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Bipolar Disorder ymptoms
Bipolar disorder has been studied for more than a decade after remaining undiagnosed in children and adolescents for many years. Much literature such as that by Pavuluri, Birmaher, and Naylor (2005b), and Kowatch and Debello (2006) is available on diagnostic issues pertaining to paediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, many cases studies have also been published on the topic such as those by DuVaI (2005) and Hamrin and Bailey (2001). This article will discuss the current available literature on the bipolar disorder diagnostic issues with specific focus on psychopharmacological treatments and its management for treating this disorder. This paper will not be focusing on psychosocial interventions related to paediatric bipolar disorder.
evere disturbances in the functioning of children as well as their families are one of the symptoms of paediatric bipolar disorder. Children with this illness mostly struggle in their academic and interpersonal lives. This causes them to…… [Read More]
ipolar Disorder generally sets in during adolescence or early adulthood though it may also occur late in one's life or during childhood. It results in terrible mood swings ranging from mania and euphoria to depression and suicidal tendencies. The earlier a person is diagnosed with bipolar disorder the better. Medication is available for bipolar disorder, which helps control the mood swings and even treats the condition. Diagnosis of bipolar disorders can be done only by specialized psychiatrists and is done according to the criteria established by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders.
ipolar disorder, more commonly known as manic depression, is a major mood disorder that is distinguished by behavior that fluctuates from extreme highs (mania) to serious lows (depression) interspersed with periods of "normal" mood. This change in mood or "mood swing" can last for hours, days weeks or months. Persons suffering…… [Read More]
ipolar Disorder: Genetics, Environment and Remedies
According to the American Family Physician journal, "ipolar Disorder is an illness that causes extreme mood swings. This condition is also called manic-depressive illness" (AFP, 2000). People with ipolar disorder often express 'extremes' in emotions where they go from the ultimate happiness and 'high' to the ultimate depression and sadness.
These are often referred to as Manic and Depression episodes where "Manic episodes usually begin abruptly and last for between 2 weeks and 4-5 months (median duration about 4 months). Depressions tend to last longer (median length about 6 months), though rarely for more than a year" (WHO, 1992). These types of episodes can be induced by stress or traumas and occur at any age.
The disorder is often hereditary and affects both men and women equally. The chances of having the disorder greatly increase if there is one parent that has the disorder…… [Read More]
Bipolar Disorder is a complex mood and brain disorder, characterized by unusual energy levels, shift in moods, and the capacity to carry out routine tasks. People living with this disorder experience numerous symptoms amid episode (Hawke, Velyvis and Parikh, 2013). In addition, anxiety disorders are among the highly prevalent co-morbidities linked with the disorder. Prior studies suggest that 74.9% of individuals with the disorder have at least one anxiety disorder at some point of their life. The disorder is a major health care challenge that results mortality risk, which is the primary cause of global disabilities to young and adults (ock et al., 2013). Current research in adults and young adult shows that hypomania experience is a common phenomenon in both the young and adults.
esearch suggests that there exists a common bipolar phenotype in the late adolescence, which is identifiable through interview or online surveys. Some of…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, which is also sometimes known as manic depression, is a serious psychiatric illness experienced by approximately 1% to 15% of the population at large (Mannu et al., 2011). The disorder is characterized by severe and unusual shifts in activity, mood, energy, and ability to perform everyday tasks (National Institute of Mental Health, 2012). Generally, the disorder is experienced as a depressive phase 70% of the time, and an excitatory phase 30% of the time (Mannu et al., 2011). It is a complex illness that requires the patient to be monitored to ensure that the treatment they are receive is meeting their needs and minimizing the symptoms being experienced (Mannu et al., 2011). Efforts for pharmacological treatments have unfortunately not been highly effective. It is possible that other non-pharmacological treatment options may prove effective in the treatment of the disorder. The following explores the potential effectiveness of a physical…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder is described as a condition in which individuals oscillate between periods of good or irritable mood and depression. The condition is basically characterized with very quick mood swings between mania and depression. Since the disorder equally affects men and women alike, it always starts between 15-25 years (ogge & Zieve, 2012). While the actual cause for disorder remains unknown or unclear, it tends to develop in relatives of individuals with the illness. However, the manic or depressive incidents in people with the disorder can be attributed to various factors such as life changes like childbirth, periods of insomnia, medications like antidepressants, and recreational drug use. The major risk of the disorder is that patients are susceptible to suicide to an extent that they are likely to abuse alcohol or other substances. Such abuse enhances the risk of suicide and the symptoms of the disorder become worse.
elationship between…… [Read More]
Scientists thus call this tendency a "genetic vulnerability" to inherit depression (Read 2007:1)
Biologically, bipolarity is not caused by brain damage although there is mounting evidence that the brains of bipolar patients look different from those without mood disorders. A 2000 study in the American Journal of Psychiatry that the brains of patients with bipolar disorder contain 30% more cells that send signals to other brain cells, suggesting that the extra signal-sending cells may lead to a kind of over-stimulation, causing the rapid shifts of extreme moods characteristic of the disease (Read 2007:1). However, whether the disease causes the different brain configuration or the extra cells causes the disorder still remains a mystery.
To add to the mystery of treating this illness, because bipolar disorder has two distinct mood components, that of mania, and that of depression, treating it with medication can be especially difficult. Patients with bipolar disorder usually…… [Read More]
Bipolar Disorder: Abnormalities in Brain Structures
A person experiencing bipolar disorder will feel alternately euphoric and severely depressed of they can have a mixture of those emotional states. This condition is known to e a disease, much like any other chronic medical condition, which can be mediated by a medication regimen, but not cured. It is also known that there are elements of the disease which relate to certain structures and processes in the brain. Specific physical properties in the brain that are related to bipolar disorder are more speculative than determined. Understanding what research has determined are known to be direct links to bipolar disorder and what is hypothesized and requires further study is the focus of this paper.
First the condition must be understood from a clinical perspective. "Bipolar disorder (BPD; loci MAFD1 [MIM 125480] and MAFD2 [MIM 309200]) is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a…… [Read More]
In stark contrast, in the adult population of individuals with bipolar disorder, females outnumber males slightly (Egan 2008, p.11).These discrepancies indicate a profile of a more 'difficult child' rather than the specific disease-related pattern of manic depression. The malleable nature of childhood reality presents another difficulty in diagnosis. While a dissociation from reality is one of the manifestations of bipolarity in adults, "it's normal for children to pretend that they are superheroes, or believe that they can run faster than cars, whereas in an adult, these convictions would be signs of grandiosity" (Egan 2008, p.1).
The changing face of psychiatry is another possible social explanation for the increase in diagnosis. More and more non-clinicians are involved in the diagnostic process: a critical shortage of child psychiatrists in non-urban areas may result in a difficult child being diagnosed by a by family doctor or pediatrician. The health insurance industry is also…… [Read More]
In other words, the nurse needs to become the patient's mentor and confidant all at the same time. This requires excellent communication skills and listening skills on the part of the nurse.
Applicable Psychological Theory:
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
The Cognitive Behavioral model is an amalgamation of three major psychology disciplines: behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and social psychology (Cooper & Lesser, 2008). There are a series of steps that need to be undertaken to assess or intervene using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. These are: 1) Specifying the problematic behaviors; 2) Data collection (monitoring and recording); 3) Goal setting; 4) Intervention; 5) Homework; 6) einforcement for Change; 7) Helping the client take credit for change; 8) elapse prevention (Cooper & Lesser, 2008, pp. 167-168).
According to Scott (2001) "There is increasing support for the use of cognitive behaviour therapy as an adjunct to medication for patients with bipolar disorder" (p. 164). The…… [Read More]
A depressive episode is clinically diagnosed if five or more of these symptoms last most of the day, nearly every day, for a period of 2 weeks or longer.
People with bipolar disorder often lead healthy, productive lives if the illness is treated early. However, without treatment, the natural course of bipolar disorder tends to worsen and the person may suffer more severe manic and depressive episodes than those experienced when the illness first appeared. Bipolar disorder is a long-term illness that has no cure. Psychosocial treatments are helpful in providing support, education, and guidance to people with bipolar disorder and their families. Psychosocial interventions commonly used for bipolar disorder are cognitive behavioral therapy, psychoeducation, family therapy, and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy.
Common medications for polar disorder include lithium, anticonvulsant drugs, and antidepressants. Treatment choices depend on the type and phase of the illness. Patients with less frequent and…… [Read More]
Genetics, Brain Structure & Behavior
Bipolar disorder is biological problem which affects the brain that causes unusual shifts in mood (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). It is also known as manic-depressive illness. Bipolar disorder is different than regular mood swings and daily ups and downs of the average person's life. Bipolar disease typically develops in late adolescent and early adulthood and is treatable; currently there is no cure for this disorder (NCBI, 2010). In this paper we will discuss bipolar disorder and the brain, behaviors associated with bipolar disorder, genetic links, causes, prevention, treatment, national and international occurrences.
Bipolar Disorder and Behavior
Bipolar disorder causes dramatic mood swings, the individual goes from a state of mania to a state of depression. Mania is the part of the disorder where the individual has an overtly high amount of energy. A diagnosis of mania is made when the patient exhibits three…… [Read More]
(Maj, p. 360)
While bipolar can be treated with psychiatric intervention, when the disorder lasts, it can have a debilitating effect on a person's social life. Available treatments can control the symptoms and can alter brain chemistry in patients to make them less susceptible to the debilitating effects of this disorder. For those who suffer from this disorder, daily life can be a challenge as they struggle with their relationships, their jobs and every aspect of their everyday life. Fortunately research has led to many treatments, psychiatric interventions and therapies which have had significant success in some patients.
Mario Maj (Editor), Hagop S. Akiskal (Editor), Prof. Juan Jose Lopez-Ibor (Editor), Bipolar Disorders. Wiley; 1st edition (May 15, 2002)
Lana . Castle, Bipolar Disorder Demystified: Mastering the Tightrope of Manic Depression. Da Capo Press (January 2003)
E. Fuller Torrey M.D. Surviving Manic Depression: A Manual on Bipolar Disorder for Patients,…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder individuals often make highly lethal suicide attempts therefore early identification of high-lethality suicide attempters is critical. In this study, BD patients were classified as high- or low- lethality attempters. High lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. A logistics model and permutation analyses examined the correlations between lethality, number and order of attempts. esearchers found that multiple attempters showed no pattern in increasing or decreasing their lethality attempts later on, but individuals who were disposed to early high-lethality attempts indicated this pattern of recurrence of high-lethality attempts later. In other words, risk for high-lethality suicide attempts was greatest amongst those who were more resolved to die and who had made a greater number of suicide attempts. However, attempters of low-lethality attempts does not indicate that these individuals would not try high-lethality attempts later on.
Are procedures parametric or non-parametric? Why
Parametric tests require a normal distribution of the studied…… [Read More]
[Frank et.al, 2006)]
aethge et.al (2005) examined substance use disorders in patients with first episode P 1 disorder using 'Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders' (SCID). The study included a total of 172 patients who were admitted in the McLean hospitals between 1989 and 1996 for clinically diagnosed first lifetime manic/mixed P 1 episodes. All the 172 subjects underwent follow-up assessment at 6,12 and 24 months respectively. Results from the study indicate that 37 (33.0%) were substance addicts at entry and this increased to 38.8% at the end of the study period. Statistical analysis further revealed that cannabis dependent subjects had more prolonged manic episodes (mean=26.8%, SD=34.0%, versus mean=11.5%, SD=19.1%; ratio=2.3:1), whereas alcohol dependant subjects had increased episodes of depression (mean=11.9%, SD=22.9%, in mania vs. mean=21.9%, SD=29.5%, in depression; ratio=1:1.8). Also morbidity was higher among polysubstance abusers. [aethge et.al, 2005]
A more recent study by Wilens et.al (2009)…… [Read More]
Bipolar Disorder and the Impact
Manic-depressive illness is termed as the bipolar disorder. It is a brain disorder and causes swings in mood, fluctuation in the energy levels and the inability of a person to carry out the daily activities. There are various symptoms of this disorder, which can be very severe. There are three conditions or types of disorder, which include mania, hypomania, and depression. There are feelings of creativity, social ease, and extra ordinary energy in the condition of mania. There are less severe symptoms in the condition of hypomania as compared to mania. The effects of depression are more intense than other two conditions. There are both positive and negative effects of this condition. The positive effects are creativity, social connectedness and enhanced autonomy whereas, the negative effects are psychosis, depression and anxiety and some personality disorders.
The Effects of Bipolar Disorder and the Impact
The…… [Read More]
Bipolar Disorder on the outine Life of the Individual
Statement of Thesis: Bipolar disorder is an intricate physiological and psychological disorder that can control, tamper, and falsify a person's thoughts and actions in their daily life.
The work of Merikangas, et al. entitled "Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey eplication" reports a growing acknowledgement that bipolar disorder has a "spectrum of expression that is substantially more common than the 1% BP-I prevalence traditionally found in population surveys." (2007) Merikangas, et al. report a study with the objective of estimating "the prevalence, correlates, and treatment patterns of bipolar spectrum disorder in the U.S. population." (2007)
The study was conducted via direct interviews in household settings in the United States. Participants are stated to have been a "nationally representative sample of 9282 English-speaking adults (aged >or=18 years)." (Merikangas, et al., 2007) Main outcome measures are…… [Read More]
bipolar depression, the causes, symptoms, effects on brain and the various forms of treatment available for the disorder. Bipolar depression is an extreme disorder condition in which various situations from high to low, euphoria to depression and recklessness to listlessness occur and this situation can be serious produce the effects of a disabling mental disorder. The transformation of their loved ones into someone else they do not know and cannot communicate to, is watched in disbelief, by the members of the family and friends of the person concerned during occurrences of manic phases. Bipolar disorder consists of four different kinds of mood, which may be distinguished as Mania, Hypomania, Depression and Mixed Mood. Sleep and appetite disturbance, ongoing sad or blue mood, lack of interest or pleasure, trouble concentrating, withdrawal from family and friends, low energy, feelings of guilt or worthlessness and thoughts of death or suicide are some of…… [Read More]
bipolar condition, serious as it can be in disrupting a person's normal living patterns, and the patterns of those living with the person with a bipolar condition, is seen in only about one percent of the U.S. population (Zai, et al., 2012). As to whether there is linkage to family genetics -- that indicate the possibility or probability that a family member is a candidate for a bipolar condition -- studies have "…not provided consistent findings of susceptibility regions" (Zai, 1). That said, a combined analysis of "original data from 11 previous linkage studies," using 1,067 families with bipolar disorder revealed "…significant findings in chromosomal regions 6q for bipolar 1…" (Zai, 1). Also, in the research of those 1,067 bipolar families, it was learned that there were "suggested findings at chromosomal regions 9p and 20p for bipolar 1" (Zai, 1).
Moreover, some studies which will be included in this paper…… [Read More]
Juvenile/Child Onset Bipolar Disorder
Diagnoses of bipolar disorder in childhood are rare, even among adolescent populations. One of the reasons why bipolar disorder is infrequently diagnosed is the “symptomatic overlap with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” (Wozniak, Biederman, Kiely, et al., 1995). Diagnoses are likely dependent on contextual variables, as the psychologist or psychiatrist has leeway when assessing the child. Research on child onset bipolar disorder has evolved, though, to offer the clinical community more cogent guidelines for age-appropriate symptom assessment and diagnosis. Preliminary research demonstrates unique features of prepubescent-onset bipolar disorder as being, compared with adult-onset bipolar disorder, “nonepisodic, chronic, rapid-cycling,” characterized by a “mixed manic state that may be comorbid with ADHD and conduct disorder (CD),” (Geller & Luby, 1997, p. 1168). Other possible comorbidities and symptom overlap have been found with autism spectrum disorders, warranting future research on improving the exclusion criteria used to diagnose one or…… [Read More]
Then there is normal or balanced mood, above which comes hypomania (mild to moderate mania), and then severe mania (Bipolar Disorder (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/bipolar.cfm#intro)."
Bipolar is divided into several types. Bipolar II has the less severe mania and depression while the extreme episodes is called Bipolar I.
apid cycling is the term used for patients who have four or more cycles of mania-depression in a 12-month period.
Some people even experience cycling on a daily or weekly basis.
This tens to happen more often with women then men and more often in women overall.
Treatment of Bipolar is medication. Because it is a lifelong and recurrent illness it is important to work at finding the most effective treatment and then being followed up for life to be sure to maintain effective treatment.
A strategy that combines medication and psychosocial treatment is optimal for managing the disorder over time (Bipolar Disorder (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/bipolar.cfm#intro)."…… [Read More]
Bipolar Disorder: Causes, Symptoms, And Prevention
Every human being is susceptible to mood changes, sometimes feeling happy and energetic, and other times feeling melancholic and miserable. However, a persistent feeling of sadness and hopelessness is a mood disorder, known as depression, which is very common and requires medical attention. In the nineteenth century, Abraham Lincoln was so depressed that he described himself as "the most miserable man living" (Leonard and Jovinelly, 2012). Leonard and Jovinelly go on to describe Bipolar Disease, also referred to as manic depressive illness, as the most complex type of depression. According to National Institute of Mental Health, NMIH (2015), nearly six million American adults suffer from this disorder. Bipolar Disease (BD) is a condition that is characterized by drastic changes in energy and moods which are often not related to the prevailing circumstances. The condition makes a person's moods alternate between two extreme emotional states:…… [Read More]
His explanation for dropping out of the rest of four other schools is another indicator of his inability to control his manifestations: "I didn't exactly flunk out or anything. I just quit, sort of" "One of the biggest reasons I left Elkton Hills was because I was surrounded by phonies" (Salinger). "It makes me so depressed I go crazy. I hated that goddam Elkton Hills"(Salinger). It is one of the many times Holden uses the word "depressed." The periods of depression he is describing are alternating with periods of exaltation when he is just happy to play in the snow, read a book, spend an evening with a girl, be with his younger sister or listening with his older brother.
He is hyper-energetic and often presents outburst of violent acts. As if trying to diagnose himself, he is asking at some point: "I'm just going through a phase right now.…… [Read More]
Assessing and Treating Patients with Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder, also referred to as manic depression, is an episodic or chronic mental disorder characterized by fluctuating and often extreme changes in energy, mood, and activity levels, thus affecting a person’s focus and concentration. Whereas it is normal for humans to experience shifts in energy level and mood from time to time, the shifts for bipolar patients are extreme and can be rather severe (NIMH, 2020).
A patient could have any of three types of bipolar disorder: bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, or Cyclothymic Disorder (NIMH, 2020). For bipolar I, a patient will present with severe manic symptoms, usually with separate depressive episodes that last at least fourteen days and often requiring hospitalization (NIMH, 2020). A bipolar II patient will present with a similar pattern of depressive and hypomanic episodes that are generally less severe (NIMH, 2020). A cyclothymic patient will…… [Read More]
Patient displays symptoms of acute schizophrenia that requires use of anxiolytics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics, specifically neuroleptics. Use of two or more neuroleptics in combination with the other medications can lead to health problems like obesity, diabetes mellitus, renal diseases, hyponatremia, and thyroid disorders among other diseases (Correll, Detraux, De Lepeleire, & De Hert, 2015). The central issue regarding use of four different medication types is often progressive decline of quality of life for those taking it. This plan of care is aimed at promoting improved quality of life and perhaps treatment alternatives and medication choices that will reduce likelihood of symptoms, but still maintain high efficacy.
Rationales for Specific Prescription Medications
Use of the four medication types: anxiolytics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics for schizophrenia has become a common treatment modality. It is not rare to see patients prescribed all at the same time. That is because…… [Read More]
This paper will provide an overview of bipolar disorder, as currently described in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It will explain how the symptoms of the disorder may manifest themselves, different treatment options, and evolving research in the field. Bipolar disorder remains a complex mental disease that can often mispresent in its features to clinicians, depending on the type and stage of the mood cycle the patient is in, so a clearer understanding by psychiatric clinicians, sufferers, and family members is needed.
Bipolar Disorder: An Overview
Bipolar disorder was once more commonly known as manic depression. It is classified as a mood disorder, under the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). A variety of types exist of the disorder, but its predominant feature is rapid shifts of mood. The most common forms of the disorder, bipolar I…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, as much as thirty years ago, was a big American secret. Bipolar disorder was not as common knowledge as it is today. During the latter 20th century and 21st century a lot of light has been shed on the subject of bipolar disorder: the diagnoses, the treatments, the signs, and the ways to live with the disorder, both for the sufferer as well as the people close to the sufferer in his or her life. The paper will briefly outline key terms and conditions of bipolar disorder. The paper will additionally offer insight into the lives of people living with bipolar disorder providing commentary on the adjustments in life one must make to move forward, as well as commentary on some of the more popular treatments to assist with the symptoms of the disorder.
The causes of bipolar disorder are unknown to medical professionals…… [Read More]
The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.
Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…… [Read More]
Treatment of Bipolar Disorder?
The article what is the treatment for Bipolar Disorder by G. ayel revolves around the treatment options for Bipolar Disorder. The article lacks a proper introduction which otherwise would have begun with the explanation of bipolar disorder giving a brief overview about the maniac and depressive episodes along with the need to treat the disorder before proceeding onto the treatment procedures. Despite this, the author presents a coherent logical progression and sequence in his article by clearly describing the role of medicines such as antidepressants and antipsychotics. Although several terms such as mood stabilizers and psychotherapy are not elucidated, the order of ideas presented by ayel Michael in his article is vital in understanding the treatment strategies of bipolar disorder.
The main point of the writer is to explain the ways in which Bipolar Disorder can be treated. Since the writer has not explained the…… [Read More]
Child & Adolescent Psychology
Assessment & Evaluation
Both ADHD and BMD display genetic relationships, although BMD does not seem to run in families to the degree seen in ADHD. With the ADHD established early in Clara's life, the focus of this assessment is on the possibility of co-morbid bi-polar mood disorder (BMD) and depression. While most individuals experience their first episode of BMD around the age of 18 or after -- the mean for diagnosis is 26 years of age -- children do rarely develop BMD. Clara would experience her ADHD as a chronic, consistent impairment, while the BMD is episodic, alternating with periods of normal levels of moods. That said, it is important to recognize that ADHD is typically associated with emotional reactions to certain trigger events, and that the people with ADHD are often quite passionate. The occasion of happy events bring ebullient reactions; unhappy experiences evoke intense…… [Read More]
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]
Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.
Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]
According to the National Institute of Mental Health (2010), pediatric bipolar disorder is a "contentious" issue in children's mental health in part because diagnoses of pediatric bipolar disorder have risen by as much as forty percent. Accompanying this steep rise in the numbers of children being diagnosed with bipolar disorder is a confusion as to which treatments are best for young people with growing brains. The range of treatments available for children is broad, making it difficult to target interventions for the young population.
esearch has revealed that diagnoses of bipolar disorder are made after the child experiences his or her first manic episode. This is because parents are more apt to notice the behavioral changes in the child exhibiting manic symptoms like inappropriate sexuality or euphoric episodes. Yet it is also important for therapists and parents to address the gamut of behavioral and affective manifestations of bipolar disorder.…… [Read More]
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]
In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.
Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]
Knowing the difference between normal emotions and emotional disorders is key to therapists' understanding bipolar behaviors
Excess emphasis is placed on pathological emotions rather than healthy ones
SEVEN: Recent developments in emotion and cognition & therapies (Lacewing, 2004).
Lacewing references 5 authors that discuss the development of emotional theories
It is clear there is nothing close to consensus when it comes to comparing emotion with cognition or defining exactly when an emotion results from cognition
EIGH: Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder (BD) using ICS model (Lomax, et al., 2009).
30 bipolar persons and 30 healthy persons were tested (in a euthymic mood state and also in induced positive mood state) to see if they detected discrepancies in the sentences; the results show BD people operate at a "more abstract level"
NINE: Deficits in social cognition & response flexibility in pediatric BD (McClure, et al., 2005)
40 outpatients with pediatric BD…… [Read More]
Medications include mood stabilizers, especially lithium, flaxseed oil, phospholipids, lecithin, antioxidants, folate, amino acids, multivitamins and minerals (Kidd 2004). Psychosocial measures include a change of lifestyle, a change in diet, the inclusion of dietary supplements, cognitive behavior therapy and therapeutic parenting (Kidd).
A plan that can be devised in treating or managing bipolar disorder can include traditional medications for symptoms, the new electroconvulsant therapy resistant cases, and preventive measures (Kidd 2004). The family must be educated on possible relapses through informational pamphlets, videos or their involvement in advocacy groups. Family physicians, psychiatrists and mental health professionals should be involved in the plan. Family members should be informed about and trained to recognize the warning signs of suicide. They should also be taught how to distinguish between the signs of mania and those of depression. Substance abuse should be discouraged or stopped. Even seemingly modest or "innocent" social drinking should be…… [Read More]
Sixteen percent of people taking Zyprexa for a year gained more than sixty-six pounds, according to documents obtained for a potential class action suit against the drug's manufacturer (Berenson 2007). The drugs used to treat depression are of limited use in treating the repeating depressive episodes of bipolar illness, both in terms of long-term efficacy and their danger in causing the bipolar sufferer to enter a manic episode, not merely recover from depression (Balkalar, 2007). Abilify, a new drug, has demonstrated less significant weight gain, although it can still produce tics, "headache, anxiety, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, upset stomach, and an inner sense of restlessness or need to move" ("Commonly Asked Questions About Side Effects," 2007, Abilify: Bristol-Meyers Squib Official ebsite).
Finding the right drug for Susie may take time, and her drug treatment plan will likely take a series of adjustments over the course of her…… [Read More]
Bipolar and Personality Disorder
Approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder are also found to suffer from borderline personality disorder (Zimmerman & Morgan, 2013). While some of the symptoms and characteristics of both disorders are similar, it is important, as Zimmerman and Morgan (2013) point out, to distinguish between the two, as each requires its own form of treatment in order to allow the patient to overcome the issues associated with each. This paper will discuss the treatment considerations for a person presenting with both bipolar disorder and personality disorder.
DSM-5 (2013) states that the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are: “For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes” (p. 123). Mania is described as a…… [Read More]
ability of a bipolar student to learn concepts in the subjects of Math and Science in the general classroom setting
According to sources retrieved from the American Medical Journal, bipolar disorder refers to the psychiatric diagnosis for a mood disorder. Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder undergo various symptoms such as experiencing episodes of a frenzied state whose medical term is mania (or hypomania). This medical condition typically alternates with episodes of depression. Doctor Annabel Hathaway, a senior psychologist at the University of Stanford, children suffering from bipolar disorders have high intelligence quotient and commendable talents. However, they may have difficulties in coordinating their reflexes and reaction time. They also experience difficulties making transitions, and they may as well have co-morbid syndromes that that render them anxious, inattentive, distractible, moody, argumentative, and withdrawn. Likewise, bipolar disorders may render such children acute and perfectionist.
Psychologists explain that children with bipolar disorders…… [Read More]
particular mental health disorder. Specifically it will reflect on my personal experience with someone who suffers from bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder). A mental disorder is one that affects the brain and can disrupt how a person thinks, feels, and/or relates to others. Bipolar disorder is certainly characteristic of this definition of a mental disorder. A person suffering from bipolar disease exhibits massive mood swings. They can be deep in depression, and then display excessive "highs" or mania. Both of these swings are far more severe than the general highs and lows most people face in the course of their lives. I first became aware of bipolar disorder when I met a fellow student who had the disease. She said that she had not been diagnosed for years, and that she had not understood what was wrong with her. After I got to know her, I did see some severe mood…… [Read More]
There is a milder form of mania, for instance, known as a hypomanic episode, in which patients display manic symptoms for a period of three or four days. If the manic episode lasts for a week or longer, as is the case with our patient above, then the patient is experiencing full-blown mania.
It is also somewhat common for bipolar patients to experience mixed episodes. These episodes involve "swinging" back and forth from one pole to the next, experiencing symptoms of both mania and depression within the same day.
From international surveys, we have come to learn that around 1.5% of all adults suffer from bipolar disorders. The average bipolar patient experiences around four episodes within a ten-year time span. There are those patients, however, who experience recurring episodes throughout their lives. Thus, it is quite likely that you will have to deal with a bipolar patient as an acupuncturist…… [Read More]
Client is an African-American male, age 19, diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder 1 (296.89), with mixed and psychotic features. Lability and mood cycles have become more rapid recently. Currently, the client is experiencing an acute but mild manic episode.
The client has no significant biological issues. As the first in his family known to have Bipolar Disorder, no genetic component to the disorder has been determined, but further work in a family therapy context might help determine if there are any biological risk factors. The client is physically healthy. He does not use drugs or alcohol, but tends towards a pattern of excessive denial.
Psychologically, the client struggles with low self-esteem, denial, and mood swings. Although the client reports strong and amicable relationships with family and friends, there may be little empathy from his closest relatives due to perceived stigma about bipolar disorder and lack of knowledge of the…… [Read More]
Since bipolar disorder has been shown to be a major cause of suicide, a number of U.S. studies have concluded that a person affected by this condition often shows signs and symptoms that may accompany suicidal feelings, such as talking or discussing suicide, having the feeling that "nothing will ever change or get better," that "nothing one does makes any difference" and feelings that the person is "a burden to family and friends." Also, the suicidal person may begin to abuse alcohol or illegal drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even heroin and proceed to put his/her affairs in order like "organizing finances or giving away possessions to prepare for one's death." Not surprisingly, such as person may also put him/herself in "harm's way or in situations where there is a danger of being killed" (2007, "Bipolar Disorder," Internet).
Clearly, a person with bipolar disorder will exhibit outward signs and indications…… [Read More]
Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…… [Read More]
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…… [Read More]
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a childhood disorder characterized by chronic irritability that interferes with academic and social functioning. Frequent outbursts and temper tantrums, at a frequency of about three times per week, are the most obvious behavior externalizations of DMDD, but to be diagnosed with the disorder, the child must also exhibit poor mood or irritability in between outbursts, too (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). To differentiate DMDD from pediatric bipolar disorder, it is also essential that the child does not exhibit sustained mood elevation or nonepisodic mania (Beweka, Mayes, Hameed, et al, 2016). Moreover, the symptoms of DMDD persist in spite of changes to the child’s environment, evident at home and also in school. Symptoms must also not be temporary, but in place for a year or more. While on the surface DMDD appears no different from any other psychiatric illness, it is in fact a nebulous…… [Read More]
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder associated with specific periods of the calendar year. SAD is more commonly found in geographic locations with long winter seasons with shorter daylight hours, less sunlight, and longer nights. This lack of sunlight has been directly connected to mood changes in a variety of populations and is most common at latitudes that experience less light during the winter seasons. In addition, some mood changes have been associated with the summer months in specific geographic areas. This paper will explore the diagnosis and assessment of Seasonal Affective Disorder, including the differentiation of the physical and emotional causes for the mood changes that occur. The paper will also explore the common treatment methods, including behavioral, pharmacological, and biopsychological, attempting to identify the preferred methods of treatment and data regarding the efficacy of the methods (.
According to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) DSM-IV, SAD…… [Read More]
Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.
Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).
Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm
Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette
smoking, stages of change, and major depression in the Canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(3), 204-8. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical
Library database. (Document ID: 1673587981).
Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.
Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://depressiongenetics.med.upenn.edu/DLResearch/Levinson_GeneticsDepression.pdf
Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…… [Read More]
Nursing -- Group Therapy
Peer-reviewed literature regarding effective treatments of bipolar I disorder reveals that patients are significantly helped by family-focused or "family skills" therapy, particularly when dealing with depressive symptoms. However, studies also reveal that family therapy is less effective when dealing with manic episodes than are some other adjunctive treatments. Furthermore, quite a bit is as yet unknown about the relationship between family therapy and effective treatment of bipolar I disorder. Researchers lack evidence linking mania or hypomania factors to specific burdens on caregivers. In addition, families of bipolar patients undergo considerable stress and must struggle with limited and too often inaccessible avenues for their effective involvement. Finally, considerable additional study and focus is required so the health care industry can effectively incorporate relatives' thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, cultural identities and worldviews in operational structures and policy plans for the effective treatment of bipolar I disorder.
2. Body: Scholarly…… [Read More]
Treatment of Psychological Disorder
The bipolar disorder is a mental disorder and alternatively known as manic depression elevates the mood and cause depression to the affected individuals. The symptom of bipolar depression is the elevated mood, and it is the significant symptom of the affected person. During mania process, the affected individuals behaves irritably, display abnormally energetic and happy. The affected individuals often make poorly decision with little or no regard to the consequences. During the depression period, the affected individuals may have a negative outlook on life, and having poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide is another symptom of bipolar disorder where between 30% and 40% of the victims attempt to inflict self -harm. Other mental issues include substance use disorder, and anxiety disorders. While it is difficult to establish the cause, however, the genetic and environmental factors have been responsible for the cause of bipolar…… [Read More]
The Bible relates to bipolar disorder and highlights the fact that it is very difficult for an individual to deal with it. In spite of the fact that one can be inclined to lead a pious life, the respective individual can be easily influenced by his physical condition. Romans 8 and Galatians 5 relate to how individuals should focus on controlling their mind by using their spirit rather than by using their flesh.
b.Frequency of occurrence
Although it is less known than schizophrenia, bipolar disorder has been reported to occur in a similar number of patients. Also, when considering that some physicians actually have trouble differentiating between the two, one can come to the conclusion that bipolar disorder can be mistaken for schizophrenia.
People suffering from bipolar disorder need to constantly concentrate on repressing the malady's symptoms, as only by doing this will they be able…… [Read More]
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…… [Read More]
The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)
Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)
Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be an effective alternative intervention to psychotropic medications. The therapy is mainly used for persons experiencing acute episodes of melancholy but may also be recommended for other disorders that include symptoms like catatonia, mania, or schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs are more commonly used to treat psychotic episodes (NIMH). ECT may also be helpful for persons who cannot take psychotropic drugs such as pregnant women or seniors.
Research questions related to the use of psychotropic medications"
. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?
2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?
National Institute…… [Read More]
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…… [Read More]
Personal Details of Student
Family Name: ooney
Given Name (s) Bridget
Student Number (SID): 312165250
Email (University email only) [email protected]
Assignment number (if applicable): #1
Genetics of Brian and Mind Disorders
Academic Honesty -- all forms of plagiarism and unauthorized collusion are regarded as academic dishonesty by the university, resulting in penalties including failure of the unit of study and possible disciplinary action. A module of academic honesty and plagiarism is at http://elearning.library.usyd.edu.au/learn/plagiarism/index.php .
I / We have read and understood the University of Sydney Student Plagiarism: Coursework Policy and Procedure (which can be found at sydney.edu.au/senate/policies/Plagiarism.pdf).
I / We understand that failure to comply with the Student plagiarism: coursework Policy and Procedure can lead to the University commencing proceedings against me / us for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended).
3. This work is substantially my…… [Read More]
Danny's case, we do not have enough information thus far to make an accurate diagnosis. The information that he has provided is helpful as a starting point, but Danny has indicated that he is somewhat uncooperative at this point (he says he is not here for you to diagnose him with depression and that his arrival at your office is mandated by the school as part of his probation -- otherwise he would not be there). So, in order to properly diagnose Danny, more time will be needed and more information. Nonetheless, there are signs, just from the little that we have to go on, that could point us in the right direction. The history provided by the parents and the comments made my by Danny himself do suggest that Danny may be showing symptoms of bi-polar disorder…but more work must be done before this diagnosis can be made.
In…… [Read More]