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Baseball and the American Character
The three essays on baseball, by Allen Guttman, Murray Ross and Michael Mandelbaum, are all well written and supply unique opinions and ideas about baseball and America that are interesting but quite different. In this paper the writer will take a position on the debate that is going on with these three writers.
Allen Guttman's Essay
Guttmann reviews the phases of the American experience to explain what is meant by "American exceptionalism," and in the process of presenting that information he gives the reader some names of writers who tried to describe. America. For example, the French journalist and author Alexis de Tocqueville wrote Democracy in America in the 19th century, and in that book he explains why Americans are different than Europeans. Americans didn't have any existing social order to deal with when they arrived in North America so they created one of their…
ith a less stronger structure and with the fact that it had no history whatsoever, baseball did not appear to be the next big thing in nineteenth century Canada. Surprisingly, however, the sport grew into the hearts of the Canadians and quickly replaced cricket and lacrosse. Even though the game is played at a different level in Canada, the Canadian teams have been reported to be worthy of competing with some of the best teams in the U.S.
During its first decades, baseball had been nothing more than a chaotic game, with no strict rules and with people exploiting it in order to make profits. Even so, it had been practically impossible for someone to ignore the game's potential. Baseball seemed to be the perfect game for Americans and later even for Canadians. Furthermore, just as the people who lived in Northern America, it represented something fresh and rather extraordinary.…
1. Jebsen, Jr. Harry. "Black Baseball Entrepreneurs, 1860-1901: Operating by Any Means Necessary." The Historian, Vol. 67, 2005.
2. Tygiel, Jules. (2001). "Past Time: Baseball as History." Oxford University Press.
3. Baseball in Canada, 1876
4. Sol White & AA Baseball
Baseball is a sporting game, whereby only a baseball bat, baseball glove and a ball are used, it is played between two teams, one is called the batting team and the other is the fielding team each consisting of nine players. Goals are awarded depending on the numbers of runs, of which to complete one run a player has to hit a ball thrown at him and then touchdown on a series of four bases arranged at the corners of the diamond, which is a ninety-foot square playing field. A team with the most runs definitely will have the most goals, consequently making them winners of the match. Players in the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, and the other players in the fielding team strive to prevent them from scoring complete runs by challenging their hitters. However a player in the batting team…
Carlin, George. "Baseball and Football" Baseball Almanac http://www.baseball almanac.com/humor7.shtml Retrieved 2009-05-06
Fleming, G.H. (1981) the Unforgettable Season, New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston,
Gregory, Robert. (1992) the History of Dizzy Dean and Baseball during the Great Depression New York: Viking,
Thorn, John., Palmer, Pete., Gershman, Michael.,and Pietrusza, David. (1997) Total Baseball: The Official Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball. New York: Viking Press
The age of the stadium can be appealing if the stadium is rich with history, or if it is new and equipped with the most modern features. However, middle-aged stadiums may have neither appeal and could result in depressed attendance figures. The number of wins that the team has in the season impacts fan interest, as does the team's salary (which is a good way to operationalize a team's star power).
Each of these variables is already quantified, so is fully operationalized. This avoids the trap of using spurious proxies in a study. There are three possible outcomes that can result from this research. The null hypothesis can be proven within significant confidence limits or it may be disproved. The third option is that the null hypothesis may be proven, but there is reason to suspect that some of the variables are closely related to one another and that this…
Nightengale, B. & Boeck, S. (2010). Slight fall in baseball attendance no surprise. USA Today. Retrieved July 10, 2010 from http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2009-04-29-mlb-attendance_N.htm
Winfree, J., McCluskey, J., Mittelhammer, R. & Fort, R. (2004). Location and attendance in major league baseball. Applied Economics. Vol. 36 (19) 2117-2124.
Browning, R. & DeBolt, L. (2010). The effects of promotions on attendance in professional baseball. The Sports Journal. Vol. 13 (3).
As a young pitcher, I had pretty good mechanics thanks to my father's coaching. His influence on my style did not always please the high school coaches but it did not take them long to notice that whatever I was doing worked. Yet I also had to work hard at surrendering my pride. I needed to incorporate the coaches' wisdom with that of my father's and blend it all with my own knowledge of the game and my own body.
I've learned that even for athletes, hard work means more than just physical exertion. In fact, the physical work we do pales in comparison to the mental work we perform on and off the field. First with our parents and friends who vie for our attention, who worry about us, and wonder if our dreams are misguiding us and leading us into false hope. Then we contend with unsupportive coaches…
What I also find fascinating about early baseball is how early baseball evolved into the business it is today. Expansion of teams into new markets first occurred in the 1960s ("The History of Baseball" nd). Players, fans, managers, and team owners as well as cities started to view the sport more as a business opportunity than simply a pastime. Before long, the players formed a labor union and their high earnings remain a controversial topic.
Baseball may have been based on games played in England, but now baseball is well-known as an American sport ("The History of Baseball" nd). Americans have been playing and watching baseball for well over a century, making the game an integral part of the nation's popular culture. The way professional baseball evolved since the Civil War also reflects on how American culture has changed into one that is more heterogenous and globally influential than ever…
"The History of Baseball." (nd) Retrieved June 29, 2009 from http://www.rpi.edu/~fiscap/history_files/history1.htm
Baseball Still America's Pastime?
There was a time when baseball was akin to religion. Baseball was played and discussed in small towns and large cities from coast to coast. But today many feel baseball is a dying sport. There are those who contend baseball is slowly and sadly fading away, overrun by a fast-paced, multi-cultural, technology driven society. In today's America baseball must contend with summer basketball, soccer, football in the spring and fall, and extreme sports. Furthermore, sedentary lifestyles brought about by technology have more children sitting indoors at computers and video games and fewer filling out enrollment forms for little league. And there are those who argue the game has grown boring from a lack of parity with the same teams continually dominating the sport. But is this truly the case? Is baseball dying?
There is some dispute as to when the game of baseball actually…
DeFord, Frank. "Baseball Isn't Dead; It Just Takes More Work To Appreciate." NPR. 3 April 2013. Web. 5 May 2013.
"History of Baseball." iSport.com. (ND). Web. 5 April 2013.
Kirsch, George. "America's Pastime, Behind Bars." New York Times, 2 April 2013. Web. 5 May 2013.
Morisette, James "MLB: Is Baseball a Dying Sport or Is It as Strong as Ever?" Bleacher Report, 21 April 2012. Web. 5 May 2013.
It has become a strong fashion in both countries. ut while in America it is played by most people because they are brought up learning to respect and appreciate the game, in Japan the game is perceived as a game where both intelligence and the body must be used at the same time in order to win and to surpass oneself. It is in both the countries that the game stimulates a sense of national pride in its players but this occurs through different means. In the United States all the players are important, but the most important thing is for the team to win. In Japan on the other hand the value of the single player within the team is fundamental. The Americans might play to win. The Japanese would play in order to win after having played an excellent game giving the best of themselves. Japanese appreciate baseball…
Baseball, Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, Retrieved April 21, 1010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Baseball' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In his youth, Jimmy had missed becoming a pro pitcher because of a
shoulder injury. Now Jimmy receives a rare second change to perhaps live
his youthful dream after all, in midlife, a time when, realistically
speaking (at least for the vast majority of would-be baseball
professionals) anyone not making it long before this has simply missed his
chance. Jimmy Morris's late-life professional baseball story is true (with
a few Hollywood add-ons); put perhaps more importantly than that, it rings
true - probably within the collective American psyche in particular. After
all, very occasionally in America (and in baseball, two near-synonymous
entities in our culture) unusual exceptions to the rules, or to the long-
held norms and averages of life do occur.
Such special and singular occurrences, moreover, are plausible
entirely plausible to our psyche. e need not suspend disbelief. e need
not disbelieve at all. That is the real…
"Baseball." Wikipedia. 30 July 2007 31 July
Field of Dreams. Dir Phil Alden Robinson. With Kevin Costner and Amy
The Life and Times of Hank Greenberg. Documentary (VHS). 1998.
"History of Baseball in the United States." 24 Jul 2007
Despite these glowing reports, Keating (1997) cautions that not every community has enjoyed the same level of success as the studies have suggested.
In his essay, "e uz Robbed! The Subsidized Stadium Scam" (1997), Keating says, "Only team owners and players clearly benefit from these taxpayer subsidies, because they are relieved of the costs of stadium financing. Indeed, annual debt-service costs can run into the tens of millions of dollars" (55). These savings in costs only serve to help the baseball owners and players though. A report from Financial orld cited by Keating noted that revenues for baseball teams with new stadiums increased by almost 40% the year a new facility opened. "The Cleveland Indians and Texas Rangers both moved into new ballparks in 1994; according to Financial orld, their franchise values rose by 67% and 37%, respectively, between 1991 and 1996" (Keating 1997:56). At the same time, the franchise…
Chapin, Tim. (1999). Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums. Journal of the American Planning Association, 65(3):339.
Guthrie, John J. And Frank P. Jozsa. Relocating Teams and Expanding Leagues in Professional Sports: How the Major Leagues Respond to Market Conditions. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1999.
Keating, Raymond J. (1997). We Wuz Robbed! The Subsidized Stadium Scam. Policy Review, 82, 54.
Kelly, Sharon Pratt and Kenneth L. Shropshire. The Sports Franchise Game: Cities in Pursuit of Sports Franchises, Events, Stadiums, and Arenas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
Some of the culprits included, Roger Clemens, Andy Pattitte, Manny Alexander, Chad Allen, Mike ell and many others. The report included volumes of pages from interviewing players as well as numerous other people, e-mail messages, tapped phone calls, and cancelled checks, receipts e.t.c. Mitchell concluded that, a thorough investigation that attempts to identify individual players who are using the illegal drugs will not be of much help, the problem f the use of illegal substances is the responsibility of the entire baseball fraternity since there was failure in recognizing the problem sooner, Use of performance enhancing drugs by players is ethically and legally wrong, and lastly MLs 2002 steroid response was entirely responsible when players switched from detectable steroids to undetectable hormone for human growth.
Mitchell recommended in his report that efforts of establishing education for the players regarding the severe health effects from drug use should be initiated, players…
Bob, S (2000), Baseball's 'winning edge' often is illegal, Unknown newspaper clipping from the Library and Archives of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum.
The New York Times (1988).Bat Inspection, Sports short without author from Library and Archives of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, the New York Times, Apr. 30
James, B, Dewan, J, Munro, N and Zminda, D (1998) Stats All-Time Major League Handbook, Stats Publishing, Skokie, IL
Murphy, C (2008) Crazy '08," New York, 2008.
aseball is the favorite sport in both Japan and the United States. It proudly has the status of national sport in both American and Japan. It is an important part of the American and Japanese culture. The game of baseball has evolved with the culture of the American culture. aseball has also been reinvented in Japan. It is part of the Japanese culture as it has had a lot of influence on the sport. aseball has been played in Japan for more than a hundred years. They are very proud of their national sport. At the same time people in America take baseball for granted. oth Japan and America have their own professional baseball leagues. Japanese baseball is all about pride and possibility. They were one of the first foreign nations to be exposed to America's favorite pastime. It was more like a bridge between the western and eastern culture.…
1. Hideki Matsui, Godzilla Vs. The Americans, Time Magazine, Robert Whiting, 2003
2. A Century of Japanese-American Baseball, Gary T. Otake, 2003
3. A Brief History of Baseball: Part II: Professional Baseball's First Hundred Years, Sean Lahman, December 1996
4. Major League success hurts Japan baseball, upi news, 2004
ristow, Schneider and Sebastian's (2010) article compared the fan loyalty of the Arizona Diamondbacks and Chicago Cubs during the 2008 season. These scholars were interested in finding a tool to measure baseball fans loyalty. Using a questionnaire asking the interests of fans, they compared these answers to win loss records and home stadium attendance. The sample population would demonstrate their loyalty through their knowledge, competitiveness, and how many times they would attend home games.
The questionnaire was issued in both Arizona and Chicago. In Chicago the researchers posed the questions in bars and restaurants around Wrigley Field, while in Phoenix, they questioned the population sample at the baseball stadium. The data was collected over various times throughout the season and during games with different teams. This technique may contain bias due to the quality of opponents possibly determining the quality of the experience. The data was either collected…
Birstow, D., Schneider, K., Sebastian, R. (2010). Thirty games and sold out for months! An empirical examination of fan loyalty to two Major League Baseball teams. Journal of Management Research,2,1-14.
Baseball Bats today come in many different varieties, from the standard $20 wooden bat to a state-of-the-art, $300 aluminum model (Sports-werd.com, 2002). Each type of bat has its own advantages and disadvantages, and each has a unique feel and sound. On both the college level and professional levels of baseball, the types of bats allowed vary in material. Yet, while the baseball bats may differ, there are still many similarities that make both aluminum and wooden bats comparable in the world of baseball.
Baseball bats in the first phase came in varying shapes and sizes. In the 1850's, players made their own bats and experimented with different lengths and mass. Due to the wide variety of bat size, and thus the wide differences in batting ability, a rule was made in 1859 that bats could be no larger than 2.5 inches around. A rule to limit the length of the…
Baseball-Bats.net. (2003). The History of Baseball Bats. Retrieved July 29, 2003 from Baseball-Bats.net. Web Site: http://www.baseball-bats.net/baseball-bats/baseball-bat-history/index.html .
Baseball-Bats.net. (2002). Choosing a Baseball Bat. Retrieved July 29, 2003 from Baseball-Bats.net. Web Site: http://www.baseball-bats.net/baseball-bats/choosing-a-baseball-bat/index.html .
Bloomberg, S. (1998). NCAA approves new rules for bats. The Legal Intelligencer, 13, 4.
Calder, V. (2000). Aluminum vs. Wood Bats. Retrieved July 27, 2003 from the Newton BBS, the Division of Education.
baseball and the ethnic/racial issues sport is faced with. In the first part, I have compared baseball with football and basketball on race/ethnic issues. I have also given a detailed account of the several stereotypes still present in the society regarding ball players. I have also given an account pertaining to the baseball fans. Moreover, I have given the current statistics of front office/management. I have also discussed World Baseball Classic.
According to the 2011 statistics, the percentage of the white, African-American, Latino and Asian baseball players was 61.5%, 8.5%, 27% Latino and 2% respectively. The other minorities constituted the remaining one percent. The percentage of African-Americans in the baseball has raised concerns as it has reduced to half as compared to the 17% in 1990. With every passing year, there has been a decrease in the percentage of African-American players and there are more teams now with few or…
Klein, A.M. (2006). Growing the Game: The Globalization of Major League Baseball. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lapchick, R. (2012, April 25). The 2012 Racial and Gender Report Card: Major League Baseball. Tide Sport. Retrieved April 30, 2013, from http://www.tidesport.org/RGRC/2012/2012_MLB_RGRC.pdf
Racial Breakdown of NFL, NBA, MLB - Ethnicity in Baseball, Football, Basketball Infographic. (n.d.).Swimtown Pool Supplies. Retrieved April 30, 2013, from http://www.swimtownpools.com/racial-breakdown-of-mlb-nba-nfl-a/271.htm
It took almost 50 years to finally allow blacks to become a part of the National league when Brooklyn Dodgers signed Jackie obinson in 1946. "Many of the men who played in the Negro Leagues were of major league caliber. After all, when black teams competed against white ones, & #8230;the black ball players won most of the time… but financially the Negro Leagues were precarious, undercapitalized endeavors, often poorly administered and supported, especially compared to the major leagues." (Kyle et al. p. 58)
For some time, this game had been an exclusive white man sport as cricket was for the British. "For a time aristocratic clubs like New York Knickerbockers tried to monopolize the game as a gentlemen's pastime in much the same way as the Marylebone Club dominated English cricket. But with new baseball teams springing up in other urban centers, surging public interest speeded the polarization of…
David Quentin Voigt. (1976) America Through Baseball. Burnham, Inc.; 1st edition
Donald G. Kyle. (2008) Baseball in America and America in Baseball (Walter Prescott Webb Memorial Lectures, published for the University of Texas) TAMU Press.
Palmer, Harry et al. (1889) Athletic Sports in America, England and Australia Books LLC.
-Rod and Baseball
On September 11, 1985 Pete Rose struck base hit number 4, 192, and in doing so made baseball history, surpassing Ty Cobb as the all-time hits leader. Little did fans or those in baseball realize that Rose's accomplishment occurred while he was betting on baseball in most cases betting on his own team. Commissioner of baseball . Bartlett Giamatti presented Rose with substantive evidence collected by John M. Dowd and compiled in a report of the same name (Baseball Library.com. N.D.). Based on the evidence, Rose on ugust 24, 1989 "agreed to a deal in which he dropped his suit against baseball and accepted a lifetime suspension" (Baseball Library.com. N.D.). The ramifications of that action meant that Rose was shut out of the game he loved and continues to be ineligible for the Hall of Fame.
Fast forward two decades and a player of similar talent, drive,…
A Utilitarian Perspective
Is that fundamental change though necessarily deserving of negative connotations? If the issue of steroids use is viewed from the utilitarian perspective, which according to John Stuart Mill articulates "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness" (Brainy Quotes. N.D.); then the surge in popularity of the sport during the years of heightened offensive production promoted considerable happiness. The 1998 home run chase to eclipse Roger Maris' sixty one home run season saw baseball fans engrossed in the pursuit by Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa. "The home run onslaught captured the attention of the country and helped to reclaim popularity for the league four years after a strike had shortened the 1994 season" (ESPN.com. September 27, 2010). The prolific home runs and offensive output may have in fact saved baseball "Baseball sales figures and attendance were in a slump before McGwire was en route to his home-run record, and they've been climbing ever since" (Steroids.com. N.D.). The reality of the steroids era is that fans wanted to see players succeed offensively on the field. "More people actually came to games during the three-plus years that steroids were widely publicized than they ever had" (Sojo, T. May 24, 2008).
Of course the obverse of the utilitarian argument is that the use of steroids tainted the honor and integrity of the game and thus ultimately hurt the sport's image and its history. Baseball more than any other sport, defines itself by its historical context and its records. From a utilitarian perspective those who used performance enhancing drugs tarnished the game and its historical legends by cheapening the statistical records. In this way an entire nation of baseball fans was
.. [probably because] more people began playing softball on Saturdays and Sundays, and in the 80s young black males were no longer gravitating towards baseball - it was pickup and summer league basketball..." that they longed to be involved in.
The old ballfields are silent now," Howard writes on page 190, and some, you can't even tell there ever was a baseball diamond there. Some became housing units, and other baseball fields were turned back into what they were before they were playing fields - farmland.
Sadly," Howard writes on 190, "the ranks of the younger ballplayers have thinned over the past thirty-five years," and many of the great players he remembers have names like obert "ed" Terrell, Isaiah "Zeke" Walker, Alfred Martin, David Johnson, "Big ed" Strother Jackson, Jr., Vance Brock, and others.
Howard quotes Kenny Diggs, who played with the Avon a's: "I played for semi-pro teams when…
Howard, Darrell J. Sunday Coming: Black Baseball in Virginia. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2002.
Third, the New York Yankees consistently sell out every away game they play, regardless of the city they are visiting (Gordon, 2003). For smaller market teams this translates into a minimum of an additional $200,000 or more in ticket sales for every single game the Yankees play in their city. When the Anaheim Angels of Los Angeles play the New York Yankees at home, there are over 45,000 tickets sold per game, which is a sell-out, at a minimum price of $5 each, not counting concessions or higher-priced tickets taken into account.
The Many New York Yankee Critics
Despite these many contributions the New York Yankees make to the sport of baseball globally, there are those that counter their management is myopic and can't see beyond any given season (Troutman, 1991). The approach that the Steinbrenner's used for getting former manager Joe Torre to resign, offering him 60% of his…
Devin Gordon (2003, May). How to build a ballclub.
Newsweek, 141(19), 58. Retrieved October 16, 2008,
Mark Hyman (2005, October). Baseball: Money Can't Buy Me Wins. Business Week (Online),1.
Tax pitch gets Yankees and Mets off-field success. (2006). International Tax Review,1. Retrieved October 15, 2008
A bat, a ball, a glove: on the surface it seems that baseball and softball are the same game. After all, baseball and softball also share similar rules. Softball is in fact directly derived from baseball. While these two popular team sports share much in common, their status and role in the society is completely different. The origins of baseball and softball are also different. Furthermore, a more detailed examination of the two sports shows that baseball and softball use totally different equipment that impacts gameplay. In spite of their seeming similarities, baseball and softball have different origins, a subordinate status and role in the society, and use different equipment.
Softball has a much clearer origin story than baseball, which is possibly an ancient game (World Baseball Softball Confederation). Baseball actually has unknown origins, even though historians now know that the rules of the game of baseball became formalized in…
Mann, Avery. “Baseball vs. Softball.” American Profile. Retrieved online: http://americanprofile.com/articles/baseball-vs-softball/
“What’s the Difference Between Baseball and Softball?” CK Baseball. Retrieved online: http://www.cksbaseball4u.com/whats-the-difference-between-baseball-and-softball/
World Baseball Softball Confederation. “The Origins of Baseball.” Retrieved online: http://www.wbsc.org/baseball/history-of-baseball/
Baseball is a major sport attracting a huge fan base in the US. It’s considered as National's “pastime” and is engraved in the US and gained popularity in the 19th century (Peterson et al., 2019). The Forbes magazine identifies baseball as the third favorite sports among the US millennials (Ozanian, 2018). Since 2015, baseball has recorded a 14.3% annual casual play growth rate and the participating amounted to 23.4 million participants in 2017 above soccer participation of 17.4 million people (Ozanian, 2018). The baseball sport governed by the Major League Baseball (MLB) founded in the 1876 and currently entailing 30 teams.
The proposed Neville state-of-the-art MLB ballpark will be first of its kind with a multi-use development and community. Reichard (2019) notes that sporting facilities are increasingly being positioned as mixed-use economic hubs and/or industrial complexes, a vision that the current ballpark seeks to realize. The Shelby park…
Academy, U. S. S. (2008, February 14). Financing Options and Facility Development. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from The Sport Journal website: http://thesportjournal.org/article/financing-options-and-facility-development/
Allen, C. (2016). In Focus: Nashville, TN. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from https://www.hvs.com/article/7896-in-focus-nashville-tn
Carlisle, C. (2014). Texas Rangers sign Jack Daniels as major club sponsor. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from Dallas Business Journal website: https://www.bizjournals.com/dallas/news/2014/01/09/texas-rangers-signs-major-club.html
Chiaruáin, A. (2017, February 3). The Benefits of Sports Sponsorships in the Digital Age of Visual Data. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from LogoGrab Blog website: https://blog.logograb.com/benefits-sports-sponsorships-in-digital-age-visual-data/
City Data (2019). Nashville: Economy - Major Industries and Commercial Activity, Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-South/Nashville-Economy.html
Coates, D., & Humphreys, B. (2003). Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development. Public Finance and Management, 3.
Cornwell, T. B., Pruitt, S. W., & Clark, J. M. C. (2004). The “ Official Paper ” On Official Sponsorships?: The Impact Of Major League Sports Official Sponsorship Announcements On The Stock Prices Of Sponsoring Firms.
Deas, T. (2019). Is Nashville ready for a MLB franchise? Meet the man with a plan. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from The Tennessean website: https://www.tennessean.com/story/sports/2019/01/20/mlb-nashville-major-league-expansion-dave-stewart-tony-la-russa-nhl-nfl/2579858002/
Of course, in recent years, this power has been diluted somewhat thanks to the rise of collective bargaining. Nonetheless, the fact that for so many years baseball has been characterized as a game rather than interstate commerce worked to the benefit of the industry as a whole.
If the exemption were repealed, apparently only possible through act of Congress, players and teams could sue the league if their movements were restricted and limitations placed on their ability to conduct business for themselves (Rovell). MLB could still manage how teams and players moved, but the repeal of the exemption would eliminate their absolute control over these movements. Obviously, this would have a significant impact on the baseball industry, but would not be necessarily devastating. Other sports have persisted despite not having antitrust exemptions, so there is little reason to expect that baseball couldn't adapt as well.
Belth, Alex. "Ending…
Belth, Alex. "Ending Baseball's Antitrust Exemption." Baseball Prospectus. 26 Nov. 2001. 15 July 2008 http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Courses/econ352jpw/readme/Baseball%20Prospectus%20-%20Ending%20Baseball%27s%20Antitrust%20Exemption.htm .
Greenberg, David. "Baseball's Con Game." Slate. 19 July 2002. 15 July 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2068290/ .
Morrissey, Mo. "Baseball Labor Relations: Anti-Trust Exemptions & the Reserve Clause." Associated Content. 19 Oct. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/421296/baseball_labor_relations_antitrust.html .
Rovell, Darren. "Baseball's Antitrust Exemption: Q & a." ESPN: Baseball. 6 Dec. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://espn.go.com/mlb/s/2001/1205/1290707.html .
Many top recruits did not flourish and become great players.
The player's union has opposed salary caps vigorously, but even players might benefit. Yes, they might not make A-od salaries. But there would be less pressure from fans and owners to perform at an unrealistic level. Baseball is attempting to transition into a kinder, gentler era, with less emphasis on using drugs to perform at a high level. Instating a salary cap would be excellent P for the sport, and improving the image of baseball and its players would be good for the game and good for the teams. And ultimately, elevating the image and level of play of teams, rather than the fortunes of a few 'star' players, is the true spirit of the game.
deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011…
deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=betweenthenumbers/salarycap/060405
How salary caps changed sports. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://financialedge.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0910/How-Salary-Caps-Changed-Sports.aspx
Kendrick, Scott. (2009). Salary cap in baseball? Keep dreaming. About.com.
Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://baseball.about.com/b/2008/12/31/salary-cap-in-baseball-keep-dreaming.htm
The researchers found that those who were for the new stadium often presented it as a solution to economic development, for an area. Challenges to these projects most often came from those who could gain politically by opposing the project. Pelissero, Henschen, and Sidlow (1991) also investigate the politics surrounding the development of sports stadiums. These authors focus specifically on the policy agenda of Chicago and the intangible benefits of new stadium construction.
Despite the research found, there are deficiencies in the literature. Much of the research previously performed centers on building a new stadium for an existing team. There is very little research regarding bringing a new team into a city. Much of the small amount of related research found was based on the assumption that a team was already in place, in the city. There was also only one piece of research (Santo, 2007) that specifically discussed bringing…
Baade, R. (Spring 1990). The impact of stadiums and professional sports on metropolitan area development. Growth & Change, 21(2). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from Academic Search Complete.
Pelissero, J., Henschen, J., & Sidlow, E. (1991). Urban regimes, sports stadiums, and the politics of economic development agendas in Chicago. Policy Studies Review, 10(2-3). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from America: History & Life.
Poitras, M. & Hadley, L. (Sept 2006). Do new major league ballparks pay for themselves? Journal of Business, 79(5). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Santo, C. (Dec 2007). Beyond the economic catalyst debate. Journal of Urban Affairs, 29(5). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from Academic Search Complete.
easons for MLB Players
Furthermore, MLB owners have enjoyed high double-digit return-on-investment for many years. By showing teenagers that steroids are not the cool nor healthy way to become more physical fit, they finally have the opportunity to show the world that they are not all Montgomery Burns (Saving the Puerto ican League).
If most people believe that the way to get ahead is to work hard, then most people will work hard, and more wealth will be created. On the other hand, if people believe that wealthy people should not have to work, then people will attempt to gain wealth without working, leading to a zero-sum economy. If most people expect public officials to be honest, then dishonest officials will be identified and punished" (eforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care).
From there, MLB baseball players participate to prevent teenage athletes' steroid use because they want to present a…
Steroid Use in Teen Athletes. http://www.***.ca/lib/essay/69_4.html
Saving the Puerto Rican League. http://sportslaw.blogspot.com/2007_08_01_archive.html
Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care. http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=062107A
aseball on "My" Life
aseball is considered to be the great American past-time, a part of our nation's culture and heritage. aseball is as much a part of being patriotic as eating apple pie and voting for the president. As an American child, baseball was invariably a part of my childhood experience. From the baseball cap and baseball glove that my father posed me in for my first birthday photo shoot, to the block-baseball team that used my suburban home back-yard as the outfield, to the interrupted regularly-scheduled programming of lengthy televised games in our Not-Fighting living room, to the good and evil dichotomy of coaches that would shape my Middle-School and High-School teams, baseball has been an omnipresent force in my life. It has been there to highlight the great times, as well as emphasize the bad ones, and occasionally, when fate thought kindly of my situation, even brought…
Broydo, Leora. "Baseball's Bad Habit." Mother Jones. July-August, 1996.
Duncan, Margaret Carlissle; Messner, Michael; Williams, Linda; and Jensen, Kerry. "Gender Stereotyping in Televised Sports." The Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. August, 1990.
Holian, Holy. "Utilize Only Non-Animal Products in Major League Baseball." Petition to George Bush President of the United States of America Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. 2003. http://www.thepetitionsite.com/takeaction/739126897?ltl=1114838698
Partenheimer, David. "Environment May Play A Role in Whether Youth Benefit From Sports Participation, According To Two Studies." American Psychological Association 109th Annual Convention. APA Public Affairs Office Press Release. 25 August 2001.
3) Hiroko taking Jack to her family's home -- Eliot realizes that he is the outsider, the one who is bumbling, even his long legs do not fit comfortably under the table. Hiroko is obviously fond of him, and in the simple ceremonies of dining, and the reactions of her grandparents, Eliot realizes that it is again his own "bumbling" that is causing the conflict, not Japanese culture. In addition, Eliot learns that "The Chief' is actually Hiroko's father, who is quite literate in English, but proves to Eliot that he is in Japan, it is up to him to learn some Japanese.
4) the team's reaction to his apology -- ealizing his set of faux-pas, Eliot admits his deficiencies to the team, and rather than his expectations of continued ostracizing, Eliot learns that there is a real camaraderie within the team, that they genuinely like him, and once he…
Adler, N. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Florence, KY:
Hofstede, G. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York:
McGraw Hill, 2005.
The results were: that in the first few years there would be an upsurge in new attendance at the park. At which point, attendance levels will begin to see modest declines. However, the net economic impact for the sports franchise is an increase in revenues of $528 million, over 15 years. This is significant, because it shows how those stadiums that are focused on multiple sports, will see a decline in revenues, as attendance levels fall. While, those that are dedicated exclusively to baseball; will see an increase in attendance. In many ways one could argue, that a single purpose ballpark creates a special atmosphere for the fans. Where, this will cause attendance levels to increase. (Leadley, 2003)
McEvoy, C. (2002). Facility Age and Attendance in Major League aseball. Illinois State University, 1 -- 37. http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/mcevoy/MLfacilityagefinal.pdf
In this article, the author is seeking to confirm the effect that the age…
Butler, M (2002). Interleague Play and Baseball Attendance. Journal of Sports Economics. 3 (4), 328 -- 334.
Leadley, A. (2003). When is the Honeymoon Over. Journal of Sports Management. 15.
McEvoy, C. (2002. Facility Age and Attendance in Major League Baseball. Illinois State University, 1 -- 37. http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/mcevoy/MLBfacilityagefinal.pdf
Schmidt, M. (2006). The Impact of the 1981 and 1994 -- 1995 Strikes on Major League Baseball Attendance. Applied Economics. 34 (4), 471 -- 478.
Argument for BBcor Baseball Bats in High School/College
National Federation of State HS Associations
According to the National Federation of State High School Associations, which is the governing body of high school sports (including baseball), with the 2011 season also comes important new bat rules that now match the bat rules of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which is the governing body of collegiate sports (including baseball). (NFSHSA, 2011). It was only about a year ago that the NCAA banned certain 100% composite bats and now the NFSHSA will ensure the same for its players by changing ule 1.3.2, now requiring that any use of a non-wood bat must meet the BBCO (Batted Coefficient of estitution) Standard, a much stricter standard than the previous one in place (NFSHSA, 2011).
Batted coefficient of restitution and analysis
The move towards the stricter standards is based on a the following 3 expectations: That…
NFSHSA (National Federation of State High School Associations). (2011). Retrieved from www.nfhs.org.
NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association). (2011). Retrieved from www.ncaa.org.
Big City Chocolate Company Challenge
Proposal for Chocolate Gift Baskets for Big City Tech's Baseball Tournament
Bryan Thompson, Athletic Director
1804 Technology Way, Big City, Florida 33999
Dear Mr. Thompson:
Thank you very sincerely for your interest in the Big City Chocolate Company providing unique chocolate presentations for the teams that are coming to your campus for the regional postseason baseball tournament.
Our company is proud and pleased to have provided your fine school with unique and memorable chocolate confections in the recent past, and we eagerly look forward to a continuing business relationship with Big City Tech, a relationship that is mutually productive for both parties.
Indeed, two members of our staff are recent graduates of the business department at Big City Tech, and the quality of their effort -- and their excellent work ethic -- is reflective of the quality of education your fine college provides to this…
Greendale Baseball Stadium Case Study
Assessment whether the project be completed by May
The entire calculation reveals that the project's life cycle will take a total of 695 days to complete, which will end on February 27th, 2014. Based on the projected trajectory, the project will be completed 54 days ahead of the project schedule making the project manager to complete the project before May 20, 2014, the project deadline. However, the project is not without its challenges because the entire project duration is 1,695 days, which is far more than the project estimated life cycle. To address this problem, the project stakeholders will implement many of the project tasks simultaneously. For example, the project will be divided into three phases: Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III. The tasks and timeframes of these phases will be run concurrently to meet the due date. Moreover, the work packages in the…
Sample Tax Memorandum
Through sheer happenstance, the taxpayer caught an historic homerun ball at a baseball game you recently attended. At the point the ball flew over the wall of the playing field and into the stands of bleachers -- whereupon it became essentially non-playable -- the status of the ball changed from an ordinary baseball to a collectable item of considerable worth. Since the taxpayer received the valuable ball through luck (and the ability to catch a baseball inflight), the baseball is considered to be a gift. Had you (the taxpayer) taken specific action to select a seat that is commonly targeted by homerun balls (were such a thing possible), possession of the baseball might be considered a gambling win. However, no rules of gambling are applicable to this event.
Is the ball considered a gift? A gift is any transfer to an…
Varian, A.R. (2012, March). Valuing Antiques and Collectibles. Pennsylvania Bar Institute, Course #7092. Retrieved from http://www.pbi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/7092Tax-AspectCollectbles.pdf
____. (2014, December) IRS Topic 703 -- Basis of Assets. Retreived from http://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc703.html
____. (2014, November). IRS Topic -- Gift Tax Rules. Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Small-Businesses-&-Self-Employed/Frequently-Asked-Questions-on-Gift-Taxes
HBS Case Study: The Springfield Nor'easters
HBS Case Study: The Springfield Nor'easters
Minor league baseball teams can be a potentially lucrative source of revenue in the right market. As going to major league games becomes increasingly expensive, more and more people, particularly parents who want their children to have the experience of going to a live baseball game, are increasingly turning to minor league games as a way of filling the gap (Cespedes, Lovelock, & Winig, 2008, p. 3). Springfield is a large city in Massachusetts and because of the Boston ed Sox, Massachusetts has a very strong baseball culture but the city was still a significant drive from Boston. It had many college students as well, another potential fan base. This case study revolves around the creation of a minor league team known as the Springfield Nor'easters. The team has been created as a way…
Cespedes, F. V., Lovelock, V. & Winig, L. (2009). The Springfield Nor'easters: Maximizing revenues in the minor leagues. Harvard Business School Case Study.
In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.
There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…
Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.
Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.
Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.
Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
San Diego Padres have two marketing segments, the B2C segment and the B2B segment. The Padres sell packages to the consumer segment which include a selection of game tickets and also events outside of games as well. The Padres appeal to the emotional ties that consumers have with their team in order to sell these memberships. The Padres have a feature demographic, the 35-50 white male, so a lot of marketing targets that demo, but they are also looking to get younger in general, as baseball has something of an aging fanbase.
When the Padres market to business, it is entirely different. There is no emotional connection, so they must rely on analytics. The Padres have to offer value to their corporate customers. They are selling everything from advertising in the stadium to luxury boxes to the corporate clients. The marketing environment is challenging, and the Padres are forced to…
Schwab, D. (2014). Plans taking shape for new Padres season. San Diego Downtown News. Retrieved April 2, 2015 from http://sandiegodowntownnews.com/plans-taking-shape-for-new-padres-season/
hen Johnson defeated Jeffries, however, it unleashed white violence against blacks nationwide. "In ashington, D.C., the ashington Bee reported, 'hite ruffians showed their teeth and attacked almost every colored person they saw upon the public streets'."
Similar events occurred in New York City and tiny towns in the deep South. By the time Jackie Robinson left the Negro Leagues, the backlash was not nearly so pronounced. Arguably, the Negro Leagues kept violence at bay, while producing athletes of exceptional quality without risking Jim Crow law violence.
That, of course, is shining a favorable light on a tradition that is not worthy of accolade, and that arguably prevented numerous black ballplayers from receiving a fraction of their worth.
Today, few people understand the sociological factors that prevented black and white baseball players from competition with each other, as opponents or as members of racially mixed teams. They therefore know even…
Ayers, Edward L. 1993. The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1994. "Jack Johnson and the great white hope: historic boxer. Ebony, April. Available from www.findarticles.com. Accessed 7 February 2005.
Big Labor Day Celebration," (original document) Norfolk Journal and Guide, 8 September, 1917; available at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5054/ . Accessed 7 February 2005.
Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson." 2004. International Tap Association, 13 December. Available from. http://www.tapdance.org/tap/people/bojangle.htm . Accessed 9 February 2005.
Sports Illustrated proposed a thorough, if summary, compromise with regard to many of the issues that players and owners could not agree on: the elimination of arbitration in exchange for unrestricted free agency for 3-year veterans, establishing a middle ground between the owners' demand of free agency only after four years and the player's dislike of arbitration; also in the SI proposal were stipulations such as giving a luxury tax a three-year trial period for all parties to decide if it was in their best interest to keep.
Even solutions such as those proposed by the everyday baseball fan, such as "split profits 50/50" or other simplistic ideas could have been considered as options; instead, owners and players held fast to their positions and did not introduce new ideas to the negotiating arena, effectively ensuring that no progress would be made unless one side was a clear loser and one…
Drooz Drooz, Alan, "Baseball economy 101: Both sides look like the skunk at the party," San Diego Union-Tribune, August 28, 2002. Online at http://www.signonsandiego.com/sports/drooz/20020828drooz.html
Fisher, Roger and Ury, William, Getting to Yes. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.
Grabiner, David, "Frequently Asked Questions about the 1994 Baseball Strike," 3/314/02, accessed online at http://remarque.org/~grabiner/strikefaq.txt
Kurkjian, Tim, and Verducci, Tom, "Time is Running Out." Sports Illustrated, 3/20/95, Vol. 82 Issue
It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.
This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that…
Author not Available. "Caminiti Comes Clean." Sports Illustrated.com. 28 May 2002. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/si_online/special_report/steroids/
Bodley, Hal. "Palmeiro Suspended for Steroids Policy Violation." USA Today. 1 Aug. 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/orioles/2005-08-01-palmeiro-suspension_x.htm
Jenkins, Chris. "Players Admit Steroids Changed Baseball. USA Today. 15 March 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2005-03-15-steroids-mlb-cover_x.htm
Advances in Nanomaterials and Their Applications
Nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and nanotubes, are being explored extensively for their use and application in multiple manufacturing domains. One of the most eager manufacturing sectors to incorporate nanomaterials into their midst is the athletics gear and sporting industries. Tennis rackets, surf, skate, and snow boards, skis, ski poles, boats, bicycles, hockey sticks, baseball bats, golf clubs and balls are all potentially transformed by the use of nanomaterials. Other athletics applications of nanomaterials include sports stadium materials, artificial turf, running track surfaces, clothing, and gymnasium equipment (Chunyan, 2011). While nanomaterials are proving promising from design, implementation, and development perspectives, there are also significant safety issues that need to be taken into consideration by engineers, manufacturers, and industry regulators.
The root word "nano" comes from the Greek meaning dwarf because the particles are extremely small and require special technologies for visualization as well as…
3M (2013). 3M nanomaterials strengthen sports gear. Retrieved online: http://news.3m.com/blog/top-stories/3m-nanomaterials-strengthen-sports-gear
Abraham, T. (n.d.). Nanotechnology and nanomaterials -- applications and global market analysis. Retrieved online: http://www.aibn.uq.edu.au/Download/NSF/Thomas_Abraham_iRAP.pdf
Chunyan, L (2011). Study on application of biosafety of nano-materials in sports engineering. Future Computer Science and Education (ICFCSE, 2011).
DeJong, K.P. & Geus, J.W. (2007). Carbon nanofibers: Catalytic synthesis and applications. Catalytic Reviews 42(4): 481-510.
message to people in our society that professional baseball players and other athletes make more than soldiers in combat. This message must be fundamentally questioned, given the disproportionate degree of significance we give to the careers of athletes. Big name athletes are touted as role models, while ordinary soldiers are largely ignored, or at best given a few words in print if they distinguish themselves heroically in combat. The discrepancy between the utility of certain occupations such as soldiers and nurses, versus occupations such as professional baseball players and entertainers, and the disproportionate salaries made by the latter have caused many to question the fairness of how salaries are allocated within our society. Many of the arguments cited in favor of professional athletes' salaries could easily apply to other high-risk professions. This paper argues in favor of reducing baseball players' salaries through more aggressive salary caps as a way of…
Donovan, John. "Soldiers say it is hard to return to civilian life." Talk of The Nation. NPR.
10 Oct 2011. [20 Feb 2013]
Johnson, Catlin. "Why do baseball players make so much money?" CBS News. 11 Feb 2009.
The article remarks with respect to asphalt that "a baseball will get ruined on a surface like this: it's too dense and hard for asphalt or brick, and the canvas-like surface of the ball will get chewed up. Not to mention other problems: in densely populated areas, there are a lot houses near school yards with glass windows, and we all know what happens when a baseball hits a glass window. To sum it up: while baseball is a romantically American game, and was without question our most popular pastime for about 50 years, you can't play it in the city." (Beccary, 1) Foregoing this blanket statement -- given the evolution of inner-city athletic youth programs in recent decades -- the point of Beccary's remarks remains useful. Namely, the unique game that was stickball would come to fruition in response to the desire to play baseball and the absence of…
Beccary, G. (2007). A Complete History of Stickball. Greg's Words of Wisdom. Online at http://gregswords.wordpress.com/2007/04/07/a-complete-history-of-stickball/
Curry, J. (1989). Beyond Nostalgia: Reviving a Tough Game of Stickball. The New York Times. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/09/nyregion/beyond-nostalgia-reviving-a-tough-game-of-stickball.html
Devlin, B. (2009). Making a Phillies Fan: Always Imagining You Were a Phillie. The New York Times. Online at http://bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/making-a-phillies-fan-always-imagining-you-were-a-phillie/
Greene, M. (2004). Stickball Hall of Fame. Streetplay. Online at http://www.streetplay.com/stickball/halloffame/
The primary competitor for the new indoor softball and baseball facility would be the Suffolk County Police Athletic League, which is a long established and traditional facility. They offer a wide variety of sports, including baseball, softball, football or basketball. This particular facility is mostly focused on receiving adult and skilled members, which will join the club's team and participate to competitions. In other words, they are only limitedly interested in attracting and training inexperienced members, but they look for those individuals who would add value to their already existent team. Another major competitor would be the South Bay Battlecats, but they only admit members between the ages of 9 and 22, basically closing the door to baseball and softball to all those older than 22.
Then, there are some educational institutions, such as the Dowling College or the Stony Brook University, which offer baseball and/or softball training to their…
Amusement, Gambling and Recreational Industries:2002, 2002 Economic Census, Industry Series, 2004, U.S. Census Bureau, Retrieved at http://www.census.gov/prod/ec02/ec0271i03.pdfon March 21, 2008
Business Plan for a Start-up Business, SCORE, Counsellors to America's Small Business, 2008, Retrieved at http://www.score.org/template_gallery.html . On March 21, 2008
Official Website of South Bay Battlecats, 2008, http://www.battlecats.org/battlecats.html. Ast accessed on March 21, 2008
Official Website of the Brookhaven Town, 2006, http://www.brookhaven.orglast accessed on March 21, 2008
Hank Aaron is a household name in baseball, one of the most important and influential players in any sport. The reasons for Hank Aaron's success go far beyond his athletic abilities and talents as a player -- for which he is obviously renowned -- but to his sportsmanship, his civil rights activism, and for his overall character. Aaron contributed tremendously to the sport of baseball by injecting his values and ideals into the game.
Born Henry Louis Allen, Hank was born in Mobile, Alabama in what has widely been described as a "humble" and economically underprivileged circumstances ("Hank Aaron," n.d.). Segregation and overt, politically and socially sanctioned racism was a part of life in the America that Hank knew. Hank admitted he was bitten by the baseball bug at a young age, and was already "showing prowess" when he was just four years old (Vascellaro 2). Clearly a child prodigy…
Rituals and Magic of 'Deep Play' of Past and Present Eras
It is common in our present location and age, perhaps except for those minority religious subcultures or communities who identify themselves as part of iccan or Goddess worship organizations, to view ritual magic as a legitimate practice only of the far past. Though millions read their horoscopes daily, and wear lucky talismans, there is a common intellectual currency amongst both scholars and the public at large to see rather than a system of belief structure that still has echoes in our present modalities of belief and being.
This is one reason why the anthropological works of Catherine Allen regarding the Runa, upon its publication in the 1980's, initially struck its readers with such force. The Runa are a small group of townspeople who adhere to customs of ancient Incan and colonial Spanish civilization. The book's most recent…
Allen, Catherine. The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community (Smithsonian Series in Ethnographic Inquiry, No 12. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press: 1988. New Afterward 2002.
Gmelch, George. "Baseball Magic." Retrieved on March 24, 2004 on http://students.faulkner.edu/depts/sbs/readings/an1301/baseball.htm
Geertz, Clifford. "Deep Play: Note on the Balinese Cockfight." Accessed on March 24, 2004 on http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/BaliCockGeertz.html
23331 Water Circle
Boca Raton, FL 33486-8540, USA
The original coal camps that existed throughout the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania to Alabama have faded into memory and kudzu-covered, rusty tracks and vacant holes. The people who worked the pits had to spend a good portion of their lives below ground, breathing coal dust and facing the dangerous task of eviscerating a mountain. It was not a job from which the miners derived much pleasure other than through the camaraderie of their fellow miners. There was a constant need for recreation of some type, so dances and games were much anticipated events that allowed the work of the mines to go forward.
One summer activity that excited the workers due to the promise of competition with nearby camps and the rousing activity it provided was baseball. Most of the camps had a baseball team that was the…
e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.
Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.
The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…
Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592
Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf
Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
NE YORK YANKEES-BOSTON RED SOX RIVALRY
Ask any baseball fan about the greatest game or the greatest player ever and there is a chance they might give a wrong answer. But ask him about the greatest rivalry of all time, and there is absolutely no chance that he would fumble. The answer would most certainly be Red Sox vs. New York Yankees. This is not the case with just big fans of baseball; almost everyone who has ever lived in the United States knows there is stiff competition between the baseball teams from Boston and New York City. But it is unlikely that everyone would be aware of the root causes of this rivalry.
Though they know it has something to do with baseball's greatest player ever, Babe Ruth, but what exactly happened back in 1920 is something very few modern baseball-lovers have tried to discover. Boston residents would certainly…
TIM SULLIVAN, For Red Sox, facing Yankees is facing history, The Cincinnati Enquirer, October 13, 1999
Mel Antonen, Curses! Red Sox foiled again and again by Yankees, USA Today, 10-13-1999, pp 03C
HAL BOCK, AP Sports Writer, Yankees, Red Sox Have Long Rivalry, AP Online, 10-13-1999
Harvey Frommer, Yanks vs. Red Sox Baseball's Greatest Rivalry, http://www.travel-watch.com
Instructional Modifications for an English-As-Second-Language 10th Grade Student
Teaching for Exceptionalities
The student is a 15-year-old bilingual male in enrolled in 10th grade. He presents as having difficulties in his school work primarily due to his current inability to speak, read, and write English fluently. He is currently reading at approximately a 2nd-grade level, and all of his assignments are modified. Examples of the instructional modifications he experiences are as follows: Material is read aloud to him, writing assistance is provided to help him translate from his native language to English, and all story format math problems are converted to conventional number format to sidestep reading and translation difficulties. When a high level of academic support is provided, the student does not exhibit problem behaviors. However, he reports feeling overwhelmed and stressed, and these underlying emotions do contribute to occasional bouts of problem behavior.
Instructional example. I took a content-focused…
Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners. World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment. Retrieved http://www.wida.us/assessment/ACCESS/index.aspx
Brisk, M., & Harrington, M. (2000). Literacy and bilingualism: A handbook for all teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Manuel, J. (2003, December 23). Majoring In Moneyball. Baseball America. Retrieved http://www.baseballamerica.com/today/features/031223collegemoneyball.html
film Field of Dreams
Executive review: The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of the film 'Field of Dreams' , taking into consideration such intrinsic aspects of the film as the plot; characterizations; contextualization and storyline; moods and particularly evident ideological perspectives.
The plot within Field of Dreams begins to take shape when, due to instruction given unto him by a mysterious, heavenly voice one day, Ray Kinsella [Costner], a struggling owa farmer, begins to turn one of his cornfields [virtually the exclusive source of his income] into a baseball diamond. The characters he meets and the experiences he subsequently has, the eventual result of his accomplishment (s) and the ultimately reconciling and redeeming conclusion collectively converge to make for a movie that, in spite of having various fictional and illogical inclinations, depicts a pot that is fundamentally logical moralistic.
The film, directed by Phil Alden…
It begins to become increasingly apparent as the movie nears it conclusion, especially with the appearance of the ghost of Kinsella's father that the prime objective of the movie isn't baseball or success; in fact, it becomes increasingly evident that this is movie based upon representing the lives of people living with deep set regrets due to particular wasted chances within their lives. The film isn't just for baseball fans and neither is it just for those with sentimental tendencies, its fundamentally for people those experienced loss and want, just for a few minutes, a shot at regaining things that they have lost as a result of past mistakes.
Ebert, R. (1989). Field of Dreams. Digital Chicago @ http://www.suntimes.com/ebert/ebert_reviews/1989/04/349987.html
In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.
Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.
This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…
Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny." http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1646806551&SrchMo de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440
Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.
High and Inside
In the Newsweek Magazine article "High and Inside" by Mark Starr, the issue of illegal drug use among professional sports players is given focus. Citing particularly the case of American baseball stars, Starr puts forth the argument that the issue illegal drug use such as subsistence to steroid injections goes beyond the fact that it is illegal -- the bigger issue at hand is that such a system prevails in sports organizations because it is supported and encouraged by everyone in it.
In arguing this primary thesis of the article, Starr exemplifies the case of baseball star Jason Giambi as one of the models of how the proliferation of illegal drug use has made it so common and an imperative requirement for a professional athlete. Chronicling Giambi's career as a professional baseball player, the article details how, just before the peak of his career, he had already…
Starr, M. (2004). "High and Inside." Newsweek Magazine. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6652658/site/newsweek .
govern the extent to which we thrive as human beings. Our survival has been contingent on the fulfillment of needs since the moment we were born. Abraham Maslow saw great importance and significance in the fulfillment of human needs and created an entire theoretical perspective based in these needs. Everyone, including myself, is a product of the fulfillment, or lack of fulfillment, of certain needs. Essentially, our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health and well-being depend upon certain needs being met.
Maslow's theory rests in the concept that certain needs must be tended to and fulfilled prior to other needs. Furthermore, physiological needs must be established before safety needs, safety needs before belongingness needs, and belongingness needs before esteem needs, and finally all of these needs prior to self-actualization (Poston, 2009). These needs were arranged by Maslow in a pyramid, with physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the…
Poston, B. (2009). An exercise in personal exploration: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The Surgical Technologist, August, 347-53.
Tickets and merchandise were being sold out of the same small building that player negotiation and trades took place. This placed pressures on the teams' front office having to deal with customers on a daily basis. Also fans were open to agree or disagree with the plays of the team, quality of the team and even the costs of tickets. The only way Fletcher found to deal with these issues was to make himself available to customers and take in their suggestions. Customer service soon became a high priority to the team.
Among other issues Fletcher had was in his staff and partners. efore the opening of his team, his partners withdrew from the deal. This caused Fletcher to have no choice but to assign his first manager Paul Deese to double as a partial owner. Deese made the call as to baseball decisions and Fletcher made the business decisions…
Case Study: Sonoma County Crushers: Baseball or Business
I'm also good at communicating with the internal and external stakeholders of an organization. For example, at Sam Jacinto Community College, I was constantly interfacing with the athletic department and ground maintenance. And, as a sales manager, I developed a wide range of communication networks with area businesses and vendors.
A also believe that I have the unique breadth of skills required in education administration. y earlier work in the field of boxing clearly demonstrates my ability to handle complex and diverse tasks. I was effective at many activities such as promoting events, organizing local sponsorships, producing newspaper and television advertisements, completing contracts, setting venues, establishing commissions, selling tickets, booking hotel and food accommodations, making travel arrangements and paying operating expenses. Administration was also a large part of my sales management responsibilities that included ensuring acceptable revenue generation, tracking company inventory, expenses and payroll, preparing contract proposals and loan documents…
My strong interpersonal and communication skills are another motivating factor guiding my career decision. In my present position at Las Vegas National Gulf Course, I communicate extensively with the public and club members to make sure they understand rental and schedule policies as well as to promote club tournaments. I'm also good at communicating with the internal and external stakeholders of an organization. For example, at Sam Jacinto Community College, I was constantly interfacing with the athletic department and ground maintenance. And, as a sales manager, I developed a wide range of communication networks with area businesses and vendors.
A also believe that I have the unique breadth of skills required in education administration. My earlier work in the field of boxing clearly demonstrates my ability to handle complex and diverse tasks. I was effective at many activities such as promoting events, organizing local sponsorships, producing newspaper and television advertisements, completing contracts, setting venues, establishing commissions, selling tickets, booking hotel and food accommodations, making travel arrangements and paying operating expenses. Administration was also a large part of my sales management responsibilities that included ensuring acceptable revenue generation, tracking company inventory, expenses and payroll, preparing contract proposals and loan documents and preparing monthly financial reports. My recognition as a collegiate baseball national world series champion and a nationally ranked professional boxer shows that I'm a hands-on contributor as well as a leader.
In 2002, I received a B.A. degree in finance and sports management from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Although I feel that have put my education to excellent use, I would value the opportunity to pursue a graduate degree in education. Additional skills and knowledge will help me make inroads into my future career aspiration, becoming a (what? ). Thank you for your consideration.
Yes, I am a student, but I am also a rarity in the academic genre: I am a working journalist, which means editors pay me to do things I absolutely love -- reporting on sporting events, sports teams, and individuals involved in sports. That includes coaches, managers, fans -- even peanut and soft drink vendors at baseball games.
Of course my repertoire also includes interviewing outstanding athletes as well as those who struggle mightily but on that one day when they do reach their nirvana, it becomes a priceless, magical moment in their lives.
Am I an expert? Technically, to answer that question you would have to ask those who read my stories or the editors I provide copy to. But actually I am very sure of myself and certain of my skills; to wit, I know the ethics and logistics of sports reporting, so I will claim expertise based…
Sales and Promotion
Blue Mountain Community College has been experiencing some difficulty in the area of developing a sales and promotion plan for the athletic department. The purpose of this discussion is to resolve this problem through the development of a detailed plan for promotion and sales of its teams. The plan will be inclusive of the five teams the community college has including football, baseball, softball, and men's and women's basketball.
Regardless of the sport being discussed in terms of promotion and sales, one of the key components in improving sales is associated with relationship marketing (Parvatiyar & Sheth 2001). According to Bee & Kahle (2006)
"Relationship marketing is important because it can be effective. It facilitates role enactment by providing definitions for types of influence and communication strategies that should characterize two participants in a relationship. Teams, leagues, athletes, marketing corporations, and fans have relationships with…
Bee C.C., Kahle, L.R.. (2006) Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15, 102-110
Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19
Fullerton S., Merz, G.R. (2008) The Four Domains of Sports Marketing: A Conceptual Framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly,, 17, 90-108
Irwin, R.L., Sutton W.A., McCarthy, L.M. (2008) Sport promotion and sales management. Human Kinetics
Somehow this is an explanation of what love is, paradoxical. This paradox between the sublime relationship of sex to love and to procreation is all one in this small poem and is the true meaning the poet is conveying.
Fergus is at once the symbol and personification of this in the poem, "this blessing love gives again into our arms." (Meyers __) Referring to the love they have shared for each other and the love that is now their child. The meaning here is at once figurative and literal, here is a sense of spiritual love between them all, and the physical presence of their bodies, both at first as a couple making love and then experiencing their child between them as the symbolic and literal result of that love.
There is also a counter play between the innocence of a child and the experience of an adult. In the…
Meyer, Michael. Thinking and Writing About Literature: A Text and Anthology, Second Edition.
Publisher; Location, (Date)
Streng, Frederick J. "Three Approaches to Authentic Existence: Christian, Confucian, and Buddhist." Philosophy East & West 32.4 (1982): 371-392.
The most important thing for me to do in a challenging situation such as this is to control the situation and calm everything down into a more comfortable environment. I have been trained in many different afflictions which may be present in a high-needs classroom, and I feel that I can adapt to every student no matter what their needs may be. As a teacher, I will be expected to overcome this challenge by accommodating individual student's needs, and trying my best to help any student that needs it. I am calm and collected when I need to be, and can reasonably handle any situation I am faced with. I have been around many high stress situations in my life, and have seen how professionals handle these situations in order to defuse any problems that may arise.
I have learned many excellent qualities found in teachers, such as how to…
Of "Identity" to Diversity
Self-reflect on how your family affected your beliefs and values. Describe at least two specific examples from your memory. Also include reflections on how your family shaped your views, and how that affects your feelings about diversity-related issues.
Self-Reflections on Childhood, Family, and Family Attitudes about Diversity
In self-reflecting on how my family affected my present beliefs and values, and my current attitudes about diversity, my main recollections are of being from a relatively well-off family, but of also of being surrounded as a child by other families that were less well-off, and sometimes of diverse ethnic backgrounds. I am a Caucasian male, and was raised in a series of small Midwestern areas where there were many families with lower-than- average incomes, although my own family was fortunate enough to not be one of them. Still, I feel that based on…
Child Development Institute. "Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers." Child Development Institute. Retrieved October 15, 2005, from: .
Habke, Audrey, and Ron Sept. "Distinguishing Group and Cultural Influences in Inter-Ethnic Conflict: A Diagnostic Model." Canadian Journal of Communication (CJC). Vol. 18, No. 4 (1993). Retrieved October 15, 2005,
Left V Right
Are there more boys who are left handed than Girls? Or are there more girls who are left handed than boys? How many baseball players are left handed?
Left or right handed task orientation, or handedness, may appear to occur almost at random. But a wealth of research is available to suggest that, to the contrary, handedness is the result of a number of factors. These imply that in fact, a complex array of inborn neurological traits and learned environmental factors contribute to one's handedness. This may account for the higher relative proportion of left-handed girls than boys. ith that said, even given the extensive research which has been conducted on this subject, there is little certainty as to whether this is a trait which is more directly influenced before birth or at an early stage of development.
Indeed, factors such as blood-flow in the brain and…
Dellaserra, A. (2010). Left Handed Batter Vs. A Right Handed Pitcher. Livestrong.com.
Hiram College (HC). (2007). Sex and Handedness Influences on Monkeys' Brains Similar to Humans. ScienceDaily.
Okada, F.; Tokumitsu, Y.; Hoshi, Y. & Tamura, M. (1992). Gender- and handedness-related differences of forebrain oxygenation and hemodynamics. Brain Research, 601, (1), 337-342.
Singh, R. & Singh, A.R. (2003). Handedness and Gender Differences in Spatial Abilities. Anthropologist, 5(2), 113-118.