and issue transfer and redeem U.S. government securities. (eserve Bank Services)
The functions of Federal eserve start with the formulation of the Monetary Policy in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The Federal eserve System provides three basic tools for conducting the monetary policy such as open market operations, discount rate and reserve requirements. The Open Market Operations is used as the…… [Read More]
exchange of currency have proliferated the Internet marketing world. Customers have faster and easier access to methods of exchange, deposits and payments, than ever before and the changes have come rapidly as more and more Internet commerce demands more and more ease of exchange. A global economy requires global economic infrastructure solutions to exchange of funds and to a large degree the Internet market has answered the call for change and availability of services. Yet, the substantial growth of Internet sales has also, arguably caused the growth of subsystems and infrastructural shifts that might not have been implemented with full knowledge of the implications of such actions. With security at risk and issues of currency exchange rates, not to mention global monetary regulations consumers must be aware of the type of services they are using and the way it might affect the efficacy of their transaction.
Internet Marketing not only…… [Read More]
economic crisis in Europe and the increasing costs for European countries to borrow money and bail out other Euro countries in financial distress. The EU nations that use the Euro have experienced a crisis among certain countries with high debt requiring bailouts for Greece and Ireland and the likelihood that Portugal and Spain may also need a bailout. Postponing the restructuring of high interest debts has led to further crisis rather than resolving any of the problems faced by insolvent countries. Huge transfer payments from the more powerful Euro countries, like Germany, to the failed economies of Greece and Ireland have made investors nervous and led to less investment at a crucial time. The author suggests that the debts of troubled countries need to be restructured now in order to create a sustainable payment to increase confidence and secure future payments.
Creditors will also have to shoulder some of the…… [Read More]
Commonwealth Bank of Australia
etail Banking Service
Premium Business Services
Marketing Strategies at CBA
National Australia Bank
Australian and New Zealand Banking Group
Western Pacific Bank
Sustainable Competitive Advantage
One Stop Solution
Commonwealth Bank of Australia
Commonwealth Bank of Australia:
Headquartered in Sydney, Australia, Commonwealth Bank of Australia or CBA is one of the four large banks of Australia. The bank was established in 1911 as a government bank, since then, it has seen tremendous growth. Today, Commonwealth Bank of Australia is a multinational bank with operations across United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK), Fiji, New Zeeland and Asia. The bank got privatized in 1996, with issuances of shares worth 1.2 Billion USD in 1991, 1.7 Billion USD in 1993, and 5 Billion USD in 1996. As of January, 2008, Commonwealth Bank of Australia was the second largest Australian listed company…… [Read More]
Federal eserve System is.
The Federal eserve System
The Federal eserve serves as the central bank of the United States. It was founded by the Congress in 1913 to serve the function of provide the nation with a secure and committed monetary and financial system.
Today the Federal eserve holds the responsibilities in four areas: (1) conducting the nation's monetary policy; (2) supervising and regulating banking institutions and protecting the credit rights of consumers; (3) maintaining the stability of the financial system; and (4) providing certain financial services to the U.S. government, the public, financial institutions, and foreign official institutions.
The Federal eserve System is controlled by the Board of Governors of the Federal eserve System who formulate the initial margin requirements under egulations T, U, and X. Margin loan increases and decrease in aggregate value and relative to market capitalization, affect margin requirements instrumentally affecting the prices of common…… [Read More]
Their basis of criticism is that it had very expansionary monetary policy in the early days that gave room for misallocation of various capital resources. This lead to various undesirable economic scenarios such as the support of a massive stock price bubble. It has been argued that even though the Federal reserve did not cause the Great depression, it mitigated it through the unnecessary contraction of the money supply which was not necessary at that time since the markets by that time needed to be liquidated (Friedman, 1985).He argued that the Fed should be overhaulead and then replaced by a specialized computer system whose role would be to set rates that are derived from the standards econometrics. However, the Australian School economists have argued that the Fed's manipulation of the supply of money in order to put a halt on "gold flight" away from England lead to serious financial malinvestment…… [Read More]
19th century, the federalist/anti-federalist schism dominated political discourse in the United States. The so-called "first party system" became less relevant as increasing numbers of citizens became politically active, leading to a greater plurality of voices and opinions. Even then, political parties had not yet become fully formed. Most elections had candidates running independently. However, the anti-federalists had become the Democratic-Republicans and they emerged as a dominant presence in the controversial 1824 presidential election. When he was defeated in that election by John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson and his supporters started the Democratic Party as an opposition group. In response, John Quincy Adams and his Secretary of State Henry Clay rebranded the Democratic-Republican Party the National Republicans.
Jackson's Democratic party grew in popularity during his presidency. An opposition party, the Whig party, emerged in response in the 1830s. For the next several decades, the Democrats and the Whigs were the primary…… [Read More]
Bretton Woods International Monetary System was invented and put in use from the end of World War II until the mid 1970s. In theory the system was designed to make banking more global and more streamlined. In fact, according to historians, "the Bretton Woods system was history's first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern currency relations among sovereign states. In principle, the regime was designed to combine binding legal obligations with multilateral decision-making conducted through an international organization, the IMF, endowed with limited supranational authority" (ucsb.edu, 2013).One of the elements of this system which manifested in practice was the fact that so much of th4e development and nuances of this system were directly reliant on the needs and policies of the most influential member of this international banking system; this member was the United States. One of the fundamental assumptions that the design of this system…… [Read More]
Complexities of the U.S. Financial System
The United States financial system has several complexities, and it is impacted by various environmental factors such as the economy and federal regulations. Some of the major components in the U.S. financial system include financial markets and the U.S. Federal eserve. As one of the major elements of the U.S. financial system, financial markets have considerable impacts on the economy, businesses, and individuals. Financial markets can basically be described as platforms where companies in an economy access capital to expand or hedge their risks. Generally, these markets help to efficiently guide the flow of investments and savings in the economy is a manner that promotes the collection of capital and the production of goods and/or services.
The U.S. financial markets have considerable effects on the economy because they provide platforms through which companies generate cash for growth, lessen risks, and investors make money (Amadeo,…… [Read More]
Collateralized loans will have demonstrably greater security than uncollateralized loans.
While these measures seem sound and will hopefully ensure that no institution will be penalized for making the types of loans that are necessary for the international economy to remain functional, much still needs to be done in exercising oversight over the practices that lead to the failure of Lehman Brothers in the first place. A lack of transparency in financial dealings remains a concern, and there are still a variety of financial instruments that are poorly regulated -- moreover, the precipitous drop in interest rates orchestrated by the Fed to stimulate the economy could give rise to yet another crisis of over-borrowing and widespread consumer debt. Greater regulation and oversight is necessary as well as greater insurance of debt.
Press release. (2008, December 18). The Federal eserve. etrieved November 18, 2009
http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/press/other/20081219a.htm… [Read More]
These can include the stimulus package, though, because the Obama Administration is still offering stimulus dollars to banks and other companies that need help and cannot take care of their customers in the way that they used to and preferred to.
Figure 1: How Severe is the Subprime Mess?
Obviously, the subprime mess is a serious concern for everyone. The stimulus package was designed to help the banks and the people who borrowed from them with the fact that they could not pay for the debts that they had created for themselves. That was true for the people who had mortgages, and also true for the banks that loaned money to these people. The stimulus package was designed to help them both out so that they could take care of their debts and move forward again. However, the economic stimulus package has not fixed everything that was hoped. There are…… [Read More]
Press again the ? arrow used for turning on the device.
You decide on a new PIN and enter it.
Retype it in order to confirm the new PIN.
At the finish press ? The initial arrow again.
After these easy steps you have personalized your Digipass and you are ready to use it in your online transactions.
In order to generate your personal access code, you will follow these steps:
1. Turn on the Digipass.
2. Choose "I" from the two options.
3. Enter the PIN code and press ?
4. A code will be automatically generated for you to access the Home Bank account.
Once you entered your account, you can access:
the General Information section where you have information about the situation of your account, the number as well as the sum of money available and the credit limit the Transfers section where you have the…… [Read More]
This aspect of the study were inclusive of works of "economic historians on the development of financial systems" most particularly the "banking systems" worldwide and exactly what the resulting impact will be. (Rousseau & Sylla, 2001) hile the two identified "strands of literature" one dealing with domestic and the other international developments, are no always related to one another" but are however, both elements of the story called financial globalization." Definition of a "Good Financial System" states that there are five key components which are: (1) Sound public finances and public debt management; (2) Stable monetary arrangements; (3) a variety of banks, some with domestic and others with international orientations, and perhaps some with both orientations; (4) a central bank to stabilize domestic finances and manage international financial relations; and: (5) ell-forming security markets."
Impacts of Globalization on National Economies
Impacts on the economies of the world have been stated…… [Read More]
The development of the prototyping methodology
The Benefits of using Prototyping today
The evolution of apid Prototyping
The creation and development of three banking websites using prototypes
Prototyping for banking related GUI
sing mobile phones for banking
Banking systems using ATMs and ADCs
Prototyping in the Banking Field
What is Prototyping?
The Web defines prototyping as the term that is used to describe the process by which physical mock ups or models are made up out of the proposed designs. In the days before the wide usage of the computer aided technology, prototyping was done using traditional models. Today however, prototyping is done using three dimensional computer models. This method is definitely more efficient as well as quicker than the traditional methods. The computer-aided prototyping is also referred to as 'apid Prototyping'. (Fundamentals of Graphics Communication, 3/e) Sometimes, certain partial aspects of the program are created using…… [Read More]
Management Issues Facing Australian Banks in Asia Today
Today, the Australian banking industry enjoys a high level of confidence among domestic and international investors alike, and the nation has managed to weather the fallout from the Asian financial crisis and Great ecession far better than many of its neighbors, and continues to grow economically. This economic development is due in large part to Australia's increasing commercial trade and cultural exchanges with its largest trading partner, China (Chinese economy, 2016). Not surprisingly, the Australian banking industry has taken advantage of these opportunities to establish an ever-increasing number of branches in China, which have largely experienced positive returns on their investment. Nevertheless, given the fundamental cultural differences and worldviews that exist between consumers in Australia and China, it is the argument of this paper that there are also a number of significant management issues facing Australian banks in Asia in general and…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions
The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).
In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This…… [Read More]
The service fee banking model is the most appealing to me, and frankly, I believe it is a model that is long overdue, an opinion that I will explain further later in this communication. A quick review of egulation CC, Availability of Funds and Collection of Checks, leads me to believe that financial institutions have more leeway in customer transactions than is appropriate. Moreover, I believe that egulation CC, while perhaps appropriately structured, is poorly implemented. That is to say that egulation CC is designed to protect financial institutions from unnecessary risk generated by individual banking customers. On a customer to customer basis, the risks management provisions of egulation CC seem excessive; it is only when one considers the absolute numbers of transactions that could conceivably fall into the egulation CC categories that an appreciation develops for the potential risk that egulation CC has the capacity to protect…… [Read More]
Opportunities to Improve elationship Banking at Al ajhi Bank
In an increasingly globalized and competitive marketplace, many banking professionals today are faced with the need to develop informed and timely responses to changes in consumer demand, as well as fluctuations in the global economy that can have a positive or negative effect on investments. In affluent nations, this need has become especially pronounced as billion-dollar deals are routinely involved, and bankers working relationship banking operations stand to assist banks in attracting and retaining wealthy private and highly fluid commercial enterprises as long-term clientele. The enormous amounts of money that are involved make it important to formulate such responses in ways that add value to the banking operation including providing a competitive advantage. In some banks, relationship banking at this level is termed "privilege banking" or "prime account management," but the common feature of these business units is targeting high net…… [Read More]
UK anking Services
Use Michael Porter' diamond model to determine the specific sources of national competitiveness that have boosted/hindered the success of UK banking product/service's?
Related and supporting industries
Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry
Suppose you were the international marketing manager of a UK bank, what would you recommend to your government on how it could boost the elements of competitiveness?
Expanse in the market
Study of the mechanisms of production
Influencing merger options within the diverse market
Appreciating change in the organization
Discuss which international trade theory best explains the pattern of international trade development in UK banking and why
anking is a lucrative activity that must be understood to have varying avenues of performance in the world. The UK anking services organization has an expanse of services that have been beneficial to many businesses and monetary exemplifications in…… [Read More]
International Monetary System and Exchange ate Policies
A report/essay: chapter 17, multinational companies. select topic research write: Multinational vs. domestic financial management exchange rates international trade international monetary system exchange rate policies trading foreign exchange european monetary union interest
rate parity/purchasing power parity international capital structures.
The international monetary system and exchange rate policies
International Monetary systems
These are a set of rules and that regulate how international trade and payments are handled. It facilitates the exchange of capital, goods and services among countries. However, this system does not have a physical presence but, it consists of interlacing rules and procedures and is influenced by the market of foreign exchange. An example of an international monetary system is the International monetary fund. These interlacing rules and procedures are referred to as exchange rate Policies.
Exchange rate policies
These are rules that officials of public finance from different nations have developed…… [Read More]
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…… [Read More]
e. no standardization) b) Diamonds: good medium of exchange
Peaches: perishable, differences in quality (i.e. no standardization) d) Grade a Honey: differences in quality (i.e. no standardization), difficult to transport e) Ice in a warm climate: perishable, difficult to store a. Over the long run, what is the primary determinant of the price level? Supply and demand, with price acting as an equilibrator b. Over the long run, what is the primary determinant of inflation?
The supply of money as compared to changes in productivity.
c. How is inflation related to the nominal interest rate?
Expectations of future inflation are one of the key factors in determining the nominal interest rate, the other being the 'core' interest rate, or the inflation-free level at which one is willing to lend money (which differs according to the issuer and associated risk premium).
4. Describe each of the following financial institutions. If it…… [Read More]
tax system of one country with that of another is an exercise fraught with dificulties and ultimately doomed to failure . tax system will never be much more than a reflection of strongly national cultures and forces. discuss this statement in the light of your knowledge of comparative tax system in developing and/or developed countries i
The following pages focus on analyzing the factors of influence on different countries' taxation systems. The paper begins with an introductory section that allows readers understand the point-of-view used in this paper. The following section refers to describing the taxes pand taxation systems used by most countries and their objectives, in order to understand the similarities and differences between these taxation systems. The paper continues with the analysis of several factors that influence countries' tax system design, like cultural factors, technological developments, and natural resources. In order to exemplify this, the taxation…… [Read More]
The overall credit conditions have for example been severely affected by housing market and other economic trends. This has been exacerbated by energy and commodity price increases, which have affected household buying power negatively.
Concomitantly, the inflation rate has remained high at nearly 3.5% for the first five months of 2008. Chairman ernanke also noted that the trend in rising prices was likely to further increase inflation. Furthermore, oil production has risen only slightly, despite sharp price increases. This indicates tighter government control over oil reserves.
The declining value of the dollar in foreign markets also seems to be a matter of concern for congress that both result from and in turn affect the volatility of oil prices. There does not seem to be a particular emphasis on any single aspect of inflation or the recession. Instead, the general consensus appears to be that all the elements within the economic…… [Read More]
financial system trials tribulations starting early 2008. Indicate major reasons contributed financial market's collapse. Please leave a space reason. -College Level paperOrder ID
Five major factors that contributed to the financial market's collapse
eason 1: Historically low interest rates
The first major contributor to the collapse of the worlds' financial markets was the housing bubble. The Federal eserve dropped interest rates to historically levels after the September 11 terrorist attacks and the dot.com bubble burst. This was to generate more spending and borrowing and propel the nation out of recession. Low interest rates encouraged people to buy on credit. Many people took out mortgages, thinking that this was a good time to buy a house, and many others took out mortgages hoping to 'flip' a house, or sell it for more than they paid for it, as they were convinced that it was impossible for housing prices to go down…… [Read More]
According to Chancellor Helmut chmidt the interest rates of the developed countries in the post1990 era were higher than they had ever been "at any time since Jesus Christ" (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In 1983, in Latin America, whose devaluations were enormous, it was recorded that in one year "the effect on the individual private sector, which in [some] cases had been encouraged by the policies of the authorities to borrow, has been devastating...the amount needed in local currency to service external debt has increased three or four times" (Kuczynski,1983, p. 22). The situation in these countries is such: with the decrease of their currency value, more goods must be sold to pay back their debt plus interest, and since their export prices have been steadily declining in the post war years, their accumulated interest swells to a rate that is higher than the nominal dues stipulated in the original contract (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In…… [Read More]
Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.
Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…… [Read More]
characteristics MFS anti-star system? What type person MFS system attract? Explain. 2) Does MFS system a strong weak performance -- pay relationship? What type behavior MFS system motivate? 3) What potential problems major challenges created MFS performance evaluation system? What suggestions managing problems challenges? 4.
MFS Case study
The anti-star system attracted risk-adverse, conservative, relatively non-competitive employees. The stress of the organization was on rewarding overall team performance, rather than on individual excellence. The performance review process drew extensive input from co-workers and linked the forging of effective relationships with colleagues with bonuses and compensation. Workers saw little correlation between pay and hours logged at work and overall output. People made stock 'picks' similar to other employees and the stress was upon not making mistakes and not under-performing, rather than exceeding performance expectations (Hall & Lim 2004: 3).
Q2. Initially, the MFS performance-to-pay relationship was virtually nonexistent and compensation policy…… [Read More]
Sociotechnical Systems Work Approaches
The objective of this study is to examine and assess sociotechnical approaches from two perspectives and specifically the historical perspective in regards to evolution of management styles that support and enable a sociotechnical approach and stages of innovation explaining how Rogers' diffusion of innovation informs the implementation of, or lack thereof, sociotechnical system
It is reported that socio-technical systems is a work that sprung from the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in England and involved the exploration of methods for productivity improvement while raising morale in organization via use of 'action research'. (abson Education, nd, p.1) The primary assumption of socio-technical systems is that organizations 'consist of the relation between a nonhuman system and human system." (abson Education, nd, p.1) The socio-technical view holds that both of the systems must be given consideration "when jointly optimizing the two." (abson Education, nd, p.1) It was additionally explored…… [Read More]
functions of the International Monetary system, a few significant institutions which deal with foreign currency as well as conclude on which system of exchange rates is more useful in the corporate world.
History of the International Monetary System:
In the start of the economical world, people were commonly in the habit of using the barter system to purchase goods that were in need. With time though, the system of trading gold and silver coins started to evolve. Around the 19th century, officially, countries started issuing themselves a basic currency. This marked as the beginning of the modern day monetary system of trade.
In the Pre-World War era, money unions evolved which enabled people of different countries to easily exchange currencies. In this period of time, there was a low level of financial crisis and economies were growing steadily. However, with the World War going on, global trade and the flow…… [Read More]
American Tax System vs. Other Countries
The federal government first imposed an individual income tax in 1862 as an emergency means of financing the Civil ar. It also established the Bureau of Internal Revenue, predecessor of the Internal Revenue Service. Tax rates were 3% on income from $600 to $10,000 and 5% on income above $10,000. Later in the war the maximum rate increased to 10% of income." (Encarta)
My how times have changed. This paper will compare the tax systems of four different countries to the American tax system. The four countries that have been chosen are South Africa, Mexico, Hong Kong, and New Zealand..
First lets attempt to briefly (if that were possible) explain the American tax system.
The American Tax System
America has a progressive tax system meaning the greatest tax burden is on people who have the most income. The American tax system can be described…… [Read More]
ules and Institutions of the Bretton Woods System
The increasing popularity of the importance of monetary unions has gained much focus in the recent past. Most states consider forming monetary unions a solution to most of their financial problems. However, they fail to realize the challenges associated with its establishment and sustainability. Therefore, this research paper analyzes two different monetary unions, their policies, failures and successes and lessons learnt from their experiences for future success of the monetary unions.
The key design features of the System
The system was designed with the fundamental aim of establishing an international financial system to overcome the real and perceived financial problems. Among the problems included the competitive devaluation, subordination of the monetary policy in relation to the external bane and the need for the establishment of a system that facilitated exchange rates for different foreign transactions (Eichengreen, 2004). The design of the system…… [Read More]
Role of Information Systems in Marketing
The objective of this study is to examine the role of information systems in marketing in terms of the information that is necessary for decision making. Additionally this work will examine the role of IS for this function within the organization and the benefits of IS for the functional users at the operational level, the use of data at all levels of the organization and how IS has affected processes for this functional perspective.
Decision Making and the Marketing Information System
The work of Ismail (2011) entitled "The Role of Marketing Information System on Decision Making: An Applied Study on Royal Jordanian Air Lines (RJA)" reports a study that has the objective of emphasizing the importance of the utilization of the marketing information system (MKIS) on decision-making through making clear the requirement for decision-making that is both "quick and effective…due to time saving and…… [Read More]
Mediocre material will, likely, thus be introduced into the market, and fledgling authors discouraged. This may in a matter of fact not only prove detrimental for general culture but also for the store itself, since discouraged with the level of prevalent reading matter, potential customers may frequent other locations for their desires.
Conclusively, as an example of Mr. Flaherty's impact on the book-selling business, relaxation of tax demands on private investment may profit the business depending on its projects and ambitions. The more ambitious its projects, likely the more it may profit. I am unsure, however, how much 3 's Used Books can make itself independent from dealing with the U.S. Or with other countries; a bookstore, by nature, has to have international dealings in order to succeed. As regards the economic policies, particular to Ontario, passed in 2009, the bookstore, can with provisos, mostly benefit form their implementation.
eferences…… [Read More]
5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?
The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.
6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?
The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.
7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?
The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…… [Read More]
The current accounting system at Pappadeaux is fundamentally flawed, and the result is distorted performance figures for managers. Appendix A contains the basic income statement that Harry is using to evaluate Gregory, with variance noted. However, Gregory should not be evaluated on matters that do not relate to his performance. A significant portion of the poor performance against the budget relates to elements of the budget that were out of Gregory's control. For example, all food is purchased at head office; overhead is allocated by head office; utility rates cannot be controlled, only usage; Harry granted supervisors a raise; rent is established by corporate head office; taxes are out of Gregory's control.
With respect to food costs, a variance budget would show that the food expense should be 1/3 of sales, based on the budget. This implies that the food budget should have been $266,666 but was $240,000. This…… [Read More]