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(Billie Holiday Biography (1915-59). She continued to record for Decca and produced some of her most popular songs during this period. These included Bessie Smith's 'Tain't Nobody's Business if I Do,' 'Them There Eyes,' and 'Crazy He Calls Me.'
However, as is sadly a common pattern with famous musicians her life began to take a downturn after her success in the 1940's. This was mainly due to problem that she experienced with regard to drug and alcohol abuse, and she was arrested a number of times for possession of drugs. Even though she entered a rehabilitation clinic she was unable to completely stop her addiction. This also had a negative impact on her singing voice. Her substance abuse problem was also to affect other areas of her life. She began smoking opium when she was married to her first husband, Johnnie Monroe. This marriage did not last and her second…
Billie Holiday 1915-1959: BBC. June 26, 2007. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/jazz/profiles/billie_holiday.shtml
Billie Holiday. June 26, 2007. June 26, 2007. http://www.soulwalking.co.uk/Billie%20Holiday.html
Billie Holiday: PBS. June 26, 2007. http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_holiday_billie.htm
Billie Holiday Biography (1915-59). June 26, 2007. http://www.biography.com/search/article.do?id=9341902
" The drying up of the dream like a raisin suggests that the spirit of someone who is the victim of prejudice experiences a kind of living death, with all vital forces sucked away from his or her sprit like dried fruit. The dream can also "crust over" like something sweet, implying the false face that African-Americans must put on to live in America. (a Raisin in the Sun, the Lorraine Hansberry play that uses a line from the poem as its title, portrays one of the central characters, a chauffer named alter Lee, as a man filled with rage who must smile and cater to whites in his job).
This contrast between sweetness and reality is even more dramatically depicted in "Strange Fruit," where images of the old, genteel South of Magnolia trees are starkly juxtaposed against the image of a dead, African-American male: "Scent of magnolias, sweet and…
Allen, Lewis. "Strange Fruit." Lyrics Freak. October 14, 2009.
Hughes, Langston. "Harlem." Teaching American History. October 14, 2009.
Social Analysis of the lues Music in the American Society
The blues, or blues music, has been considered an important and popular music genre in the history of American music. Its history goes back many years ago, during the black slavery period in the American history. lues music was said to have traced its roots in the cotton plantations commonly found in the South, and that blues music sang by the African-American slaves were their forms of protest against the slavery system that the white American society encourages. However, blues music did not proliferate and became prevalent among the black and white American society until after the Emancipation period, wherein most African-American slaves were now freed from bondage to slavery legally, and slavery was now abolished and prohibited to practice in the society, especially in the white American community.
The blues is defined as a "musical style created in response…
David, Angela. "Blues Legacies and Black Feminism." 1998. George Washington University Newsletter Web site: "Women Writers Talk History, Feminism, and Politics." 3 November 2002 http://www.gwu.edu/~wstu/newsletter/spring98/writers.htm .
Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." 1845. Afro-American Almanac Web site. 3 November 2002 http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book10.htm .
Evans, David. "Demythologizing the Blues." 1999. Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter. 3 November 2002 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/isam/evans.html.
Herman, Hawkeye. "History of the Blues."
Music on Life
How Music Has Influenced My Life
Music has always played a major role in my life. For as long as I can remember, I have always looked to music as a way to define my life. I even found it amusing when my high school began to play music over the PA during our lunch hour, making me feel as though my life was, for a brief moment, a silly teenage movie. I am very grateful for my family's introducing me to music as I have found that it has helped me to define various, important milestones in my life.
As long as I can remember, my parents have listened to the Beatles. They had all their songs on records and cassette tapes. This was the first band to which I felt loyalty towards and pretty soon, I knew all the lyrics to all the songs on…
Blue Monday. (1983). New Order. Single. London.
God Bless the Child. (1956). Billie Holiday. Lady Sings the Blues. Clef Records.
Yellow Submarine. (1966). The Beatles. Revolver. Capitol Records.
The Way It Is, Tupac
Tupac's rap line "Cops give a damn about a negro? Pull the trigger, kill a n*gga, he's a hero," speaks of the provocative subject concerning African-Americans, more generally how African-American gentlemen are being made target by the police, and that in case an African-American gentleman is killed by a cop then there is noreal big issue. Tupac aspires to encourage his society to unite with him and express their opinion and stand against the issues that are keeping them apart. As expressed earlier, the opportunities available to African-Americans do not equate the opportunities available to other races. Tupac also blames his own ethnicity for the composite emotional background of hate and range they are hemmed in. "I got love for my brother, but we can never go nowhere unless we share with each other. We gotta start makin' changes, learn to see me as…
Estimable, R. (2013, May 30). Tupac-Changes (poetic analysis). Retrieved from https://prezi.com/sii7skqugalw/tupac-changes-poetic-analysis/
I'll Fly Away" / "Spaceship. (2014, january 31). Retrieved from http://www.spin.com/2014/02/kanye-west-college-dropout-10-year-anniversary/140131-kanye-west-spaceship/
Tyle, C., & Baerman, N. (2016). God Bless The Child. Retrieved from http://www.billieholiday.com/portfolio/god-bless-the-child/
How much feeling there is in the third and fourth stanzas! -- the panicked and fearful bird, heart pumping, the calmness of the man, the soft, loving strokes and upward lifting of the bird.
However, behind this calm and ease, is another emotion that Wrigley portrays. It is subtle, yet winds through the poem, so the reader knows that there is some kind of problem, challenge of violence that the man (and the outside world) is facing. Just the title, itself, foreshadows this. Who wants to listen to "news" these days? Is there anything positive and uplifting on CNN or in the papers? he poem explains it as the bird's frantic chirping and the line "even peace seemed possible."
What makes this so effective is the juxtaposition. In one case, is mankind en masse waging war and killing one another. Yet, in another situation, one man, stands alone, helping free…
The man in the poem is trying to find a middle ground. He is attempting to escape into nature and away from the middle of a town or city where road rage threatens, depression and antidepressant increase, car horns blare, and gun shots blare. However, the radio, one of his concessions, keeps him in the midst of the violence with its news. And, ironically, even in the calm and beauty of nature, potential harm strikes, like the bird being trapped and frantically searching for a way out into the light. Violence cannot be left behind.
Interview with Robert Wrigley. Fugue. University of Idaho. Retrieved January 12, 2007 http://www.uidaho.edu/fugue/robert_wrigley.htm .
Wrigley, R. (2006). Earthly Meditation. New York: Penguin Books.
Davis, Angela. Y. Blues, Legacy and Black Feminism. New York: Random House, 1999.
Angela Y. Davis was one of the founding mothers of the radical Black feminist and civil rights movement. Her participation in these movements was not simply vocal and intellectual, but profoundly political, as well. Angela Y. Davis was brought to trial for her supposed activities against the federal government of the United States during the 1960's. However, a different, more artistic side of her political interests comes to light regarding Davis' works in Blues, Legacy and Black Feminism. The author of the seminal Black text Women, Culture, and Politics; Women, Race, and Class shows, in this 1999 book, an interest in Black feminist works beyond that of the purely verbal and prosaic.
Angela Y. Davis argues that through female expression in blues and jazz women such as Gertrude 'Ma' Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday together created…
This section was made up mainly of alto and tenor saxophones, but sometimes also included baritones as well.
1935 saw the creation of the Benny Goodman Trio, yet another development in the evolution of Goodman's style. The trio was made up of legendary jazz musicians; Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa who he had played with in his radio days, with Goodman leading and composing. In this era, Goodman followed a much more mature style, as seen in After You're Gone, (Groove Music, 2008). In these recordings, he explored a complete range of the clarinet and was prone to play in "blue thirds," (Groove Music, 2008). In 1936, the trio became a quartet with the addition of Lionel Hampton on the vibraphone.
One night in 1938, Goodman got the chance of a lifetime, and has been thereafter accredited with bringing swing music into national recognition. He and his band performed at Carnegie…
De Toledano, Ralph. "The Night Swing was Born." Insight on the News. Vol. 13. Feb.,
Gridley, Mark. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2005.
Groove Music. "Benny Goodman." Associated with PBS' Jazz a Film by Ken Burns:
Selected Artist Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 3/31/08 at http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_goodman_benny.htm
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…
McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.
1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
This is possibly one of the central characteristics of the lues - its potential for innovation and imaginative development - while still retaining the essential emotions of its origins.
lues remains with us in contemporary American culture, and as a traditional musical form it has been subjected to countless revivals and reinterpretations. Its current practitioners often integrate the sounds and instrumental pyrotechnics of rock music and the sheen of urban soul; but the twelve-bar form, variations on the blues chord progression, and emotive lyrical content remain relatively unchanged. (What is the lues?)
The lues also relates to our contemporary culture in that its emotive and creative origins in suffering have been used to express, not only the experiences of the past but also the experiences of people in the contemporary world. Many modern lues compositions relate specifically to social problems that are part of the modern world and therefore still…
Baker, R.M. A Brief History of the Blues. March 20, 2005. http://www.island.net/~blues/history.html
Story of the Blues. March 20, 2005. http://www.tomthumb.org/essays/storyblues.shtml
What is the Blues? March 21, 2005 http://www.blues101.org/historystyles.htm
Most large cities have a symphony orchestra, which may perform a dozen times during a season. Jazz and the blues, however, are usually available most of the time in small venues like bars and clubs, and often during the year at large festivals, such as the Monterey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California. Jazz is gaining in popularity on the radio too, and most larger cities have at least one jazz station, while they might not have a classical station. Classical music is accessible in a number of areas, but jazz and the blues are accessible in many more, and that is why today's listener has a wide choice of options when looking for live jazz and blues concerts.
Any trained musician knows all musical genres have similarities. They all use a distinct language of notes and rhythms, and they all use meter, tempo, and harmony. In this, jazz and blues…
Gioia, Ted. "The History of Jazz." WashingtonPost.com. 1997. 18 July 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/historyofjazz.htm
Knight, Richard. "All That JAZZ." Geographical Oct. 2001: 14.
Porter, Eric. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African-American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Shepard, T. Brooks. "Music Notes Earworthy." American Visions Oct. 1999: 48.
BLUES Leadbelly told Alan Lomax, "It a man blues sing blues," statement -- a truth blues -- leads a number things worth thinking exploring. For thing, side Leadbelly's statement true: One blues hear blues understand .
Blues and the American experience
It is a very well-known fact that music is one of the oldest means of expression in human civilization. It represents the way through which some of the deepest feelings and emotions have been expressed along the history of mankind. Whether it is through music and instruments, such as symphonic music, or whether this music includes words and lyrics, all musical creations aim at sending a message about the world their creators lived in, their emotions, and their feelings related to that world, or its surrounding elements.
The Blues has provided music lovers and not only them a comprehensive image of different experiences of the American history particularly because…
Berry, C. (n.d.) "The Blues, Rock-and-Roll and Racism," available at http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205940706.pdf
Blues for Peace Corporation. (2013) "Blues Songs Lyrics," available at http://www.bluesforpeace.com/lyrics.htm
Chuck Berry, "The Blues, Rock-and-Roll and Racism," n.d., available at
Marketing Communication for Subway Restaurant
Marketing for any product or any service depends on the inherent reasons for the demand of that product or service. Thus the relative importance of different aspects is not the same for the marketing of different products or services. A restaurant is a place all of us go for a meal, bit, in our own minds, the rationale for going to different types or classes of restaurants are different. This determines the people who will go to that particular restaurant and what is the level of prices that he expects to pay. Some high class restaurants may get a crowd who just want to be seen there to improve their social status. ut, subway restaurants are for the hoi polloi.
A product for the general public is viewed in marketing terms more as a sales exercise than a publicity exercise. (uttle, 1996) Marketing is generally…
Buttle, Francis. (1996). Relationship Marketing. In Francis Buttle (Ed.), Relationship Marketing: Theory and Practice (pp. 1-16). London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.
Manning, Gerald, L. & Reece, Barry L. (1997). Selling Today (7th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dainow, Sheila & Bailey, Caroline. (1988). Developing Skills with People: Training for Person to Person Client Contact. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Scholtes, Peter, R. (1988). The Team Handbook: How to use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison, WI: Joiner Associates, Inc.
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
Duke Ellington: "Symphony in Black"
Symphony in Black, A Rhapsody of Black Life" is Duke Ellington's second motion picture. The film was directed by Fred aller at Paramount Pictures and then was released during the mid-1930s. One of the most thought-provoking features of this short film is the lack of stereotypical, racist representations of African-Americans which deface earliest jazz movies. This motion picture showed Ellington as composer that was on the same level as other famous composer of "Rhapsody in Blue." In the film, Duke Ellington and his Orchestra are depicted as skilled, and a dignified performer. ith that said, this essay will discuss how Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, or Long Black Song reflect both the version of history that Ellington describes, and the idea of history that Conn sees as so essential to 1930s American culture.
Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, reflect…
Schuller, Gunther. The Swing Era. New York:: Oxford University Press, 1989. p.94.
Springer, Mike. Duke Ellington's Symphony in Black, Starring a 19-Year-old Billie Holiday. 9 January 2015. http://www.openculture.com/2013/05/duke_ellingtons_isymphony_in_blacki_starring_a_19-year-old_billie_holiday.html . 13 March 2016.
Symphony in Black. Dir. Fred Walker. 1935. Paramount.
Popular Music and Social Change in the Present: Green Day's 'American Idiot' (2004)
Following the catalyzing events of September 11th, 2001, the United States would find itself deeply divided over the issues of terrorism, war and presidential politics. At the heart of this frequently impassioned and vitriolic debate would be the U.S.-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq as well as a far-reaching culture clash between two distinction American populations. The 2004 album by pop-punk trio Green Day, American Idiot, would be crafted with the intent of exploring these divisions. In the title track, Green Day would author an anthem that would become omnipresent in pop culture as the U.S. used falsified information to justify its invasion of Iraq.
"American Idiot" would serve both as a harsh critique of the war, of the presidency of George . Bush and of the violent, materialistic culture being fomented in the U.S.…
Geek Stink Breath (GSB). (2012). American Idiot Song Meaning. Geekstinkbreath.net.
Wiebe, C. (2007). Walkn' With Green Day. Center for Parent/Youth Understanding.
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…
Behlmer, Rudy. "Big Bands in the Movies." Turner Classic Movies. 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=199314
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2006.
History Link, "The Jazz Singer, the First Successful Feature Film with Sound, Debuts in Seattle at the Blue Mouse on December 30, 1927." The Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2485
Schoenherr, Steven E. "Recording Technology History." San Diego University. 2005. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/notes.html#origins