Bipolar Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is

Words: 3047 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67751574

Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.

Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking

In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical

Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-

Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.

Retrieved March 27, 2013, from  http://www.cnn.com .
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Bipolar Also Known as Manic-Depressive Disorder Bipolar

Words: 2333 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58661457

Bipolar

Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.

Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, et al. (2011). Personality and bipolar disorder: dissecting state and trait associations between mood and personality. Psychological Medicine 41(8), 1593-1604.

"Bipolar Disorder," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI_278/Other/Clerkship/Didactics/Readings/Bipolar%20Disorder.pdf 

Blechert, J. & Meyer, T.D. (2010). Are measures of hypomanic personality, impulsive nonconformity and rigidity predictors of bipolar symptoms? British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44(1), 15-27.

Ettinger, et al. (2005). Prevalence of bipolar symptoms in epilepsy vs. other chronic health disorders. Neurology 65(4), 535-540
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Bipolar According to the National Institute of

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16177894

Bipolar

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (2010), pediatric bipolar disorder is a "contentious" issue in children's mental health in part because diagnoses of pediatric bipolar disorder have risen by as much as forty percent. Accompanying this steep rise in the numbers of children being diagnosed with bipolar disorder is a confusion as to which treatments are best for young people with growing brains. The range of treatments available for children is broad, making it difficult to target interventions for the young population.

esearch has revealed that diagnoses of bipolar disorder are made after the child experiences his or her first manic episode. This is because parents are more apt to notice the behavioral changes in the child exhibiting manic symptoms like inappropriate sexuality or euphoric episodes. Yet it is also important for therapists and parents to address the gamut of behavioral and affective manifestations of bipolar disorder.…… [Read More]

References

Hellander, M., McDonald, S., Pedersen, L. & Resko, S. (2012). About pediatric bipolar disorder. The Balanced Mind. Retrieved online: http://www.thebalancedmind.org/learn/library/about-pediatric-bipolar-disorder?page=all

National Institute of Mental Health (2010). Diagnosis: pediatric bi polar disorder? Retrieved online:  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2010/diagnosis-pediatric-bipolar-disorder.shtml
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Bipolar I Disorder

Words: 4472 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47788968

Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.

History

Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]

References

"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online:  http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm 

Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.

Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.

Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
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Bipolar II Disorder

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79340844

Bipolar II

In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.

Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]

References

Cusin, C., Hilton, G.Q., Nierenberg, A.A., and Fava M. (2012). Long-Term Maintenance With Intramuscular Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Bipolar II Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://journals.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=1268250

Mayo Clinic. (2014). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20027544

PsychCentral (2014). The Two Types of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-two-types-of-bipolar-disorder/000612?all=1

Sole, B., Martinez-Aran, A., Torrent, C., Bonnin, C.M., Reinares, M., Popovic, D., Sanchez-Moreno, J., and Vieta, E. (2011). Are bipolar II patients cognitively impaired? A systematic review. Psychological Medicine. Retrieved from:  http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/52283/1/587142.pdf
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Bipolar Outline Effects of Social

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16801599



Knowing the difference between normal emotions and emotional disorders is key to therapists' understanding bipolar behaviors

Excess emphasis is placed on pathological emotions rather than healthy ones

SEVEN: Recent developments in emotion and cognition & therapies (Lacewing, 2004).

Lacewing references 5 authors that discuss the development of emotional theories

It is clear there is nothing close to consensus when it comes to comparing emotion with cognition or defining exactly when an emotion results from cognition

EIGH: Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder (BD) using ICS model (Lomax, et al., 2009).

30 bipolar persons and 30 healthy persons were tested (in a euthymic mood state and also in induced positive mood state) to see if they detected discrepancies in the sentences; the results show BD people operate at a "more abstract level"

NINE: Deficits in social cognition & response flexibility in pediatric BD (McClure, et al., 2005)

40 outpatients with pediatric BD…… [Read More]

TEN: Long-term effects of emotion on cognition (Moore, et al., 2002).

While researchers have investigated and determined that mood and emotion help determine and modulate human cognition, there is a need to examine how performance on certain tasks changes over time

Events with lots of emotion are more memorable; hence, if mood has an effect on long-term memory, it also may well have an impact on the ability to learn long-term
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Bipolar Understanding and Managing a

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 738760

Medications include mood stabilizers, especially lithium, flaxseed oil, phospholipids, lecithin, antioxidants, folate, amino acids, multivitamins and minerals (Kidd 2004). Psychosocial measures include a change of lifestyle, a change in diet, the inclusion of dietary supplements, cognitive behavior therapy and therapeutic parenting (Kidd).

A plan that can be devised in treating or managing bipolar disorder can include traditional medications for symptoms, the new electroconvulsant therapy resistant cases, and preventive measures (Kidd 2004). The family must be educated on possible relapses through informational pamphlets, videos or their involvement in advocacy groups. Family physicians, psychiatrists and mental health professionals should be involved in the plan. Family members should be informed about and trained to recognize the warning signs of suicide. They should also be taught how to distinguish between the signs of mania and those of depression. Substance abuse should be discouraged or stopped. Even seemingly modest or "innocent" social drinking should be…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Grisworld, K. S and Pessar, L. (2000). Management of Bipolar Disorder. 7 pages. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians

Kidd, P.M. (2004). Bipolar Disorder as Cell Membrane Dysfunction. 3 pages. Alternative Medicine Review: Thorne Research, Inc.

NWHRC Health Center (2005). Bipolar Disorder. 3 pages. National Women's Health

Resource Center: Gale Group
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Bipolar Psychological Model Most Appropriate

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28265981

Sixteen percent of people taking Zyprexa for a year gained more than sixty-six pounds, according to documents obtained for a potential class action suit against the drug's manufacturer (Berenson 2007). The drugs used to treat depression are of limited use in treating the repeating depressive episodes of bipolar illness, both in terms of long-term efficacy and their danger in causing the bipolar sufferer to enter a manic episode, not merely recover from depression (Balkalar, 2007). Abilify, a new drug, has demonstrated less significant weight gain, although it can still produce tics, "headache, anxiety, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, upset stomach, and an inner sense of restlessness or need to move" ("Commonly Asked Questions About Side Effects," 2007, Abilify: Bristol-Meyers Squib Official ebsite).

Susie's future

Finding the right drug for Susie may take time, and her drug treatment plan will likely take a series of adjustments over the course of her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Balkalar, Nicholas. (10 Apr 2007). "Long-Term Therapy Effective in Bipolar

Depression." The New York Times. Retrieved 8 Sept 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/10/health/psychology/10therapy.html?ex=1189396800&en=19ecf79bc3128398&ei=5070

Berenson, Alex. (20 Jan 2007). "States Study Marketing of Lilly Pill." The New York

Times. Retrieved 8 Sept 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/20/business/20drug.html?ex=1189396800&en=93d3bd739e2e5f70&ei=5070
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Bipolar Student in Math and Science Class

Words: 2846 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22507836

ability of a bipolar student to learn concepts in the subjects of Math and Science in the general classroom setting

According to sources retrieved from the American Medical Journal, bipolar disorder refers to the psychiatric diagnosis for a mood disorder. Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder undergo various symptoms such as experiencing episodes of a frenzied state whose medical term is mania (or hypomania). This medical condition typically alternates with episodes of depression. Doctor Annabel Hathaway, a senior psychologist at the University of Stanford, children suffering from bipolar disorders have high intelligence quotient and commendable talents. However, they may have difficulties in coordinating their reflexes and reaction time. They also experience difficulties making transitions, and they may as well have co-morbid syndromes that that render them anxious, inattentive, distractible, moody, argumentative, and withdrawn. Likewise, bipolar disorders may render such children acute and perfectionist.

Psychologists explain that children with bipolar disorders…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anglada, Tracy The Student with Bipolar Disorder: An Educator's Guide BP Children Organization <  http://www.bpchildren.org/files/Download/Educator.pdf >

Child & Adolescent Bipolar Foundation Educating the Child with Bipolar Disorder State: Arizona Department of Education

Grier, Elizabeth Chesno, Wilkins, Megan L. And Carolyn Ann Stirling Pender Bipolar Disorder: Educational Implications for Secondary Students Michigan: University of Michigan Press

The Balanced Mind Foundation An Educator's Guide to Pediatric Bipolar Disorder < http://www.thebalancedmind.org/learn/library/an-educators-guide-to-pediatric-bipolar-disorder>
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Bipolar Disease

Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19178505

particular mental health disorder. Specifically it will reflect on my personal experience with someone who suffers from bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder). A mental disorder is one that affects the brain and can disrupt how a person thinks, feels, and/or relates to others. Bipolar disorder is certainly characteristic of this definition of a mental disorder. A person suffering from bipolar disease exhibits massive mood swings. They can be deep in depression, and then display excessive "highs" or mania. Both of these swings are far more severe than the general highs and lows most people face in the course of their lives. I first became aware of bipolar disorder when I met a fellow student who had the disease. She said that she had not been diagnosed for years, and that she had not understood what was wrong with her. After I got to know her, I did see some severe mood…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2003). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from the MedicineNet.com Web site:  http://www.medicinenet.com/bipolar_disorder/article.htm  20 Sept. 2005.
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Bipolar Patient Imagine This Scenario

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46623198

There is a milder form of mania, for instance, known as a hypomanic episode, in which patients display manic symptoms for a period of three or four days. If the manic episode lasts for a week or longer, as is the case with our patient above, then the patient is experiencing full-blown mania.

It is also somewhat common for bipolar patients to experience mixed episodes. These episodes involve "swinging" back and forth from one pole to the next, experiencing symptoms of both mania and depression within the same day.

From international surveys, we have come to learn that around 1.5% of all adults suffer from bipolar disorders. The average bipolar patient experiences around four episodes within a ten-year time span. There are those patients, however, who experience recurring episodes throughout their lives. Thus, it is quite likely that you will have to deal with a bipolar patient as an acupuncturist…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Moss, Charles a. "Five-Element Acupuncture for Husband-Wife Imbalance and Bipolar

Disorder." Medical Acupuncture Spring/Summer 1999. http://www.medicalacupuncture.com/aama_marf/journal/vol11_1/bipolar.html

See, for example, Moss.
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Social Work Approach to Bipolar

Words: 2552 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21677907

Client is an African-American male, age 19, diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder 1 (296.89), with mixed and psychotic features. Lability and mood cycles have become more rapid recently. Currently, the client is experiencing an acute but mild manic episode.

isk Influences

The client has no significant biological issues. As the first in his family known to have Bipolar Disorder, no genetic component to the disorder has been determined, but further work in a family therapy context might help determine if there are any biological risk factors. The client is physically healthy. He does not use drugs or alcohol, but tends towards a pattern of excessive denial.

Psychologically, the client struggles with low self-esteem, denial, and mood swings. Although the client reports strong and amicable relationships with family and friends, there may be little empathy from his closest relatives due to perceived stigma about bipolar disorder and lack of knowledge of the…… [Read More]

References

Balanza-Martinez, V., Lacruz, M. & Tabares-Seisdedos, R. (2015). Staging and early intervention in bipolar disorder. Chapter 15 in Neuroprogression and Staging in Bipolar Disorder. Oxford University Press.

CDC (2015). Burden of mental illness. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/burden.htm

Cipriani, A., et al. (2005). Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162(10): 1805-1819.

Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA, 2015). Bipolar disorder statistics. Retrieved online: http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=education_statistics_bipolar_disorder
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The Aviator Howard Hughes OCD and Bipolar

Words: 1673 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38951893

Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, G. (2001, May). The anxious client reconsidered: Getting beyond the symptoms to deeper change. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/233312959?accountid=281

Chouinard, V. (2012). Mapping bipolar worlds: Lived geographies of 'madness' in autobiographical accounts. Health & Place, 18(2): 144-151.

Connolly, K., Thase, M. (2011). The clinical management of bipolar disorder: A review of evidence-based guidelines. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 13(4): 1-4.

Steketee, G. (2003). Clinical update: Obsessive compulsive disorder
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Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and

Words: 3626 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49707748

This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Blanco, C.; Laje, G.; Olfson, Marcus, S.C. & Pincus, H.A. (2002). Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 1005-1011.

Craddock, N.; O'Donovan, M.C. & Owen, M.J. (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 193-204.

Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS)1. (2006). Anorexia Nervosa. Women's Health.gov

Ellenberger, H. (1970). Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
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Gender Identity Disorder the Objective

Words: 1507 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56207859



ibliography

Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID

Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html

Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html

Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261

Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170

Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4

Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; Baup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and Bipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID

Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html

Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html

Hepp U, Kraemer B, Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis in Children

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6767069

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN

Historical ecords

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.

About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]

References

Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The gift of ADHD: How to transform your child's problems into strengths. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Kushner, T.K. (2010). Surviving health care: A manual for patients and their families.

Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.

Nass, R.D. & Leventhal, F.,. (2011). 100 questions & answers about your child's ADHD: From
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Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD

Words: 1066 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36480570

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder associated with specific periods of the calendar year. SAD is more commonly found in geographic locations with long winter seasons with shorter daylight hours, less sunlight, and longer nights. This lack of sunlight has been directly connected to mood changes in a variety of populations and is most common at latitudes that experience less light during the winter seasons. In addition, some mood changes have been associated with the summer months in specific geographic areas. This paper will explore the diagnosis and assessment of Seasonal Affective Disorder, including the differentiation of the physical and emotional causes for the mood changes that occur. The paper will also explore the common treatment methods, including behavioral, pharmacological, and biopsychological, attempting to identify the preferred methods of treatment and data regarding the efficacy of the methods (.

According to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) DSM-IV, SAD…… [Read More]

References:

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994:390. Copyright 1994.

Lurie SJ, Gawinski B, Pierce D, Rousseau SJ. (2006). "Seasonal Affective Disorder." Am Fam Physician. 1:74(9): 1521-4.

Saeed, S., Bruce, T. (1998). "Seasonal Affective Disorders." American Family Physician. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/980315ap/saeed.html. 13, March. 2011.

Targum, S., Rosenthal, N. (2008). "Seasonal Affective Disorder." Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2008 May; 5(5): 31 -- 33.
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Depressive Disorder Is it Caused

Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52021775



orks Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm

Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette

smoking, stages of change, and major depression in the Canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(3), 204-8. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical

Library database. (Document ID: 1673587981).

Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.

Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://depressiongenetics.med.upenn.edu/DLResearch/Levinson_GeneticsDepression.pdf

Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm 

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
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Studies on Adjunctive Treatments for Bipolar I Disorder

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43056474

Nursing -- Group Therapy

Peer-reviewed literature regarding effective treatments of bipolar I disorder reveals that patients are significantly helped by family-focused or "family skills" therapy, particularly when dealing with depressive symptoms. However, studies also reveal that family therapy is less effective when dealing with manic episodes than are some other adjunctive treatments. Furthermore, quite a bit is as yet unknown about the relationship between family therapy and effective treatment of bipolar I disorder. Researchers lack evidence linking mania or hypomania factors to specific burdens on caregivers. In addition, families of bipolar patients undergo considerable stress and must struggle with limited and too often inaccessible avenues for their effective involvement. Finally, considerable additional study and focus is required so the health care industry can effectively incorporate relatives' thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, cultural identities and worldviews in operational structures and policy plans for the effective treatment of bipolar I disorder.

2. Body: Scholarly…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beentjes, T. A., Goossens, P. J., & Poslawsky, I. E. (2012). Caregiver burden in bipolar hypomania and mania: A systematic review. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 48(4), 187-197.

Britta, B., Schaub, A., Kummler, P., Dittmann, S., Severus, E., Seemuller, F., . . . Grunze, H. (2006). Impact of cognitive-psychoeducational interventions in bipolar patients and their relatives. European Psychiatry, 21(2), 81-86.

Chatzidamianos, G., Lobban, F., & Jones, S. (2015). A qualitative analysis of relatives, health professionals and service users views on the involvement in care of relatives in bipolar disorder. BMC Psychiatry, (15).

George, E. L., Taylor, D. O., Goldstein, B. I., & Miklowitz, D. J. (2011). Family focused therapy for bipolar adolescents: Lessons from a difficult treatment case. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18(3), 384-393.
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Symptom and Treatment of Psychological Disorder

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34146978

Treatment of Psychological Disorder

The bipolar disorder is a mental disorder and alternatively known as manic depression elevates the mood and cause depression to the affected individuals. The symptom of bipolar depression is the elevated mood, and it is the significant symptom of the affected person. During mania process, the affected individuals behaves irritably, display abnormally energetic and happy. The affected individuals often make poorly decision with little or no regard to the consequences. During the depression period, the affected individuals may have a negative outlook on life, and having poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide is another symptom of bipolar disorder where between 30% and 40% of the victims attempt to inflict self -harm. Other mental issues include substance use disorder, and anxiety disorders. While it is difficult to establish the cause, however, the genetic and environmental factors have been responsible for the cause of bipolar…… [Read More]

Reference. Causes of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved June 5, 2017 from http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/bipolar-disorder-causes#1

Jenkins, M. M., Youngstrom, E. A., Youngstrom, J. K., Feeny, N. C., & Findling, R. L. (2012). Generalizability of Evidence-Based Assessment Recommendations for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 269 -- 281. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0025775

Kerner, B.(2014).Genetics of bipolar disorder. Appl Clin Genet. 7: 33 -- 42.
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Bi-Polar Description of Disorder and

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90389054

The Bible relates to bipolar disorder and highlights the fact that it is very difficult for an individual to deal with it. In spite of the fact that one can be inclined to lead a pious life, the respective individual can be easily influenced by his physical condition. Romans 8 and Galatians 5 relate to how individuals should focus on controlling their mind by using their spirit rather than by using their flesh.

b.Frequency of occurrence

Although it is less known than schizophrenia, bipolar disorder has been reported to occur in a similar number of patients. Also, when considering that some physicians actually have trouble differentiating between the two, one can come to the conclusion that bipolar disorder can be mistaken for schizophrenia.

4. Controversy

a. Treatment

People suffering from bipolar disorder need to constantly concentrate on repressing the malady's symptoms, as only by doing this will they be able…… [Read More]

McDougall, Tim "Nursing Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Assessment, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management,"Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 22.1 (2009)

Steinkuller, Andrea and Rheineck, Jane E. "A Review of Evidence-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Bipolar Disorder," Journal of Mental Health Counseling31.4 (2009)

Young, Barbara "The Role of Psychotherapy in the Bipolar Disorders: Dynamic Psychotherapy as an Adjunct to Pharmacotherapy," Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 13.1 (2010)
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Quantitative

Words: 1934 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94683735

Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).

Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses

The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:

1. The sample will not be random,

2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,

3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,

4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,

5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,

6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)

major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…… [Read More]

References

Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446

Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237

Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388

Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
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Schizoaffective Disorder Is a Mental

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56285561

The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)

Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)

Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]

References

Brannon, G.E. (2005). "Schizoaffective Disorder." E-Medicine. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3514.htm

Facts About Schizoaffective Disorder." (2001). Family Social Support Project at UCLA. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.npi.ucla.edu/ssg/schizoaffective.htm

Grayson, C.E. (2004). "Schizoaffective Disorder." Mental Health America. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/schizophrenia/schizoaffective-disorder

Schizoaffective Disorder." (2006). Mayo Foundation for Medical Educational and Research. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/schizoaffective-disorder/DS00866
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Psychotropic Medications Treat Clinical Disorders

Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23995317

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be an effective alternative intervention to psychotropic medications. The therapy is mainly used for persons experiencing acute episodes of melancholy but may also be recommended for other disorders that include symptoms like catatonia, mania, or schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs are more commonly used to treat psychotic episodes (NIMH). ECT may also be helpful for persons who cannot take psychotropic drugs such as pregnant women or seniors.

Research questions related to the use of psychotropic medications"

. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute…… [Read More]

1. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). "Medications." Retrieved Oct 18, 2008 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/medications/complete-publication.shtml
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Self-Regulation Issues in Children and Adolescents With ADHD ODD and OCD

Words: 6305 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39399907

Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD

Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…… [Read More]

References

Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from  http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php 

Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/ 

Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.

Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
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Gwas OCD and Genes

Words: 3400 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35243323

Personal Details of Student

Family Name: ooney

Given Name (s) Bridget

Student Number (SID): 312165250

Email (University email only) broo2460@uni.sydney.edu.au

GWAS OCD

Assignment number (if applicable): #1

Becker

Genetics of Brian and Mind Disorders

Academic Honesty -- all forms of plagiarism and unauthorized collusion are regarded as academic dishonesty by the university, resulting in penalties including failure of the unit of study and possible disciplinary action. A module of academic honesty and plagiarism is at http://elearning.library.usyd.edu.au/learn/plagiarism/index.php .

Declaration:

I / We have read and understood the University of Sydney Student Plagiarism: Coursework Policy and Procedure (which can be found at sydney.edu.au/senate/policies/Plagiarism.pdf).

I / We understand that failure to comply with the Student plagiarism: coursework Policy and Procedure can lead to the University commencing proceedings against me / us for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended).

3. This work is substantially my…… [Read More]

References

Ahmari, S. E., Spellman, T., Douglass, N. L., Kheirbek, M. A., Simpson, H. B., Deisseroth, K., ... & Hen, R. (2013). Repeated cortico-striatal stimulation generates persistent OCD-like behavior. Science, 340(6137), 1234-1239.

Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.

Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.

Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitive behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.
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Assessing a Patient With Bipolar 1 Disorder

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71657240

Danny's case, we do not have enough information thus far to make an accurate diagnosis. The information that he has provided is helpful as a starting point, but Danny has indicated that he is somewhat uncooperative at this point (he says he is not here for you to diagnose him with depression and that his arrival at your office is mandated by the school as part of his probation -- otherwise he would not be there). So, in order to properly diagnose Danny, more time will be needed and more information. Nonetheless, there are signs, just from the little that we have to go on, that could point us in the right direction. The history provided by the parents and the comments made my by Danny himself do suggest that Danny may be showing symptoms of bi-polar disorder…but more work must be done before this diagnosis can be made.

In…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM-V. DC: APA.
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Childhood Developmental Disorders and Their Treatment

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78204851

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Difficulties Associated ith the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Childhood Disorders

By any measure, childhood is a challenging period in human development where young people are forced to actively participate in the educational process while developing human relationship skills that they will need for the rest of their lives. Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that many young people experience behavioral difficulties that detract from their ability to attain their full academic and social potential including one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To gain some new insights into this condition, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning attention deficit hyperactivity disorder followed by a discussion concerning the difficulties that are associated with assessing and treating psychological childhood disorders. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the conclusion.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Facts about ADHD." (2016). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web.

Mash, Eric J. and Barkley, Russell A. (1999, May 1). "Treatment of Childhood Disorders, Second Edition." Behavioral Disorders 24(3): 258-261. Print.

McCabe, Paul C. (2009, Annual). "The Use of Antidepressant Medications in Early Childhood: Prevalence, Efficacy, and Risk." Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 5: 13-15. Print.

McLoone, Jordana and Hudson, Jennifer L. (2006, May). "Treating Anxiety Disorders in a School Setting." Education & Treatment of Children 29(2): 219-223. Print.
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Economic Burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The

Words: 1410 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8852312

economic burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The research arguable issue yield a 1000-1200 words. All work local (USA) global.

The economic burden of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been discovered relatively recently, meaning as such that progress has yet to be made in terms of treatment and management. Additionally, research is also yet to be exhaustive, as numerous aspects of the affection remain uncharted.

One important aspect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is represented by the economic cost of the affection, revealed at multiple levels, such as the cost for the healthcare system, as well as the costs for the family. The current project assesses this issue through the lenses of the research that has already been conducted on the topic, in an effort to centralize and conclude upon the matter. The means in which this endeavor would be addressed is that of the Toulmin Method.…… [Read More]

References:

Bernfort, L., Nordfeldt, S., Persson, J., 2007, ADHD from a socio-economic perspective, Foundation Acta Paediatrtica

Daley, D., Birchwood, J., 2009, ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom, Child: care, health and development

Matza, L.S., Paramore, C., Prasad, M., 2005, A review of the economic burden of ADHD, http://www.resource-allocation.com/content/3/1/5 last accessed on March 30, 2012

Weida, S., Stolley, K., Organizing your argument, Owl Purdue, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03 / last accessed on March 30, 2012
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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Neurological Disorder Epilepsy --

Words: 2610 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35563773

Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.

Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]

References

Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.

332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf

Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,

Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from  http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
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Psychology in Management

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13846028

Bipolar Disorder

Case Story Bipolar Disorder

A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah

I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.

Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…… [Read More]

References

Baldessarini, RJ; Tondo, L; Hennen, J (2003). Lithium treatment and suicide risk in major affective disorders: Update and new findings. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 64 Suppl 5: 44 -- 52.

Belmaker, R.H. (2004). Bipolar Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 351 (5): 476 -- 86

Parikh, SV; Kusumakar, V; Haslam, DR; Matte, R; Sharma, V; Yatham, LN (1997). Psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder. Canadian journal of psychiatry. 42 Suppl 2: 74S -- 78S