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Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
This research concentrates on the role of body weight or shape on self-evaluation on individuals. A healthy individual will use their self-evaluation correctly to manage their weight. However, some individuals over evaluate their weight or body shape on their self-image and this is referred to as simply "overvaluation' (Grilo, 2013). Overvaluation of body shape or weight is a common characteristic among most eating disorders. However, there has been some debate about whether or not this characteristic is present in the binge eating disorder (BED).
BED is defined by recurrent binge eating (eating unusually large quantities of food in a discrete period accompanied by feelings of loss of control), binge-eating episodes are associated with at least 3 of 5 behavioral indicators (e.g., eating much more rapidly than usual), marked distress about the binge eating, and the absence of inappropriate weight-compensatory behaviors that are characteristic of bulimia nervosa…
Grilo, C. (2013). Why No Cognitive Body Image Feature Such As Overvaluation of. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 208-211.
Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…
Adam, T.C. & Epel, E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 449-458.
Alexander, B.K. (2008). The globalization of addiction: A study in the poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-text revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Bartsch, A.J., Homola, G., Biller, A., Smith, S.M., Weijers, H.G., & Wiesbeck, G.A. (2007). Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism. Brain, 130(1), 36-47.
Binge Eating Disorder
The most prevalent eating disorder in adults has been identified to be the binge eating disorder (BED) (Iacovino, 2012). This disorder can be characterized when an individual eats an unusually large amount of food which is characterized by a loss of self-control. There is also an absence of other accompanying behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or exercise and these individuals can gain a significant amount of excess weight. It has been estimated that the disorder affects 3.5% of women and 2.0% of men in the U.S. And is equally present in different racial and ethnic groups (Iacovino, 2012).
There are wide arrays of different health consequences for individuals that suffer from BED. The health impacts all are derived from obesity related conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as self-image and social problems that can also occur. The lives of people who suffer…
Iacovino, J. (2012). Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep., 432-446.
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…
Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching
on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most
Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
The youngsters and children who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa in early age suffer from low body development, lack of growth of good mental health and particularly with the low growth of sex hormones that make them weaker sexually. You can see many people who have poor body structure and lack of bone density due to their improper nutrition so these children usually have weak bones and there is fear that they may face with bone fracture in their life.
While besides physical body disturbance and weakness it put effect on the brain of human being and person who is diagnose with Anorexia Nervosa have weak structure of their brain and have physiological impact on those people including poor personality, shattered body image.
There are many ways that can be used to cure this disease but first of all you need to find out that you are also suffering from this…
Cohen, Juliet. "Identifying Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms." EzineArticles 13 September 2007. 01 October 2007 http://ezinearticles.com/?Identifying-Anorexia-Nervosa-Symptoms&id=730487 .
Birmingham CL, Goldner EM, Bakan R. Controlled trial of zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa. Int J. Eating Disord. 1994;15:251-255.
Thomsen, S.R., Weber, M.M., & Brown, L.B. (2002). The relationship between reading beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among adolescent females. Adolescence, 37, 1-19
Crisp AH, Lacey JH, Crutchfield M. Clomipramine and 'drive' in people with anorexia nervosa: an inpatient study. Br J. Psychiatry. 1987;150:355-358
While no one knows what the future will bring, based upon what the background / significance uncovered, it is clear that a large portion of the population sample will more than likely suffer from some type of eating disorder. This will help to achieve the various aims / objectives of project, which are to assist these people, in realizing that they do have a problem and to seek out effective treatment options. This could be a real challenge, in identifying the problem as one issue, while encouraging someone to seek out help is another matter. As these people, must be able to realize that they have a medical condition and want to be able rectify the situation. The only way that this can occur, is for someone to admit that they are suffering from an eating disorder.
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html…
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html
Alexander, L. (2010). Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management. New Dimensions in Women's Health. (pg. 256). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Costin, C. (2007). Considering Ethnicity. The Eating Disorder Sourcebook. (pp. 35 -- 37). Los Angeles, CA: Lowell House.
Greenberg, J. (2006). Issue Related to Body Image. Physical Fitness and Wellness. (pg. 229). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
According to Himmel (2009), "We could save a lot of pain, suffering and money by incorporating obesity into the range of illnesses now classified as eating disorders, and focusing on prevention" Obesity related issues are frequently classified separately from eating disorders, but there is more overlap than many people believe. When a person diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia, the traditionally recognized eating disorders, enter treatment with a professional counselor or psychologist, a Twelve Step program called Overeaters Anonymous is sometimes recommended. The Twelve Step program Overeaters Anonymous was not started to help people with anorexia and bulimia, and yet it has come to serve these populations as well, suggesting that what Himmel (2009) says is correct. Eating disorders encompass a range of disordered eating behaviors. Individual differences ensure that there are no two people who practice an eating disorder for the same reasons. By the same token, obesity…
Day, J., Ternouth, A. & Collier, D.A. (2009). Eating disorders and obesity: Two sides of the same coin? Epidemiological Psychiatry 18(2): 96-100.
Himmel, S. (2009). You must be hungry. Psychology Today. 18 Sept, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-must-be-hungry/200909/is-obesity-eating-disorder
Alcoholism researchers developed this model. The model presumes that a consumer is in one phase of change at any given time. This model entails Maintenance, action, maintenance, preparation or pre-contemplation (Patrick 189). The concept is that consumers have to shift from one stage to the next. The stages prepare them to move to the next ones sequentially. This suggests that if consumers hurry through or if they skip stages they are likely to experience setbacks. In addition, different stages apply different strategies. For instance, a person who is addicted to smoking and is at the pre-contemplation stage: this means that the person is not even thinking of quitting the habit. Probably, such a person is always not ready to consider making a list of alternatives (Lucas 920).
This model has been successful in areas such as drug abuse, smoking, and alcohol. However, the model has been applied in changing health…
Biederman, J et al. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):302-7.
Busko, Marlene. Girls With ADHD Are at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders and Depression.
Nov 08, 2007. Medscape News Today. Web.
"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).
Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.
Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…
Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.
Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007796657
Arieti, S. & Brodie, H.K. (Eds.). (1981). Advances and New Directions. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101519121
Aronoff N., Geliebter a., and Zammit G. ( 2001) Gender and body mass index as related to the night-eating syndrome in obese outpatients. J Am Diet Assoc.101(1), pp.102-4.
The third group served as a comparison group. They were not put on a diet at all, they simply received information on healthy eating. All women received the same advice to increase physical activity, especially walking.
The women were followed for 40 weeks, with an additional follow-up visit at 65 weeks. The researchers took weekly measures in a variety of areas. These included body weight, episodes of binge eating, depression levels and difficulty sticking with the diet.
The different data from the groups were collected and measured statistically to see if there were any differences in the areas looked at in the study, in particular, if women on a low-calorie diet were more likely to develop a binge eating disorder.
The original belief of the researchers as they went into this study was that the women in the two diet conditions would be more likely than the non-dieting women to…
Wadden, T., et al. (2004, September). "Dieting and the development of eating disorders in obese women: results of a randomized, controlled trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(3). pp. 560-568.
Depression and Eating Disorders
The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…
Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).
The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…
Eating Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Mental Health Information
Center Web site: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-
Eating Disorders. (2009). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Institute of Mental Health
Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds
Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders
Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…
Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.
Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.
Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
Compulsive overeating or excessive eating is one of several known eating disorders. Eating disorders are rampant diseases in western cultures. Eating disorders are expressions of abnormal and nearly always harmful behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions of food and eating. They usually center around a great lack or great abundance of food entering a person's body. Eating disorders also involved distorted perceptions of oneself and the development of compulsive thoughts and behaviors. Eating disorders show up in male and female populations, when for most of the disorders' history, they were thought to only show up in women. Current psychological research shows that the degree of westernization in a culture is directly proportional to the likelihood and prevalence of eating disorders, particularly in women. Compulsive overeating is a form of binge eating disorder when people eat compulsively as a response to stress. Compulsive overeaters eat too much when they are…
Davis, C., Carter, J.C. (2009) Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence. Appetite, 53, 1 -- 8.
Lightstone, J. (2004) Dissociation and Compulsive Eating. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 5(4), 17 -- 32.
Morgan, C.M., Yanovski, S.Z., Nguyen, T.T., McDuffie, J., Sebring, N.G., Jorge, M.R., Keil, M., & Yankoski, J.A. (2002) Loss of Control Over Eating, Adiposity, and Psychopathology in Overweight Children. Eat Discord, 31, 430 -- 441.
Overeaters Anonymous. (1993) Compulsive Overeating -- An Inside View. Overeaters Anonymous, Rio Rancho: NM.
Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new habits to replace existing ones. Another example would be modifying eating behavior such as eating in the same place each day, or concentrating solely on eating and not watching television at the same time (Fiona Mantle, 2003)."
It is worth noting here that research has shown that people will change and transform their eating habits, once they learn the advantages and disadvantages of their eating behavioral patterns. However, at the same time, it is also worth noting here that since eating habits can be transformed through learning, they can also be unlearned, however, the process of unlearning may take place through a lengthy passage of time. As Fiona Mantle (2003) writes, "Eating behaviors are learned behaviors therefore they can be unlearned,…
Abraham S, Llewellyn-Jones D (2001) Eating Disorders: the facts. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Bruch H (1973) Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and the Person Within. New York, Basic Books.
Bunnell, D.W., Shenker, I.R., Nussbaum, M.P., Jacobson, M.S., & Cooper, P. (1990). Sub-clinical vs. formal eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 357-362.
Cathie E. Guzzetta. (2001). Developing and implementing a comprehensive program for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.
Diabetes and Obesity: What Are the Choices?
Diabetes is becoming an increasingly serious health problem across the United States, and indeed across the world. The majority of cases of diabetes, both in terms of new diagnoses and of current cases, are those of Type II diabetes, which is a condition generally brought on by overweight or obesity and lack of exercise, that prevents an individual's body from being able to metabolize the glucose in food in an efficient and healthy way. Individuals with Type II diabetes (as opposed to individuals with Type I diabetes) can generally be quite successfully treated by losing weight and increasing exercise. Individuals with Type II diabetes can often bring their symptoms and risks under control and even potentially eliminate them through good diet and weight loss.
Given that Type II diabetes can have very serious long-term consequences (including early death due to stroke or heart…
Early Release / Vol. 59 August 3, 2010. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm59e0803.pdf.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2009). Latent class analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among college youth. Prevention Science 10: 376 -- 386.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2011). The Differential Prevalence of Obesity and Related Behaviors in Two- vs. Four-Year Colleges Obesity 19: 453 -- 456.
Nelson, M.C. et al. (2008). Emerging adulthood and college-aged youth: an overlooked age for weight-related behavior change. Obesity 16: 2205 -- 2211.
The comparisons make me feel better about myself if I determine that I have better features such as bigger biceps. However, I will always feel worse if the person I am comparing myself to is better-looking in some department.
I would like to change some of my attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs about what I am supposed to look like, what other people want me to look like, and what society expects from me. The bottom line should always be health: exercise and eating right should be about how I feel more than about how I look.
3. Anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorders are all psychological problems that have physical manifestations. They are behavioral issues and while there is a strong physiological component, the root causes of these diseases is in the emotional or mental make up of the person. Still, an eating and exercise regime that promotes total health can…
healthy Nutrition: A Chemistry View Point
Chemistry is a branch of sciences that deals with the compositions of matter and helps in identifying the substances that form matter. Living as well as non-living bodies are formed with substances. These substances differ in their composition, nature, properties, and reactions with other substances. There is a vital role of chemicals and chemistry in everyday life of human beings. The impacts of chemical substances on living beings can also be divided into direct and indirect categories. The impact of environmental substances is indirect in nature whereas direct impacts are chemical composition of food, nutrition, vitamins, and physical activity.
The following sections are focused on detailed review of relevance for chemistry and chemicals on healthy eating habits, nutrition, and vitamins. The significant role of physical activity and exercising is also elaborated in the sections below. There are significant benefits of healthy diet and exercise.…
Papadopolus, K. (2008). Food Chemistry Research Developments. USA: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Sladyk, K., & O'Sullivan, B. (2010). Occupation, activity, Skills, patterns, Demands, context, and Balance. Occupational Therapy Essentials for Clinical Competence, 33.
Willett, W. (2012). Nutritional epidemiology (Vol. 40). USA: OUP.
Criteria for Diagnosis
Physical and Mental Signs and epercussions
Different Treatments of Anorexia
Anorexia Nervosa, a type of eating disorder, continues to plague some of the world's population, particularly white adolescent females obsessed with looking thinner. This paper endeavors to explore what exactly anorexia is, in relation to the category of 'eating disorder' as well as other eating disorders such as bulimia. The criteria for diagnosis will be identified as well as the population in our society most susceptible to falling victim to this mental illness. Physical and mental signs and repercussions will also be highlighted along with 3 case studies advocating different treatments to combat this sickness. Traditional treatment normally consists of hospitalization, followed by psychotherapy. However, family or support therapy is gradually gaining credibility and popularity over traditional treatment routes.
Despite the fact that there is greater understanding amongst the medical profession and general…
Being a Woman Means Being Subject to Impossible Expectations (eating disorders). http://www.geocities.com/Wellesley/1421/eating.html
Block, Jerald. (September 6, 1996). Case Example #1. http://nypisys.cpmc.columbia.edu/development/Web/nyspi/depts/psypharm/eating~1/Acase1.htm
Compulsive Exercise. http://www.something-fishy.org/whatarethey/exercise.php le Grange, D. (June 1999). "Family Therapy for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa," in Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1999 Jun;55(6):727-39. http://www.google.com/search?q=anorexia+hospitalization+case+study&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&start=10&sa=N
Nickol, Jenny. (2001). Eating Disorders Awareness: Emotional Issues Involved With Eating Disorders. http://ohioline.osu.edu/ed-fact/1005.html
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)
apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…
Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/433509755?accountid=13044
Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073
Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x
Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
Vitamin deficiency in food can cause different health deficiencies like Pellagra, Scurvy, ickets among others. Most of these negative health outcomes are evidenced in the staple diet of those in the developing and poor countries. We shall understand some diets that cause these deficiencies in this essay.
The characteristics of Pellagra are mental afflictions, diarrhea, and dermatitis. Inadequate quantity of nicotinic acid in the diet that causes niacin deficiency in the body causes Pellagra. Over dependence on maize is an observed cause of Pellagra. Though Maize contains Niacin, it cannot be absorbed in the body in the raw form. It has to be passed through alkaline hydrolysis to be absorbed by the body. Jowar also contains adequate quantities of Niacin. However, the presence of leucine in jowar inhibits the process of absorption of niacin. Additionally, chronic alcoholism is one known cause of lack of ability to absorb of niacin…
Allgrove, J., & Mughal, M.Z. (2014). Calcium deficiency rickets: extending the spectrum of almost forgotten. International Journal Of Dermatology, 45(8), 909-913. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02844.x
Karthikeyan, K., & Thappa, D.M. (2002).Pellagra and skin. International Journal Of 'nutritional' rickets. Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 99(9), 794-795. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306465
Obadina, S. (2014).An overview of anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge eating disorder. British Journal Of School Nursing, 9(9), 441-446.
Olmedo, J.M., Yiannias, J.A., Windgassen, E.B., & Gornet, M.K. (2006). Scurvy: a disease. Dermatology, 41(8), 476-481. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.2002.01551.x
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
The dream of losing weight is a big one because losing weight is one of the most difficult things a person can do. Even on a ranch with nothing to worry about but losing weight, we see every week just how difficult it is. The capacity of the human is pushed to the limits and what everyone realizes is that they are capable of more than they know. This is one notion the trainers have drilled into the heads of every contestant who has graced the ranch. Too many times people are told to take it too easy and they push contestants to do 30 seconds more because they can.
Not all can be the biggest loser and, as mentioned earlier, the show is a game. The contestants who prove to be lacking in motivation are often eliminated from teams because everyone on teams must work together to have the…
Bennet, Jan. "The Obesity Epidemic." Long-Term Living. 2008. 57.4. June 28, 2010. EBSCO Resource Database.
Broadcasting and Cable. June 28, 2010. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/110294-Primetime_Ratings_NBC_Wins_with_Biggest_Loser.php
Hypoglycemia is a condition of low blood sugar, caused by the body's inappropriate metabolism of glucose and insulin. Diabetics who experience temporary hypoglycemia can remedy the problem by ingesting some simple sugars to immediately reintroduce glucose into the bloodstream.
A proper diet for diabetics is one that reduces intake of refined sugars, reduces sodium, and in many cases, helps the person lose weight. Most adults who acquire Type 2 Diabetes have poor lifestyle habits. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by obesity and poor nutrition even if some individuals are at a greater risk for developing the disease. Any person who might be at risk for diabetes should learn proper eating habits as early as possible in their life. Becoming overweight or obese is a difficult process to reverse and may lead to other health problems like heart disease. Persons who are overweight but who are willing to change their eating…
American Dental Association. "Diabetes and Your Oral Health." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.ada.org/public/topics/diabetes_faq.asp
American Diabetes Association. "Hypoglycemia." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.diabetes.org/type-1-diabetes/hypoglycemia.jsp
American Diabetics Association. "What Can I Eat?" Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.diabetes.org/food-nutrition-lifestyle/nutrition/what-can-i-eat.jsp
Oral Health and Nutrition." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.ringsurf.com/online/1173-oral_health_and_nutrition.html
Drug dosing is often based overall on the "volume of distribution for the loading dose and on the clearance for maintenance, with volume of distribution being increased if drug is distributed among lean and fat tissues (Casati & Putzu, 2005).
Coe, Saleh, Samuel & Edwards (2004) report that multiple problems related to anesthesia and obesity exist. The level of obesity defined by MBI has a significant impact on the type of anesthesia most patients choose (Coe, et. al, 2004). ecent studies have focused on encouraging patients to lose a certain amount of weight prior to surgical intervention to make anesthesia delivery a more viable and safe option (Coe, et. al, 2004). Unfortunately most patients undergoing bariatric surgery have utilized all other resources thus must risk any potential contraindications associated with anesthetic delivery in order to lose weight.
Obesity is a complicated and rapidly advancing disease affecting millions of people…
Bostwick, G.J. & Melcher, J. (1998). "The obese client: Myths, fats, assessment and intervention." Health and Social Work, 23(3): 195.
Cabay, C., Dreyer, M.G. & Pellegrinelli, N. (2001 - May). "Leptin directly induces the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in human monocytes." Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 86: 783-91.
Casati, A. & Putzu, M. (2005 - mar). "Anesthesia in the obese patient: Pharmacokinetic considerations." J. Clin Anesth. 17(2): 134-45.
Coe, A.J., Saleh, T., Samuel, T., Edwards, R. (2004 - Jun). "The management of patients with morbid obesity in the anaesthetic assessment clinic." Anaesthesia, 59(6): 570-3.
Boulton, Martha (2005) Exploring alexithymia, depression, and binge eating in self-reported eating disorders in women. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Dahm, Lori (2005) Obesity update: are we getting any thinner?(Special Report)
Private Label Buyer
Merrick, Joav (2005) Psychosomatic reasons for chronic pains.(Editorial)
Southern Medical Journal
____(2006) Obese people may be more sensitive to pain.(NEWS Breaks)(Brief article) Nutrition oday
PORER, LAWRENCE C. WAMPLER, RICHARD S (2000) Adjustment to Rapid Weight Loss. Families, Systems & Health
Rubin, Jay J. (2005) Psychosomatic pain: new insights and management strategies.(CME opic: Psychosomatic Pain) Southern Medical Journal
ucker, Miriam E. (2005) Depression tied to poor adherence to cardiac Rx: results of two studies show that use of aspirin and [beta]-blockers was lower in depressed patients.(Psychosomatic Medicine) Clinical Psychiatry News
his study will seek to determine whether or not obese post operative patients have a higher incidence of psychosomatic disorders and illnesses than non-obese post op…
The need for this study is evident. The cost factor of psychosomatic illnesses may be reduced if it can be determined whether or not the obese patient population has a higher incidence of psychosomatic illness in post op. If it does then future steps can be taken to better prepare the obese patient population for surgery to reduce the incidence of post op psychometric illness.
Tucker, Miriam E. (2005) Depression tied to poor adherence to cardiac Rx: results of two studies show that use of aspirin and [beta]-blockers was lower in depressed patients.(Psychosomatic Medicine) Clinical Psychiatry News
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
The Benefits and Risks of the High-Protein Diet
Finding a healthy diet, achieving nutritional balancing an attaining an ideal body weight may be lifelong challenges. Myriad competing theories and philosophies drive an almost infinite range of possibilities for comporting one's consumption of calories. Among them, one that has gained increasingly popularity and scientific evaluation is the high protein diet. This nutritional strategy is based on the premise that the body is best served by a diet that is lean, low on sugars and carbohydrates but high on proteins. This is a diet that is especially preferred for individuals seeking to lose fat, to gain muscle mass or to support the greater levels of energy consumption required by regular athletic or physical activity. However, some medical debate remains about how beneficial, healthy or balanced this dietary strategy is. The article here considers some dimensions of this debate.
One of the…
WebMD, 2011. High-Protein Diet for Weight Loss. WebMD.com.
Yeager, S., 2012. Protein: Your Secret Weight-Loss Weapon. Women's Health Magazine.
Zaretsky, K., 2012. Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Mayo Clinic.com.
Drugs thought to enhance serotonin-mediated neurotransmission have been shown to diminish appetite for carbohydrates. In a study done by Heraief, Burckhardt, Wurtman and Wurtman, (1985), they examined the ability of tryptophan (TP), serotonin's amino acid precursor, or a placebo to influence weight loss among 62 obese Swiss outpatients who were on a reducing diet known as the Protein-Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF) Diet which is often associated with severe carbohydrate craving. This diet provided relatively large amounts of protein but little carbohydrates, thus stimulating ketone body production. Its consumption also reduced the ratio of plasma TP to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids, thereby probably diminishing brain TP and serotonin levels. It was found that among moderately obese patients the TP significantly enhanced weight loss, especially during the first treatment month but also during the total. The TP didn't modify the reported adherence to the PSMF diet.…
Gordon-Elliott, Janna S. And Margolese, Howard C. (2006). Weight loss during prolonged branched-chain amino acid treatment for tardive dyskinesia in a patient with schizophrenia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 40(2), p195-195.
Group, Edward F. (2009). Amino Acid Weight Loss. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from Weight
Loss & Obesity Web site: http://www.weightlossobesity.com/weight-loss/amino-acid-weight-loss.html
Heraief, Eric, Burckhardt, Peter, Wurtman, Judith J. And Wurtman, Richard J. (1985).
client on Ben Blackall and his specific needs regarding his obesity. Ben Blackall is an 8-year-old boy who is unable to join in any sports at school because of his obesity. He weighs 70 kilos and is 140 cms in height. His family including his 2 brothers are all overweight or obese. This paper will explore the short-term and long-term implications of such an illness. This study will look at interventions that can be implemented into the child's life in hopes of prevention of continued obesity.
The impact of adolescent overweight extends into adulthood. Adolescents who are overweight have an increased risk of morbidity from coronary artery disease and arthritis in adulthood, independent of their weight as adults, and are more likely to be overweight as adults. Obesity in adulthood is perhaps the most serious of all consequences because it is associated with increased mortality and morbidity from a variety…
(2001, March 1). Obesity and Health. Bandolier Web site. Retrieved August 8, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band85/b85-4.html
(2004, March 9). Childhood Obesity and 'The Ticking Cancer Timebomb'. FemaleFirst.co.uk. Retrieved August 8, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.femalefirst.co.uk/health/392004.htm
(2005, April 28). Cancer Prevention: A Resource to Support Local Action in Delivering The NHS Cancer Project: Chapter 3: Reducing Overweight and Obesity. Health Development Agency Web site. Retrieved August 8, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.had-online.org.uk/html/resources/cancer_prevention/chapter3.html
(2005, May 2). Childhood Obesity. American Obesity Association Web site. Retrieved August 9, 2005 from the World Wide Web:http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/prevention.shmtl
exist on kleptomania. They may include treatment options, background on the disorders, or even how to identify a person suffering from kleptomania. New research however, has begun linking the disorder to others in hopes of better understanding what causes kleptomania and how to effectively treat it. Kleptomania has been linked to compulsive buying and binge-eating disorder. omen are known to suffer more from these disorders than men. This suggests these three disorders may have more in common than initially believed.
Kleptomania is a rare disorder found in both men and women with women producing higher occurrences than men. Shoplifting although similar to kleptomania, is not habitual nor does it produce the same effects that someone suffering from kleptomania would. The disorder is commonly characterized by a need to steal things, sometimes trivial things, in order to feel better or feel in control. Normally people who show symptoms of kleptomania…
Chong, S.A., and B.L. Iow. "Treatment of kleptomania with fluvoxamine." Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 93.4 (1996): 314-315. Print.
Grant, Jon, Brian Odlaug, Liana Schrieber, Samuel Chamberlain, and Suck Won. "Memantine reduces stealing behavior and impulsivity in kleptomania: a pilot study." International Clinical Psychopharmacology 28.2 (2013): 106-111. Print.
Grant, Jon E., and Suck Won Kim. "An Open-Label Study of Naltrexone in the Treatment of Kleptomania." The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63.4 (2002): 349-356. Print.
Grant, Jon E., and Marc N. Potenza. The Oxford handbook of impulse control disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.
Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?
Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…
references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis
Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.
Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.
Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm
Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
Overlapping Neural Correlates for Food and Drug Addiction
The Neural Correlates of Food and Drug Addiction Overlap
A recent popular press article in the Huffington Post reviewed a recently published research article that revealed the brain functions in a similar manner whether a person is addicted to food or drugs. Women scoring high as emotional eaters and exposed to a milkshake preferentially activated the anterior cingulate cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and caudate, as imaged by fMI. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex was less active when compared to the brains of subjects scoring low as emotional eaters. These areas correspond to those that have been found to be involved in drug using/seeking behavior, which suggests the mechanisms involved in food and drug addiction are similar or the same. Previously published research studies support this conclusion, although addiction-related behaviors are very complex and additional studies will be…
Coletta, Maria, Platek, Steven, Mohamed, Feroze B., van Steenburgh, J. Jason, Green, Deborah, and Lowe, Michael R. (2009). Brain activation in restrained and unrestrained eaters: An fMRI study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 598-609.
Gearhardt, Ashley N., Yokum, Sonja, Orr, Patrick T., Stice, Eric, Corbin, William R., and Brownell, Kelly D. (2011). Neural correlates of food addiction. Archives of General Psychiatry, Published online ahead of print April 4, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/archgenpsychiatry.2011.32v1
Goldstein, Rita Z., Tomasi, Dardo, Alia-Klein, Nelly, Carillo, Jean H., Maloney, Thomas, Woicik, Patricia A. et al. (2009). Dopaminergic response to drug words in cocaine addiction. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(18), 6001-6006.
Killgore, William D.S. And Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A. (2006). Affect modulates appetite-related brain activity to images of food. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 357-363.
Dana shows signs of having bulimia. She binges and then purges to rid herself of the extra food consumed. The person involved is Dana and her triggers are comments and conversation made by her mother and her sister, Joanie.
The modality of family therapy used is cognitive behavioral family therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a common treatment strategy for those suffering from eating disorders. While cognitive behavioral family therapy is a recently used modality of family therapy, its original form has been tied to treatment of bulimia for years. Numerous articles state the efficacy of CBT for treatment of bulimia. "CBT was more effective in relieving binging and purging than psychoanalytic psychotherapy and was generally faster in alleviating eating disorder features and general psychopathology" (Poulsen et al., 2014, p. 109). CBT is the most commonly used evidence-based practice. Several clinical trials have noted the efficacy of CBT for the treatment…
Poulsen, S., Lunn, S., Daniel, S. I., Folke, S., Mathiesen, B. B., Katznelson, H., & Fairburn, C. G. (2014). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy or Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(1), 109-116. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12121511
Waller, G., Gray, E., Hinrichsen, H., Mountford, V., Lawson, R., & Patient, E. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and atypical bulimic nervosa: Effectiveness in clinical settings. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(1), 13-17. doi:10.1002/eat.22181
This midterm is top ranking in comparison to the others. The outline is very detailed and on the first page, making it easier for me to see what the paper is aout and where the writer wants to go through each section. The different sections are also very convincing in their claims such as writer oriented depression. I liked how he used two well-known writers and their outs of depression and linked them together to where you can see directly and indirectly how depression fueled their career and vice versa. I also liked the use of religion as means of helping people who suffer from depression.
The quotes work very well with each suject. The progression from nature of depression to how depression affects different areas such as religion and literature is well thought out. The iliography is long and varied with sources from texts, journals. Most of…
bibliography was weak in that most of the sources were from online. He needs to find better sources. The outline was okay but there was one section: "Opposition. None that I can find. You can not get high in any way from hemp products. I have yet to discover a negative impact to the environment or society" that is not true. There is plenty opposition and some research has shown growing marijuana has led to a negative impact on the environment through supplies pollution. People growing marijuana throw away their used up supplies in ways that pollute the environment.
"I don't think the symptoms are significantly different enough from bulimia or anorexia that it deserves a special diagnostic category...It's an obsessive-compulsive problem. The object of the obsession is less relevant than the fact that they are engaging in obsessive behavior," said one such therapist with a shrug (Ellin 2009, p.1). She said that culture had little to do with the psychological problem and that healthy eating was seen by the patient as merely a way to lose weight, or an obsession fixated on a different aspect of food, beyond its caloric content.
It is true that many orthorexic patients, young and old, lose weight, and sometimes extreme amounts of weight. However, not all patients are fixated primarily on weight loss, or on the fat or caloric content of foods. The youth of the patients, and the fact that boys and girls manifest the illness in more equal numbers also…
Ellin, Abbey. (2009, February 26).What's eating our kids. The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/health/nutrition/26food.html?pagewanted=2
It is imperative to persuade children to go outside and play and to educate them about exercise. They have to learn that there is such a thing as too much or too little. The best thing one can do for their kids is to take walks because it's beneficial to their health (the Media, 2007). Although a good argument can be made that it is not the media that leads women to get eating disorders and that it is instead society that perpetuates this, I think it could be said that one goes hand in hand with the other.
The manner that the main stream media portrays women in the images that they depict has a definite influence on the way that women feel and how they believe that they need to look like. There is a constant barrage of overly think women seen in advertisements that lead women to…
Coakley, Tedra. 2007, "Eating disorders no longer discriminate," viewed November 24, 2010,
< http://www.iccjournal.biz/eating_disorders_no_longer_discr.htm >
"Cultural Roles." 2007, viewed 24 November 2010, < http://www.something-
" Earlier, in Leary et. al.'s article, it was stated how thoughtless commitment of an activity is vital to the success of self-control, since at this stage, the individual loses his/her concept of self-awareness. However, in Hoyle's analysis, impulsivity is a factor that hampers the individual's performance of an activity with a high level of self-control. Thus, the relationship between impulsivity and self-regulation are inversely proportional to each other: as the individual increases his/her level of impulsivity, the level of self-regulation decreases.
Combining both factors, Hoyle then created a bigger picture of his interpretation of and perspective about self-regulation. For him, in order to fully gain self-regulation in the self, there should be an "alignment" of both the real and ideal self. The real self are actions and behavior that the individual observes on a daily basis, while the ideal self could be a part of the individual's personality, or…
Hoyle, R. (Dec 2006). "Personality and self-regulation: Trait and information-processing perspectives." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.
Leary, M, C. Adams and E. Tate. (Dec 2006). "Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.
The psychological disorder that I have selected to explain from a variety of causal perspectives is bulimia. Bulimia is a condition in which people engage in the act of binge eating, and eat a lot more than is necessary or even healthy for an allotted period of time. Granted, there are certain physiological aspects of this sort of maladaptive behavior, in which individuals can train their bodies to trigger a specific reaction to help them purge themselves of the food. Most often purging involves either vomiting or exiting one's stool. egardless, there are a number of different causal factors that can contribute to this sort of abnormal behavior (Laureate Education, 2007) -- some more so than others.
As defined within Abnormal Psychology written by Butcher et al., the causal pattern of any sort of abnormal behavior is etiology (Butcher et al., p., 2012). Oftentimes, the etiology for bulimia…
Butcher, J.N., Mineka, S., & Hooley, J.M. (2012). Psychology (Laureate Education, custom 14th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2007). Diagnosis and assessment. Baltimore, MD: Author. "Introduction" with Dr. John Marszalek
The ability to help a person or a patient is often a complex affair that involves care on a much deeper level than simply treating symptoms. "Overcoming" is a concept that was chosen by the authors; this concept is multifaceted and includes many different aspects, but can be thought as roughly being able to overcome a personal challenge to meet a desired outcome (Brush, Kirk, Gultekin, & Baiardi, 2011). The concept of overcoming is interesting to me and I feel that I have had overcome many things in my life; although these challenges were on a different scale than the case studies provided. However, understanding what it takes to "overcome" could be a valuable concept to many people.
The significance of the concept in the profession can be largely thought of in terms of expanding the lexicon to include terms that might be more relevant…
Brush, B., Kirk, K., Gultekin, L., & Baiardi, J. (2011). Overcoming: A Concept Analysisnuf_227 160..168. Nursing Forum, 160-168.
Freire, P., Soares, A., Nakayama, M., & Spanhol, F. (2010). Succession Process in a Family Business: Knowledge Management Overcoming Resistence to Organizational Changes. Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management, 713-736.
Levatino, A., & Pecoud, A. (2012). Overcoming the Ethical Dilemmas of Skilled Migration? An Analysis of International Narratives on the "Brain Drain." The American Behavioral Scientist, 1258-1267.
Walker, I., & Avant, K. (2005). Strategies for Theory Construction in Nursing. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
The case of Judy Jones: Using cognitive behavioral therapy for anorexics
Anorexia is one of the most difficult of all psychological disorders to treat and has the highest mortality rate of all mental illnesses. The rates of recovery from all eating disorders are alarmingly low: it is estimated that only 50% of ED patients will make a full recovery, 20-30% will continue to present significant subclinical symptoms, 20-30% will remain chronic and 10% will die (Fursland et al. 2012). "Up to 1-5% of women will suffer from a diagnosable ED in their lifetime" (Fursland et al. 2012). The case of Judy Jones is fairly typical: anorexia tends to have an earlier rate of onset than other eating disorders. Judy is female, middle-class and fairly close to her parents (as is evidenced by the referral through her pediatrician, indicating she is receiving regular medical care).
It should be noted…
Fursland, A., Byrne, S., Watson, H., Puma, M.L., Allen, K., & Byrne, S. (2012). Enhanced
cognitive behavior therapy: A single treatment for all eating disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 90(3), 319-329.
Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls
Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.
The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…
Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.
Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.
Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…
Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University
of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
Food Addiction: Causes and Treatment
Fortuna, J.L. (2012). The obsesity epidemic and food addiction: Clinical similarities to drug
Dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 56-63.
As of 2010, nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Fast food establishments are abundant, portion sizes are larger, and people generally have insufficient intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. Additionally, Americans do not get sufficient physical exercise.
Sugar primes endorphin and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, similar to the "high" experienced by users of illegal drugs. In some individuals, this brings about addictive behavior very similar to that seen in alcoholics and substance addicts.
Fortuna reviewed the literature that investigated two clinical similarities between food addiction and drug dependence.
Animal studies show that bingeing on high-sugar foods, compared to fat dense foods, trigger the release of endorphin and dopamine.
3. Similar results were obtained with human…
Fortuna, J.L. (2012). The obesity epidemic and food addiction: Clinical similarities to drug
Dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 56-63.
Karim, R., and Chaudhri, P. (2012). Behavioral Addictions: An overview. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 5-17.
Liebman, B. (2012). Food & addiction: Can some foods hijack the brain? Nutrition Action
ising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families
My goal is to make a positive change in the lives of young children, families, and the early childhood field by targeting childhood poverty.
Poverty is increasing most rapidly in families with young children. While poverty only rose by 1.3% in the childless 30-64 age bracket, it rose by nearly 8% in families with a head under 30 years old with one or more children in the home (Sum, 2011). In fact, young families with children are more than six times as likely to be impoverished as older families (Sum, 2011). This marks a shift in communities at-risk for poverty, from the elderly to children (Sum, 2011). In addition, this wealth disparity is not only visible among the impoverished. "By 2010, slightly more than one-third of the nation's young families were poor or near poor, up by nearly 10 percentage points from…
American Psychological Association. (2013). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx
Engle, P. & Black, M. (2008). The effect of poverty on child development and educational outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 243-256. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from Digital Commons website: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=psycd_fac
Salopek, J. (2010). Homelessness: Creating a welcoming classroom for homeless students.
Association for Staff and Curriculum Development, 52(6).
Patterns of Health Perceptions
Marjorie Gordon (1985) went on to introduce the idea of functional health patterns in order to create a good nursing data base. Utilizing this approach, nurses are able to create an organized approach for attaining the relevant information from patients. This data therefore assists them in getting a good idea about the human and health functions of that family. In doing so, making a diagnosis becomes an easier process. The findings attained from the family I interviewed will be discussed below.
The health perception and management findings were that most of the family members were not satisfied with their general health. The major problems in the family were regarding hypertension and heart diseases in the family. The family as a whole stated that they did not find it easy to act according to the suggestions of the doctor. The elders of the family were…
In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html .
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
In reality, however, this study did not expose anything that has not been discussed repeatedly for decades. The issue of control being a key issue in eating disorders has long been recognized and thus, despite their best efforts, the researchers did not really provide any new information that could be helpful in treating this disorder.
The Scharer study was somewhat more valuable in its findings simply because it focused on a specific treatment program for a specific person. While this could be considered a limitation in terms of the generalizability of the study to other subjects or populations, the intimate focal point actually provides the type of deeper insight that case studies are designed to provide. For example, specifics of Lisa's aftercare are given that help provide insight into what types of monitoring may be needed: "The neighbors who care for Lisa in the evenings may need to be included…
McNamara, C., Chur-Hansen, a. & Hay, P.J. (2008) Emotional responses to food in adults with an eating disorder: A qualitative investigation. European Eating Disorders Review, 16, 115-123
Scharer, K. (1999) Case Study: Eating Disorder in a 10-year-old Girl. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 12 (2). 79-86.
My boundary then should be established in such a way as to discourage any attempts to manipulate me into validating Josephine's false perceptions of her own body as "overweight" or even "fat" as opposed to her conception of the ideal body type. My personal boundary needs to enable me to help Josephine towards a healthy body perception which should precede any attempts at changes in her diet.
Time is a naturally imposed boundary by the therapy situation. This enables me to help the client within a certain time frame. Since many of her perceptions will have to be changed, this is a good way to help her gradually towards a new frame of mind, without overwhelming her for prolonged periods of time.
The only boundary violation I would consider would be in terms of place and situation. Because of Josephine's specific therapeutic needs, I might invite her for dinner in…
The approach of a student's first year of college inspires feelings of excitement, independence and adventure as a young man or woman begins their personal journey into adulthood. In addition to these natural reactions to the major transition of attending a university, incoming freshman may experience apprehension, homesickness or academic pressure. The confusing combination of these positive and negative emotions has afflicted new college students from every generation in much the same way, altering their established eating habits and contributing to a phenomenon known as the "freshman fifteen." This alarming trend takes its name from the purported fifteen pounds of weight gain which most incoming college freshman can expect to experience in their first year of school. Although most scientific studies have established the actual amount of weight gained to lie somewhere between 5 and 10 pounds, the "freshman fifteen" is a universally recognized term used…
Balzan, Mario. "Freshman 15: Weighty Issues ." Earth Times 23 Oct 2006: n. pag. Web. 23 Apr 2011. .
Belasco, Jessica. "Steps to Health: Prepare teens for college life." Seattle Post-Intelligencer 23 Aug 2009, Print.
Masterson, Gregory. "Analysing the Beer Belly." MTSU Health Promotion. Middle Tennessee State University, 06 Jun 2010. Web. 25 Apr 2011. .
Likewise, younger adults tend to consume alcohol in patterns more conducive to the development of heart disease than older adults.
Unfortunately, all indications are that these differences between heart disease rates is only likely to increase in the next generation, owing to the current obesity epidemic among American children. Ultimately, many of these risk factors are under our control, but it appears that various elements of American social culture currently militate against making more responsible choices on the part of many contemporary young adults.
American Heart Association (2007) Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease. Retrieved November 20, 2007 from the AHA Homepage, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4726
Edelson, E. (2007) Heart Death Rates orsening for Middle-Aged Adults;
U.S. News & orld Report; Nov. 19 / 07.
Retrieved November 20, 2007 from USNews.com website, at http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/healthday/071119/heart-death-rates-worsening-for-middle-aged-adults.htm
Gibbs, N, (2007) One Day in America; Time Magazine
Nov. 26 / 07 (Vol. 170 No.…
American Heart Association (2007) Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease. Retrieved November 20, 2007 from the AHA Homepage, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4726
Edelson, E. (2007) Heart Death Rates Worsening for Middle-Aged Adults;
U.S. News & World Report; Nov. 19 / 07.
Retrieved November 20, 2007 from USNews.com website, at http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/healthday/071119/heart-death-rates-worsening-for-middle-aged-adults.htm
Alcohol and Special Populations: Unique Problems and Considerations That Apply to the Military
The military is a special population that has its own culture and its own code of ethics. Its veterans have their own VA hospital and society recognizes a distinct difference between civilian and military life. The effect of alcohol on the military, therefore, requires unique consideration outside the realm of investigations on the effects of alcohol on mainstream America. This paper will describe the effect of alcohol on the military, identify unique problems and considerations that apply to the military, and compare and contrast the military to the overall U.S. population in terms of the problem of alcohol. It will conclude with a description of the best treatment practices for specific issues relevant to the military.
The Effect of Alcohol on the Military
The military population is not without its weakness for alcohol consumption. As Pemberton et…
Bray, R., Brown, J., Williams, J. (2013). Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military. Substance Use and Misuse, 48(10): 799-810.
Burns, B., Grindlay, K., Holt, K. (2014). Military sexual trauma among U.S.
Servicewomen during deployment: A qualitative study. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 345-349.
Foran, H., et al. (2012). Hazardous alcohol use and intimate partner violence in the military: Understanding protective factors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3): 471-483.
Negative Impacts of Social Media
Without a doubt, social media has changed the way that we live. People all over the world are more connected and have more potential to connect with others, making friends and colleagues all over the globe. News and currents events are able to travel at lightning speed around the city, nation and world community, making us all in touch as ever. But even so, there is a dark side to social media, one which must not be ignored. For all the wealth of information that's out there, there's a ton of information which is trite, repetitive or useless. Part of the battle of social media is the need to weed through all the worthless information that's out there, in order to get to the information which is important or necessary. This is one of the milder drawbacks of social media. Social media at its most…
Gee, D. (2013, November 17). 'Twitter tantrum' is a tragic lesson for teens. Retrieved from buffalonews.com: http://www.buffalonews.com/columns/denise-jewell-
Kaiser, S. (2012, February 13). Social media can both help and hurt real-life relationships. Retrieved from usatoday.com:
They are also more likely, the research presented by Hutchinson shows, to have problems in school, legal problems, and "multiple personal problems." Additionally those children who have been subjected to alcohol abuse by a parent or guardian, that is also associated with violence against a family member, are at risk of depression, and of transmitting those same problems to their own children.
Centers for Disease Control (2007). Excessive Alcohol Consumption. Retrieved Nov. 23, 2007 at http://www.thecommunityguide.org/alcohol/default.html.
Fuller, Thomas. (2007). "ine hath drowned more men than the sea." Notable Quotes.
Retrieved Nov. 22, 2007, at http://www.notable-quotes.com/a/alcoholism_quotes.html.
Harvard Mental Health Letter. (2007). Treatment Rates for Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
Remain Low. Retrieved Nov. 23, 2007, at http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletters.
Hutchison, Ira . (1999). The Effect of Children's Presence on Alcohol Use by Spouse Abusers
And Their Victims. Family Relations, 48(1), 57-65.
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2006). Healthy…
Centers for Disease Control (2007). Excessive Alcohol Consumption. Retrieved Nov. 23, 2007 at http://www.thecommunityguide.org/alcohol/default.html.
Fuller, Thomas. (2007). "Wine hath drowned more men than the sea." Notable Quotes.
Retrieved Nov. 22, 2007, at http://www.notable-quotes.com/a/alcoholism_quotes.html .
Harvard Mental Health Letter. (2007). Treatment Rates for Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
I would be interested to see information on the number of these incidents when the drinking age was 18.
In his article, Seaman explains the practice of pregaming. According to Seaman, college students who are too young to purchase alcohol drink large quantities of liquor prior to going to a party. This practice results in many students either being hospitalized or actually dying from alcohol poisoning. In relating the history of the legislation regarding the drinking age, Seaman explains that the drinking age was lowered to 18 in the 1960s as a result of student protests. During the 1980s, pressures from Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) forced legislation that increased the drinking age to 21 in all 50 states. According to Seaman, prohibiting the use of alcohol for 18 to 20-year-olds resulted in making the use of alcohol more attractive for these young adults. He argues that while lowering the…
Seaman, Barrett. "How Bingeing Became the New College Sport." Time.com. Web 23 June 2011. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1096516,00.html .
Urban Dictionary. Web. 23 June 2011. http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=pregame&defid=1483677
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…
Arendt, K., Thastum, M., & Hougaard, E. (2015). Homework Adherence and Cognitive Behaviour Treatment Outcome for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders. Behavioural And Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(02), 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1352465815000429
Gingerich, W. & Peterson, L. (2013). Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies. Research On Social Work Practice, 23(3), 266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049731512470859
Hayes, S., Levin, M., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villatte, J., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 180-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002
Hofmann, S., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I., Sawyer, A., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy And Research, 36(5), 427-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
Bulimics and anorexics are well represented at this meeting. From my understanding, Overeaters Anonymous embraces those with any type of eating disorder. I appreciate the willingness of group members to understand that it is the addictive, compulsive nature of the behavior that is the problem and not the specific manifestation. Along this line of thought, one member of the group noted his addiction to drugs as well as to food. Crossover addictions are extraordinarily common. One member indicated being a former anorexic who starved herself regularly; that was ten years ago and now she can be considered overweight. Whether or not there is a proven "addictive personality," certainly there are people for whom any pattern of behavior can become a potential problem.
From a clinician's perspective, I appreciate the formula the Twelve Steps offer. The group provides a social network. This may be the most important function of the Twelve…
Motivation to Change and eduction of Symptoms in Adolescents Suffering from Bulimia Nervosa
In research published by Castro-Fornieles (et al., 2011) the relationship between recovery from bulimia nervosa and motivation to change in adolescence sufferers is examined. The authors of the research had not found any similar research which had looked at this specific area of study. However, the research is based on previous research where strong links between behavioral changes in adults suffering from eating disorders and level of motivational for change. The importance of motivation has been generally accepted as an important influence and predictor of successful change in a range of health issues, such as smoking, which rely on patients implementing and maintaining behavioral changes. When looking specifically as bulimia nervosa, further research has found that relapses are more likely where adults suffering from the condition. In adolescents there has also been research examining motivation and the…
Castro-Fornieles, Josefina,; Bigorra, Aitana; Martinez-Mallen, Esteve; Gonzalez, Laura; Moreno, Elena; Font, Elena; Toro, Josep, (2011), Motivation to change in adolescents with bulimia nervosa mediates clinical change after treatment, European Eating Disorders Review, 19, 46-54