78+ documents containing “black panthers”.
Amidst a country of racism against African-Americans, it became inevitable that groups of colored citizens would band together to carry out what police thought to be one of the biggest threats in national security in the United States. In Oakland, California, there existed a highly-built tension between the African-American peoples of the neighborhood and the White police force. Because of the police brutality that led to an abuse of power and numerous violent outbreaks between the groups, the Black Panther Party was created as retaliation, one that would lead to further violence between police and BPP members.
egina Jennings, like many other young BPP soldiers at the time, recalled the reasoning behind her recruitment. Amongst her peers, she was one of the many who "had witnessed inexplicable police brutality," having "[grown] up in Philadelphia in the 1960s where I regularly saw the police do a "odney King" on Black people" (Jennings,….
Harris, M. (1968). Black Panthers: The Cornered Cats. Nation, 207(1), 15. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Hecht, P. (2009, March 28). Officers' shootings evoke tense climate in Oakland. Sacramento Bee, The (CA). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Houston, H.R. (2009). Black Panther Party (est. 1966). Freedom Facts & Firsts: 400 Years of the African-American Civil Rights Experience, 200. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Jennings, R. (2001). Africana Womanism in The Black Panther Party: A Personal Story. Western Journal of Black Studies, 25(3), 146. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Black Panther: Cinematic Review
Black Panther, directed by Ryan Coogler, is a lightening rod of a film, and one that successfully creates and maintains stunning visuals, heroic characters, and a timely message, which challenges the superhero genre as a whole. Black Panther, however, is not a perfect film, and it often struggles in terms of story-telling and character development. However, the visuals and imagination of the film, along with its social significance, mean that the film can be forgiven for its weaknesses in plot and script.
Black Panther immediately distinguishes itself from all other superhero movies in that it discards all the tired clichés and derivative concepts that so closely define most superhero films. Most superhero films created by major studios force you to watch through unoriginal storylines and predictable endings. Black Panther creates an intricate mythology around its characters and builds an entirely new imagined nation called Wakanda, an African paradise.….
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was going on, .E.B.….
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle
Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open field. His tired eyes wandered over the bloody ground, over the earth covered with corpses, over the scene of one of the greatest battles in American History, and his words rang out true and clear -."..Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Abraham Lincoln's famous address gave meaning and purpose to all those young lives so tragically cut short. It etched forever in the minds of posterity the real aim behind that great war. e were a nation of free people. Subjection and slavery were banished for all time from our shores. Or were they? The Civil ar freed the slaves. A piece of paper….
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=22777836"Anderson, Terry H. The Movement and the Sixties. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. De Leon, David, ed. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle / . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. King, Richard H. Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Peake, Thomas R. Keeping the Dream Alive: A History of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from King to the Nineteen-Eighties. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. Pinkney, Alphonso. Black Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenitice-Hall, 1975.
Black FeministIntroductionThe black feminist roots can be traced to 1864 when slavery had not yet been abolished, and Sojourner Truth began selling pictures mounted to a paper card to fund her activism. After being enslaved, being in a position to own and sell her image for profit was revolutionary. According to Peterson (2019), Truth often commented that she used to be sold for other peoples benefit, but now she sold herself for her own. Her activism was mainly centered on the abolishment of slavery and securing the rights of women since she was convinced race and gender were inseparable. Truths activism is an early representation of the early black tradition. While the vision may differ in the different collectives of feminists in the cause of time, the foundational principles that exist are black womens experiences of racism, classism, and sexism; their distinct view of the world from that of white….
ReferencesCrenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics. University Of Chicago Legal Forum: V, 1(8). Retrieved 23 June 2022, from https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&context=uclf .Nast, C. (2022). How Black Feminists Defined Abortion Rights. The New Yorker. Retrieved 23 June 2022, from https://www.newyorker.com/news/essay/how-black-feminists-defined-abortion-rights .Peterson, M. (2019). The Revolutionary Practice of Black Feminisms. National Museum of African American History and Culture. Retrieved 23 June 2022, from https://nmaahc.si.edu/explore/stories/revolutionary-practice-black-feminisms .Reed, A. (2019). The Combahee River Collective Statement [Ebook]. The University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 24 June 2022, from https://americanstudies.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Keyword%20Coalition_Readings.pdf .Taylor, U. (1998). The Historical Evolution of Black Feminist Theory and Praxis. Journal Of Black Studies, 29(2), 234-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/002193479802900206Webster, S. (2022). A Qualitative Study of the Evolution and Erasure of Black Feminism in Historic and Contemporary Sociopolitical Movements, And Black Men’s Resistance to Black Feminism. Mcnair Scholars Research Journal, 10(15). Retrieved 23 June 2022, from https://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1124&context=mcnair .
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons America….
panther, by Reiner Maria Rilke and Travelling through the Dark, by William Stafford, are two poems about wild animals and the effects of human kind's interference into their existence. In the case of Rilke's poem, the interaction is intentional: the man has locked one of the most impressive creatures in the wild, a panther, behind bars. In the second poem, the interaction is unintentional: the narrator finds a road kill in the dark, a deer. Even if so different, the animals are symbols for the same world: the world of wilderness.
The Panther, expresses the image such an impressive creature as a panther evokes when seen behind bars. The eyes of the panther draw the onlooker, leaving a lasting impression on him. One of the most powerful gazes in the animal world has lost its meaning for the one who sees it behind bars. It is as if the world,….
hat Birdie learns is that race, like many other issues of identity is mutable, if your appearance is "passable." One thing that is particualy interesting is that blackness is an ideal in the work, and the white daughter (Birdie) is not the favored daughter. "Danzy Senna's 1998 novel, Caucasia, casts blackness as the ideal, desired identity. For protagonist Birdie Lee and her sister, Cole -- offspring of a civil rights movement union between their white activist mother and black intellectual father -- whiteness simply pales in comparison. (Harrison-Kahan 19) to a great degree whiteness is constructed as a lesser identity to blackness, based on cultural richness and identity, through appearance and inner knowledge. This is reflective of the Black Power movement that is idealized in this work by the Black Panther movement. To be black was to be a personal source of pride and any lessor version of it….
Bayes, Jane H. Minority Politics and Ideologies in the United States. Novato, CA: Chandler and Sharp, 1982.
Dagbovie, Sika Alaine. "Fading to White, Fading Away: Biracial Bodies in Michelle Cliff's Abeng and Danzy Senna's Caucasia." African-American Review 40.1 (2006): 93.
Harrison-Kahan, Lori. "Passing for White, Passing for Jewish: Mixed Race Identity in Danzy Senna and Rebecca Walker." MELUS 30.1 (2005): 19.
Senna, Danzy. Caucasia. New York: Riverhead Trade, 1999.
" He explained that the ballot of 1964 represented a catalyst for the time being, "When all of the white political crooks will be right back in your and my community ... with their false promises which they don't intend to keep." He stated further that the Democrats lied about their support of the civil rights bill and had no actual intentions of passing it. He stated that they were simply out to play games and were using African-Americans as bait. Essentially, Malcolm stated that all African-Americans must use the ballot or the bullet. They must defend themselves and also push for equality and black nationalism as well as human rights (Malcolm X).
The experiences of the Black Panther were decidedly more militant but took their inspiration directly from him. In Oakland, California, in October of 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The Panthers….
The Black Arts Movement refers specifically to the rise of African-American literature in the 1960s. Writer and activist Amiri Baraka started the movement in Harlem in response to the assassination of Malcolm X and actively encouraged black writers to use their voices to tell their stories. The movement went outside of the realm of written art to include theater and other forms of expression. It led to the development of cultural studies programs at universities that focused on the idea that being black in the United States was a different cultural experience than being white, and helped highlight social differences between black and white America.
The Black Student Movement is an organization at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. It was established because of Black student dissatisfaction with both the growth of the black student population at the school and the NAACP chapter at the school. It became an active….
Estate of Malcolm X (2012). Biography. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from Malcolm X website:
Huey P. Newton Foundation. (2012). What was the Black Panther Party? Retrieved May 13,
2012 from BlackPanther.org website: http://www.blackpanther.org/legacynew.htm
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.
he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and….
The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.
The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.
Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,
On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."
In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential for….
African-American Odyssey. "World War I and Postwar Society." Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart8b.html ,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Ames, William C.. The Negro struggle for equality in the twentieth century. New dimensions in American history. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.. 1965, 90-1
Black Americans of Achievements. "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.." Home to Harlem website. http://www.hometoharlem.com/harlem/hthcult.nsf/notables/a0d3b6db4d440df9852565cf001dbca8,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Capeci, Dominic. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. The U.S. government were alarmed by these demands, and agencies such as the FB stepped up their targeting of radical black groups.
n Chapter 6, Marable analyzes the political status and labor movements of this time. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks in unions.
In his epilogue, Marable concludes: "American history has repeated itself, in regard to its interpretation of the pursuit of biracial democracy: the fist time as tragedy, the second time as catastrophe. In the aftermath of the First Reconstruction, white American historians attempted to portray the democratic experiment of 1965-77 as a complete disaster." After the Second Reconstruction, a similar process of historical revisionism took place -- led by President Reagan, who attempted to undermine the last vestiges of institutional equality.
Does this mean that the Second Reconstruction was a failure? "Our judgment," he says, "would be a resounding and unconditional 'no.'" Jim Crow is dead, the American State is committed to equal opportunity under law, the black consumer market has grown considerably. However, as an Afro-American and a socialist, Marable admits he cannot write his book without some political comment concerning those in poverty and many of the crimes against blacks still being committed. "The story of the Second Reconstruction has no moral, other than the simple truth that an oppressed people will not remain oppressed forever." Several basic ideals have sustained black courage: democracy, equality and freedom.
However, "given the evolution of capitalism, racism and democracy in America, a truly anti-racist democratic state must of necessity also be a socialist democracy....The demand for racial parity within a state apparatus and economy, which is based on institutional racism and capital accumulation at the expense of blacks and labor is flawed from the outset." A small group of black elites has formed, a small amount of blacks have been appointed in the government, but the now the passage of power must be given to those who create all wealth -- the working class. This will only be realized with the rise of the Third Reconstruction that seeks the empowerment of the laboring classes and all oppressed.
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the….
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
Le OI Jones was the original name for the activist who became Amiri Baraka. He came from the Beat Movement to activism after the assassination of Malcolm X, taking his new name. As a writer, he was able to contribute a literate voice to the civil rights and Black Power movements. This paper will outline those contributions that he made to both of these movements, including founding the Black Arts Movement.
Jones was born and raised in Newark and took an interest in both music and writing at an early age. After graduating Howard University with a degree in English in 1954, he joined the Air Force. He was dishonorably discharged and then relocated to Manhattan. He attended Columbia University and became an artist in Greenwich Village, before becoming affiliated with the Beat Movement (Biography, 2014). He married Hettie Cohen and the two started a literary magazine together, and a….
Als, H. (2014). Amiri Baraka's first family. The New Yorker. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/amiri-barakas-first-family
AmiriBaraka.com (2014). Poet, playwright, activist. AmiriBaraka.com. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.amiribaraka.com/
Biography. (2014). Amiri Baraka. Biography.com. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.biography.com/people/amiri-baraka-9198235#synopsis
Ulaby, N. (2014). Amiri Baraka's legacy both controversial and achingly beautiful. NPR. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.npr.org/2014/01/09/261101520/amiri-baraka-poet-and-co-founder-of-black-arts-movement-dies-at-79
Amidst a country of racism against African-Americans, it became inevitable that groups of colored citizens would band together to carry out what police thought to be one of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Panther: Cinematic Review Black Panther, directed by Ryan Coogler, is a lightening rod of a film, and one that successfully creates and maintains stunning visuals, heroic characters, and a…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Adams et al.) hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig…Read Full Paper ❯
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open…Read Full Paper ❯
Africa / African Studies
Black FeministIntroductionThe black feminist roots can be traced to 1864 when slavery had not yet been abolished, and Sojourner Truth began selling pictures mounted to a paper card to…Read Full Paper ❯
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to…Read Full Paper ❯
panther, by Reiner Maria Rilke and Travelling through the Dark, by William Stafford, are two poems about wild animals and the effects of human kind's interference into their…Read Full Paper ❯
hat Birdie learns is that race, like many other issues of identity is mutable, if your appearance is "passable." One thing that is particualy interesting is that blackness…Read Full Paper ❯
" He explained that the ballot of 1964 represented a catalyst for the time being, "When all of the white political crooks will be right back in your and…Read Full Paper ❯
The Black Arts Movement refers specifically to the rise of African-American literature in the 1960s. Writer and activist Amiri Baraka started the movement in Harlem in response to the…Read Full Paper ❯
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy…Read Full Paper ❯
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however, On the periphery of these upper…Read Full Paper ❯
" By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic…Read Full Paper ❯
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions…Read Full Paper ❯
Le OI Jones was the original name for the activist who became Amiri Baraka. He came from the Beat Movement to activism after the assassination of Malcolm X, taking…Read Full Paper ❯