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Pros and Cons of Birth Control
Birth control refers to different methods used to prevent pregnancy. It is also known as contraception or fertility control. Different steps or planning done for birth control is called family planning. As the pregnancies taking place at teenage are more at risk of its harmful outcomes; it is suggested that the youngsters should be given proper sex education and should be introduced to different birth control methods. Birth control can help to protect from the delivery side effects and also increases the survival chances of the children.
It is important for the birth control method to be effective in order to avoid unintended pregnancies. The birth control method being applied can be made effective by using the method correctly and consistently as directed by the physicians. Among different methods of birth control, contraceptive pills are considered to be the most effective method…
Clemmitt, Marcia. "Birth Control." Controversies over Women's Access to Birth Control 2012.
Downey, Lillian. "Birth Control and Safe Sex." Birth Control Advantages and Disadvantages 13 May 2011.
Harris, Gardiner. "Birth Control." The Pill that Started More than one Revolution 11 May 2010. Newspaper.
Isger, Sonja. "Pfizer's Birth Control Recall has little Impact on South Floridians." 2 February 2012. Newspaper.
By definition, that would include an IUD, as well as Norplant and similar implantables. It also includes the costs of sterilization for women and vasectomies for men" (Erb 2013).
When deducting the birth control, it is also important to itemize the expense. "You must itemize your deductions (i.e.; Schedule a) in order to qualify. You cannot use the standard deduction and claim medical and dental expenses" (Patton 2014). It is also essential that these medical expenses are tabulated accurately. "You must have paid medical expenses during the calendar year. If you paid by check, the date you mailed or delivered the check is usually the qualifying date of payment" (Patton 2014). In other words, what is reimbursed is what the patient pays, not the actual cost, if some of the expense was covered by insurance. If the birth control pill is covered by insurance, it is not deductible. If only…
Erb, K. (2013). Deducting the cost of health insurance. Forbes. Retrieved from:
Fishman, S. (2014). The self-employed health insurance deduction. Nolo. Retrieved from:
Birth Control - Then and Now Birth Control in Ancient Times
Birth control has existed since the beginning of time, or at least from the time a man and a woman realized the connection between the sex act and pregnancy. This subject's history has been rich in conflict and controversy. Religious leaders have banned it and called it sinful, the United States Congress has made laws against it, and people have gone to jail for disseminating information concerning it. If ever there were a volatile issue with countless proponents and opponents, birth control is it.
The use of birth control began in antiquity. Drawings of condoms over three thousand years old have been found in Egypt. From 1850 B.C. people have used many and sometimes dreadful means in their efforts to prevent pregnancy. The first written mention is in the Christian Bible, Genesis 8:9 in which it describes Onan "...…
3. The History Channel. 2001. The History of the Birth Control Movement (online) available at http://www.historychannel.com/perl/print_book.pl?ID=75708;Internet ; accessed 17 November 2002.
4. Gordon, Linda. Woman's Body, Woman's Right, Birth Control in America. New York: Penguin Books, 1974
London, Kathleen. 2000. The History of Birth Control (online). New Haven, CT: Yale University available at http://www.yale.edu./ynti/curriculum/units/1982/6/82.06.03.x.html;Internet ; accessed 16 November 2002.
Birth Control Practices in the Ancient World Annotated Bib
Bujalkova, M. "Birth Control in Antiquity." Bratisl Lek Listy. (108:3), 2007. 163-66. he research conducted by ancient medical scholars led to some of the most extensive of early medical inquiries. Bujalkova explores what he feels is a fairly serious problem in examining ancient texts and the forms of birth control and contraception that they employed. his problem is that many of the writers of ancient times did not clearly identify the difference between contraceptives and abortive agents. Part of the reason for this, the author asserts, is the ancient perception that humans were not people until birth and thus there was no difference between preventing a pregnancy and termination of one already progressing.
Bujalkova's article is useful as it mainly discusses the psychological, philosophical, and sociological perspectives of the ancients. It is necessary to understand as much about the culture of…
The basic thesis of Riddle's book is that the Ancient world did use contraceptives which were relatively safe and also quite efficient. It is believed that ancient forms of medicine were archaic, dangerous, and the work of uneducated quacks. Obviously, those who are more well-informed know those suppositions to be false. Although the Ancients may not have understood chemical medicine as we know it today, their methods were still useful and effective particularly in the field of gynecology where patients were in desperate need of aid.
Soranus of Ephesus. Soranus' Gynaecology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1991. This text is a reprint of an ancient textbook which was the first authoritative text about the female human body and how it differentiated from the male. Soranus explains in clear detail, as translated into modern English, exactly how gynecological issues including birth control were dealt with in Ancient Greece. The author also carefully explains the differences between abortion and contraception and how the two terms have been complicated throughout history. The viewpoint of Soranus is that it far better to prevent conception than to abort a fetus after pregnancy and gives several natural methods of birth control including pomegranate peel and dried figs.
People erroneously think of birth control as a modern invention. Soranus' book not only explains birth control methods which were concurrent at the time of his writings, but also explains methods which came before. This text is useful in that it is a complete understanding of birth control methodology without any perceptible moral or ethical bias regarding the issue.
irth Control and ureau
IRTH CONTROL AND CHILDREN'S UREAU
Women have always been concerned with birth control issues since it directly impacts their health, freedom, sense of personhood and sexuality. When a woman knows she can control her reproductive system to any extent, she feels more liberated to enjoy her intimate relationships. irth control has been as old as issue as time itself though it was only in modern times that it gained any prominence. Women since early 20th century have been trying for legalized birth control since it was found that old and unscientific measures were leading to high death rates among expectant mothers. Margaret Sanger is one well-known name in the field of birth control. orn in 1879, Sanger was 29 and a mother of three when she found her calling. Trained as a public health nurse, Sanger devoted her time and attention to the field of birth…
BIRTH CONTROL AND CHILDREN'S BUREAU
Women have always been concerned with birth control issues since it directly impacts their health, freedom, sense of personhood and sexuality. When a woman knows she can control her reproductive system to any extent, she feels more liberated to enjoy her intimate relationships. Birth control has been as old as issue as time itself though it was only in modern times that it gained any prominence. Women since early 20th century have been trying for legalized birth control since it was found that old and unscientific measures were leading to high death rates among expectant mothers. Margaret Sanger is one well-known name in the field of birth control. Born in 1879, Sanger was 29 and a mother of three when she found her calling. Trained as a public health nurse, Sanger devoted her time and attention to the field of birth control after the tragic incident in which one of her patients lost her life during pregnancy and after literally begging her for the 'secret' of effective birth control. Sanger then actively began advocating legalization of birth control and challenged some federal laws banning distribution of birth control devices and information. She later established her organization, American Birth control League to facilitate legalization of birth control measures.
Women have always sought just one thing: someone to share their worries and concerns with. So when the Children's Bureau of Department of Labor was established in 1912, mothers thronged the bureau with letters, suggestion, calls for help and information etc. This was one place from where they could get help on everything in connection with pregnancy and childbirth and this was definitely a welcome change. Women concerned about anything from doctors' improper training to pregnancy health issues would write to the Bureau and request relevant information. Bureau had pertinent information in form of brochures and guides that would be sent out to anyone needing them. Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act of 1920s sanctioned this distribution of information. Such effective programs under the bureau supposedly saved tens of hundreds of children and mothers. Women were glad to know that government was sincerely interested in their problems and concerns and thus approached the bureau with all kinds of issues connected with their health, children and pregnancy.
I will consider taking the pill in the future if I am in a committed relationship and do not want to get pregnant. However, because the pill does not prevent disease, I do feel that women on the pill should use condoms when they meet new men.
Because my awareness on the topic of birth control and safe sex is currently quite strong, I have made the decision to use condoms when I have sex. I have in fact only used condoms as a form of birth control and have never experimented with other "barrier" methods. I did try taking the pill for a short while but felt it was not the right choice for me; the choice was not based on its effectiveness as a form of birth control so much as it was based on concerns about side-effects. I also know that the pill does not prevent sexually…
Birth Control and Population
According to Paul Ehrlich cited in the article "Too Many People," population issues in underdeveloped countries (UDCs) encompass rapid growth rates, birth rates vastly exceeding the death rate because of high percentages of young people, inadequate living standards, and serious problems with high urban concentrations.
The consequences include resource depletion, ecosystem destruction, mass starvation, and a further deterioration of living stands. And, although not directly articulated, Ehrlich hits at political instability because rising expectations based on the knowledge of affluence in overdeveloped countries (ODCs) can't be realized. The conclusion Ehrlich reaches is that the overpopulation crisis justifies the imposition of mandatory birth control measures in UDCs that will result in zero population growth. While this view may initially seem undemocratic in nature, the reality is that his proposal is the only way to cope with the situation. To illustrate this point, this paper explores questions related…
Goldfarb, "Too Many People."
"Population Dynamics By Country, Religion, or Ethnicity." Available: http://www.overpopulation.org/culture.html (Accessed 20 May 2005).
Goldfarb, "Too Many People."
Many issues in the United States are divisive. Conservative politicians and voters are always at odds with liberal politicians and voters. It does not seem to matter what the issue is, there is always going to be a fundamental difference of opinion. One of these issues is whether to allow public schools to provide contraceptives to their students. It is a difficult problem that both conservatives who oppose the issue, and more centrist and liberal individuals who support it have not yet found an answer to. Since it is a fact that prophylactics almost completely eliminate sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies (Dailard; Knox), it is the given opinion in this essay that public schools should be allowed to continue the practice.
There has actually been broad legislation passed which has allowed the practice since 2007 in all United States public schools (Associated Press). In a poll, that…
Associated Press. "Birth Control at School? Most Say it's Okay." Associated Press, 2007. Web.
Courrege, Diette. "School-Based Sex Ed Program Outrages Mother of Teen Girl who Received Birth Control." Charleston Post and Courier, 2010. Web.
Dailard, Cynthia. "School-Based Health Centers and the Birth Control Debate." The Guttmacher report on Public Policy 3.5 (2000). Web.
Gibbs, Nancy. "Birth Control for Kids?" Time, 2007. Web.
2. Birth control, contraception and abortion are often linked in legal and Ideological arguments proposed by those on the right side of the aisle.
B. Many conservative law-makers will often exploit deep passions over women's rights issues in order to bring religious voters to the polls.
1. This most recent election saw an emphasis on issues such as the protection of planned parenthood.
2. Particularly in reference to the issue of contraception, many female voters perceived the hostility shown by the Republican party toward effective birth control as an attack on women's rights.
C. Debates over the Affordable Care Act have focused on the desire of some conservatives to cut funding for contraception assistance.
1. This has been one of the thorniest sticking points as President Obama has worked to legislate the ACA.
2. According to IU, with its implementation next year, the ACA would help contraceptive rights by "making…
Alta Charo, J.D. (2012). Warning: Contraceptive Drugs May Cause Political Headaches. New England Journal of Medicine, 366, 1361-1364.
Neergaard, L. (2012). OB/GYNs Back Over-the-counter Birth Control Pills. Associated Press.
Studies indicate that most teen mothers do not finish high school, and spend much of their lives in poverty. They also indicate many children of teenage mothers will grow up to be teenage mothers themselves (Simmons A21). Thus, teenage pregnancy has ramifications far beyond the birth of a child. To give a fair chance to all children, teens should have access to birth control without parental consent, allowing older, more mature women to have children, and reducing the number of teen pregnancies across the country.
Besharov, Douglas J. "A oral Choice: Would Norplant Simply Stop Unwanted Pregnancies - or Increase Destructive Teen Sex?" National Review 9 Aug. 1993: 50+.
Curran, Carla, and Virginia Witt. "Talking about Sex: Sex Can Be Hard to Talk about with Children. But with U.S. Teen Pregnancy Rates the Highest in the Developed World, Sex Education Can't Be Ignored." State Legislatures Oct.-Nov. 2002: 24+.
Medora, Nilufer P., and Cheryl Von Der Hellen. "Romanticism and Self-Esteem among Teen Mothers." Adolescence 32.128 (1997): 811+.
Scully, Sean. "Birth-Control Access Irks Conservatives." The Washington Times 16 Feb. 1998: 4.
Simmons, Deborah. "The ABC's of Teen Parenthood; What Are the Facts about Abstinence vs. Birth Control." The Washington Times 15 Feb. 2002: A21.
To be most effective, a woman must then take the pill everyday, at roughly the same time each day.
One of the most common reasons for the failure of the pill is forgetfulness. Women can forget to take the bill, reducing its effectiveness rate. As a reminder, women can keep their pills next to their toothbrush. This makes it easier for a woman to remember the pill.
Some women may experience nausea when taking the pill for the first time. Vomiting soon after taking the pill may also disrupt the hormonal cycle. Women who experience these symptoms can cope by taking the pill right before going to bed or with a snack. The nausea should go away after the initial weeks.
Women who forget to take the pill during their designated time should take one as soon as they remember. If a woman does not remember until the next day,…
Birth control [...] why I am in favor of birth control for women. Birth control is certainly a personal choice, and it should be a personal choice, not a societal or religious choice. Ultimately, the choice to have a child should rest between a man and a woman, and not in the mores of a society or outdated religious beliefs. Those who raise a child should be the ones to decide whether they have a child or not.
In Support of Birth Control
I am in support of birth control for a number of reasons. First, it is a safe alternative to unwanted pregnancies. Teen pregnancy is down in America today, however, teen pregnancy is still an enormous problem, with over 1 million teens getting pregnant every year ("Gift of Life"). This is an enormous number of young women giving birth to mostly unwanted babies, and birth control could have…
Arons, Jessica R. "Misconceived Laws: The Irrationality of Parental Involvement Requirements for Contraception." William and Mary Law Review 41.3 (2000): 1093.
Author not Available. "Teen Pregnancy Facts." Gift of Life Foundation. 2001. 21 May 2003. http://golfound.com/teen_pregnancy.htm
Sawhill, Isabel V. "Get Organized: A Guide to Preventing Teen Pregnancy." United States Department of Health and Human Services. 1999. 21 May 2003. http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/get-organized99/intro.htm
Another use of the system: When a physician orders a radiological procedure that involves intravenous dye, the computer automatically checks to determine whether the appropriate blood tests on kidney functions have been completed.
The second most effective mode is that the integration of the integrated system into the floor communications. When a patient calls for a nurse, the master station provides the responding staff member with background information about the patient, thereby ensuring a personalized response to every call. The wall-mounted stations enable staff members to locate each other and communicate directly between any two stations in the network. Both types of station are equipped with a control wheel that gives the workstations a simple, non-intimidating appearance. Rotating the control wheel sequentially highlights all available options on the associated computer display, thereby eliminating guesswork and errors. Corridor lights allow staff to identify quickly which patient in a semi-private room is…
Today, even teens that have access to birth control do not use it all the time. One reporter notes that a National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy study shows, "Nearly nine out of 10 teens say it's important to use birth control every time they have sex. [...]Yet the Child Trends data show that 31% of sexually experienced teens used no birth control at their most recent sexual intercourse" (Wetzstein, 2002, p. 3). Thus, the educational implications are strong. Birth control education is not a one-time aspect of education. This education should continue throughout middle- and high-school, and it should be reiterated that birth control must be used every time a couple engages in sex. eporter Wetzstein continues, "Teens - especially boys - need to hear that contraceptives have to be used every time they have sex to avoid pregnancy" (Wetzstein, 2002, p. 3). Therefore, birth control education can be…
Author not Available. (2003). Teen Pregnancy Facts. Retrieved from the Gift of Life Foundation Web site: http://golfound.com/teen_pregnancy.htm7 July 2005.
McCarthy, S.J. (2001, Fall). Faith-based murders? Free Inquiry, 21, 19.
Wetzstein, C. (2000, March 9). Teens inconsistent in birth-control use, two studies suggest. The Washington Times, p. 3.
Birth Control and Abstinence
Birth Control vs. Abstinence
Although birth control methods and abstinence are widely acknowledged and practiced, it is necessary to consider their pros and cons.
Every female holds the right to decide if and at what time she wants to become pregnant. For couples who are planning for pregnancy, the use of birth control methods until they are prepared facilitates them in making sure that the mother and the newborn will be as healthy as possible. If an individual is sexually active, the single means to prevent pregnancy is to opt for a helpful birth control method and to make use of it in the correct and consistent fashion ("Birth Control: What's ight for You?").
According to Columbia Encyclopedia, birth control can be defined as the "practice of contraception for the purpose of limiting reproduction" ("Birth Control"). The research that has been conducted till date has not…
"Birth Control." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 July 2012.
Birth Control and Christianity Debate: Introduction
Birth control or family planning is one of the most controversial issues, widely and passionately discussed by the Church and one for which a clear answer or solution has remained elusive. With rising population rate, many experts maintain that birth control is not only important, it is critical for the survival of the planet. Birth control methods both artificial and natural have been widely promoted and publicized since the beginning of 20th century. Over the years they managed to gain wider acceptance and Church came under severe pressure to endorse or allow the use of contraceptives. The experts found that growing population rate was directly connected with food and water scarcity and was also seen as a cause of increasing environmental deterioration.
The size of the human population affects virtually every environmental condition facing our planet. As our population grows, demands for resources increase,…
Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine.
Francis Edgecumbe, "Orthodox Reactions to Humanae Vitae" in the Eastern Churches Review 2:3 (1969): 305.
Greeley, A.M. (1992, November 7). Sex and the single Catholic: The decline of an ethic. America, pp. 342-359.
Noonan, J.T. (1967). The Church and contraception: The issues at stake. New York: Paulist Press.
This choice gives them the ample time to balance their social life with the economic endeavors hence not remaining economically disadvantaged and dependent on men due to childbearing. The social independence and economic stability will also lead to better health for the mothers and the population at large. Hence, it is significant to note that the birth control aspect is a thing that starts from personal level but affects the wider society.
Arguments against birth control
One of the most prominent arguments against birth control is the view that this is an act that is unnatural, anti-life, a form of abortion and separates sex from reproduction. These are arguments that emanate from the fact that some of the methods used in controlling birth usually some after the sexual intercourse like the use of pills and also the fact that most of the methods are not nature provided but an improvisation…
Guttmacher Institute, (2008). World Population Day -- Six Reasons to Support Family Planning. Retrieved June 16, 2013 from http://www.guttmacher.org /media/inthenews/2008/07/09/
Michelle S., (2006). "Birth Control Causes Promiscuity" & Other Specious Arguments. Retrieved June 16, 2013 from http://www.zcommunications.org/and-ldquo-birth-control-causes-promiscuity-and-rdquo-and-amp-other-specious-arguments-by-michelle-swenson
Controversies Over omen's Access Birth Control
This study focuses on the article titled "Controversies over omen's Access to Birth Control" as written by Marcia Clemmitt. The author reviews different perspectives to close down the issue of dispensing birth control. It begins with an example of a pharmacist who refused to dispense his professional duty due to moral and religious practices. He viewed birth control as an immoral vice. The author explores how access to birth control is very significant to women. The article has focused on reports highlighting how women are going for different forms of birth control. Clemmitt has also viewed people who have been on the opposing side to the act of birth control. Anti-abortion movements and religious advocates oppose this issue because it alters with the process of fertilization and implantation of an egg. The contraceptive and other birth control measures act as a barrier preventing fertilization…
Clemmitt, Marcia. "Controversies over Women's Access to Birth Control." CQ Researcher 15
(24 June 2005). Rpt. In Women's Health. Ed. Christina Fisanik. Detroit: Greenhaven
Press, 2006. Contemporary Issues Companion. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context.
Web. 23 February 2013
2009; Zhang et al. 2009). Claims of the programs' success in general are also claimed to be highly exaggerated in official reports, which often provide the only numbers available on the subject (Jacka 2007; Xiaokang 1996).
The human rights issues that the programs either directly and explicitly entail or quite predictably and verifiably lead to are the main source of the criticisms directed at China's official birth control policy and programs. Both infanticide and forced abortions are practiced not only by families but also by the Chinese government and various provincial authorities, which is considered a major rights violation by much of the rest of the world (Li et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009). The question of whether or not it is ethically permissible for the state to control fertility and conception at all is also still a major debate, though most academics that have truly scrutinized the issue…
Hsu, M. (1985). "Growth and Control of Population in China: The Urban-Rural Contrast." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75, no. 2:241-57. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 4, 2010).
Jacka, T. (2007). "POPULATION GOVERNANCE IN THE PRC: POLITICAL, HISTORICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES." China Journal no. 58 (July 2007): 111-126. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed January 16, 2010).
Li, H.; Li, D.; Li, H. & Diao, Y. (2009). "Contraception and Induced Abortions for Women of Reproductive Age Married in Recent Years in Rural Areas of Shandong, China." Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 68, issue 3: 174-80. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 4, 2010).
Peng, X. (2000). "Population Policy and Program in China: Challenge and Prospective." Texas International Law Journal 35, issue 1: 51-63. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 4, 2010).
If after doing her research and talking to her doctor a woman decides that YAZ is the birth control method that is right for her then this is a choice that she should be able to make.
YAZ is not unlike most other drugs that people use in that it is known to have side effects. But although there are side effect these are readily known and available to the consumer before they actually take YAZ. These are clearly identifiable on the YAZ website for the consumer to read. They are also included on an insert that is contained in the package when the medication is purchased. There is also plenty of information available from a person's physician as well as their pharmacist if there are any questions that have not been answered from the other sources. Side effect information is clearly available for patients from many different sources so…
"YAZ." n.d. 15 February 2010
Tone brings the history of birth control to life, exploring the underbelly of an industry that is not only still booming, but also almost completely culturally accepted in the 21st century. This allows the reader to not only understand the trials and efforts to build up a valuable industry, but the lessons learned about the cultural atmosphere, and both the moral and scientific beliefs of the time can be applied to other topics that the reader may wish to explore. This piece essentially serves as a snapshot of the "real" people that were involved, leaving the broad assumptions and cold historical considerations of the "right" side of the law behind. It is also important to note that the culture of the government is not necessarily an accurate reflection of the popular culture of the time. Even those who participate in the government culture, like Albert Janin, a married lawyer in…
When teenagers begin experimenting sexually without the benefit of useful information, they tend to ignore safe-sex considerations, they fail to employ effective anti-pregnancy strategies, and they often engage in patterns of relationships that are emotionally unfulfilling or even destructive instead of healthy and positive.
Purpose of esearch Project
The purpose of this research project is to identify and recommend a more effective approach to minimizing unwanted teenage pregnancy and STD transmission than those typically relied upon by government-funded programs.
Preliminary Perspective/Opinion of the esearcher
The preliminary perspective and opinion of the researcher is that all three hypotheses will be confirmed: providing birth control to teenagers will reduce unwanted teenage pregnancy more effectively than abstinence-only approaches; providing birth control and information about avoiding unwanted pregnancy to teenagers will be more effective when done confidentially; and providing information about avoiding STDs within a framework that acknowledged teenage sexual activity patterns will be…
References for Literature Review
"Comprehensive Sex Education is More Effective at Stopping the Spread of HIV
Infection." American Psychological Association. Retrieved October 21, 2009, from:
Editors. "Sex and Pregnancy among Teens." The Guttmacher Institute. (2006). Retrieved
The Male Birth Control Pill: An Overview of the Debate
Pregnancy has traditionally been socially constructed as a female concern, even though two people are needed to get pregnant—a man and a woman. The male birth control pill has only been piloted relatively recently in the history of medicine. The challenge of manufacturing a male birth control level is keeping testosterone levels low enough to ensure there is no risk of pregnancy without creating averse health risks, including low libido. But there are also cultural obstacles, including the lingering perception that birth control is still primarily a female responsibility.
The most recent trial of a male birth control pill involved 40 healthy men (ages 18 to 50) and a control group of 10 including 10 who received a placebo (Nedelman & Gumbrecht, 2019). Side effects included “fatigue, headache, acne, decreased libido and mild erectile dysfunction,” which some people have humorously…
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Oral Contraceptives
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are one of the most commonly-prescribed medications for women. In the United States, approximately 25% of women age 15-44 use some form of hormonal contraceptives (Cooper, 2017). But just like the decision to use birth control itself is highly individualized, pharmacodynamic factors such as age and health status can impact the patient’s response to birth control pills and patients must be carefully monitored throughout the duration of their lives to ensure that their form of birth control suits their lifestyle needs and the changes in their bodies over time. As noted by Cooper (2017): three types of oral contraceptive pills currently exist, that of combined estrogen-progesterone pills, progesterone only pills and the continuous or extended use pill. The most commonly-prescribed pill is that of the combined estrogen-progesterone combination.
The actual pharmacokinetics of birth control pills is achieved through the regulation…
Cooper, D. (2017). Oral contraceptive pills. NCBI. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430882/
Utian, W. (2018). Birth control pills and age. National Women\\\\'s Health Resource Center, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.healthywomen.org/content/ask-expert/1778/birth-control- and-age
Viewed from the perspective of the ideal, however, there appears to be an inherent contradiction in Sanger's view that a woman's eyes should be "more clearly upon what should be," and her argument that it is utopian to expect that birth control can equally be the concern of man. Sanger's observation that women are too inclined to follow in the footsteps of men and that they need to understand that their mission should really be to "create a human world by the infusion of the feminine element" is a valid one. Therefore, her conclusion that a good beginning would be for woman to assume the responsibility for birth control is rather surprising. for, surely insisting that a man assume equal responsibility for the decision to bring a child into the world would be the logical start to infusing a feminine spirit into a male dominated world?
Sanger, M. (1920). Birth Control - a Parents' Problem or Woman's? Woman and the New
Race. New York: Brentano, p. 93-100.
Religious communities in schools encourage various programs with the intention of having teenagers ready to go through diverse social difficulties. However, they constantly tend to go over the topic of contraception, as religion does not support it.
Even after seeing the effect that unwanted births have on teenagers, religious communities are not supportive towards birth control. Irresponsible adults condemn birth control, claiming that the government should finance proper education, instead of investing into something that they believe is not a true necessity.
Even with the fact that religious communities do not support birth control programs, Americans generally appear to be encouraging teenagers to use contraception. A large percentage from the general public believes that birth control should be covered by health insurances. Also, they believe that sex education should involve issues concerning contraception through abstinence. There are a number of educational institutions supporting the concept of teaching teenagers that they…
1. Barth Richard P., Painter John S., Sangalang Bernadette B. "First-Birth Outcomes and Timing of Second Births: A Statewide Case Management Program for Adolescent Mothers." Health and Social Work, Vol. 31, 2006.
2. Sawhill, Isabel V. "What Can Be Done to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Out-of-Wedlock Births?." Retrieved November 28, 2009, from the Brookings Web site: http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2001/10childrenfamilies_sawhill.aspx
3. Schwartz, Michael. "Sex as Apple Pie." National Review, Vol. 40, June 10, 1988.
4. Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Poll Finds Majority Back Birth Control; Access Sought without 'Delay'." The Washington Times, June 8, 2007.
That is particularly troubling in light of the tremendous decrease in teen pregnancy where birth control is available without such restrictions (Asmar, 2005).
In light of the evidence of the effectiveness of birth control availability on teen pregnancy and the negation of that benefit by parental notification requirements, birth control information and materials should be made more available to teenagers and without any parental notification requirements.
Asmar, Melanie. "Should girls have to tell their parents?; Teenagers, young women weigh in on abortion case To tell or not to tell?; Not birth control; hat would you do?." Concord Monitor; November 27, 2005.
Hench, David. "School birth control backed; Poll: 67% favor access for students, but the number falls for those under 16 or without parental consent." Portland Press
Herald; November 2, 2007.
Russell, Eric. "Battle looms on access to birth control Advocates play tug of war over teenagers' well-being."…
Asmar, Melanie. "Should girls have to tell their parents?; Teenagers, young women weigh in on abortion case To tell or not to tell?; Not birth control; What would you do?." Concord Monitor; November 27, 2005.
Hench, David. "School birth control backed; Poll: 67% favor access for students, but the number falls for those under 16 or without parental consent." Portland Press
Herald; November 2, 2007.
Russell, Eric. "Battle looms on access to birth control Advocates play tug of war over teenagers' well-being." Bangor Daily News; December 3, 2008.
In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.
An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…
Bakalar, Nicholas. "Adolescence: Abstinence-Only Programs Not found to Prevent HIV." The New York Times 14 August 2007: Retrieved Dec. 3, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com .
Garrett, Robert T. "Texas teens lead nation in birth rate." The Dallas Morning News 5 November 2007: Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at http://www.dallasnews.com .
Green, Tanya L. "Parents Have the Right to Know when their Children Receive Family
Planning Services at School." Opposing Viewpoints: Students' rights. Greenhaven Press,
Religion and Birth Control at the Supreme Court" by The Editorial Board (2016) of The New York Times is written from a leftist perspective, which is immediately evident in the first line of the article, which states that the Senate Republicans are inflicting "harm" on the nation "by refusing to consider filling the Supreme Court vacancy" which Obama wants to fill with his nomination. The piece is an anti-religion op-ed that condemns those who object to policies that impinge on their religious principles and integrity because their doing so "places burdens on others" (Editorial Board, 2016). In other words, it is okay to burden the consciences of religious objectors, but it is not okay to burden others, i.e., liberals who believe that everyone should have the right to choose as they want except for those who disagree with them on what is right and wrong, moral and immoral, ethical and…
Her life has been a hard one. She raises the children, walks half a mile to a well in rural Mexico to fetch water every day. When she leaves three days a week to serve as a domestic in a nearby motel, her oldest daughter, 11, looks after the children.
Maria makes tortillas every morning and boils the water for purification. Her hands are strong, her skin is leathery, the result of a lifetime of hard work and painful experiences. Her husband is working in the fields in California so she doesn't see him very often, but he sends her money through Western Union so she can pay the rent on their little home. He knows a baby is expected but the grape crops in California must be picked when they are ready, so he can't leave to come home and be with his wife. His back is permanently painful…
Some have speculated that the work may have been commissioned by one of those families, and that the work was stored in a private residence, as opposed to being on display (the Birth, No date).
In its historical context, Birth of Venus is important because it gives us a glimpse into the Italian psychology at the time. The painting shows that even as the church tried to exert total influence in Italy, the people had not completely forgotten their old traditions and still thought fondly about the days of Rome. Because so many pagan-themed paintings were destroyed by the Catholic church, Birth of Venus also allows us to consider the other great works of pagan art from the 15th century that we will never get to see.
Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli is an important work in the study of art. This late-15th century painting reflects the struggle…
Art archive: Venus (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mythology/images/venus_art_archive.html.
The Birth of Venus: Spring (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Sandro/44venusprintemps_english.html .
Botticelli (2002). Retrieved March 28, 2007, at http://www.loggia.com/art/renaissance/botticelli02.htm.
Botticelli, Sandro, real name Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi (No date). Retrieved March 27, 2007, at http://www.latifm.com/artists/Botticelli_Sandro.html .
Mothers and newborns are often separated shortly after delivery, and preterm infants are isolated from their mothers even more than full-term mothers. Some physicians stress that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotional attachment as a foundation for optimal development in years to come.
The extreme form of the bonding hypothesis-that the newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally-simply is not true. Nonetheless, the weakness of the bonding hypothesis should not be used as an excuse to keep motivated mothers from interacting with their newborns. Such contact brings pleasure to many mothers and in some mother-infant pairs-including pretem infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers from disadvantaged circumstances-early close contact may establish a climate for improved interaction after the mother and infant leave the hospital.
Birt is the complete expulsion or extraction…
Founder of the American birth control movement, Margaret Sanger is one of the most influential, and respected, women in American history. Her crusade for birth control and family planning, at a time when she faced strong social, political, and religious opposition, created change and controversy within American society. In addition to ensuring universal availability of birth control and family planning education, her projects and research have led to the creation of organizations such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and Planned Parenthood.
orn Margaret Louise Higgins, on September 14, 1879 in Corning, New York, Margaret Sanger was the sixth of her parents' eleven children. Although her mother, Anne Purcell Higgins, died from tuberculosis at the age of fifty, Margaret's belief that the frequent pregnancies lay at the root of her premature death was to exert an enormous influence on her life and her work. Aided by her…
Coigney, Virginia. Margaret Sanger. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
Katz, Esther, et. al., The Papers of Margaret Sanger. 1999. Available [Online]: http://adh.sc.edu[25 September 2002].
Steinem, Gloria. Margaret Sanger. 2001. Available [Online]: http://www.time.com/time/time100/leaders/profile/sanger.html [25 September 2002].
Esther Katz, et. al., The Papers of Margaret Sanger, (1999). Available [Online]: http://adh.sc.edu[25 September 2002].
Having a baby is a dream that many families have. Women in particular are associated with the idea and "dream" of having a child but men are pretty excited about it to when it comes, albeit also nervous. However, there is a danger when it comes to waiting too long before starting a family in terms of age. Whether it is career concerns, finding the right, the delaying of the marriage or what have you, there are multiple reasons that are common in today's society whereby women put off having families. An unfortunate byproduct of this pattern is that the risk of birth defects is much higher with children born of women over the age of 35. This report shall explore the precise and specific reasons that these birth defects why it is more common for women beyond the line stated in this proposal. Even with the increasing…
Birth to 19 Years
Sensory motor period 0 -- 2 years
The child moves from basic, reflexive activity such as sucking and holding to learning how to reach for objects with intention or kicking a mobile to create motion (Stages of intellectual development, 2012, CDI). The baby discovers "new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal -- such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it" (Stages of intellectual development, 2012, CDI). By age two children are capable of running, kicking balls, and building towers of blocks. They are capable of controlling their bowels. Average language vocabulary is around 200 words (Normal stages of human development: Birth to five years, 2012, CDI). By the end of this phase children are capable of sleeping through the night.
Preoperational phase (2-7 years)
From 2-4 years, children can…
Normal stages of human development: Birth to five years. (2012). Child Development Institute
(CDI). Retrieved http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/normaldevelopment.shtml
Play and developmental stages. (2012). Child Development Institute
(CDI). Retrieved http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/pl2.shtml
No mention of long-lasting friendships or romantic/sexual relationships.
Economic Functioning (including housing, transportation): Currently lives with his mother in a rent-controlled apartment. Father's pension checks/mother's Social Security are the only sources of income. No vehicle. Situation demands immediate attention.
Strengths, Problem Solving Capacity: Completely competent for most entry-level positions; average intelligence and full physical functioning, as well as low familial demand, give him great potential.
Community Connection: Has lived in the same community most of his life (including his entire adult life) -- well-known, for better or for worse.
Worker Assessment Overall: Immediate placement in the service industry and training/education for a better position when available and advisable.
Recommendations: Placement with an outpatient addiction treatment program and attendance at least three times a week, if not daily for an initial period. Job placement assistance and weekly counseling to resolve anger and blame issues. Eventual contact with ex-wife to determine feasibility…
Many women have today started to complain about their bitter experiences, and this has led to the creation of a birthing room at the hospital. The room is made to look more like a warm and cozy room at home, rather than a cold medically equipped room at a hospital. Since birthing is a warm and beautiful experience, most women do feel that they must be provided with an atmosphere conducive to give birth in. A birthing room therefore, would be equipped with articles like rocking chairs, cozy seats, warm lighting, a variety of different kinds of stools, and railings, all of which would allow a woman to try out different birthing positions, and finally choose the one that suited her the best.
All the equipment in a birthing room must be designed to accommodate the entire team of medical personnel attending to the woman, and also accommodate her family…
Brenner, David. (2003) "I think there's a terrorist in my soup: how to survive personal and word problems" Andrews McMeel Publishing.
Bruess, Clint E; Greenberg, Jerrold S. (2004) "Sexuality Education, Theory and Practice" Jones and Bartlett Publishers
Choudhri, Nihara K. (2005) "Parent Savvy, Straight Answers to your family's financial"
Since 61% of the total had complete medical records, an estimate of that number would be important. The reader would also benefit by a split-out of the mothers less than 18 and the asthma rates of their babies, in order to establish if low birth weights were more common in such populations, and other confounding variables were different.
How was the sample selection done and what was the final sample size on which the data was analyzed? was there a control group?
The final sample size appeared to be 2,032 or 1,845, depending on the variables analyzed. That is because the patients in the 1,845 group had complete medical data available on all study variables, while the 2,032 included all those with some medical data. This means that there were 187 subjects for whom not all data was available. A subtraction of multiple-birth events brings us to 1,803 in the…
Gordon, L. (2004). Epidemiology. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders.
Nepomnyaschy, L. a. (2006). Low Birthweight and Asthma Among Young Urban Children. Am J. Pub Health, 1604-1610. (Nepomnyaschy, 2006)
Low Birth Weight Babies and Asthma
Wrongful birth, Wrongful Life, Wrongful conception
Wrongful pregnancy, wrongful birth, and wrongful life:
Variations in the law between states
The concept of 'wrongful life' sounds horrifying to many legal outsiders, given the idea that it would be 'better that someone had never been born' seems anathema to common notions of decency and humanity. However, such notions as 'wrongful pregnancy,' 'wrongful birth' and 'wrongful life' are ultimately designed to bring justice to families with children with disabilities or women who were treated negligently by the medical system.
A wrongful pregnancy or conception case is a case in which "a healthy but unwanted child is born, following negligent contraceptive advice by a doctor or a negligent sterilization or abortion procedure" (Strauss 1996). The mother or both parents may ask for damages, based upon the costs of raising the child and the pregnancy. Of the three different legal notions, this is…
Duncan, William C. (n.d). Statutory responses to "wrongful birth" and "wrongful life" actions.
Marriage Law Foundation. Retrieved:
Strauss, S.A. (1996). 'Wrongful conception', 'wrongful birth' and 'wrongful life': the first South
This would serve as a basic blue print for future science fiction author Ivan Asimov. The article was useful because it highlights a change that is taking place. Where, the world of literature is changing and evolving from the traditional writings of the past to embrace new a genre. In many ways, Frankenstein serves a bridge between the literature of the past and science fiction.
Glausiusz, Josie. "The Spark of Frankenstein." Discover 23.8 (2002): Print. 20 Mar. 2010.
In the article the Spark of Frankenstein, it talks about how the lab scene was influenced by Mary Shelly's husband (Percy Shelly), who was working under Dr. James Lind. They were conducting experiments showing how electricity can cause a dead frog's leg to twitch. Then in 1816, after visiting Lord yron's villa near Geneva, she had the background for her masterpiece. This is useful; because it highlights what factors helped Shelly, determine…
Badalamenti, Anthony. "Why Did Mary Shelly Write Frankenstein." Journal of Religion and Health 45.3 (2006): 419 -- 439. Print.
Duncker, Particia. "Marry Shelly's After Lives: Biography and Invention." Women a Cultural Review 15.2 (2004): 230 -- 249. Web. 20 Mar. 2010.
Freedman, Carl. "Hail Mary: On the Author of Frankenstein and the Origins of Science Fiction." Science Fiction Studies 29.2 (2002): 253 -- 264. Print.
Glausiusz, Josie. "The Spark of Frankenstein." Discover 23.8 (2002): Print. 20 Mar. 2010.
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Forces Beyond Their Control -- hat does not kill you, makes you stronger in the fairy tale as well as the real world
The idea that what does not kill or harm you makes you stronger is a popular cliche. However, in many fairy tales, this theme is underlined by the introduction of a protagonist whom is regarded as weak or strange by society, but whose personal gifts not only enable him to overcome this negative self and societal impression, but also ultimately help him or her to deploy what at first seemed to be a negative characteristic, in a positive fashion.
For instance, at the beginning of the first Harry Potter book, the young Harry Potter is a wizard whom is still unaware of his identity. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Harry Potter is forced to live amongst Muggles, of whom he is the disfavored son,…
Hamilton, Virginia. (1985) The People Could Fly. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers.
Rowling, J.K. (1991) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Bloomsbury.
Lord, Bette. (1984). The Year of the Boar.
SPIRITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN'S TEMPERAMENT AND SELF-CONTROL
The work of Roehlkeparta (2006) reports that the church congregation has an influence that is both direct and indirect upon the young person's development spiritually variously in their contact with the young person. Included int these contacts are religious education, service projects, youth groups and in contacts that also "extend to include the congregations engagement with families, intergenerational engagement and broader community involvement through the congregations public leadership, service, and action on behalf of children, adolescents and others in society." (Roehlkeparta, 2006, p.329) The congregation is also reported to play a role "in young people's spiritual nurture by building the capacity and sense of responsibility among everyone in the congregation to be attentive to nurturing the spiritual lives of children and adolescents..." ( Roehlkeparta, 2006, p. 329) This study contributes to the present study in the statement of the expectations that adults have…
Giesenberg, A. (2007) The Phenomenon of Preschool Children's Spirituality. Retrieved from: eprints.qut.edu.au/16519/?
Fowler, J. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. Blackburn: Dove Communications.
Gottlieb, E. (2006). Development of religious thinking. Religious Education, 101(2), 242-260.
Roehlkepartain, EC (2006) The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. SAGE. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=PshgZRO 6 LfkC&dq=Roehlkepartain,+ E.+C.+(2006).+The+handbook+of+spiritual+developm ent+in+childhood+and+adolescence.&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status? Research Proposal
Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic status are more likely than children from higher socio-economic status to develop childhood obesity, which makes these children more likely to develop health problems later in life. For this reason, childhood obesity is a significant problem. The research proposed in this study is one that recommends that this issue be examined in a research study.
The Prevalence of Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status?
There is a great dearth of research that indicates that children from lower socio-economic households have a greater risk of developing obesity during their childhood than children from middle and upper socio-economic…
Cecil, JE, et al. (2005) Childhood Obesity and Socioeconomic Status: A Novel Role for Height Growth Limitation. International Journal of Obesity. 29. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v29/n10/full/0803055a.html
Gearhart, R., Gruber, DM, and Vanata, DF (2008) Obesity in the Lower Socio-Economic Status Segments of American Society. Forum on Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivespring08/gearhart.pdf
Gibbs, BG and Forste, R (2013) Socioeconomic Status, Infant Feeding Practices, and Early Childhood Obesity. Princeton University. Educational Papers 130233. Retrieved from: http://paa2013.princeton.edu/papers/130233
Ogden, CL, et al. (2009) Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db51.htm
Date of Birth: May 1, 2003
121 Lincoln Street
Chronological Age: 9 years 10 months
eferring District: Elmer Public Schools
Greg, age 9, lives in Boston with his mother Eileen, his father visits a few times a year and he has no other siblings. Greg has lived with Eileen since birth and only lived with his father until after the divorce when he was 7. Mother has recently remarried. Currently he attends an integrated-preschool classroom at the Briarcliff School in the Elmer Public School district.
Descriptions of Problem Behavior Operationally Defined
This functional behavior assessment is being completed at the request of the Elmer Public Schools Special Education department in response to Mrs. Smith's request for recommendations to assess Greg's behavior regarding sensory integration and behavior disorder.
Measure the Problem: Exhibits lack of desire to socialize with peers along with…
Barnhill, G.P. (2005). Functional behavioral assessment in schools. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(3), 131-143.
Fox, J.J., & Conroy, M.A. (2000). FBA for children and youth with emotional-behavioral disorders: Where we should go in the twenty-first century. Preventing School Failure, 44(4), 140-142.
Neff, N.A., & Iwata, B.A. (1994). Current research on functional analysis methodologies: An introduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 211-214.
Risley, T. (2005). Montrose M. Wolf (1935-2004). Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 38(2), 279-287.
Venice During Renaissence
Renaissance literally meaning re-birth was a cultural movement that started at the end of middle Ages from 14th to 17th century. The movement started from Italy and spread into whole of the Europe. The age of renaissance is attributed to a heightened sense of toleration and reasoning in every aspect of life. Arts, craft, literature, politics, and science, all were re-shaped in the renaissance era. hile the birth of renaissance is widely attributed to Florence, Venice was another city of Italy that presented an interesting but challenging outlook to a historian. Venice during the renaissance era was an oligarchy but was called Republic of Venice. ith hardly any resemblance with modern day democracy, Venice enjoyed affluence and abundance due being the gateway of trade activities in Europe.
The republic also enjoyed a relatively stable political environment and trade activities thrived in the era. Glassworkers, woodworkers, artisans, and…
Bouwsma, William J. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty: Renaissance Values in the Age of the Counter Reformation. University of California Press, 1984.
Manchester, William. A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance-Portrait of an Age. Little, Brown, 1992.
Mason, Antony. Everyday Life in Renaissance Times. Creative Company, 2005.
McGough, Laura J. "Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 80.2 (2006): 219-246.
Women who see their physician two times a year for refills would see an individual cost savings of $85 per year for a total cost savings of $307 million for the population. In addition, approximately 2.1 million women would eliminate their annual gynecological visits altogether for an individual cost savings of $85 per year and a total cost savings of $178.54 million (Louis Harris and Associates 1993). Overall, the savings to women who either stop seeing their physician annually or reduce their visits to once a year would equal about $695.3 million.
Assuming the average wage rate is $12/hour and the average amount of time spent at the doctor's office is 11/2 hours (including travel time), women who currently see their physician four times a year for Oral Contraception refills would save 4.5 hours per year or$54 for a total opportunity cost savings of $44.4 million for the population. Five…
Holly Mead, IWPR/GWU Research Fellow. Making Birth Control More Accessible to Women. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Over-the-Counter Oral Conceptive. Feb, 2001. IWPR Publications.
Kate Saunders. New Mobile Clinics to carry out birth control policy in Tibet. July, 2003. Life News
China Forces Abortion, Sterilization on Tibetans Lhasa. Aug, 2000. CW News in collaboration with LSN.
Health Abortion 'part of birth control'. January, 1999. Health Latest BBC Health News.
In March of 1921, with the help of her husband Humphrey Roe, she opened the first birth control clinic in England (riant, 1962). It was located in North London and remained open until 1977 (Rose, 1992). The only reason that it was closed down then was because reproductive health care in England was nationalized. One thing that helped Stopes, however, was that she had many political connections with upper-class individuals and she was able to create and enforce a number of very strict rules regarding her clinic so that she did not experience the kinds of problems that were seen in clinics of the same type in other countries such as the United States (riant, 1962). One of the main rules of Stopes' clinic was that she would not offer birth control to anyone who could not prove that she had already born at least one child. Not everyone liked…
Briant, Keith. Marie Stopes: A Biography. London: Hogarth, 1962.
Hall, Ruth. Passionate Crusader: The Life of Marie Stopes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
Maude, Aylmer. The Authorized Life of Marie C. Stopes. London: Williams & Norgate, 1924.
Rose, June. Marie Stopes and the Sexual Revolution. London: Faber and Faber, 1992.
When we refuse to produce battalions of babies to be exploited; when we declare to the nation;
Show us that the best possible chance in life is given to every child now brought into the world, before you cry for more! At present our children are a glut on the market. You hold infant life cheap.
Help us to make the world a fit place for children. When you have done this, we will bear you children, -- then we shall be true women..."
Sanger expressed the position that the constant "supply" of children that resulted from belief in the traditional morality effectively cheapened the value of human life. She was obviously referring to the "Great War" and to the recent waste of more than eight million human lives in the trenches of Europe. Her suggestion is that the concept of "fruitful multiplication" only enables nations to use its children…
An unplanned pregnancy is traumatic for any woman, and especially teenagers who completely unprepared or unwilling to carry a child to term. The United States leads all other developed, wealthy, industrialized nations in prevalence of teen pregnancies: with the UK in a fairly distant second place (Kmietowicz, 2002). About 52 out of every 1000 teenagers aged 15-19 in the United States give birth, compared with less than seven per 1000 teenagers in other countries including Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Korea (Kmietowicz, 2002). Teen pregnancy is a problem because it ruins young lives. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012), "only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, versus approximately 90% of women who had not given birth during adolescence." A high rate of high school drop out among teen mothers is not the only…
CDC (2012). About Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/TeenPregnancy/AboutTeenPreg.htm
Kmietowicz, Z. (2002). U.S. And UK are top in teen pregnancy rates. BMJ. 2002 June 8; 324(7350): 1354
Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology
How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy
Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).
Review of the…
Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"
Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,
hetorical Devices in Margaret Sanger's Speech "The Morality of Birth Control"
Margaret Sanger was a passionate crusader for women's right to use contraceptives, and her speech "The Morality of Birth Control" conveys this strong sense of passion. She used a number of rhetorical devices to help her emphasize her topic. These rhetorical devices included: bias, fallacies, tapinosis, and counterarguments. Together, these rhetorical devices allowed her to create a compelling speech promoting the idea that women should have access to birth control.
Sanger speaks out against the bias that has kept women from having access to reliable birth control, but invokes her own bias and fallacies. She is biased against women who would not elect to use birth control, and she believes that she knows their motivations. She suggests that women who do not use birth control only fail to do so because they are ignorant. However, not all women who…
Nichol, M. (2011). 50 rhetorical devices for rational writing. Retrieved February 3, 2013 from Daily Writing Tips website: http://www.dailywritingtips.com/50-rhetorical-devices-for-rational-writing/
Sanger, M. (1921, November 18). The morality of birth control. Retrieved February 3, 2013
from New York University website: http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/webedition/app/documents/show.php?sangerDoc=238254.xml
Their template deals with subjects such as what women found satisfying and frustrating about work. Also the committee heard show do they balance home and work responsibilities and fit in volunteer activities, how do they find time for spiritual activities. In addition, how does the spirituality affect work and vice versa (Bishop's Committee on omen in Society and in the Church).
ith regard to birth control, more a more liberally minded Pope could base relaxation of birth control based upon the results of the 1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control. This Commission voted 30-5 to relax the concerns on birth control (1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control).
ith regard to priestly marriage, it would be well for the Church to examine the Eastern Orthodox Rite where marriage for priests is allowed. ith regard to poverty, the Church could build upon Rerum Novarum and a pile of Church encyclicals that deal…
"Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban." Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban. Papal Commission on Birth Control, 1966. Web. 20 Apr 2010.
Qualitative data using individual stories are very important because they give insight into the challenges faced by certain groups such as pregnant teenage mothers. A more comprehensive approach to reducing adolescent pregnancy is needed. Many risk factors including a mother's own history, the absentee father, and misuse of birth control contribute to teenage pregnancies. These can override the benefits of school activity participation and performance in preventing teenage pregnancy. Therefore, programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to address many factors.
Allen E, onell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.
Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of…
Allen E, Bonell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.
Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry: Educational Researcher, 19(5): 2-14.
Chase, S. (2005). Narrative inquiry: Multiple, lenses, approaches, voices. In Codjoe, H. (2007). The importance of home environment and parental encouragement in the academic achievement of African Canadian youth. Canadian Journal of Education, 30(1): 137-156.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. London: Sage Publications, Inc.
Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.
CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…
Austin, Emily. "Teen Dating Violence and School Response." California Commission on the Status of Women. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at http://www.CWLC.org .
Bellasalma, Patricia. "Taking a Close Look at Prop. 4, Californians Will Vote No as they Have Two Times When Similar Measures Were on the Ballot." California Progress Report. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008, at http://www.californiaprogressreport.com.(2008).
Buckland, Katie. "Lawsuit Charges Hormone Cream Manufacturers with Deceptive Marketing." California Women's Law Center. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
The two researchers, Nichols and Good, continue, "Teen pregnancies are an acute national problem because when young girls have children, the risk of poor developmental outcomes, such as poverty or lost career and educational opportunities, increases substantially for both mother and child" (Nichols, and Good 101). Thus, the cycle of poverty could continue through generations, all because of teen pregnancy. Many minority women do not have the resources to get birth control, which is another cause of teen pregnancy in minorities and poverty-stricken areas. This is one area that society could intervene, and create more awareness for teens in poverty-stricken areas, and create more educational opportunities for new, young mothers, so they can continue their education and break the cycle of poverty. Another social problem of teen sex is that studies show it can lead to decreased interest in school and other activities. Another author notes, "Early teen sex is…
Editors. "U.S. Teen Sexual Activity." Kaiser Family Foundation. 2005. 18 Nov. 2008. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/U-S-Teen-Sexual-Activity-Fact-Sheet.pdf
Nichols, Sharon L., and Thomas L. Good. America's Teenagers -- Myths and Realities: Media Images, Schooling, and the Social Costs of Careless Indifference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.
Sabia, Joseph J. "Early Adolescent Sex and Diminished School Attachment: Selection or Spillovers?" Southern Economic Journal 74.1 (2007): 239+.
Teen Sex Linked to Early Friendships." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Apr. 2003: 7+.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.