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As a rule, there was food for whites and blacks, but inside the house, and on the diningroom table, there was wanting that delicacy and refinement of touch and finish which can make a home the most convenient, comfortable, and attractive place in the world. ithal there was a waste of food and other materials which was sad.
ashington was also frequently asked by people he came into contact with, how he could remain so up-beat about the future for himself, his school and his race, given the conditions they had endured.
hen persons ask me in these days how, in the midst of what sometimes seem hopelessly discouraging conditions, I can have such faith in the future of my race in this country, I remind them of the wilderness through which and out of which, a good Providence has already led us.
ashington, unlike many…
Denton, Virginia Lantz. Booker T. Washington and the Adult Education Movement. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1993.
Harlan, Louis R. Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee 1901-1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Sehat, David. "The Civilizing Mission of Booker T. Washington." Journal of Southern History 73.2 (2007): 323.
Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. New York: A.L. Burt, 1901.
Booker T. ashington
The inspiring stories that Booker T. ashington shares with readers in his turn of the century book of articles, Up From Slavery should be required reading for American high school students. The book's more poignant stories should be as much a part of a high school student's studies as the reasons for the Civil ar, as the important players in the Civil Rights Movement. ell before the Civil Rights Movement, well before civil rights and voting rights legislation in Congress, in the midst of horrifyingly unfair Jim Crow segregation racism in the south, ashington stood out among men of all colors for his advocacy of education and his leadership in pursuit of education for all. This paper reviews / critiques his quest for education, his passion for helping others, particularly those who have been disenfranchised, to have a chance to learn.
A Slave Among Slaves - Background…
Washington, Booker T. Up From Slavery. 1901.
He wanted the Black people to "cast their buckets where they are." (Parish) The Atlanta Compromise was significant because it made ashington extremely well-known and well-liked among hites and it helped him in getting a lot of money for his establishment, Tuskegee Institute. It was also imperative because there were other African-Americans who were being aggressive in challenging hite supremacy and teaching Black and hite people diverse thoughts about impartiality. hen ashington presented this speech, it became tougher for them to get their concepts out. After giving this speech ashington became an extremely popular speaker after the reconstruction period and had speaking arrangements all around the United States.
In conclusion, Booker T. ashington recognized that his people would not be equivalent to whites and instead of going against them, it would just be easier to accept things the way they were. Booker T. ashington put his attention on having…
"The Case of the Negro." 21 July 2002. University of Virginia Library's Electronic Text Center. 26 September 2011 .
Parish, Miles. "Booker T. And the Atlanta Compromise." 2003. SeeBlack.com. 26 September 2011 .
Pryor., Archon Theodore M. "Booker T. Washington: An Uncommon Perspective." 1993. Dictionary of American Biography. 26 September 2011 .
Sexton, Timothy. "Booker T. Washington Tried to Destroy the NAACP." 2005. 27 September 2011 .
He was opposed to Segregation and refused to accommodate the views of bigoted White Southerners. (Souls, 248).
Leadership in the African-American communities of the United States -- Duois' took a more symbolic, elitist approach to leadership than Washington. His organizations, the Niagara Conference and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples, were started as small councils of influential leaders and citizens. The NAACP effects change primarily through legal challenges, public education, and political lobbying.
Reconstruction -- Duois thought highly of the Freedman's ureau system during the Reconstruction Era. He thought that such institutions were necessary to protect a vulnerable population from the irate Southern Whites. He even envisioned an expanded Freedman's ureau "with a national system of Negro schools; a carefully supervised employment and labor office; a system of impartial protection before the regular courts; and such institutions for social betterment as savings-banks, land and building association, and…
Henretta, James A. America's History, volume 2 (since 1865), 6th edition. Bedford:St. Martin's, 2007. Print.
Takaki, Ronald T. A Different Mirror: a History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown &, 1993. Print.
Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery; an Autobiography,. New York: Doubleday, Page &, 1901. Print.
DuBois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Vintage / Library of America, 1990. Print.
Booker T. ashington and .E.B. Du Bois present opposing representations of the diametrically opposed philosophies that came to define African-American culture in the United States during the upheaval of Reconstruction. ashington, in his autobiography Up From Slavery, advocates a sweeping reconciliation between former slaves and their former owners, believing that the most accessible path to securing rights for his people is paved with acquiescence and cooperation, rather than by forcible assertion. Du Bois, meanwhile, in The Souls of Black Folk, advocates an approach premised on the attainment of political power, an insistence on civil rights and, perhaps most importantly, the pursuit of higher education by young black men. Though both authors appear to strive for similar goals in their work, namely, the shedding of the last remnants of slavery from African-American culture, they are in strident opposition when it comes to the most productive means of achieving that goal. These…
Bradely, T. (2008, December 5). Final fundraising figure: obama's $750m. ABC News Politics, 1-4.
Crowley, C., & Hornick, E. (2009, September 17). Race and politics in the age of obama. CNN Politics, 2-4.
Chopra, D. (2011, May 2). Religion and politics. The Times of India, p. 1-3.
Du Bois, W.E.B. (1903). The souls of black folk. Chicago, IL: A.C. McClung and Co.
Indeed, ashington's efforts at the advancement of his people were cast as a direct counterpoint to the militant action of Marcus Garvey's followers and other hardline desegregationists. To ashington, the black man was simply in the process of earning his equality through hard-won collective advancement. In this altogether different approach to the problems experienced by the black man in America, ashington's was a more conciliatory mode aimed at the political rationality of whites. In one such plain, ashington would argue, "in all discussion and legislation bearing upon the presence of the Negro in America, it should be borne in mind that we are dealing with a people who were forced to come here without their consent and in the face of a most earnest protest. This gives the Negro a claim upon your sympathy and generosity that no other race can possess. Besides, though forced from his native land into…
Dubois, W.E.B. (1903). Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others. The Souls of Black Folk.
Washington, B.T. (1901). An Autobiography: The Story of My Life and Work. Documenting the American South
With this, Douglass can securely make the claim that slaves are, in fact, human. He does so with conviction, and aims to persuade his predominately white audience that they are capable of harboring reason and complex emotions, like the readers themselves.
"The white children could tell their ages. I could not tell why I ought to be deprived of the same privilege," (Douglass 47). Slavery psychologically impacted individuals -- it completely stripped them of their innate identity, which is a difficult thing to understand in a context of a country so dead-set on individualism within its very foundations.
"the dark night of slavery closed in upon me; and behold a man transformed into a brute," (Douglass 105). Douglass claims the end of slavery and freedom is the climax. When he realizes he is a man, and refuses to obey Covey, that was his freedom; "It was a glorious resurrection, from…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin Publishing. 1986.
Schulkin, Carl. "Jacqueline M. Moore, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois and the Struggle for Racial Uplift." Teaching History: A Journal of Methods. 30(2):105-107.
Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. New York: Doubleday,-Page & Co. 1919.
Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Dubois. Develop a position effectiveness man's ideas time.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois propagated notions that represented an ideological conflict regarding the future for African-Americans at the turn of the 20th century. The former believed in adopting African-American behavior within an accommodationist framework. Essentially, Washington was resigned to the fact that African-Americans would never enjoy full civil rights and equality within the U.S. Therefore, he advocated that they accept this notion willingly, resign themselves to second class citizenship, and learn a trade or two in order to still earn a living (Gibson, no date). He believed that they could not make any other substantial contributions to society other than in a supportive role to Americans with full-fledged rights -- namely, Caucasians.
Du Bois, on the other hand, abhorred such apathy and was given over to the notion of the attainment of full civil rights…
Du Bois, W.E.B. (1903). "The Talented Tenth." In The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of To-Day. NY: James Pott & Company. Retrieved from http://www.webdubois.org/dbTalentedTenth.html
Gibson, R.A. (No date). "Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois: The problem of negro leadership." www.yale.eud. Retrieved from http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1978/2/78.02.02.x.html
Topic: An argumentative comparison of Booker T Washington’s “Speech at the Atlanta Exposition,” and W.E.B. Du Bois', \"The Talented Tenth\".
Any narrative on African American history is incomplete if one fails to examine the competition between W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington that, between the latter part of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, altered the route of America's pursuit of equality, besides ending up facilitating the rise of the contemporary Civil Rights Movement. While both rivals belonged to the very same period, were highly talented academicians, and were activists promoting African American civil rights, they differed with respect to their background and the approach adopted by them which eventually influenced the future the most (Blatty, 2015). In this paper, a detailed examination of both activists' works will be performed, and a few fundamental questions pertaining to the difference in their technique of raising African Americans…
Booker T. ashington faced the same, if not worse, treatment of his fellow African-American citizens when he penned his 1901 autobiography Up From Slavery. During his lifetime, ashington witnessed the utter failure of Reconstruction to bring about appreciable change or socioeconomic progress in the South. Although he recognized rank oppression and racism as being unfortunate parts of American history, the title of his book reflects the optimistic attitude of ashington. ashington hoped that through education and a willingness to work hard, African-Americans could achieve racial parity and upward social mobility. Because he also believed in obedience to the law and social harmony, ashington would be dismayed to see videos of police officers using unnecessary force on young people of all races. hen faced with the truth of racism in the 21st century in America, ashington would be forced to contend with ongoing debates on how to address race…
Washington, Booker T. Up From Slavery. Dover, 1995.
Here we can see how ashington is utilizing his education to make illustrations and prove a point about African-Americans. He also exhibits a great deal of maturity throughout the course of the book that is commendable. henever he would encounter anyone that spoke negatively about his race he states that he only felt pity for the individual because he or she only wanted to "stop the progress of the world, and because I know that in time the development and the ceaseless advance of humanity will make him ashamed of his weak and narrow position" (204). This statement reflects a man that has matured and, because of his education, understands the nature of humanity.
No mad can keep a dream without hope. The end of the autobiography demonstrates the great hope that ashington has for mankind. He lived to see many thing and he changed the world around him in…
Washing, Booker. Up From Slavery. The University of North Carolina Online Library. http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/washington/washing.html . Information Retrieved November 21, 2008.
Booker Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois
The equality concerns Americans face in the workplace today can be traced back to the end of slavery and the way in which legislators in the South handled the integration of the black population into society as employees rather than slaves. It is therefore interesting to examine documents from the era after the civil war in order to gain insight into the thinking of the general population and of leaders at the time. Hence, when considering W.E.B. Du Bois' "Talented Truth" and Washington T. Booker's speech known as the "Atlanta Compromise," it becomes clear that these intellectuals had different approaches and ideals when it came to the improvement of the world for African-Americans at the time, with Du Bois' idealist viewpoint calling for appropriate leadership education while the more realistic Booker focused on how the black and white population could live under a compromise…
DuBois, W.E.B. (1903). The Talented Tenth. Retrieved from: http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1148.htm
Wasthington, Booker T. (1985). Atlanta Compromise. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved from: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1895washington-atlanta.asp
However, many people believe DuBois wrote his work in direct opposition to Washington's "acceptance" of certain white impositions on blacks, like not being able to vote, or not working for a liberal arts education, but gaining a trade instead. DuBois' main arguments then are that blacks should not "settle" for anything, but fight for equal rights in all areas. In the "Forethought" to the book he writes, "Leaving, then, the white world, I have stepped within the Veil, raising it that you may view faintly its deeper recesses -- the meaning of its religion, the passion of its human sorrow, and the struggle of its greater souls" (DuBois 209). This shows he is writing for a black audience, and he is going to give them clues and questions about their identity, their culture, and their equality, and he wants them to use them to better themselves and stop settling for…
DuBois, W.E.B., and Washington, Booker T. Three Negro Classics. New York: Avon Books, 1999.
The rhetoric of fear is operationalized by illustrating the dangers in treading to a 'new ground' -- that is handling black American independence from slavery and prejudice.
For the white Americans, Washington provides a threatening scenario of the capacity and power of black Americans to create destabilization in the American society should emancipation and establishment of an egalitarian society fails to become a reality in the country. While fear induced from the black Americans stemmed from the fear of mishandling the new and free black American society, fear induced from white Americans is the same kind of fear that has been used by black American propaganda leaders like Malcolm X, which cites violence as one of the possibilities or consequences that may happen if black Americans does not receive the independence that they deserve to have. Inducement of fear from the white Americans is stated in the speech as follows:…
Roberts, E. And H. Jacobs. (1998). Literature: an introduction to reading and writing. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Washington, B. (1895). E-text of "Atlanta Exposition Address." Available at http://www.ashbrook.org/library/19/btwashington/atlantaaddress.html .
Du Bois is an education in itself; the man is a giant of letters and his editorial positions were actually prophetic because by the Civil Rights Movement of the late 1950s and 1960s many Blacks were demanding the things that Du Bois demanded years before. Another purpose was to show that there were several approaches taken by Black leaders in terms of the advancement of African-Americans in a segregated, Jim Crow-toned society.
After reading the assignment I did not change my perspective on the differences in approaches by ashington and Du Bois because I already was aware that the two were quite far apart in philosophies. But by once again studying the juxtaposition between the two, my understanding of the problems of Black folks came into greater focus for me.
THREE: I did not encounter any difficulties in the writing or editing of the assignment, but I was not sure…
Biography. 2012. "Booker T. Washington Biography." Retrieved August 20, 2012, from http://www.biography.com .
Nordquist, Richard. 2012. "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others, by W.E.B. Du Bois."
About.com. Retrieved August 20, 2012, from http://grammar.about.com .
Washington, Booker T. 1901. Up From Slavery.
EB Du Bois
The contrast between the thought of EB Du Bois and that of his predecessor Booker T. ashington is readily apparent in the titles of the best-known works by the two men. ashington's thinking is laid out in his book Up From Slavery, and the title indicates not only an autobiography, but one which is unapologetic in the credence it lends to the typical American capitalist narrative of "rising" in the world. By contrast EB Du Bois offers his trenchant critique of ashington in a work entitled The Souls of Black Folk: the very title indicates that we are meant to be closely considering not materialistic but spiritual values in wondering how the African-American population would make their way in the United States after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment and into Reconstruction, Jim Crow, and the rest. It is worth considering closely, though, how Du Bois offers…
Du Bois, WEB. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. New York: Bantam Classic, 1989. Print.
Booker T. Washington marks an epoch in the history of America. He was the greatest Negro leader since Frederick Douglass, and the most distinguished man, white or black, who came out of the South since the Civil War'" (Dagbovie). DuBois was also critical of Washington, however, and felt that he sometimes submitted to the will of whites, and lived between the black and white communities, attempting to get along with both (Dagbovie). Many other historians dispute this theory, feeling Washington maintained a healthy relationship with blacks and whites, and did much good for the black community.
Throughout his life, Washington was always concerned with the betterment of blacks and their economic and social condition. He believed education was the central point that would elevate blacks from poverty and despair. Another historian wrote, "Washington's concern was 'that slavery had left the [African-American] ill-prepared to care for himself'. In Washington's opinion, African-Americans…
Anderson, Eric D. "Booker T. Washington and Black Progress: Up from Slavery 100 Years Later." Journal of Southern History 71.1 (2005): 193+.
Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. "Exploring a Century of Historical Scholarship on Booker T. Washington." The Journal of African-American History 92.2 (2007): 239+.
Kikas, Gabriel. "Bush and Booker T. Washington's 'Compassionate Conservatism'." Contemporary Review Sept. 2004: 157+.
Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. New York: A.L. Burt, 1901.
Effective strategies after the 13th and 14th amendments
The 13th amendment to the constitution was widely welcome by many Americans and the world at large as it gave the surety of freedom from slavery in the legal standing of it. The most famous and important section of the Declaration of Independence read that "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable ights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." This was an assurance that the freedom of each person living in America would be guaranteed and that no person will live under the command or control of another person due to the race or color. Further, the 14th amendment came into place to entrench and ensure the equality among the Americans (Hole ., 2001). It was one of the…
Hole R.,. "The American Declaration of Independence of July 4th, 1776." 2001. Web
October 16, 2014 from http://www.historytoday.com/robert-hole/american-declaration-independence-july-4th-1776
Johnson K.V. & Watson E. "The W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington Debate: Effects upon African-American Roles in Engineering and Engineering Technology, 2014. Web. October 16, 2014 from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/v30/v30n4/pdf/johnson
National Archives & Records Administration. The Emancipation Proclamation January
Surviving Immigration: The Role of Agencies
In establishing themselves in America, immigrants were subject to conditions to which they were forced to adjust without any control, such as places of habitation and adapting to American laws. However, immigrants also had some degree of agency that allowed them to take control of their lives. This paper describes three examples of individual or communal agency that were important for the immigrants in building their lives in America.
From 1892 to 1954, more than 12 million immigrants came to the United States (rown Foundation, 2000). The early 1900s was the period that brought in the most immigrants. Hospital buildings, dormitories, disease wards and kitchens were all quickly built between 1900 and 1915 in a constant struggle to meet this enormous influx of people.
During the early 1900s, Americans, who were predominately white, selected only those whom they believed fit to live in this…
Brown Foundation. (Fall, 2000). Story of Immigration in the U.S. Ellis Island. The Brown Quarterly. Volume 4, No. 1. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/04-1/04-1a.htm.
Du Bois. (1903). Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.bartleby.com/114/3.html .
Franken, Mark. (January, 2004). The Catholic Church in the United States: Caring for the Newest Immigrants from Africa. Americans and Africans in Dialogue about Africa's Promise, Needs, and Image.
Kuchta, David. (2003). Assimilation America: The Melting Pot of the World. TCC. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.tccweb.org/immigration.htm.
Education is one of the fundamental bases of society. Public colleges have represented a strong issue for years. The conditions of work were one of the aspects under debate, but the philosophy that should guide the activity of the public colleges was another theme of utmost importance. Why? ecause what it does is actually set the guiding lines for the entire curriculum. The African -American question arises naturally under these consequences. The present paper will analyze the philosophies of two important figures in this area, namely ooker T. Washington and W.E.. Duois.
It is considered that the agenda of the community colleges is in fact a political agenda. This is true if you consider that social regulations implied by the process of education in these colleges. oth the mentioned authors have suggested educational philosophies that were aimed at improving the condition of the blacks in the United Sates…
Bauerlein, M. The tactical life of Booker T. Washington. The Chronicle Report. Volume 50, issue 14,-page B12
Bauman, M.G. (2007).The double consciousness of community colleges. The Chronicle of higher education
Norrell, R.J. Up from history. The life of Booker T. Washington. The Belknap Press / Harvard University Press
Steele, S. (2003). The souls of Black folk. Why we are still caught up in century-old politics? Wall Street Journal
This "education" convinces the white person to give up their sons for wars that oppress the dark peoples, votes money for the wars, makes him believe he should make up the lynch mobs and to oppress blacks with Jim Crow. The fact that his philosophy was realistic was because it was the activism of his NAACP exposing the reality of lynching in the South in the 1920s It was very realistic, because the in their face activism was what was reversing the trends in the South. Other African-Americans such as ashington saw him as a radical, but he know how to get what he wanted from the white through activism in the NAACP (DuBois, 2010).
Booker T. ashington had a very strange view of education for blacks. He had to apologize to the hites of the South in the Atlanta speech for blacks sought out political careers and teaching assignments…
DuBois, W.E.B. (2010). The negro mind reaches. Retrieved from http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1114.htm .
The meaning of freedom: the failure of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
The meaning of freedom: the promise of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
U.s. public health service syphilis study at tuskegee. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
Frazier described Garvey's brand of Black Nationalism as using contrived cultural devices to help establish a sense of solidarity among his constituents; further, Garvey was an astute student of human nature and seemed to know instinctively what people wanted to hear: "[Garvey] not only promised the despised Negro a paradise on earth, but he made the Negro an important person in his immediate environment. He invented honors and social distinctions and converted every social invention to his use in his effort to make his followers feel important" (237). In reality, though, Garvey's approach was diametrically opposed to the alternative solutions sought by liberal black intellectuals such as .E.B. Du Bois and reformist organizations like the NAACP (Marable 1998).
.E.B. DuBois and Garvey. hile .E.B. Du Bois was frequently a hostile critic of the Black Nationalist movement, he agreed with Garvey's assessment that during the Great Depression, black America was "a…
Garvey: A Mass Leader. In John Henrik Clarke (Ed.), Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa. New York: Vintage, 1974, 236-41
Marable, Manning. (1998). Black Fundamentalism: Farrakhan and Conservative Black Nationalism. Race and Class, 39(4):1.
Mixon, Gregory. (1994). Henry McNeal Turner vs. The Tuskegee Machine: Black Leadership in the Nineteenth Century. The Journal of Negro History, 79(4):363.
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…
Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html
Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm
Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
gamut of subjects related to American history. The underlying themes of the course included race, class, gender, and power. Books such as Lies My Teacher Told Me and Zinn's People's History of the United States present a more rounded overview and analysis of historical events than what is typically offered in public school textbooks or in popular media. Modern resources ranging from newspaper and magazine articles to film and documentary productions help to round out the student's understanding of American history. The course shows that history is written by the victors, which paints a skewed and heavily biased version of events. The time has come to revise American history textbooks with a more truthful portrayal of how historical events unfolded. History has shaped, and his shaped by, sociological factors like race, class, gender, and power.
Race remains one of the most important topics in American history, culture, society, and identity.…
Allen, James and Littlefield, Allen. Without Sanctuary. Film retrieved: http://withoutsanctuary.org/main.html
Drum, Kevin and Gilson, Dave. "Charts: 6 Big Economic Myths, Debunked." Mother Jones. December 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/10/charts-economic-myths-jobs-deficit-taxes
Gilson, Dave. "Charts: Who are the 1%?" Mother Jones. Retrieved online: http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2011/10/one-percent-income-inequality-OWS
Gilson, Dave. "Only Little People Pay Taxes." Retrieved online: http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/04/taxes-richest-americans-charts-graph
Social tension within the film can also be seen among the Brooks children. Gideon refuses to live in the house, instead opting to sleep on the roof. In the film, Gideon is the most militant and proactive in voicing the need for action. Furthermore, he encourages and advocates the embrace of African culture, which Mr. Brooks appears to have turned his back on. On the other hand, Shariff -- aka Booker T. -- demonstrates that he shares similar attitudes as his father; he admits he prefers to date white women because he is intimidated by black women, thus insinuating that the wants to exercise control over women but because black women are independent and stand up for themselves.
The closing wedding sequence demonstrates that compromises can be made, and should be made, to maintain the integrity of the community and of family. Five on the Black Side successfully highlights the…
people in American history. Specifically it will discuss the three most significant people in American History since 1865: George Washington Carver, Shirley Chisholm, and Thurgood Marshall, and tell why they are significant and how they affected the course of U.S. history. Each of these three individuals was extremely important to American history. Black, driven, and significant, they helped change the course of education and agriculture, politics, and criminal justice, and they live on today as heroes of the Black community. They show that anyone can make a difference in American society, and that hard work and dedication really do pay off, for individuals, and for society.
Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm was born on November 30, 1924, in Brooklyn, New York. Her mother and father were both Caribbean, and moved to New York a few years before Chisholm was born. She was the oldest of three daughters. Her mother, uby,…
Haskins, James. Distinguished African-American Political and Governmental Leaders. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.
Kessler, James H., et al. Distinguished African-American Scientists of the 20th Century. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1996.
Sweat, by Zora Neal Hurston. Specifically, it will contain a biography of the writer and criticism of her work "Sweat," along with another story.
HUSTON'S "SWEAT" AND ANOTHE STOY
Hurston was born on January 7, 1891. She grew up in Eatonville, Florida, which was the first all-black town incorporated in the United States. "She received her early education at the Hungerford School, modeled after Tuskegee Institute, with its guiding principles of discipline and hard work; Hungerford's founders had studied with Tuskegee's founder Booker T. Washington" (Hill XVII). An avid reader, she soon learned to love myth and lore, and teachers and friends encouraged her love of books and reading. When she attended college, she majored in English, and began writing for several journals. She wrote "Sweat" in 1926. She also studied anthropology, and traveled to the South to research black folk tales and voodoo. She also wrote plays and journal…
Hesse-Biber, Sharlene, Christina Gilmartin, and Robin Lydenberg, eds. Feminist Approaches to Theory and Methodology: An Interdisciplinary Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Hill, Lynda Marion. Social Rituals and the Verbal Art of Zora Neale. Washington: Howard University, 1996.
Hurston, Zora Neal. "Sweat." Florida Gulf Coast University. 30 July 1996. 8 Dec. 2002. http://itech.fgcu.edu/faculty/wohlpart/alra/hurston.htm#sweat
Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Perennial Classics, 1999.
Hitler is an easy enemy; Saddam was an apt nemesis. Drawing attention away from slavery allows Americans to feel smugly superior. Nothing like that could happen in the land of the free, home of the brave. Americans are deluded into thinking that nothing evil has happened on our time. A slavery museum will force Americans to take responsibility for a slave trade it perpetuated and for a plantation economy it profited from. Remembering slavery is therefore a frightening and controversial prospect for many Americans. It is easier to point the fingers where others went wrong than it is to face the darkness within our own past.
The memory museum reminds visitors that slavery was not limited to the plantation; it was a way of thinking that in many ways persists till this day. For instance, exploiting human beings for economic expediency appears to be a capitalistic norm in our country.…
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
The 1933 book The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter G. Woodson applies a sociological approach to the study of race and social justice. Like W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington, who can be considered his contemporaries, Woodson frames his discourse on social justice in sociological terms. The author shows how the sociological institution of education serves as an indoctrination device, inculcating values and beliefs that inhibit the flourishing of the under-privileged. Both curriculum and pedagogy are to blame. Woodson also talks about how the mis-education of African-Americans starts a domino effect, causing economic and political disenfranchisement. Unless African Americans develop the means by which to empower themselves and create their own self-sustaining and self-sufficient economies and subcultures, the dominant systems of racism—subtle and covert—will only persist.
The 1933 book The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter G. Woodson lays the foundation for critical race theory and…
Washington was founder and principal of Tuskegee Institute, a normal and industrial school in Alabama. Washington is remembered chiefly for the Atlanta Compromise address. In this speech, he called on white America to provide jobs and industrial-agricultural education for Negroes. In exchange, blacks would give up demands for social equality and civil rights. His message to the Negro was that political and social equality were less important as immediate goals than economic respectability and independence.
Dubois wanted nothing to do with this attitude and in his essay he clearly pointed to how he differed from Washington's point-of-view. DuBois said that Washington's accommodationist program asked blacks to give up political power, insistence on civil rights, and higher education for Negro youth. He believed that Washington's policies had directly or indirectly resulted in three trends: the disfranchisement of the Negro, the legal creation of a distinct status of civil inferiority for the…
Dubois, WEB, (1903). "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others." Retrieved from http://grammar.about.com /od/classicessays/a/BTWdubois.htm
The effort to create an educational system by blacks and for blacks reflected the determined pride that characterized the newly freed black community. Moreover, the emphasis on black education also pointed to the segregated social conditions of the south.
Fairclough's second main point is that white supremacy reigned in the south until the Civil Rights movement. In fact, black political, social, and economic welfare actually worsened at key moments in history. White southerners relished the notion that blacks would run their own schools without the interference of socially liberal white Yankees. Black educators in the south found that schools did little to promote the practical advancement of black communities. African-Americans continued to earn less than their white counterparts even after they achieved the same level of educational attainment. Continued white supremacy led to a gradual mistrust of black educators and of black education in general. Cynicism poisoned the potential of…
Outline of Critique of .E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk
Collective Nature of the ork
Black Spirituals as Thematic Introductions
Black Spirituals as conveyors of historical record
Black Spirituals as oral tradition
Assassination of Booker T. ashington and others who agree with him
Capitulation to society as it is, rather than the way it should be for blacks
DuBois, is one of the greatest African-American thinkers, oraters and writers of history. His works are often bold assassinations of the development of the Black, former slave class in the U.S., through periods were they repeatedly faced bold and subtle racism but were simultaneously expected to be successful, because laws were, "better than they used to be." DuBois' work The Souls of Black Folk, though constituent of several divergent essays is to many the source and center of nearly all his messages regarding the truth telling that…
Denton, Virginia Lantz. Booker T. Washington and the Adult Education Movement. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1993.
DuBois, W.E.B. "The Souls of Black Folk" in Sundquist, Eric J., ed. The Oxford W.E.B. Du Bois Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Sundquist, Eric J., ed. The Oxford W.E.B. Du Bois Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
black colleges/Tuskegee University
The psychological, economic, political importance of historically black colleges
In a workplace, the significance of scholarly and nourished atmosphere cannot be underrated in forming a stronger base for future success. (Historically Black Colleges - Letters to the Editor) Before the period of 1964, the 'Historically Black Colleges and Universities'- HBCU's, the postsecondary academic institutions were established and its educational purpose was to teach African-Americans. (The Importance of HBCUs) Historically, HBCUs came into being at a time when Black students were mainly barred from other institutions of higher education, and their purpose was to give these students with chances for scholarship and professional training. (Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments) HBCU's have been a main basis in the growth of the African-American middle class. They offer a helpful social, cultural, and racial atmosphere for people of color who are looking for a college…
History of Tuskegee University. Retrieved from http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/story.asp?S=1070392& ; nav=CcX4DGwrTuskegee Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Recognizing National Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the importance and accomplishments of historically Black colleges and universities. (Introduced in House). Retrieved from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c108:H.RES.82.IH : Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/research/pic/hbcprefa.html Accessed on 16 February, 2005
The Importance of HBCUs. The Common Sense Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.common-sense.org/?fnoc=/common_sense_says/99_february Accessed on 16 February, 2005
(p. 52-54) (p. 216)
Tuskegee voting patterns among blacks and white are also significant and thematic in the work because the desire of white voters to withhold these rights stemmed from the fact that blacks held a high majority in the community and therefore could realistically turn any election they wished to with collective effort. This reality was realized early in Tuskegee, as compared to other places, in the 1970s when 80% of elected officials were black, corresponding to an above 80% black population. (p. 202) Yet, this ending is a culminated theme as many years of poll taxes, poll tests and overt disregard for the black vote often compiled with local violence against blacks wishing to and attempting to vote peppers the work. (p.20)
The work stresses individual identities and influences over change and resistance to it. One particular character, though the work stops short of deifying him which…
Norrell, R.L. (1998) Reaping the Whirl Wind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee. New York: Knopf.
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
Their own father had distinct memories of being freed as a slave. He became an Episcopal Bishop and made his children very cognizant of the value of education, given the advantages his schooling had given him, compared to other freed slaves. At St. Augustine's where the sisters were undergraduates Sadie even met Booker T. Washington, in another brush with history. For a woman to drive a car was extraordinary during that era but Sadie "got to be a good driver, and when Mr. Booker T. Washington would come to visit aleigh, he would climb into the passenger seat of Lemuel's car" and she would act as his chauffer (Hearth 80). "Mr. Washington tried to help his people getting them educated," says Sadie sadly, mourning the fact he is often regarded by more black radicals in an unflattering way.
Hearth's purpose in writing her book is twofold. On one hand, she…
Reading this book is a fascinating tour of the two sister's lives and gives a sense of their unique and distinct voices. The paths of these sister's was extraordinary -- Bessie graduated with a dentistry degree in 1919, when women had not long had the vote and Jim Crow was still in force in the South. "As a woman dentist, I faced sexual harassment -- that's what they call it today -- but to me, racism was always a bigger problem" (Hearth 10). Sadie was afraid to go to her first job interview, even in New York City, because she would be denied because of her race. Yet the sisters were still full participants in history, supporting their brother Hubert's run for Congress in 1929, seeing Paul Robeson portray Othello on stage, and meeting Cab Calloway (Hearth 213; 188; 216).
The sisters mourned the violence of the 1960s: "it seemed like all the leaders were getting shot -- Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, and Robert Kennedy. Sadie and I were so distressed about it" (Hearth 97). Even after they retired, they continued their quiet forms of advocacy and activism and engagement with the community, although Sadie admits that they do not have a phone, although she had to have one when Bessie was still practicing dentistry (Heath 12). At times their sense of decency seems old-fashioned, such as when they stress their Christian morality and defend themselves against racists, saying they made a contribution to America that cannot be denied. Hearth makes it clear that their lives need no defense, rather their brilliance and fortitude is an example to all.
Having our say
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
Racism is a human condition—not an economic one, even though it is often demonstrated in economic terms. For instance, in the US, the percentage of the population that lives in poverty is skewed heavily towards minorities (KFF, 2019). And because the US has a capitalist economic system, people are quick to argue that capitalism itself is racist. However, this would be a very superficial analysis of the actual situation. Many of the policies implemented in the US at the governmental level are responsible for the impoverishment of minorities; it actually has nothing to do with capitalism (Prins, 2020). In fact, in other parts of the world, such as China—which is decidedly not a capitalistic country but rather a Communist one—racism is also a problem, what with the Muslim Uyghurs being incarcerated in re-education camps en masse (Klett, 2019). In the US, black activists like Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du…
Clay Jr, R. A., & Jones, S. R. (2008). A brief history of community economic development. J. Affordable Hous. & Cmty. Dev. L., 18, 257.
Davis, A. Y., & Shaylor, C. (2020). Race, Gender, and the Prison Industrial Complex: California and Beyond. Meridians, 19(S1), 87-111.
D'Emilio, G. M. (2017). Frontier Feudalism: Agrarian Populism Meets Future Interest Arcana in the Land of Manifest Destiny. Okla. L. Rev., 70, 943.
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido dominandi: Sexual liberation and political control. St. Augustine’s Press.
KFF. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/poverty-rate-by-raceethnicity/?currentTimeframe=0&selectedDistributions=white--black--hispanic&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D
Klett, L. (2019). Trump admin. declares China's persecution of Uyghur Muslims 'genocide'. Retrieved from https://www.christianpost.com/news/us-declares-chinas-persecution-of-uyghur-muslims-genocide.html
Mike Campbell Foundation. (2012). Racial discrimination in Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://www.mikecampbellfoundationresources.com/page/racial-discrimination-in-zimbabwe
New York Fed. (2020). Treasury securities operational details. Retrieved from https://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/domestic-market-operations/monetary-policy-implementation/treasury-securities/treasury-securities-operational-details
hen Johnson defeated Jeffries, however, it unleashed white violence against blacks nationwide. "In ashington, D.C., the ashington Bee reported, 'hite ruffians showed their teeth and attacked almost every colored person they saw upon the public streets'."
Similar events occurred in New York City and tiny towns in the deep South. By the time Jackie Robinson left the Negro Leagues, the backlash was not nearly so pronounced. Arguably, the Negro Leagues kept violence at bay, while producing athletes of exceptional quality without risking Jim Crow law violence.
That, of course, is shining a favorable light on a tradition that is not worthy of accolade, and that arguably prevented numerous black ballplayers from receiving a fraction of their worth.
Today, few people understand the sociological factors that prevented black and white baseball players from competition with each other, as opponents or as members of racially mixed teams. They therefore know even…
Ayers, Edward L. 1993. The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1994. "Jack Johnson and the great white hope: historic boxer. Ebony, April. Available from www.findarticles.com. Accessed 7 February 2005.
Big Labor Day Celebration," (original document) Norfolk Journal and Guide, 8 September, 1917; available at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5054/ . Accessed 7 February 2005.
Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson." 2004. International Tap Association, 13 December. Available from. http://www.tapdance.org/tap/people/bojangle.htm . Accessed 9 February 2005.
Gilmore writes, "Carver discovered more than 300 peanut-related products, including milk, cream, cheese, buttermilk, instant coffee, face powder, ink, dyes, vinegar, soap, wood stains and creosote" (Gilmore). He went on to discover a wide variety of products that used sweet potatoes and other items grown in the South, which helped literally recreate agriculture in the early 20th century.
One of the ways Carver's works continue to influence agriculture today is in the use of plant and crop rotation, which is one of the most common methods of rejuvenating the soil today, and Carver discovered it. Another biographer continues, "Carver understood that cotton had depleted the soil of the nitrogen that plants need in order to grow, and he knew that legumes, such as peanuts and peas, had a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that could take inert nitrogen molecules from the atmosphere and convert them into a form plants can use"…
Author not Available. "George Washington Carver: A Mighty Vision Beyond Peanuts." USA Today Magazine; June 2008, Vol. 136 Issue 2757: 4-5.
Editors. George Washington Carver. New York Amsterdam News; Feb. 2006, Vol. 97 Issue 8: 22.
Gilmore, Jodie. "Man of Science -- and of God: George Washington Carver Believed That Providence Guided His Scientific Investigations and That Those Investigations Led to a Better Understanding of God and His Handiwork." The New American 26 Jan. 2004: 35+.
Constraints of Blacks
Discussion the geographic spaces and constraints of Blacks in the United States between 1865 and 2010.
Throughout the reconstruction period several acts were passed that were intended to integrate African-Americans or freedmen as they were referred to in the period in society. Despite the initial goals of the legislative acts, African-Americans faced a significant antagonism from many whites in the south who did not agree to the new freedoms for the former slaves. The first and arguably most significant step move towards a more equal and free society was the 13th amendment to the Constitution.
This amendment was passed in 1865 and was shortly after was followed by the passage of the civil rights act in 1866 and the 14th amendment. The underlying purpose of 13th and 14th amendments as well as the civil rights act of 1866 was to officially designate African-Americans citizens by…
Late Twentieth Century through the Present
Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who became an icon for civil rights across America. He raised public awareness of the civil rights cause but this had a negative effect on his personal life as during the boycott King's house was bombed and during the campaign he was arrested. The importance of Martin Luther King's role in achieving civil rights could not be understated. However, it is less well-known that E.D Nixon, a African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who played a crucial role in organizing the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott and furthering the movement. However, it is MLK's eloquence and conviction of speech that served as a rallying point for millions of sympathetic individuals to protest racial injustices.
While the present circumstances for an African-American in the United States is still fraught with hardships, there is still much progress that is continually being made. In 2008 the United States elected their first African-American president; a feat that many predicted would not be possible until well into the future. However, at the same time there are a plethora of challenges that still face the African-American communities. In many of the urban centers, such as Chicago for example, there is still a significant amount of segregation. Furthermore, African-Americans generally have less employment opportunities, lower pay rates, higher incarnation rates, and fewer opportunities for education than their racial counterparts. Therefore, even though an enormous amount of progress has been made, there is still much more work to be done.
How industrialization and other social changes transformed the face of 19th century America
The late 19th century in America was characterized by seismic political shifts in the ways in which Americans conducted their economic lives. In addition to the changes the Civil ar wrought in America, there was also an increasing divide between the needs of urban and rural Americans. The U.S. was becoming more ethnically diverse due to the rise of immigration and newly freed African-Americans were attempting to find their political voice. The increasingly dominant urban culture of the North along with the interjection of new political parties and cultures was profoundly threatening for many Americans and raised charges that America was becoming more "European." This concept meant very different things to people, depending on their perspective. For rural farmers it meant the dismaying rise of big business and banks which had become the power elites…
Andrews, Thomas. Killing for Coal: America's Deadliest Labor War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 2010.
Clement, Elizabeth Alice. Love for Sale: Courting, Treating, and Prostitution in New York City,
1900-1945. Raleigh, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
Brown v Board of Education is one of the most famous landmark cases in American court history. Set against the backdrop of the early 1950s, just as the civil rights movement was beginning to heat up, Brown v Board of Education changed the face of American schools in a significant way and set the stage for further more sweeping reforms in other areas, such as worker discrimination and fair labor laws.
The stage for the conditions that led to Brown v Board of Education was a set of laws that rose out of the civil war restoration period called the Jim Crow laws. These laws varied from state to state and existed primarily in the South. These laws created separation of whites from blacks. Some of these laws include that blacks must sit at the back of the bus and relinquish their seat if a white passenger needed, blacks were…
Bolling v Sharpe U.S. District Court, Washington D.C. (1947)
Briggs v Elliott U.S. District Court. (1950)
Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (USSC+) Syllabus
Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African-American History. (Online) May 25, 1998. http://fledge.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html . Accessed November, 2002.
American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…
Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.
Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html .
Editors (2008). African-American odyssey. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html .
Brown vs. Board of Education
A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950's resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the hite elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the hite elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school.
Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law.…
Brown vs. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483. 1954. Appeal from the United States
District Court for the District of Kansas [online]. Washington, DC: The National
for Public Policy Research; available from
Freedom and Equality in the 20th century
AN UN-ENDING FIGHT
Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies
The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).
The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…
AAO (n.d.). The civil rights era. Part I, African-American Odyssey. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.memory/oc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html
Civil Rights 101 (2001). Civil rights expanded: contemporary effects. The Leadership
Conference. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights.101/erexpanded.html
Foner, E. (1997). Expert report. Diversity Matters: University of Michigan. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/legal/expert/foner.html
It was in 1919, when Dubois represented the NAACP at the Paris Peace Conference that he decided on organizing a Pan-African conference, aimed at bringing Africa and Africa's problems to the knowledge of the entire world. Although the conference eventually was not organized, mainly because Dubois failed to coagulate sufficient participants and other African- American organizations, it reflected Dubois Pan-Africanism and the idea of double conscious.
Indeed, Dubois promoted and sustained the idea that, in order for lacks to be free anywhere, they should be free everywhere. At that point, after the end of the First World War, there were only two free countries in Africa: Liberia and Ethiopia, the rest being European colonies. Dubois wanted to tie the Negro emancipation and civil rights campaigns in the United States with a more global idea of universal civil rights and lack emancipation on the African continent as well.
The conference was…
1. Hynes, Gerald. A Biographical Sketch of W.E.B. DuBois. On the Internet at http://www.duboislc.org/html/DuBoisBio.html.Last retrieved on December 16, 2007 http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96feb/dubois.html.Last retrieved on December 16, 2007 http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aap/dubois.html.
Last retrieved on December 16, 2007
Hynes, Gerald. A Biographical Sketch of W.E.B. DuBois. On the Internet at http://www.duboislc.org/html/DuBoisBio.html.Last retrieved on December 16, 2007
When Brown vs. Board of Education came to the courts the judges ruled that the school law allowing "separate but equal educations" was unconstitutional which set the stage for the later examination of special education students being "separate but equal" in the district's treatment of their education.
I agree with the decision that was handed down and believe that one justice decision summed up the facts when it comes to any student, including racially divided or special educationally divided or gender divided students when he said:
Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken…
Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)
Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)
Yet, Theodore oosevelt also found within the American nationalism a powerful civic culture that made the United States of America as a country that welcomed all kinds of people irrespective of where they came from, their racial identity and religious leanings as long as they were prepared to devote themselves to the country and observe the laws of the land. Theodore oosevelt also loved the idea that the United States of America was a melting pot in which a hybrid race of different strains could be created. Theodore oosevelt believed that such a mixing had created and would sustain the racial superiority of the American race. This belief of his was demonstrated by his personal delight in moving across social boundaries and meeting people of diverse groups. (Theodore oosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism)
Thus we see that after President Lincoln for nearly thirty five years the leaders…
Gerstle, Gary. Theodore Roosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism. The Journal of American History. Retrieved at http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/86.3/gerstle.html . Accessed on February 27, 2005
Leonard, Erin Ruth. Theodore Roosevelt's Broad Powers: From Revolution to Reconstruction. Retrieved at http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/teddy/teddyxx.htm. Accessed on February 27, 2005
President of the United States. Retrieved form http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571294_4/President_of_the_United_States.html#p56Accessed on February 27, 2005
Roosevelt, Theodore. The American President. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0250190-0&templatename=/article/article.html. Accessed on February 27, 2005
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.
Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:
Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.
assassination of President McKinley, Theodore oosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy.
He took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution." I did not usurp power," he wrote, "but I did greatly broaden the use of executive power."
oosevelt's youth differed sharply from that of the log cabin Presidents. He was born in New York City in 1858 into a wealthy family, but he too struggled -- against ill health -- and in his triumph became an advocate of the strenuous life.
In 1884 his first wife, Alice Lee oosevelt, and his mother died on the same day.…
Blum, John Morton. (1954). The Republican Roosevelt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Brinkley, Douglas (2009). The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America. New York, N.Y: HarperCollins
Fehn, Bruce. (2005) Theodore Roosevelt and American Masculinity. Magazine of History 19(2): 52 -- 59
Theodore Roosevelt Association Quotations from the speeches and other works of Theodore Roosevelt
In addition, the only one in that we are our true selves is God, to whom we life our "tortured souls" (11). The overall essence of the poem is one of condemnation for that fact that we feel we must present false airs when we are around others. The mask makes liars of everyone. The form of the poem is iambic tetrameter with a rhyme scheme of aabbc.
Paul Lawrence Dunbar was a gifted poet that escaped the prison of the time in which lived through words. hile he was surrounded by a type of suffering that few can relate to, he was able to look through it and find something meaningful about it and express that in his literature. He was recognized by many of the prominent writers of his time and his work was published not for money but for meaning. It was this type of drive that…
Dunbar, Paul. "We Wear the Mask." Dayton University Online. Information Retrieved November 20, 2008. http://www.dunbarsite.org/gallery/WeWearTheMask.asp
Giles, James. "Paul Lawrence Dunbar." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 78: American Short-Story Writers. 1880-1910. 1989. GALE Resource Database. 1979. Site Accessed November 20, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Keeling, John. "Paul Dunbar and the mask of Dialect." EBSCO Resource Database. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved November 20, 2008.
Laryea, Doris. "Paul Lawrence Dunbar." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 50: Afro- American Writers Before the Harlem Renaissance. 1986. GALE Resource Database. 1979. Site Accessed November 20, 2008.
Rayner's efforts to create Populist alliances with Republicans also suggest that the political life of African-Americans was not simply one of a people struggling against oppression, but that the negotiation of race and politics was considerably more delicate in Texas history than one might immediately surmise. Rayner supported Republican racial policy, but he also believed that Texas and the South needed to support its farmers, and that economic policy should acknowledge agrarian needs.
After the failure of his attempt to create a settlement with the Texas Republicans, the Populist Party began to decline and Rayner returned to the Republican Party. After his affiliation ended with the Populist Party, and the Populist Party folded, Rayner's political career continued, bloodied but not unbowed, although he remained a renegade. He expressed interest in anti-immigration movements and also supported the Texas laws imposing poll taxes and literacy tests on voting rights and suffrage, perhaps…
Patrick, L. "Texas Populism." University of Texas at Austin. History 1693. 21 Mar 2008. http://www2.austincc.edu/lpatrick/his1693/popul.htm
Chapter 17 entitled "In the Wake of War," chronicles the political aftermath of the American Civil War, the Reconstruction Era, and the settlement of the American West during the latter half of the 19th century. In the words of the chapter, although civil conflict had been stemmed in America, there were just as many new problems for the emerging union as there were new, proffered solutions regarding racial tensions in the wake of reunification. Many of these problems were 'solved' with political half-measures as the triumphs of self-interest of politicians wishing to capitalize upon the South's weakened state became ascendant over the real interests of Blacks in the union. The promises made to African-Americans were eventually subsumed to the perceived needs of a unified nation and an ascendant federal congress.
The ultimate aftermath of the war saw only a technically freed African-American people, but a people whose rights were…
Fathers of Sociology
As a discipline, sociology is relatively young. Therefore, many of the great thinkers of the last two centuries have had a tremendous impact on the face of modern sociology. Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, and .E.B. Du Bois all contributed to the historical development of the discipline of sociology. One can see the lasting impact of those contributions in how sociologists approach human behavior in modern American society.
Emile Durkheim may be the man most responsible for transforming sociology from unscientific observations of human behavior into a disciplined science of human behavior. He drew upon Comte's work in sociology, but felt that his foundations were too vague. Instead of vague assertions about human behavior, Durkheim felt that in order for sociology to be a science, it "must study social facts, i.e. aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals" (Agarwal, N.p.). hile Durkheim's work…
Agarwal, Priya. "What are the major contributions of Emile Durkheim to sociology?" Preserve
Articles. N.p. N.d Web. 30 Sep. 2013.
Crossman, Ashley. "Herbert Spencer." About.com Sociology. N.p. 2013. Web. 30 Sep. 2013.
Crossman, Ashley. "Karl Marx." About.com Sociology. N.p. 2013. Web. 30 Sep. 2013.
Coming Away with Norah Jones
Sing us a song
Of a love that once belonged
Tell me your tale
Was your journey far too long?
Norah Jones, "Nightingale" (2001)
(Attention Strategy: The speaker will sing or quote the preceding lines of Norah Jones' song, "Nightingale," as an introduction to the topic of the speech. This strategy is optional, and is intended only to provide the audience with a brief overview of Jones' music.)
Ladies and gentlemen, the song/following you have heard comes from Norah Jones' single "Nightingale," a self-composed song for her first album, "Come Away with Me," which was released in 2001. Indeed, the nightingale personifies Norah's roller-coaster ride to stardom as one of the best-talented jazz singers for the last two years. Combining both her characteristically lovely yet strong singing voice and her exquisite Indian-American features, Norah is the epitome of the 'hybridization of…
Bauder, D. (2003). Newcomer Norah Jones sweeps Grammy Awards. Available at: http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/81-02242003-47979.html .
Lyrics of Norah Jones' songs: http://lyrics.com/j/jones%2C%5Fnorah/come.away.with.me.html .
Norah Jones Official Web site: http://www.norahjones.com/home.htm.
Unofficial Norah Jones Web/Fan site: http://www.cshvof.com/norah/.
The idea of the culture wars is introduced here, and these culture wars begin to illustrate just how our continued dependence on the dominant Protestant Anglo-American culture has formed and influenced America's schools throughout out history. The chapter also introduces the concepts of racism and democracy, and demonstrates how these two opposite ideals often live together in our culture. The "culture wars" grew over the whites perceived "superiority" over other cultures in our country, and eventually, the dominant culture in America became the Protestant Anglo-American culture, and this dominance continues today.
The concept of education in colonial times is discussed in this chapter, along with early education's relationship to religion in the schools. It also shows the differing attitudes people of the times had about children, and how the idea that schools and educational theories could influence national thought was first introduced. The chapter also discusses the social…
Spring, Joel. The American School 1642-2000, 5th edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.