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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12957369
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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Oral Contraceptives
Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are one of the most commonly-prescribed medications for women. In the United States, approximately 25% of women age 15-44 use some form of hormonal contraceptives (Cooper, 2017). But just like the decision to use birth control itself is highly individualized, pharmacodynamic factors such as age and health status can impact the patient’s response to birth control pills and patients must be carefully monitored throughout the duration of their lives to ensure that their form of birth control suits their lifestyle needs and the changes in their bodies over time. As noted by Cooper (2017): three types of oral contraceptive pills currently exist, that of combined estrogen-progesterone pills, progesterone only pills and the continuous or extended use pill. The most commonly-prescribed pill is that of the combined estrogen-progesterone combination.
The actual pharmacokinetics of birth control pills is achieved through the regulation…

Cooper, D. (2017). Oral contraceptive pills. NCBI. Retrieved from:
Utian, W. (2018). Birth control pills and age. National Women\\\\'s Health Resource Center, Inc. Retrieved from: and-age

Birth and Dealing With the
Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1142260
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Her life has been a hard one. She raises the children, walks half a mile to a well in rural Mexico to fetch water every day. When she leaves three days a week to serve as a domestic in a nearby motel, her oldest daughter, 11, looks after the children.

Maria makes tortillas every morning and boils the water for purification. Her hands are strong, her skin is leathery, the result of a lifetime of hard work and painful experiences. Her husband is working in the fields in California so she doesn't see him very often, but he sends her money through Western Union so she can pay the rent on their little home. He knows a baby is expected but the grape crops in California must be picked when they are ready, so he can't leave to come home and be with his wife. His back is permanently painful…

Birth of Venus by Sandro
Words: 1945 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94445286
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Some have speculated that the work may have been commissioned by one of those families, and that the work was stored in a private residence, as opposed to being on display (the Birth, No date).

In its historical context, Birth of Venus is important because it gives us a glimpse into the Italian psychology at the time. The painting shows that even as the church tried to exert total influence in Italy, the people had not completely forgotten their old traditions and still thought fondly about the days of Rome. Because so many pagan-themed paintings were destroyed by the Catholic church, Birth of Venus also allows us to consider the other great works of pagan art from the 15th century that we will never get to see.


Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli is an important work in the study of art. This late-15th century painting reflects the struggle…

Works Cited

Art archive: Venus (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at

The Birth of Venus: Spring (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at .

Botticelli (2002). Retrieved March 28, 2007, at

Botticelli, Sandro, real name Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi (No date). Retrieved March 27, 2007, at .

Birth Stages in the First
Words: 1812 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9050375
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Mothers and newborns are often separated shortly after delivery, and preterm infants are isolated from their mothers even more than full-term mothers. Some physicians stress that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotional attachment as a foundation for optimal development in years to come.

The extreme form of the bonding hypothesis-that the newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally-simply is not true. Nonetheless, the weakness of the bonding hypothesis should not be used as an excuse to keep motivated mothers from interacting with their newborns. Such contact brings pleasure to many mothers and in some mother-infant pairs-including pretem infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers from disadvantaged circumstances-early close contact may establish a climate for improved interaction after the mother and infant leave the hospital.


Birt is the complete expulsion or extraction…

Margaret Sanger Founder of the American Birth
Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61024438
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Margaret Sanger

Founder of the American birth control movement, Margaret Sanger is one of the most influential, and respected, women in American history. Her crusade for birth control and family planning, at a time when she faced strong social, political, and religious opposition, created change and controversy within American society. In addition to ensuring universal availability of birth control and family planning education, her projects and research have led to the creation of organizations such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and Planned Parenthood.

orn Margaret Louise Higgins, on September 14, 1879 in Corning, New York, Margaret Sanger was the sixth of her parents' eleven children. Although her mother, Anne Purcell Higgins, died from tuberculosis at the age of fifty, Margaret's belief that the frequent pregnancies lay at the root of her premature death was to exert an enormous influence on her life and her work. Aided by her…


Coigney, Virginia. Margaret Sanger. New York: Doubleday, 1969.

Katz, Esther, et. al., The Papers of Margaret Sanger. 1999. Available [Online]:[25 September 2002].

Steinem, Gloria. Margaret Sanger. 2001. Available [Online]: [25 September 2002].

Esther Katz, et. al., The Papers of Margaret Sanger, (1999). Available [Online]:[25 September 2002].

Birth Defects in Pregnant Woman over 35
Words: 1241 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81992278
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High-Risk Pregnancies

Having a baby is a dream that many families have. Women in particular are associated with the idea and "dream" of having a child but men are pretty excited about it to when it comes, albeit also nervous. However, there is a danger when it comes to waiting too long before starting a family in terms of age. Whether it is career concerns, finding the right, the delaying of the marriage or what have you, there are multiple reasons that are common in today's society whereby women put off having families. An unfortunate byproduct of this pattern is that the risk of birth defects is much higher with children born of women over the age of 35. This report shall explore the precise and specific reasons that these birth defects why it is more common for women beyond the line stated in this proposal. Even with the increasing…

Birth to 19 Years Sensory Motor Period
Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 53094821
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Birth to 19 Years

Sensory motor period 0 -- 2 years

The child moves from basic, reflexive activity such as sucking and holding to learning how to reach for objects with intention or kicking a mobile to create motion (Stages of intellectual development, 2012, CDI). The baby discovers "new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal -- such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it" (Stages of intellectual development, 2012, CDI). By age two children are capable of running, kicking balls, and building towers of blocks. They are capable of controlling their bowels. Average language vocabulary is around 200 words (Normal stages of human development: Birth to five years, 2012, CDI). By the end of this phase children are capable of sleeping through the night.

Preoperational phase (2-7 years)

From 2-4 years, children can…


Normal stages of human development: Birth to five years. (2012). Child Development Institute

(CDI). Retrieved 

Play and developmental stages. (2012). Child Development Institute

(CDI). Retrieved

Birth 5 17 1972 4321 Main Street
Words: 322 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4865086
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No mention of long-lasting friendships or romantic/sexual relationships.

Economic Functioning (including housing, transportation): Currently lives with his mother in a rent-controlled apartment. Father's pension checks/mother's Social Security are the only sources of income. No vehicle. Situation demands immediate attention.

Strengths, Problem Solving Capacity: Completely competent for most entry-level positions; average intelligence and full physical functioning, as well as low familial demand, give him great potential.

Community Connection: Has lived in the same community most of his life (including his entire adult life) -- well-known, for better or for worse.

Worker Assessment Overall: Immediate placement in the service industry and training/education for a better position when available and advisable.

Recommendations: Placement with an outpatient addiction treatment program and attendance at least three times a week, if not daily for an initial period. Job placement assistance and weekly counseling to resolve anger and blame issues. Eventual contact with ex-wife to determine feasibility…

Birthing Room at a Hospital
Words: 2492 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52786110
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Many women have today started to complain about their bitter experiences, and this has led to the creation of a birthing room at the hospital. The room is made to look more like a warm and cozy room at home, rather than a cold medically equipped room at a hospital. Since birthing is a warm and beautiful experience, most women do feel that they must be provided with an atmosphere conducive to give birth in. A birthing room therefore, would be equipped with articles like rocking chairs, cozy seats, warm lighting, a variety of different kinds of stools, and railings, all of which would allow a woman to try out different birthing positions, and finally choose the one that suited her the best.

All the equipment in a birthing room must be designed to accommodate the entire team of medical personnel attending to the woman, and also accommodate her family…


Brenner, David. (2003) "I think there's a terrorist in my soup: how to survive personal and word problems" Andrews McMeel Publishing.

Bruess, Clint E; Greenberg, Jerrold S. (2004) "Sexuality Education, Theory and Practice" Jones and Bartlett Publishers

Choudhri, Nihara K. (2005) "Parent Savvy, Straight Answers to your family's financial"


Low Birth Weight Babies and
Words: 1313 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19178451
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Since 61% of the total had complete medical records, an estimate of that number would be important. The reader would also benefit by a split-out of the mothers less than 18 and the asthma rates of their babies, in order to establish if low birth weights were more common in such populations, and other confounding variables were different.

How was the sample selection done and what was the final sample size on which the data was analyzed? was there a control group?

The final sample size appeared to be 2,032 or 1,845, depending on the variables analyzed. That is because the patients in the 1,845 group had complete medical data available on all study variables, while the 2,032 included all those with some medical data. This means that there were 187 subjects for whom not all data was available. A subtraction of multiple-birth events brings us to 1,803 in the…


Gordon, L. (2004). Epidemiology. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders.

Nepomnyaschy, L. a. (2006). Low Birthweight and Asthma Among Young Urban Children. Am J. Pub Health, 1604-1610. (Nepomnyaschy, 2006)

Low Birth Weight Babies and Asthma

Wrongful Birth Wrongful Life Wrongful Conception
Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42464349
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Wrongful Pregnancy

Wrongful birth, Wrongful Life, Wrongful conception

Wrongful pregnancy, wrongful birth, and wrongful life:

Variations in the law between states

The concept of 'wrongful life' sounds horrifying to many legal outsiders, given the idea that it would be 'better that someone had never been born' seems anathema to common notions of decency and humanity. However, such notions as 'wrongful pregnancy,' 'wrongful birth' and 'wrongful life' are ultimately designed to bring justice to families with children with disabilities or women who were treated negligently by the medical system.

A wrongful pregnancy or conception case is a case in which "a healthy but unwanted child is born, following negligent contraceptive advice by a doctor or a negligent sterilization or abortion procedure" (Strauss 1996). The mother or both parents may ask for damages, based upon the costs of raising the child and the pregnancy. Of the three different legal notions, this is…


Duncan, William C. (n.d). Statutory responses to "wrongful birth" and "wrongful life" actions.

Marriage Law Foundation. Retrieved: 

Strauss, S.A. (1996). 'Wrongful conception', 'wrongful birth' and 'wrongful life': the first South

Mary Shelly and the Birth
Words: 935 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 14925376
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This would serve as a basic blue print for future science fiction author Ivan Asimov. The article was useful because it highlights a change that is taking place. Where, the world of literature is changing and evolving from the traditional writings of the past to embrace new a genre. In many ways, Frankenstein serves a bridge between the literature of the past and science fiction.

Glausiusz, Josie. "The Spark of Frankenstein." Discover 23.8 (2002): Print. 20 Mar. 2010.

In the article the Spark of Frankenstein, it talks about how the lab scene was influenced by Mary Shelly's husband (Percy Shelly), who was working under Dr. James Lind. They were conducting experiments showing how electricity can cause a dead frog's leg to twitch. Then in 1816, after visiting Lord yron's villa near Geneva, she had the background for her masterpiece. This is useful; because it highlights what factors helped Shelly, determine…


Badalamenti, Anthony. "Why Did Mary Shelly Write Frankenstein." Journal of Religion and Health 45.3 (2006): 419 -- 439. Print.

Duncker, Particia. "Marry Shelly's After Lives: Biography and Invention." Women a Cultural Review 15.2 (2004): 230 -- 249. Web. 20 Mar. 2010.

Freedman, Carl. "Hail Mary: On the Author of Frankenstein and the Origins of Science Fiction." Science Fiction Studies 29.2 (2002): 253 -- 264. Print.

Glausiusz, Josie. "The Spark of Frankenstein." Discover 23.8 (2002): Print. 20 Mar. 2010.

Self-Control Theory of Criminal Behavior
Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20404070
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Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).

First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…


Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas

Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Tales Forces Beyond Their Control -- What
Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16430531
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Forces Beyond Their Control -- hat does not kill you, makes you stronger in the fairy tale as well as the real world

The idea that what does not kill or harm you makes you stronger is a popular cliche. However, in many fairy tales, this theme is underlined by the introduction of a protagonist whom is regarded as weak or strange by society, but whose personal gifts not only enable him to overcome this negative self and societal impression, but also ultimately help him or her to deploy what at first seemed to be a negative characteristic, in a positive fashion.

For instance, at the beginning of the first Harry Potter book, the young Harry Potter is a wizard whom is still unaware of his identity. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Harry Potter is forced to live amongst Muggles, of whom he is the disfavored son,…

Works Cited

Hamilton, Virginia. (1985) The People Could Fly. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers.

Rowling, J.K. (1991) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Bloomsbury.

Lord, Bette. (1984). The Year of the Boar.

Young Children Ages 18 Months 8 Years Old Spirituality Temperament and Self-Control
Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 15766510
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The work of Roehlkeparta (2006) reports that the church congregation has an influence that is both direct and indirect upon the young person's development spiritually variously in their contact with the young person. Included int these contacts are religious education, service projects, youth groups and in contacts that also "extend to include the congregations engagement with families, intergenerational engagement and broader community involvement through the congregations public leadership, service, and action on behalf of children, adolescents and others in society." (Roehlkeparta, 2006, p.329) The congregation is also reported to play a role "in young people's spiritual nurture by building the capacity and sense of responsibility among everyone in the congregation to be attentive to nurturing the spiritual lives of children and adolescents..." ( Roehlkeparta, 2006, p. 329) This study contributes to the present study in the statement of the expectations that adults have…


Giesenberg, A. (2007) The Phenomenon of Preschool Children's Spirituality. Retrieved from:

Fowler, J. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. Blackburn: Dove Communications.

Gottlieb, E. (2006). Development of religious thinking. Religious Education, 101(2), 242-260.

Roehlkepartain, EC (2006) The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. SAGE. Retrieved from: 6 LfkC&dq=Roehlkepartain,+ E.+C.+(2006).+The+handbook+of+spiritual+developm ent+in+childhood+and+adolescence.&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age
Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54633210
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Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status? Research Proposal

Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic status are more likely than children from higher socio-economic status to develop childhood obesity, which makes these children more likely to develop health problems later in life. For this reason, childhood obesity is a significant problem. The research proposed in this study is one that recommends that this issue be examined in a research study.

The Prevalence of Obesity in Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Lower Socio-Economic Status Compared to Children Birth to 18 Years-Of-Age From Upper and Middle Socio-Economic Status?

Research Proposal


There is a great dearth of research that indicates that children from lower socio-economic households have a greater risk of developing obesity during their childhood than children from middle and upper socio-economic…

Works Cited

Cecil, JE, et al. (2005) Childhood Obesity and Socioeconomic Status: A Novel Role for Height Growth Limitation. International Journal of Obesity. 29. Retrieved from: 

Gearhart, R., Gruber, DM, and Vanata, DF (2008) Obesity in the Lower Socio-Economic Status Segments of American Society. Forum on Public Policy. Retrieved from: 

Gibbs, BG and Forste, R (2013) Socioeconomic Status, Infant Feeding Practices, and Early Childhood Obesity. Princeton University. Educational Papers 130233. Retrieved from: 

Ogden, CL, et al. (2009) Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:

Identification Information Greg Smith Date of Birth
Words: 1226 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66280828
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Identification Information

Greg Smith

Date of Birth: May 1, 2003

Elmer Elementary

121 Lincoln Street

Boston, Massachusetts

eporter: Name

Chronological Age: 9 years 10 months

eferring District: Elmer Public Schools

Greg, age 9, lives in Boston with his mother Eileen, his father visits a few times a year and he has no other siblings. Greg has lived with Eileen since birth and only lived with his father until after the divorce when he was 7. Mother has recently remarried. Currently he attends an integrated-preschool classroom at the Briarcliff School in the Elmer Public School district.

Descriptions of Problem Behavior Operationally Defined

This functional behavior assessment is being completed at the request of the Elmer Public Schools Special Education department in response to Mrs. Smith's request for recommendations to assess Greg's behavior regarding sensory integration and behavior disorder.

Measure the Problem: Exhibits lack of desire to socialize with peers along with…


Barnhill, G.P. (2005). Functional behavioral assessment in schools. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(3), 131-143.

Fox, J.J., & Conroy, M.A. (2000). FBA for children and youth with emotional-behavioral disorders: Where we should go in the twenty-first century. Preventing School Failure, 44(4), 140-142.

Neff, N.A., & Iwata, B.A. (1994). Current research on functional analysis methodologies: An introduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 211-214.

Risley, T. (2005). Montrose M. Wolf (1935-2004). Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 38(2), 279-287.

Venice During Renaissence Renaissance Literally Meaning Re-Birth
Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87490483
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Venice During Renaissence

Renaissance literally meaning re-birth was a cultural movement that started at the end of middle Ages from 14th to 17th century. The movement started from Italy and spread into whole of the Europe. The age of renaissance is attributed to a heightened sense of toleration and reasoning in every aspect of life. Arts, craft, literature, politics, and science, all were re-shaped in the renaissance era. hile the birth of renaissance is widely attributed to Florence, Venice was another city of Italy that presented an interesting but challenging outlook to a historian. Venice during the renaissance era was an oligarchy but was called Republic of Venice. ith hardly any resemblance with modern day democracy, Venice enjoyed affluence and abundance due being the gateway of trade activities in Europe.

The republic also enjoyed a relatively stable political environment and trade activities thrived in the era. Glassworkers, woodworkers, artisans, and…

Works Cited

Bouwsma, William J. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty: Renaissance Values in the Age of the Counter Reformation. University of California Press, 1984.

Manchester, William. A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance-Portrait of an Age. Little, Brown, 1992.

Mason, Antony. Everyday Life in Renaissance Times. Creative Company, 2005.

McGough, Laura J. "Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 80.2 (2006): 219-246.

Abortion Is Important Exercise Towards
Words: 2128 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67191078
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Women who see their physician two times a year for refills would see an individual cost savings of $85 per year for a total cost savings of $307 million for the population. In addition, approximately 2.1 million women would eliminate their annual gynecological visits altogether for an individual cost savings of $85 per year and a total cost savings of $178.54 million (Louis Harris and Associates 1993). Overall, the savings to women who either stop seeing their physician annually or reduce their visits to once a year would equal about $695.3 million.

Assuming the average wage rate is $12/hour and the average amount of time spent at the doctor's office is 11/2 hours (including travel time), women who currently see their physician four times a year for Oral Contraception refills would save 4.5 hours per year or$54 for a total opportunity cost savings of $44.4 million for the population. Five…


Holly Mead, IWPR/GWU Research Fellow. Making Birth Control More Accessible to Women. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Over-the-Counter Oral Conceptive. Feb, 2001. IWPR Publications.

Kate Saunders. New Mobile Clinics to carry out birth control policy in Tibet. July, 2003. Life News

China Forces Abortion, Sterilization on Tibetans Lhasa. Aug, 2000. CW News in collaboration with LSN.

Health Abortion 'part of birth control'. January, 1999. Health Latest BBC Health News.

Social and Political Effects of
Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47497430
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In March of 1921, with the help of her husband Humphrey Roe, she opened the first birth control clinic in England (riant, 1962). It was located in North London and remained open until 1977 (Rose, 1992). The only reason that it was closed down then was because reproductive health care in England was nationalized. One thing that helped Stopes, however, was that she had many political connections with upper-class individuals and she was able to create and enforce a number of very strict rules regarding her clinic so that she did not experience the kinds of problems that were seen in clinics of the same type in other countries such as the United States (riant, 1962). One of the main rules of Stopes' clinic was that she would not offer birth control to anyone who could not prove that she had already born at least one child. Not everyone liked…


Briant, Keith. Marie Stopes: A Biography. London: Hogarth, 1962.

Hall, Ruth. Passionate Crusader: The Life of Marie Stopes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.

Maude, Aylmer. The Authorized Life of Marie C. Stopes. London: Williams & Norgate, 1924.

Rose, June. Marie Stopes and the Sexual Revolution. London: Faber and Faber, 1992.

Margaret Sanger The Need for
Words: 1182 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12262545
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When we refuse to produce battalions of babies to be exploited; when we declare to the nation;

Show us that the best possible chance in life is given to every child now brought into the world, before you cry for more! At present our children are a glut on the market. You hold infant life cheap.

Help us to make the world a fit place for children. When you have done this, we will bear you children, -- then we shall be true women..."

Sanger expressed the position that the constant "supply" of children that resulted from belief in the traditional morality effectively cheapened the value of human life. She was obviously referring to the "Great War" and to the recent waste of more than eight million human lives in the trenches of Europe. Her suggestion is that the concept of "fruitful multiplication" only enables nations to use its children…

Teen Preg an Unplanned Pregnancy Is Traumatic
Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94350505
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Teen Preg

An unplanned pregnancy is traumatic for any woman, and especially teenagers who completely unprepared or unwilling to carry a child to term. The United States leads all other developed, wealthy, industrialized nations in prevalence of teen pregnancies: with the UK in a fairly distant second place (Kmietowicz, 2002). About 52 out of every 1000 teenagers aged 15-19 in the United States give birth, compared with less than seven per 1000 teenagers in other countries including Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Korea (Kmietowicz, 2002). Teen pregnancy is a problem because it ruins young lives. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012), "only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, versus approximately 90% of women who had not given birth during adolescence." A high rate of high school drop out among teen mothers is not the only…


CDC (2012). About Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved online: 

Kmietowicz, Z. (2002). U.S. And UK are top in teen pregnancy rates. BMJ. 2002 June 8; 324(7350): 1354

Women's Biology Review and Critique of a
Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43259632
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Women's Biology

Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology

How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy

Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).

Review of the…


Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"

Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692

Abortion a Landmark U S Supreme
Words: 3039 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77647480
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Origin of the Topic

The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.

Impact on Male and Female Sexuality

Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…

Works Cited

Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from

Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,


Rhetorical Devices in Margaret Sanger's Speech The
Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53995709
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hetorical Devices in Margaret Sanger's Speech "The Morality of Birth Control"

Margaret Sanger was a passionate crusader for women's right to use contraceptives, and her speech "The Morality of Birth Control" conveys this strong sense of passion. She used a number of rhetorical devices to help her emphasize her topic. These rhetorical devices included: bias, fallacies, tapinosis, and counterarguments. Together, these rhetorical devices allowed her to create a compelling speech promoting the idea that women should have access to birth control.

Sanger speaks out against the bias that has kept women from having access to reliable birth control, but invokes her own bias and fallacies. She is biased against women who would not elect to use birth control, and she believes that she knows their motivations. She suggests that women who do not use birth control only fail to do so because they are ignorant. However, not all women who…


Nichol, M. (2011). 50 rhetorical devices for rational writing. Retrieved February 3, 2013 from Daily Writing Tips website: 

Sanger, M. (1921, November 18). The morality of birth control. Retrieved February 3, 2013

from New York University website:

Ecumenical Council Agenda for the
Words: 950 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97332380
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Their template deals with subjects such as what women found satisfying and frustrating about work. Also the committee heard show do they balance home and work responsibilities and fit in volunteer activities, how do they find time for spiritual activities. In addition, how does the spirituality affect work and vice versa (Bishop's Committee on omen in Society and in the Church).

ith regard to birth control, more a more liberally minded Pope could base relaxation of birth control based upon the results of the 1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control. This Commission voted 30-5 to relax the concerns on birth control (1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control).

ith regard to priestly marriage, it would be well for the Church to examine the Eastern Orthodox Rite where marriage for priests is allowed. ith regard to poverty, the Church could build upon Rerum Novarum and a pile of Church encyclicals that deal…

Works Cited:

"Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban." Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban. Papal Commission on Birth Control, 1966. Web. 20 Apr 2010.

Narrative Inquiry Functions as a
Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 61566065
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Qualitative data using individual stories are very important because they give insight into the challenges faced by certain groups such as pregnant teenage mothers. A more comprehensive approach to reducing adolescent pregnancy is needed. Many risk factors including a mother's own history, the absentee father, and misuse of birth control contribute to teenage pregnancies. These can override the benefits of school activity participation and performance in preventing teenage pregnancy. Therefore, programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to address many factors.


Allen E, onell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.

Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of…


Allen E, Bonell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.

Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry: Educational Researcher, 19(5): 2-14.

Chase, S. (2005). Narrative inquiry: Multiple, lenses, approaches, voices. In Codjoe, H. (2007). The importance of home environment and parental encouragement in the academic achievement of African Canadian youth. Canadian Journal of Education, 30(1): 137-156.

Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. London: Sage Publications, Inc.

Discrimination Against Women in California
Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 10108592
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Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.

CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…

Works Cited

Austin, Emily. "Teen Dating Violence and School Response." California Commission on the Status of Women. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at .

Bellasalma, Patricia. "Taking a Close Look at Prop. 4, Californians Will Vote No as they Have Two Times When Similar Measures Were on the Ballot." California Progress Report. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008, at

Buckland, Katie. "Lawsuit Charges Hormone Cream Manufacturers with Deceptive Marketing." California Women's Law Center. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at

Women's Rights After the Civil
Words: 1442 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99684794
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This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).

hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…

Works Cited

A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." N.p. 2012.

Web. 16 May 2012.

The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights

Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.

Latin Women and Vocational Empowerment
Words: 5451 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82623396
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y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).

In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…


Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child

Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative

Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.

Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.

Teen Sex and Pregnancy Including
Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 64921786
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The two researchers, Nichols and Good, continue, "Teen pregnancies are an acute national problem because when young girls have children, the risk of poor developmental outcomes, such as poverty or lost career and educational opportunities, increases substantially for both mother and child" (Nichols, and Good 101). Thus, the cycle of poverty could continue through generations, all because of teen pregnancy. Many minority women do not have the resources to get birth control, which is another cause of teen pregnancy in minorities and poverty-stricken areas. This is one area that society could intervene, and create more awareness for teens in poverty-stricken areas, and create more educational opportunities for new, young mothers, so they can continue their education and break the cycle of poverty. Another social problem of teen sex is that studies show it can lead to decreased interest in school and other activities. Another author notes, "Early teen sex is…


Editors. "U.S. Teen Sexual Activity." Kaiser Family Foundation. 2005. 18 Nov. 2008. 

Nichols, Sharon L., and Thomas L. Good. America's Teenagers -- Myths and Realities: Media Images, Schooling, and the Social Costs of Careless Indifference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Sabia, Joseph J. "Early Adolescent Sex and Diminished School Attachment: Selection or Spillovers?" Southern Economic Journal 74.1 (2007): 239+.

Teen Sex Linked to Early Friendships." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Apr. 2003: 7+.

Environmental Policies Give an Example
Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279
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The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…


Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. 

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.