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Amidst a country of racism against African-Americans, it became inevitable that groups of colored citizens would band together to carry out what police thought to be one of the biggest threats in national security in the United States. In Oakland, California, there existed a highly-built tension between the African-American peoples of the neighborhood and the White police force. Because of the police brutality that led to an abuse of power and numerous violent outbreaks between the groups, the Black Panther Party was created as retaliation, one that would lead to further violence between police and BPP members.
egina Jennings, like many other young BPP soldiers at the time, recalled the reasoning behind her recruitment. Amongst her peers, she was one of the many who "had witnessed inexplicable police brutality," having "[grown] up in Philadelphia in the 1960s where I regularly saw the police do a "odney King" on Black people"…
Harris, M. (1968). Black Panthers: The Cornered Cats. Nation, 207(1), 15. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Hecht, P. (2009, March 28). Officers' shootings evoke tense climate in Oakland. Sacramento Bee, The (CA). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Houston, H.R. (2009). Black Panther Party (est. 1966). Freedom Facts & Firsts: 400 Years of the African-American Civil Rights Experience, 200. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Jennings, R. (2001). Africana Womanism in The Black Panther Party: A Personal Story. Western Journal of Black Studies, 25(3), 146. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Black Panther: Cinematic Review
Black Panther, directed by Ryan Coogler, is a lightening rod of a film, and one that successfully creates and maintains stunning visuals, heroic characters, and a timely message, which challenges the superhero genre as a whole. Black Panther, however, is not a perfect film, and it often struggles in terms of story-telling and character development. However, the visuals and imagination of the film, along with its social significance, mean that the film can be forgiven for its weaknesses in plot and script.
Black Panther immediately distinguishes itself from all other superhero movies in that it discards all the tired clichés and derivative concepts that so closely define most superhero films. Most superhero films created by major studios force you to watch through unoriginal storylines and predictable endings. Black Panther creates an intricate mythology around its characters and builds an entirely new imagined nation called Wakanda, an…
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle
Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open field. His tired eyes wandered over the bloody ground, over the earth covered with corpses, over the scene of one of the greatest battles in American History, and his words rang out true and clear -."..Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Abraham Lincoln's famous address gave meaning and purpose to all those young lives so tragically cut short. It etched forever in the minds of posterity the real aim behind that great war. e were a nation of free people. Subjection and slavery were banished for all time from our shores. Or were they? The Civil ar freed the slaves. A piece of…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=22777836"Anderson, Terry H. The Movement and the Sixties. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. De Leon, David, ed. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle / . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. King, Richard H. Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Peake, Thomas R. Keeping the Dream Alive: A History of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from King to the Nineteen-Eighties. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. Pinkney, Alphonso. Black Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenitice-Hall, 1975.
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)
Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress
panther, by Reiner Maria Rilke and Travelling through the Dark, by William Stafford, are two poems about wild animals and the effects of human kind's interference into their existence. In the case of Rilke's poem, the interaction is intentional: the man has locked one of the most impressive creatures in the wild, a panther, behind bars. In the second poem, the interaction is unintentional: the narrator finds a road kill in the dark, a deer. Even if so different, the animals are symbols for the same world: the world of wilderness.
The Panther, expresses the image such an impressive creature as a panther evokes when seen behind bars. The eyes of the panther draw the onlooker, leaving a lasting impression on him. One of the most powerful gazes in the animal world has lost its meaning for the one who sees it behind bars. It is as if the world,…
hat Birdie learns is that race, like many other issues of identity is mutable, if your appearance is "passable." One thing that is particualy interesting is that blackness is an ideal in the work, and the white daughter (Birdie) is not the favored daughter. "Danzy Senna's 1998 novel, Caucasia, casts blackness as the ideal, desired identity. For protagonist Birdie Lee and her sister, Cole -- offspring of a civil rights movement union between their white activist mother and black intellectual father -- whiteness simply pales in comparison. (Harrison-Kahan 19) to a great degree whiteness is constructed as a lesser identity to blackness, based on cultural richness and identity, through appearance and inner knowledge. This is reflective of the Black Power movement that is idealized in this work by the Black Panther movement. To be black was to be a personal source of pride and any lessor version of it elicited…
Bayes, Jane H. Minority Politics and Ideologies in the United States. Novato, CA: Chandler and Sharp, 1982.
Dagbovie, Sika Alaine. "Fading to White, Fading Away: Biracial Bodies in Michelle Cliff's Abeng and Danzy Senna's Caucasia." African-American Review 40.1 (2006): 93.
Harrison-Kahan, Lori. "Passing for White, Passing for Jewish: Mixed Race Identity in Danzy Senna and Rebecca Walker." MELUS 30.1 (2005): 19.
Senna, Danzy. Caucasia. New York: Riverhead Trade, 1999.
" He explained that the ballot of 1964 represented a catalyst for the time being, "When all of the white political crooks will be right back in your and my community ... with their false promises which they don't intend to keep." He stated further that the Democrats lied about their support of the civil rights bill and had no actual intentions of passing it. He stated that they were simply out to play games and were using African-Americans as bait. Essentially, Malcolm stated that all African-Americans must use the ballot or the bullet. They must defend themselves and also push for equality and black nationalism as well as human rights (Malcolm X).
The experiences of the Black Panther were decidedly more militant but took their inspiration directly from him. In Oakland, California, in October of 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The…
Black panther party. Marxists.org. Web. 24 Mar 2012.
The Black Arts Movement refers specifically to the rise of African-American literature in the 1960s. Writer and activist Amiri Baraka started the movement in Harlem in response to the assassination of Malcolm X and actively encouraged black writers to use their voices to tell their stories. The movement went outside of the realm of written art to include theater and other forms of expression. It led to the development of cultural studies programs at universities that focused on the idea that being black in the United States was a different cultural experience than being white, and helped highlight social differences between black and white America.
The Black Student Movement is an organization at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. It was established because of Black student dissatisfaction with both the growth of the black student population at the school and the NAACP chapter at the school. It became an…
Estate of Malcolm X (2012). Biography. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from Malcolm X website:
Huey P. Newton Foundation. (2012). What was the Black Panther Party? Retrieved May 13,
2012 from BlackPanther.org website: http://www.blackpanther.org/legacynew.htm
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.
he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…
The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.
The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.
Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,
On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."
In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…
African-American Odyssey. "World War I and Postwar Society." Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart8b.html ,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Ames, William C.. The Negro struggle for equality in the twentieth century. New dimensions in American history. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.. 1965, 90-1
Black Americans of Achievements. "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.." Home to Harlem website. http://www.hometoharlem.com/harlem/hthcult.nsf/notables/a0d3b6db4d440df9852565cf001dbca8,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Capeci, Dominic. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. The U.S. government were alarmed by these demands, and agencies such as the FB stepped up their targeting of radical black groups.
n Chapter 6, Marable analyzes the political status and labor movements of this time. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks…
In his epilogue, Marable concludes: "American history has repeated itself, in regard to its interpretation of the pursuit of biracial democracy: the fist time as tragedy, the second time as catastrophe. In the aftermath of the First Reconstruction, white American historians attempted to portray the democratic experiment of 1965-77 as a complete disaster." After the Second Reconstruction, a similar process of historical revisionism took place -- led by President Reagan, who attempted to undermine the last vestiges of institutional equality.
Does this mean that the Second Reconstruction was a failure? "Our judgment," he says, "would be a resounding and unconditional 'no.'" Jim Crow is dead, the American State is committed to equal opportunity under law, the black consumer market has grown considerably. However, as an Afro-American and a socialist, Marable admits he cannot write his book without some political comment concerning those in poverty and many of the crimes against blacks still being committed. "The story of the Second Reconstruction has no moral, other than the simple truth that an oppressed people will not remain oppressed forever." Several basic ideals have sustained black courage: democracy, equality and freedom.
However, "given the evolution of capitalism, racism and democracy in America, a truly anti-racist democratic state must of necessity also be a socialist democracy....The demand for racial parity within a state apparatus and economy, which is based on institutional racism and capital accumulation at the expense of blacks and labor is flawed from the outset." A small group of black elites has formed, a small amount of blacks have been appointed in the government, but the now the passage of power must be given to those who create all wealth -- the working class. This will only be realized with the rise of the Third Reconstruction that seeks the empowerment of the laboring classes and all oppressed.
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
Le OI Jones was the original name for the activist who became Amiri Baraka. He came from the Beat Movement to activism after the assassination of Malcolm X, taking his new name. As a writer, he was able to contribute a literate voice to the civil rights and Black Power movements. This paper will outline those contributions that he made to both of these movements, including founding the Black Arts Movement.
Jones was born and raised in Newark and took an interest in both music and writing at an early age. After graduating Howard University with a degree in English in 1954, he joined the Air Force. He was dishonorably discharged and then relocated to Manhattan. He attended Columbia University and became an artist in Greenwich Village, before becoming affiliated with the Beat Movement (Biography, 2014). He married Hettie Cohen and the two started a literary magazine together,…
Als, H. (2014). Amiri Baraka's first family. The New Yorker. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/amiri-barakas-first-family
AmiriBaraka.com (2014). Poet, playwright, activist. AmiriBaraka.com. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.amiribaraka.com/
Biography. (2014). Amiri Baraka. Biography.com. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.biography.com/people/amiri-baraka-9198235#synopsis
Ulaby, N. (2014). Amiri Baraka's legacy both controversial and achingly beautiful. NPR. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from http://www.npr.org/2014/01/09/261101520/amiri-baraka-poet-and-co-founder-of-black-arts-movement-dies-at-79
Martin Luther King's contribution to the Civil Rights movement in America was certainly significant. He was more than just a figurehead with tremendous oratory skills. As an advocate of non-violent protest he helped formulate, and implement, one of the most important strategies of the Civil Rights era. However, his most important contribution to the Movement was his ability to connect with a majority of Americans. His message concerning injustice and equality swept away divisions based on class or color because he reminded the nation that its very foundations were based on such ideals. Without King's message it is unlikely that history of the Civil Rights Movement would even be recognisable. Consequently, King's contribution to the Civil Rights Movement in America was undoubtable extremely significant.
ryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "lack Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss." The Journal of lacks in Higher Education (53): 60 --…
Bryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (53): 60 -- 71.
Clayborne Carson; Peter Holloran; Ralph Luker; Penny a. Russell. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.. University of California Press, 1992.
De Leon, David (1994). Leaders from the 1960s: a biographical sourcebook of American activism. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994.
King, Martin Luther Jnr. "Letter From Birmingham Jail," 17 March 2010
Over time -- in fairly short order, in fact -- Davis got over this sense of secretiveness, and soon many of her actions were matters of national news. She reflects that this celebrity has made it difficult at times both for her to arrive at and explain the truth of her own role in the movement, and the motives and constructs that allowed for the movement to happen in the manner it did: "I know that almost inevitably my image is associated with a certain representation of Black nationalism that privileges those particular nationalisms with which some of us were locked in constant battle" (Davis 322). Davis (somewhat) clarifies this statement in explaining that the "nationalism" with which many typify the Civil Rights struggle -- especially the Black Panthers -- was perhaps radical but did not aim at isolation, and she cites several instances where cooperation with other marginalized groups…
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…
Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?
New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.
Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…
Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/search/article-page.html?res=9402E1DF1730F936A15755C0A9669C8B63
Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002. http://www.newarkmetro.rutgers.edu/reports/2002/09/gateway/gateway2.php
George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/malcolmxgrassroots.htm
High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=142018
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
River of No Return is the autobiography of Cleveland Sellers, who got involved in the Civil Rights movement in 1960 while still a high school student living in the completely segregated town of Denmark, South Carolina. In his remarkable book he leads the reader to understand not only what it meant to be Black in this town but also, to some extent, what it meant to be White, and why the Whites in the town were so surprised when the first anti-segregation sit-in occurred at a lunch counter in Denmark, S.C. In the process he chronicles the birth and demise of the group S.N.C.C., or Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a Civil Rights group not satisfied with the N..C.C. P.'s willingness to accept the status quo and try to bring equality about slowly and gradually. s Sellers says, during his first sit-in, he thought it was "about the hamburger," that the…
As these young leaders matured, they saw the fight for Civil Rights move beyond the South to major cities in the North, Midwest and West, including Harlem in New York City, Watts in Los Angeles, Chicago, and Philadelphia. One of S.N.C. C.'s first members, Julian Bond, ran for a seat in the Georgia House of Representatives. The Viet Nam War had become a concern, and a student leader in Alabama was shot for attempting to use a "Whites Only" restroom in a gas station. The juxtaposition of African-American men sent to liberate Viet Nam while they had virtually no political say in their own country and could be shot over using the wrong bathroom was not lost on S.N.C.C. "Black Consciousness" became more and more important to its members even though 25% of their members were White. This issue was forced when two White members wanted to use S.N.C.C. To organize poor Whites in Louisiana, while Black leaders of the group continued to be arrested on what seemed like trumped-up charges. What should have been small-scale events turned into full-blown riots. Just when it seemed it could get no worse, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis.
A variety of S.N.C. C.'s leaders were sent to prison for all sorts of reasons. Sellers was sentenced to five years for refusing to register for the draft. Stokley Carmichael, Jim Foreman, and H. Rap Brown and another leader joine the Black Panthers, merging that group with the S.N.C.C. Jim Foreman, leader of the S.N.C.C., became mentally unstable, causing tensions between the group, and in the infighting that followed, Sellers was fired from the S.N.C.C. The group had fallen completely apart and was essentially dead.
The book ends in 1973, with Sellers recounting the many frustrations Black activists continued to endure. Describing himself as having only one life, for "the struggle," Sellers demonstrates throughout the book that although the students may have thought their actions were about getting a hamburger, the result was an awakening of an entire race that has resulted in a new view of our country as a place truly meant for all its citizens.
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
Assata Shakur's Autobiography
Assata Shakur is a member of the Black Panthers and an activist. She is also an escaped convict and has been linked to the Black Liberation Army (BLA). She was accused of various crimes between 1971 and 1973, and became the subject of a police hunt that reached across several states (Christol, Gysin, & Mulvey, 2001). In 1973 she was part of a New Jersey Turnpike shootout where she was wounded along with a trooper. Another trooper and a BLA member were killed in that altercation. Between then and 1977, Shakur was indicted in relation to six other crimes, including armed robbery, murder and attempted murder, kidnapping, and robbing a bank (Christol, Gysin, & Mulvey, 2001). Three charges were dismissed, and she was acquitted on the other three charges. Then she was convicted in 1977 on eight felony counts including first-degree murder for the New Jersey Turnpike…
Christol, Helene. Gysin, Fritz, and Mulvey, Christopher (eds.). (2001). Militant Autobiography: The Case of Assata Shakur in Black Liberation in the Americas. Berlin-Hamburg-Munster: LIT Verlag.
Shakur, Assata. (1987, New edition November 1, 1999). Assata: An Autobiography. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…
Civil Rights Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved from John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK_in_History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx
Decades of change: The rise of cultural and ethnic pluralism. (2008, Apr). Retrieved from IIP Digital: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publica...80407123655eaifas0.7868769.html#axzz2QNCLypoo
Hill, L. (2007). America Dreaming: How Youth Changed America in the 60s. Boston, NY: Little Brown and Company.
The civil rights movement 1960-1980. (n.d.). Retrieved from Country Studies: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-130.htm
In the United States during the 1960s, the nation was in a period of social turmoil. The post-orld ar II suburban culture was giving way to rebellion and revolution and a total upset of the status quo. Particularly in the school and universities, educated members of the youth population began to question the rules and morays established by their predecessors and became determined to change things. This did not sit well with the older Americans, those who had fought in the world wars or Korea and who had taken over the guardianship of the country, this included holding positions of political power in the United States government. Those in power did not trust the youth movement and were highly suspicious of their activities. To understand them and determine if the youth were a threat to the government, a program was designed to covertly spy on the activities of members…
FBI document. (1969). Director FBI to SAC San Francisco. FBI Reading Room.
Glick, B. (1989). The War at Home: Covert Action against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do
About It. South End: Boston.
Haak, N. (2011). Preying on the panther: the FBI's covert war against the Black Panther Party
On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish
Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be
perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential
dialogic follow-up to right's
Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which
Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is,
indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a
deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of
virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual. The
result of this vantage is a set of essays that reaches accord with right's
conception of the socially devastating impact of segregation on the psyche,
conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the
brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the black
man in America.…
Baldwin, J. (1955). Notes of a Native Son. Beacon Press.
Gilliam, F.D. (2002). Farther to Go. University of California at Los
Wikipedia. (2009). James Baldwin. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Wright, R. (1940). Native Son. Chicago: First Perennial Classics, edition
In the "hard-core" sub-genre of hip-hop, one sees a much clearer emphasis on street and urban authenticity -- rather than on sampling. For N.W.A., hip-hop is an expression of lived life -- a kind of militant message passed down to urban blacks from men like Malcolm X
But not all hip-hop comes from such types. The Beastie Boys are an example of hip-hop artists who thrive on a different message. Much of their music is centered on adolescent/teenage angst -- white suburban kids enraged by suburban living, but moved by urban beats. They inter-mingle their own white perspective with samplings from an assortment of other artists -- thus making their mark on the hip-hop scene. Their aggression appears to be real, like 50 Cent's -- even if it is different in its source. The Beastie Boys are, of course, legends in hip-hop -- but Mickey Hess denies that their authenticity…
Alridge, DP 2012 'From Civil Rights to Hip Hop: Toward a Nexus of Ideas', the Hip
Hop Project, pp. 1-28
Arewa, OB 2006 'From JC Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Context', North Carolina Law Review 84, pp 548-558
Best, S; Kellner, D 1999 'Rap, Black Rage, and Racial Difference', Enculturation 2:2
notes in "Public Enemy: Power to the People and the Beats," the Civil ights Movement did not change living conditions for many black Americans:
The famous Civil ights movement, which began in the fifties with Martin Luther King and reached a climax in the late sixties with the spread of the Black Panther Party, in reality failed to bring a significant improvement in the living standard for the oppressed black minority within the United States."
Public Enemy rejects at least some of the teaching of the Civil ights Movement, including the notion that people are all the same, implying that there are a special set of problems and circumstances suffered by blacks that need to be addressed specifically. Chuck D. pleads for awareness of this crucial truth, thereby taking a much more radical approach to racial issues that had been accepted by mainstream society. Certainly, other voices existed in the…
Haupt, Adam. "Notions of rupture (or noise) in subculture." Accessed 16 March 2005. http://www.uwc.ac.za/arts/english/interaction/95ah.htm
M., Goran. "Public Enemy: Power to the People and the Beats." Accessed 16 March 2005. http://www.marxist.com/ArtAndLiterature/public_enemy_art.html
Mudede, Charles. "SHUT THEM DOWN: A History of Public Enemy vs. The System." Accessed 16 March 2005. http://www.thestranger.com/2004-09-02/ex3.html
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery
Walter Lippmann wrote Drift and Mastery in 1914, at a time when party politics in the United States were in a distinct state of flux. The 1912 election of Woodrow Wilson was the first time since the Civil War that a Democrat was elected President -- if we recall that Grover Cleveland (the only other Democrat elected in this half-century) was only elected by the support of the renegade "Mugwump" Republicans, who were dissatisfied with corruption within their own party. The split between traditionalism and reform among the Republicans, however, that permitted Cleveland's election had widened into an actual party split -- Theodore Roosevelt ran as a "ull Moose" Progressive against Taft, while Eugene V. Debs ran to Wilson's left as a Socialist. In some sense, Lippmann's Drift and Mastery is a response to the strange condition of partisan politics at this moment in American…
Lippmann, Walter. Drift and Mastery: An Attempt to Diagnose the Current Unrest. New York: Mitchell Kennerley, 1914.
They went into a spending frenzy that would carry them though the next decade. They bought houses, started families and settled down to a life of normalcy after a decade of chaos. Illustrations began to return to resemble that of fine are of earlier times.
The Invitation. Ben Stahl. Date unknown magazine photo. Al Parker. Date unknown
ise of the Atomic Age (1950-1960)
The prosperity that came with the end of the war continued into the new decade. Americans attempted to settle into a life or normalcy. There was a significant return to traditional gender roles, as many women were forced back into the household and the men went off to work as usual. Women, now used to providing for themselves represented a new target market. To fill their days they read the "seven sisters" (McCall's, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, edbook, Good Housekeeping, Seventeen, and Women's Day). These magazines began…
Crow, T. 2006. The Practice of Art History in America. Daedalus. 135, no. 2. Questia Database.
"Jesse Wilcox Smith" 2000. http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/jwsmith.htm
Reed, Walter and Reed, Roger. 2008. The History of Illustration. Society of Illustrators. Online. http://societyillustrators.org/about/history/283.cms
Murphy, J. 2007. Making Virtual Art Present. Afterimage. 35, no. 2. Questia Database.
Chicano Movement was one of numerous movements for human rights and social justice that took place and reach great heights in American during the 1960s. The Chicano people were and are Mexican-Americans. Mexican-Americans advocated and organized so that there experiences and voices would be heard and respected. They, like many other groups fighting for justice and freedom in America, protested, demonstrated, held vigils, rallies, sang songs, and confronted the politicians that supposedly represented them and their interests. The Chicano Movement, like many other social movements in American and in the world, additionally was about the creative expression of people from this group. There were musicians, poets, writers, and fine artists of all kinds that were motivated and inspired by the struggles of their Chicano brothers and sisters. They created art and other forms of creative expression during this movement and as part of this movement, too. The Chicano Movement fundamentally…
Farager, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A History of the American people, Volume 2, 5th Edition. Upper Salle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chapter 29: "The politics of identity," 837 -- 843.
Elaine Brown, a Taste of Power
Elaine Brown's autobiography A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story provides a snapshot of life in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when Brown briefly rose to the leadership of the Black Panther Party. In North Philadelphia born and raised, Brown dropped out of Temple University and traveled west seeking a musical career in Hollywood, much like another noteworthy figure from this period obsessed with the mass insurrection of America's black population, Charles Manson. Brown, however, ended up not at the Spahn Ranch but at the Pink Pussycat, working as a cocktail waitress in "the hottest spot in West Hollywood" (74). She soon acquired a white lover, who talks of Stokely Carmichael over a meal of "Piper Heidieck champagne, bottled in 1952…beluga caviar…cracked crab with a mustard sauce. Our dinner was lamb, served on skewers, with wild rice" (80). After this a "radicalization"…
Les Diaboliques: Justice Manifested Via the Uncanny
The theme of justice is indeed ambiguous in the short stores Les Diaboliques by Jules Barbey D'Aurevilly. The stories are indeed graphically vivid, which take an unflinching perspective on life, love, sex, honor, lust, beauty and power -- mostly from a masculine point-of-view. It is this masculine perspective which can shackle and disarm the female characters of these stories. But in each story, justice prevails on the fictional reality by allowing the females to consistently have an uncanny sense of beauty or cunning -- a beauty that prevails by giving each female a bewitching or animalistic quality which endures and ends up haunting the male protagonists or disarming other female characters of the narratives. In this sense justice has fallen: while the female protagonists often don't have the same amount of freedom or power that the male characters do, they have a strong…
Pasco, A.H., and P.H. Allan. Allusion: A Literary Graft. Toronto: University of Toronto
Press, 2002. Print.
Pecola Breedlove's experiences in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye symbolize the internalization of sexism and racism. On the contrary, Anita Hill's willingness to stand up and speak out against a powerful male official represents the externalization of sexism and racism. Anita Hill lacks the self-hatred embodied by the character of Pecola, but in spite of her confidence and poise, lacks the power or wherewithal to undermine institutionalized sexism. Although Hill had an opportunity to make the personal political, her failure to convince members of the Senate about Clarence Thomas's misconduct highlights the ongoing struggles for all women and especially women of color to reclaim power. When The Bluest Eye was written, the prospects for women of color were even poorer than they were when Anita Hill testified. Yet the outcome of Hill's testimony proves that patriarchy remains entrenched in American society.
A core similarity between Anita Hill's experience and that…
Martin, N. (2014). Women key in shaping Black Panther Party. The Clayman Institute. Retrieved online: http://gender.stanford.edu/news/2014/women-key-shaping-black-panther-party
Mock, F. (2013). Anita. [Documentary Film].
Morrison, T. (1970). The Bluest Eye. New York: Vintage.
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…
Alonso, a. (2008). A brief history of the Los Angeles-based Crips. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from Street Gangs: http://www.streetgangs.com/crips/
Crips. (1995). What we celieve in. Nationwide Rip Ridaz. Quality Records.
Davis, Mike. (1992). City of Quartz. Vintage Books.
Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence (2006). Gangs. Find Articles Retrieved April 2, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0002/ai_2602000260
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…
The strengths and deficiencies of Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi's account of Charles Manson, his followers, and his trial and subsequent conviction both stem from one single fact about the author. Vincent Bugliosi was the Prosecutor who tried the state's case against Manson, a trial which he ultimately won. Yet we must recollect that Manson -- recently making his obligatory appearance in the tabloid press after announcing his engagement to a much younger woman, an engagment later called off -- remains in prison in California for a number of murders that he himself did not actually commit. Bugliosi in the courtroom was required to paint the picture so that Manson could be tried for conspiracy, and succeeded. He intends to do the same thing in Helter Skelter. I hope to examine Bugliosi's book as a way of considering Manson as a historical figure.
This seeming emphasis on Manson's criminality…
However, when I visited Big Thicket National Preserve, I got an entirely different view of Texas, which actually seems to capture the essence of the state. Driving through Texas, I learned that it is an incredibly biologically diverse land, and nowhere is this biological diversity more evident than in the Big Thicket. t the park I learned that the Big Thicket has an extremely unusual level of biological diversity, and actually represents almost all of the major North merican geography types including swamps, forests, deserts, and plains. I was lucky enough to see some of the alligators that populate the park, but which are rarely seen by people. I also met some "hunters" who were at the preserve hoping to photograph some of the rarer wildlife in the park: black panthers. The problem is that the panther population is not large, and they are not seen reliably at any set…
A also did things in Salt Lake City that would have been difficult to do in any other city. For example, I visited the Family History Library, which is the largest library of its type. I was able to look up some of my family history and was pleased to see that admission was free. I also went to visit the Great Salt Lake, which, as its name implies, is filled with salt water. In fact, it is much more saline than the average ocean. What I was surprised to find out is that there are no fish in the lake. The lake does contain a number of shrimp and supports large populations of birds, including migratory bird populations. I was also surprised to learn that companies actually extract salt from the lake for use as table salt. http://www.visitsaltlake.com/visitor_info/photo_video_tours.html
After visiting Salt Lake City, I traveled to San Francisco. Of all of the places I traveled, San Francisco was probably the touristiest city, and I was actually familiar with some of its more famous landmarks. In fact, I was so anxious to see these famous landmarks that I restricted my visit to viewing them. I began in the historic Market Street area, where I visited the Financial District and Union Square. I left my car and used the famed San Francisco cable cars to travel up and down some of the city's 50 famous hills, most notably Nob Hill. I could not resist a trip down Lombard Street, more commonly known as the crookedest street in the United States. Walking down the street's sharp grade, I came to understand why they chose to place such severe winds in the street. While in the area, I visited Fisherman's Wharf. I ate some delicious seafood and was surprised to discover that Fisherman's Wharf is actually part of a currently working commercial dock area.
After leaving the Market Street area, I went to see some of the other famous San Francisco landmarks. My first stop was the Golden Gate Bridge. Once the longest suspension bridge in the United States, it has been surpassed in length, but remains symbolic of San Francisco. Until seeing the bridge in person, I did not realize that I could see the Pacific Ocean from the bridge. It offered a truly amazing view of the Golden Gate, which is the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. My next stop was the Transamerica Pyramid, the tallest skyscraper in the San Francisco area. The Transamerica Pyramid is not really noteworthy for its height, but for its very unusual shape; it is shaped like an extremely tall and skinny pyramid, with a spire-like protrusion on the top. I also went to visit San Francisco's Chinatown, which may be the most famous China town in all of America. I was surprised to find it in some disrepair and also by the sheer number of tourists in the area. I ended my visit to San Francisco with a trip to Alcatraz Island. I took a ferry from Pier 33 to the island and toured the old prison facility. I found myself acutely aware of the island's extreme isolation. However, the island has been used as a national park for quite some time, and I was surprised to find beautiful gardens and some wonderful natural features on the island. One of the more interesting people I met on my tour of Alcatraz was a person who said that her grandfather had been incarcerated on the island, who said she was touring it in order to understand his experience. There were inconsistencies in the woman's story, which makes me wonder whether or not she was telling the truth. Her story, whether fact or fiction, was extremely compelling. http://www.nps.gov/archive/alcatraz/index.htm
While the other SWAT operations we have discussed, are critical to the public's safety and protection, it is the training that is crucial to the SWAT team's safety.
The more "real" the training is and the more it is based on real-time skills, the more valuable it is to the team. SWAT trains almost constantly. And most don't let up. As an example, like the U.S. Army and its training for Iraq and Afghanistan, SWAT training involves a physical, intense, real-life scenario to the point that, sometime, team members can suffer minor injuries. Unlike, other agencies that might want to back off if that occurs, SWAT, normally does not, because injuries -- or worse -- in a real-time operation are entirely possible.
The effective SWAT team trains "force-on-force" and hand-to-hand with other SWAT teams and individuals on a regular basis. And they run practice shooting drills often using various scenarios,…
Critchfield, S. (n.d.). The United States S.W.A.T. program: A history and overview. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from helium.com: http://www.helium.com/items/101114-the-united-states-swat-program-a-history-and-overview
Davis, K. (2007, March 22). Learning from S.W.A.T. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/web/online/Operations-and-Tactics/Learning-From-SWAT/3$35,346
Goranson, C. (2003). Police SWAT teams: Life on high alert. New York: The Rosen Publishing Company.
O'Brien, R. (2007, June 20). It's our duty to study and preserve SWAT history. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from policemag.com: http://www.policemag.com/Blog/SWAT/Story/2007/06/It-s-Our-Duty-to-Study-and-Preserve-SWAT-History.aspx
Muslims in America
The status of Muslims in America changed radically in the wake of 9/11 (Sheridan, 2006). A small population by percentage (American-Muslims are only 1% of the U.S. population) (Besheer, 2016), Muslims nonetheless received the vast bulk of negative attention and backlash following the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. As an ethnic group, Muslims were well-connected both domestically and internationally -- and many Muslims reached out to the U.S. government post-9/11 in an effort to work with federal agencies to help address the issues arising from the climate of terror (Mantri, 2011). Haddad (2001) writing prior to the 9/11 attacks stated that Muslims in the U.S. "have mostly lived on the margins" of the nation's "political life," have a high degree of "ethnic diversity" within their own groups, and lack the political experience needed for "political integration" in America (p. 91). At the same time,…
" Marshall told the interviewer that he enjoys having dialogue about art, and style, and the whole dynamic of creating; but he wants his work to be so "undeniably compelling" that the person viewing his art "can't separate the image that's pictured in it from the way the painting is made."
The artist also talks about a period in recent contemporary history when many black artists wanted to be "part of the mainstream" and to do that, they felt they had to "let go of the black representation" and instead, approach art from a more abstract point-of-view. Marshall added that he believes many black artists did that because there was a kind of stereotype associated with black artists in that the moment he or she presented images of black people, all of a sudden the issue was not art, but "social and political."
Marshall was asked about his well-known painting,…
Bernard, Catherine. "Kerry James Marshall." African Arts. 34.4 (2001): 93-95.
Public Broadcasting Service. "Art: 21 Art in the Twenty First Century / Kerry James Marshall. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/marshall .
Rowell, Charles. "An Interview with Kerry James Marshall." Callaloo. 21.1 (1998): 263-272. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ug01/westkaemper/callaloo/marshall.html .
Williams, Eliza. "Kerry James Marshall: Camden Arts Centre London." Art Monthly. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at http://www.artmonthly.co/uk/.
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+ (1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008
Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
images from the university gallery museum. Those works were the Victim, Abolish the Death Penalty, George Jackson Lives, Ruth Snyder, and Lynching. All five works examine how violence has become an institutionalized part of modern American society, so much so that it seems almost commonplace. Taken as a whole, the pieces are powerful, because they serve as a reminder that when violence is institutionalized and permitted, it creates an atmosphere of violence in society. The images also serve as reminders that violence, whether government-sanctioned or individually driven, often targets those in society with the least power. While powerful people are not wholly immune from violence, they are not nearly as likely to be victimized as people in marginalized positions.
The first work I examined is called The Victim. It depicts a skull-head type figure, done in stark blacks with some splashes of red, and it is clear the image in…
1968 Olympics Black Power Salute
Black Power Salute (Dominis, 1968)
Photograph Description and Context
The picture is a black and white photo that was taken at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. Two Olympics sprinters stood atop the podium wearing the gold and bronze medals. Their names are Tommie Smith and John Carlos. They are shown holding their first in the air as an expression of solidarity with the Black Power movement. It is argued that they are expressing their disillusionment with a nation that so often fell behind, and still does, relative to racial equality (Dominis, 1968).
The two individuals received significant negative reaction to their expression. For example, they were suspended from the U.S. Track team. They were vilified at home and they even later received death threats for their public display. Yet, the picture has become one of the iconic photographs from this period that deals with…
Dominis, J. (1968). John Dominis Collection. Retrieved from Photographers Gallery: http://www.photographersgallery.com/photo.asp?id=4037
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
Fortune Affect Grand Master Flash's Political Message?
Music is one of the most powerful forms of communication. It utilizes different types of information networks to cut across linguistic and social boundaries. In several occasions music has the potential to relate to politics and power. From the songs of sorrow sung by slaves in the south, to the revolutionary nature of jazz, blues, and rhythym and blues (R&) during the activist days of the Civil Rights Movements, music has been an important part of many social and political changes. In the recent past the power of music has definitely been amplified by increasingly globalized communications such as social media. Nowadays more rapidly than ever, music links and influences people from all over the world (Malone and Martinez).
Hip-hop is considered by some to be one of the most important genres of music. It originated in the ronx, New York in the…
Allmusic.com. Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. n.d. 8 May 2015. Web
Bakala-ska, prace. Hip hop in American Culture. Thesis. Palackeho, 2012. Web
Bey, Alexander. "Hip-Hop's Musical Evolution of Rap." n.d. http://www.oneonta.edu . 8 May 2015.Web
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. About Hip Hop Youth Subculture. Los Angeles: Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, n.d. Web
The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.
Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.
These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…
39% Say Government. (2011). Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2011/39_say_government_not_focusing_enough_on_threat_of_domestic_islamic_terrorism
Al Shabaab American Recruits. (2010). ADL. Retrieved from: http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/al_shabaab_american_recruits.htm
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Jose Padilla. (2009). New York Times. Retrieved from: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/p/jose_padilla/index.html
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…
In the end, the capacity for gangs persist throughout history has shown that they are not merely one-dimensional juvenile delinquents, as they are often portrayed in media. They are also well-organized groups that have the ability to serve social purposes. This also shows that a reason why society still allows them to exist is because of these social functions (Branch 1997).
Nevertheless, media is also responsible for glamorizing the life of the gangsta, which may be a factor in getting adolescent and vulnerable teenagers to join gangs for the sake of being accepted and being part of a family. The outcome of which, if not death or imprisonment, is even if a gangsta decides to become a regular citizen, he will be held with contempt and suspicion by the community.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus…
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus Books, LLC. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 2: Developmental Aspects of Gang Membership. pp. 28-43, Perseus Books, LLC. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor. (2000). Gangs as Alternative Transitional Structures: Adaptations to Racial and Social Marginality in Los Angeles and London. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 8(1/2): 71-99. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database
Ruble, Nikki M. & Turner, William L. (2000). A Systematic Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Urban Street Gangs. The Americal Journal of Family Therapy, 28(2): 117-132. Retrieved August 25, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Karl Marlantes' Matterhorn
Karl Marlantes' novel of the Vietnam War, Matterhorn, seems to want to offer the reader an immersive approach towards the experience of Vietnam. If we can say of earlier Vietnam narratives -- whether in film, such as Oliver Stone's Platoon or Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket, or in fiction, such as Tim O'Brien's novels Going After Cacciato and The Things They Carried or Gustav Hasford's The Short-Timers (a cult classic of Vietnam fiction and the basis for Kubrick's film) -- that they have a sort of expressionistic technique, seeking to capture the experience of the war in a series of vignettes, we can see the originality of Marlantes' approach in greater relief to what has come before: his approach is not so much expressionistic as it is encyclopedic, an attempt to catalogue (in fiction) every single aspect of the one small event, the movement of a Marine…
Fanon" by John Edgar Wideman and "Wretched of the Earth" by Frantz Fanon. Specifically it will discuss physical violence in the two works. Violence, especially physical violence such as torture, figures prominently in these two works. Fanon himself promotes violence as a way to fight against colonization of one country by another, and Wideman's book uses violence for its shock value (as in the severed head), almost as a tribute to Fanon's support of violence. Violence is prominent in both works, because we live in a violent society, and violence is what gets our attention.
Wideman's work shows the violence of the inner city, where he grew up, and shows the effects of it on his family. His brother is incarcerated for murder, and violence permeates the work, which he means as a tribute to Frantz Fanon. Fanon actively promoted violence as a way for colonial territories to gain their…
Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Constance Farrington. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1963.
Wideman, John Edgar. Fanon. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.
The empathy which comes through here is not fabricated either. Thompson's very approach in "Fear and Loathing," and another cornerstone to the gonzo movement, is the concept of full immersion into his own stories. The long-suffering tone that shrouds all of his work is the repercussion of Thompson's journalism-by-personal-experience, an ongoing quest to find America in himself and those around him. For better and worse, his writing illustrates that he succeeded in doing so.
The rebellion of the 1960's, guided as it was by an optimistic emphasis on peace, love and cultural freedom, would take on a far more militant imperative as the decade wound to a close. Thompson takes this transition head on, highlighting the violence which had invaded an insular world of counter-cultural ideology. The hostility of the mainstream, which the activist culture had rallied so hard to reject, had infected its thinking and its approach to action.…
Thompson, H.S. (1979). The Great Shark Hunt. Simon & Schuster.
Tupac Sahkur's Poetry
Compare and Contrast Tupac Shakur's Poetry
For most people the life of Tupac Shakur, symbolizes one of tremendous talent and tragedy. Where, he was gunned down in the prime of his career, because of a rival dispute that occurred with another record label and their artists. This was a part of the violent culture and image that he embraced. ("Rap Star Tupac Shakur Dies" 62 -- 64) As he had severed time in prison for: assault and sexual abuse. (Golus 76 -- 88) This is important because it shows the background and environment that Tupac was exposed to at an early age; would have an influence upon him. Despite these different challenges, he was able to take the emotions and experiences that would go through to create a host of songs as well as poetry. Two of the most notable include: the poem The Rose that Grew…
No More Pain Lyrics. E Lyrics, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2010
"Rap Star Tupac Shakur Dies." Jet. 30 Sept. 1996: 62 -64. Print.
The Rose that Grew from the Concrete. Poem Hunter, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2010
Golus, Carrie. "Tomorrow is not Promised." Tupac Shakur. Minneapolis: Lerner, 2007. 76 -88. Print.
In the novel, the reader is allowed to travel along with Kim and his master the Lama all over northern India, where they are constantly reminded of how life can take a very different path when one least expects it. The Grand Trunk Road along which Kim and his Lama travel could be seen as a symbol of the River of the Arrow, the object of their quest.
When Kim was first conceived, Kipling has just married Catherine and was eagerly awaiting the birth of their first child while living in Vermont. For Kipling, this was a time of much inner contemplation and his thoughts were invariably directed to the two subjects closest to his heart, being childhood and India. Like most writers, Kipling distanced himself, at least in his mind, from all the turmoil and tragedy that was occurring in India during the early years of the 20th century…
Some of Kipling's later works include Debits and Credits (1926), Thy Servant a Dog (1930) and Limits and Renewals (1932). On January 18, 1936, at the age of seventy, Rudyard Kilping died after a short illness, leaving behind his daughter Elsie.
As an author, Rudyard Kipling deserves much more praise and recognition than he has received recently. After all, by the time he was thirty-three years old, he had written and published thirteen books, comprised of poetry, novels and short story collections. Some of his best work was also accomplished at this age, such as Barrack-Room Ballads, the Jungle Book, Captains Courageous and the Second Jungle Book. As a literary specialist, Kipling has been noted for inventing India as a literary subject, at least in the West, admired for his poetical output, classed as an innovator of children's literature, and viewed as one of the leading exponents of the short story format.
In addition to his Nobel award for literature, Kipling received many high honors in a number of fields which only increases his importance in English letters. In 1926, he was given the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature which placed him in a very influential group of authors, such as Sir Walter Scott and Thomas Hardy. Kipling also received honorary degrees from Oxford, Cambridge, the University of Edinburgh and several other prestigious schools. Thus, Rudyard Kipling occupies an important niche in English literature and surely was one of the most innovative and creative authors that came to prominence during the years of Queen Victoria's reign.
Media in America as the Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present
During the 1970's, the role of the media changed from simply reporting the news to revealing serious political scandals (Waisbord, 2001). The media's role during Watergate was viewed as the mirror that reflected the most that journalism could offer to democracy: holding powers accountable for their actions. This became a trend in the American media and journalism had high credibility in the years that followed, and a great increase in journalism school enrollment followed.
However, during the 1980's and 1990's, this trend withered away. Investigative journalism is no longer rampant the firmament of American news. While the tone of the press was self-congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, the state of American journalism is currently viewed in a less positive light.
For the elite, the shift in journalism is welcomed. For example, according to John Dean, an American journalist,…
Altbach, Philip. (1995). International book publishing, and Encyclopedia. Fitzroy Dearborn.
Bagdikian, Ben. (1993). The Media Monopoly. Beacon Press.
Barton, C. Franklin, Jay B. (1994). The First Amendment and the Fourth Estate: the Law of Mass Media,6th ed. Foundation Press.
Coronel, Sheila. (July 31, 2000). Investigative Reporting: The Role of the Media in Uncovering Corruption. Southeast Asian Press Alliance.
Red Power Movement
How and why did the Red Power movement frame its demands in terms of international relations rather than in terms of civil rights?
The Red Power movement was one of the many civil rights movements that sprung out of the collective movements that originated in the United States throughout the 1950s through the 1970s. The American Indian Movement (AIM), also coined as the "Red Power" movement by author Vine Deloria Jr., was a movement that has several distinctions that can be made in regard to other movements of the time. One of the factors that separated this group from other groups that were demanding civil rights is that they were indignant to the land. Therefore, there claim to rights took more of an universal or comprehensive perspective since they shared similar experiences with indignant peoples from all over the world. This analysis will provide a brief overview…
History Of Fashion: Gloria Steinem -- Feminist Chic
The fashion style of Gloria Steinem is perfectly reflected in the photograph by Yale Joel as well as in the ideology which she promoted throughout the early days of the Feminist Movement.
Steinem's fashion style mirrored her Feminist advocacy history, when in the 1960s, she started Ms. Magazine, which addressed such topics as the problematic nature of the word "male" being in "female." "[footnoteRef:1] In Yale Joel's photograh, Steinem sits, Indian style (cross-legged), and holds a placard that reads "We Shall Overcome."[footnoteRef:2] The emphatic nature of this prophecy is apparent in the underscored verb and the clothing that Steinem wears indicates a kind of militaristic "chic" -- a fashionably elegant, streamlined radical femininity that a leader like Steinem could use advocate change. She would use this image to advocate abortions, as she did in a 2006 article entitled "We Had Abortions," which…
Cooke, R. "Gloria Steinem: I Think We Need to Get Much Angrier," The Guardian.
Web. 31 Oct 2015
Horowitz, David. Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique.
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.
Puerto Rican Gangs in Chicago
The history of Puerto Rican gangs in Chicago is indelibly linked to politics. Many gang members of today might forget that fact, but the origins of those gangs and some of the more fundamental aspects of their formations were related to politics. Additionally, the racial situation in the United States contributed a lot to those early gangs. The reality was that as each new immigrant group came to the country, it found a land diversified by nationality and ethnicity. The two most prominent Puerto Rican gangs in Chicago -- the Young Lords and Latin Kings -- were based upon those lines of segregation and ultimately came to reflect it from a Puerto Rican perspective.
Although there are stories that Puerto Rican gangs existed as far back as the earliest part of the 20th century and the 1930's, they did not truly emerge to prominence until…
" It is thus unclear how Cohen exactly deems when these silences or transformations occur.
This ambiguous approach to identifying when transformation begins does not negate Cohen's argument regarding the fragmentation in the black community. After all, in her content analysis of media reports, Cohen has shown ample proof of the "silence" regarding the AIDS crisis. However, a discussion of when transformations in leaderships occur will be helpful if future scholars want to replicate Cohen's research in other minority groups.
Another issue that could be raised regarding Cohen's book concerns her argument regarding the transformation of the African-American political agenda in general. Cohen obviously takes a "trickle up" approach to political action. She argues that the political agenda of marginalized groups in general can be reshaped by pressure from below. Based on this framework, gay and lesbian African-Americans had power to shape the thinking of the black community regarding AIDS.…
Sacred orld of Slaves
Based upon the reading of Sacred orld of Slaves explain 3 ways in which slaves used artistic expression (music, dance, narratives) to cope with being enslaved and move them in a direction of Liberation.
From slavery times, far more records about black spirituals have survived than for secular music, and the most common religious themes always involved freedom, an escape from bondage and Moses leading the children of Israel out of Egypt. Black slaves may have had the evangelical Protestant religion of their masters imposed on them for purposes on control, but they also appropriated it and made this religion their own -- and the black church was one of the very few institutions that they did control before recent times. In essence, black theology was always a version of liberation theology, compared to emphasis that white evangelicals placed on individual sin and personal salvation, and…
Charnas, Dan. "White America Discovers Rhythm and Blues."
Levine, Lawrence W. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Thought from Slavery to Freedom. Oxford, 2007.
This has also been suggested by the survey of Forbes (2012). When some people are overpaid and the majority is underpaid, it leads to economic and social disparity in the society. Social disparity results in an increase in the crime rate as people are frustrated by lack of opportunities and consider crime as the only means which can provide them with their basic necessities. Economic disparity deprives people to meet their basic needs as the prices increase when economy grows. But this growth is limited to the elites in the society and there is no regard for the middle and lower class communities. Both the factors are unhealthy for the prosperity of a society as a whole.
acism is another issue portrayed in the movie. Although there have been stringent regulations regarding racist remarks but research has shown that almost 51% Americans engage in abusive comments towards the black community…
Brazile, D. (2012). Brazile: Racism's tenacious hold on U.S. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/01/opinion/brazile-race-sununu
Economist. (2010). Social Mobility and Inequality. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.economist.com/node/15908469
Forbes. (2012). How Income Inequality is Damaging the U.S. [online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frederickallen/2012/10/02/how-income-inequality-is-damaging-the-u-s/
Kramer, R.M., & Pittinsky, T.L. (2012). Restoring trust in organizations and leaders: Enduring challenges and emerging answers. New York: Oxford University Press.
Like most other animals, the artic fox's cot changes to reflect the summer arctic habitat, becoming a brown or gray color that matches the summer environment (National Geographic, 2008). The photograph by Norbert Rosing (National Geographic, 2004), demonstrates the usefulness of the animal's camouflage: (Norbert Rosing, National Geographic, October, 2004, online at http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/finaledit/0410/,2008).
The artic fox contributes to the balance of nature because its diet includes rodents, which have a tendency to multiply rapidly in any conditions; birds, and fish (National Geographic, 2008). However, rodents are more plentiful during the summer months in the artic. During the winter months, when its food sources are scarcer, the fox will be follow the trail of the polar bears, acting as a scavenger to the remains of the larger animal's kills (National Geographic, 2008). The arctic fox also eats some amounts of vegetation, usually vegetables (National Geographic, 2008).
The arctic fox is a…
The Fox in World Literature: Reflections on a "Fictional Animal." Asian Folklore Studies 65.2 (2006): 133+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018927838 .
National Geographic, 2008, found online at http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/mammals-animals/dogs-wolves-and-foxes/fox_arctic.html?fs=animals-panther.nationalgeographic.com, retrieved 8 February, 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000329203
Sims, Grant. "Paradox of the Arctic Fox." National Wildlife Feb.-Mar. 1996: 16+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000329203 .