Jockers did not state anymore specifics of the study parameters, but did provide the accuracy percentage of which the basketball players' three-point shots improved (2011).
From the perspective of a research analysis, Jockers provided trivial information from the Mah studies. Perhaps to an under informed reader, however, knowing that athletes were able to make more three-point shots and sprint faster after having more sleep is enough information to be convinced of Jockers's argument. Even for the less-informed reader, there are places in the article in which the focus is distracted from the main objective. For example, Jockers explains that Dr. Czeisler is "nicknamed the sleep doctor" and he "works with [sports] teams such as the Boston Celtics" (2011). These points may further engage a reader, but are not balanced with an adequate amount of research specifics to keep the article centered on the benefits of napping.
The title of the…… [Read More]
brain function between pedophiles and non-pedophiles. Summarize the evidence in support of this assertion. Propose a study that would advance our knowledge of the topic.
Pedophilia is such a horrific crime; it is difficult to rationally evaluate the objective medical evidence that can give clues as to why it occurs. However, recent scientific evidence indicates that there are specific biological components of the brain that can cause a predisposition to develop pedophilia. This is helpful in answering the mystery of why this crime, which is widely condemned in a variety of cultures, has remained such a persistent blight upon society throughout the ages.
Using MIs, scientists have noted that pedophiles and non-pedophiles exhibit the neurological signs of arousal in a different fashion. In the visual cortex of the brain, "a stronger visual analysis happens as soon as an adult heterosexual man sees a woman of the same age. The exact…… [Read More]
However, the most important area in terms of the connection between brain development and adolescent delinquency seems to be the prefrontal cortex, located immediately behind the forehead. In many respects, the prefrontal cortex is the "control center" of the human brain because it is substantially responsible for planning, mood modulation, organization, and working memory.
he fact that the prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in adolescence becomes critically important when the adolescent brain is simultaneously flooded by sex hormones during puberty. Especially among males, the combination of an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex with highly elevated levels of testosterone typically results in moodiness, short-temperedness, aggression, the need to exhibit social status and dominance, and rage as response to frustration, conflict, and disappointment. Naturally, there are many other factors that contribute to adolescent behavior. Whereas all teenagers experience the same types of brain development patterns and hormonal surges, not all teenagers necessarily exhibit…… [Read More]
Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)
The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…… [Read More]
brain structures and functions associated with the motivation to engage in certain types of behavior. The specific behavior that I have selected in order to perform the analysis refers to life style habits, namely exercising. In order to better understand the mechanisms which influence motivation, I will be taking into consideration both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as genetic or the environment.
Right from the beginning, I must underline that the motivation of a person to engage in such a type of behavior is powerfully influenced by the environment in which he or she grows up and lives. It is a general known truth that the manner in which parents educate their children and the values that they teach them are fundamental for the manner in which the children will behave- even as adults. Therefore, it is safe to say that adults who grew up in families which encouraged them…… [Read More]
brain plays a vital role in the area of cognitive functions. Different sections of the brain are responsible for a number of different cognitive capabilities including memory, prediction, emotional response, sensory perception, and numerous others. Despite the partitioning of the brain and its means of providing cognitive capabilities, the different areas of this organ work in concert to produce some pivotal cognitive processes including decision-making and deriving action (output) based on sensory information (which is akin to input).
Many of these vital processes for cognitive functions occur in the part of the brain refereed to as the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex has several different components each of which largely contributes to the way in which humans make decisions. Additionally, parts of the cerebral cortex are also responsible for facets of one's personality and how one manifests the emotion one feels. The basic paradigm that accounts for the way that…… [Read More]
Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.
Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…… [Read More]
Discussion Forum: Because I have read about how certain types of music are good to listen to while studying, I am interested in the cognitive functions of music. I am also interested in the potential for music to make the brain function better, or at least differently.
esearch shows the one of the most important functions of music is improving human perception and cognition. One experiment shows that listening to music, even while doing other things, made the participants "more positive, more alert, and more focused in the present," (Sloboda, O'Neill & Ivaldi, 2001). This finding was especially true among participants who selected their own music (Sloboda, O'Neill & Ivaldi). Thompson (n.d.) notes that music plays a very important role in the psychological development of infants, "at a stage when a range of social and cognitive skills can be explored, tested, and developed," (p. 28). Specific skills that are…… [Read More]
The topic of sleep and dreaming is interesting to me because of the complex nature of the brain. It seems we know so much about human physiology, yet the brain is still mysterious. e know about neurochemicals, for instance, but do not really understand how memory is stored, accessed, or how dreaming affects our abilities during waking life. e know that a chemical upset, even minor, can make a huge difference in our state of consciousness, or our ability to perform in daily activities. Dreaming is fascinating to me because we know that the brain is a machine, and like any machine, it must be maintained (through nutrition) as well as rest and sleep. I find it personally interesting that dreams can be so vivid, unreal, frightening, pleasurable, and yet still mysterious.
Dreaming is part of sleep -- and a recurring stage in which our state of consciousness is…… [Read More]
The brain can be understood in terms of its lobe-like structures, or it can be mapped out according to the regions that seem to dictate and influence certain behaviors and processes. The three major areas of the brain in this schema are the motor areas, the sensory areas, and the association areas, though in reality almost all human functions and behaviors involve interactions between these areas. Interestingly, large and imprecise movements have been found to originate in a very small space of the motor areas, whereas more precise yet much smaller movements require large brain areas. The sensory area consists of three composite areas -- the somatosensory area, the auditory area, and the visual area.
The association areas of the brain are believed to control higher-level thinking and processes that regulate behavior in a larger sense, such as turning Phineas Gage from a hardworking and responsible…… [Read More]
The other symptom is that a victim will experience a change in mental capability or individual's distinctive characters. Either the patient or his/her close associates can identify the symptoms independently. The final symptoms are those that helps in location of the tumor as an effect of the pressure exerted on the surrounding areas. They include a large number of symptoms but the locally noted include the weakening of different body parts, which can be on the arms or legs, poor maintenance of balance, memory weakening and in worst cases damaging, visual difficulties, communication difficulties, and a modified kind of sensing. hen it involves a stem tumor, it affects the nerve functions that leave the brain at the bottom part (Health Encyclopedia, n.p.).
During diagnosis, a physician will have interest on the medical past and other examination of the patient and then armed with the information; the physician might advice…… [Read More]
This showed not only the mapping of the brain that was possible -- that is, the association of certain specific areas of the brain with certain function and/or sensations from certain parts of the body -- but also that the adult brain was capable of changing in response to new stimulation. This finding was taken to new heights by Dr. amachandran, whose work with amputees and mirrors showed how profound the brain's malleability can really be (amachandran 2007). As he describes in his lecture, many amputees experienced phantom limbs (as well as other organs), and a significant number of these had phantom pain due to a "paralyzed" phantom limb. With the simple use of a mirror, Dr. amachandran's patients were able to trick their brains into thinking the reflection of their healthy limb was in fact their phantom limb, alleviating the perceived paralysis and pain, and eventually (for some) even…… [Read More]
They cannot carry impulses as they do not have an axon and dendrites. The oligodendrocyte cells are more numerous than the neurons and make up almost 90% of the brain cells. Thus, to differentiate between a neuron and oligodendrocyte the researcher would have to eliminate the presence of the axon and dendrite and check the density of the presence of these cells within the brain sample. [Wikipedia, 2005]
ASTOCYTE: These are another type of Glial cells that can easily be differentiated through their star shape. The astrocytes are seen to contain many secondary filaments that function just like dendrites in neurons. When examined the nuclei of the astrocytes is seen as smaller than that of the oligodendrocytes. The glial cells are non-neural and can easily be distinguished from the neurons. [Glia, 2005]
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,…… [Read More]
Robert Bly also speaks about the "three brains" of man, but unlike in the more scientific description above, he calls them the reptilian, the mammalian, and the new brain, in order to have them correspond better to our evolution stages thus, in a way, building upon MacLean's ideas. According to Bly, the first brain is "cold and ruthless" and deals with survival issues. he mammalian part deals with comforts such as family, friends, relationships, belonging, society, religion, home, etc.
he "new" brain is "very thin, incredibly dense" and is basically a "cellular layer surrounding the rest of the brain," according to Bly. his, according to scientists, has "no purpose." Bly states that "it deals with transcendence and grows on miserly." Just as in the description above, in Bly's description all brain exist simultaneous but shrink or grow, depending upon where energy is focused. For example, each can control energy, and…… [Read More]
A Teenagers Brain
The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)
Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…… [Read More]
Mind and the Brain by Schwartz and Begley
In their book, The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force, Jeffrey Schwartz and Sharon Begley look into the concept of the mind as something separate and distinct from the physical brain. They do so by beginning with a discussion of behaviorism, an approach that has had tremendous influence on the world of psychology, not just in theory but in shaping of treatments for people who exhibited disordered or disturbed reasoning. They talk about how behaviorism strips the humanity from people, placing human learning on roughly the same level as animal conditioning. Moreover, they also discuss the idea that, even if behaviorist approaches can effectuate therapeutic results, such as in habituation training for patients suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, there are other means that do not involve the same level of cruelty towards the patients, but can still achieve…… [Read More]
Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population
Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging person, it is crucial to define some concepts. These concepts are the quality of life, independence, and activities of daily living, as they will be used in this discussion. Quality of life has varying meanings for different individuals particularly to the elderly population. Quality of life could mean good pension or income, family and friends, being active, being independent, good and safe living conditions, opportunity to learn latest concepts, developing new things, religion, and social relationships among others. Quality of…… [Read More]
Music on Brain and Emotions
The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions
The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in a human's life. A sample of music with the best or strongest healing power is the Indian music. What music does is that it injects a calming effect into a human's mind. This speeds recovery-time of certain health ailments. Music positively effects the human's hormone system allowing easy brain concentration and information assimilation (Adalarasu, K.K. et al., 2011). This means that music boosts the learning process thereby augmenting cognitive skills. This paper outlines a brief overview of the various…… [Read More]
The field of music therapy is an emerging one in medical practice. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of research to support the use of music therapy in a wide range of instances, one of which includes patients who are suffering from brain injury. This paper will review some of the literature on the subject in an attempt to understand how music affects the brain and is therefore useful in therapy.
The idea of music therapy is ancient, and was extolled by the likes of Plato. The Roman god Apollo was god of music and medicine, further cementing the link between the two in estern civilization. Non-estern cultures were also known to use music to attempt to heal people. Certain forms of music could drive out evil spirits or demons, according to the lore of many cultures. It is from these myriad traditions that the modern use…… [Read More]
..Educational psychologists have made rather extensive investigations of semantic (declarative) and procedural memory with respect to studying and theorizing about classroom learning and teaching....very little theoretical or empirical work has been conducted in educational psychology that has examined the episodic (experiential and autobiographical) memories of teachers and learners in relation to instructional interventions and students' learning from such interventions.
Martin 1993: 169-170)
Another memory theory that has become popular and may have significant educational distinction is the concept of working memory, or rapid access memory that is finite (such as the AM of a computer and therefore cannot be stretched across to much stimulus or brain work to elicit memory of the core concepts.
esearch on test anxiety and working memory suggests that performance deficits caused by test anxiety can be explained by the extent to which individuals are able to use their working memory capacity (Darke, 1988b; Eysenck, 1985).…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the research will eventually lead to the development of both an understanding and a means through which an individual can improve his or her business sense. Though some papers have been published on this topic, there has not been enough research in this respect.
Some preliminary questions will address;.
Is the brain programmed for business success in all individuals?
If one can remember most effectively images and associations, why do so many people use standard outlining techniques?
How can one use one's whole brain to make dreams come true?
How can on improve the brain in order to maximize one's abilities?
What are the ways to increase the power of our memory, focus and creativity?
With regards to research methods, mostly qualitative research methods will be employed during the research, such as the analysis of an interview, for instance, but the addition of quantitative methods will also be employed,…… [Read More]
Minds and rains: Do We Have oth?
Descartes' view, "I think, therefore I am," may not be entirely accurate when proposing that the essence of cognitive judgment, using the brain to "think," necessitates the use of consciousness to comprehend the state of "being." The neurodynamics of brain construct provides proficiency at completing thought processes. However, the dynamic system that creates meaning to logic involves the mind. Thus, the ideal that separates man from machine is the dual action of both mind and brain; a complex phenomenon that will prevent artificial intelligence from ever reaching human abilities.
According to Lawrence Shapiro, the multiple realizability thesis (MRT), which states that the mind can exist in a physical form, is likely unrealistic in that it is yet to demonstrate that the mind can be duplicated. Upon evaluating brain evolution and neuroscience data, he views the cognitive capacities of the brain as placing "strong…… [Read More]
brain regions are activated by emotional stimuli?
There has been a great deal of interest within the medical and scientific community in studying the response of various regions of the brain to emotional stimuli. Much research has focused on the role of the amygdala in response to emotional stimuli, and the effects of such stimuli on learning and memory retention. The amygdala "is a structure in the medial temporal lobe that is known to participate in emotional and motivational functions in animals" (CGN, 2004) however its role in human emotional response has not yet been fully uncovered. It has been directly implicated however, in emotional stimulus related examinations. The amygdale is not the only brain region activated by emotional stimuli. Recent research has suggested that many areas of the brain are activated and affected by emotional stimuli, not just the amygdala. In fact, depending on the type of emotional stimulus…… [Read More]
Norepinephrine is usually quickly removed from the synapse and pumped back into the cell that released it in order to turn off and reset the system. By blocking the removal of norepinephrine, tricyclics appear to prolong or intensify norepinephrine's message to the post-synaptic cells.
However, the fundamental biochemical effect of antidepressants on the brain that is responsible for their benefit remains a mystery. It is thought that the change in neuroamine signaling at the synapse caused by anti-depressants "may set off a cascade of events involving second messenger systems that eventually results in the improvement of the symptoms of depression" (Enna, 1991, 187). Unfortunately, how these medications truly operate remains largely unknown.
Another group of anti-depressants is called selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, first introduced in 1988. Unlike the tricyclics, these new anti-depressants have little direct effect on norepinephrine in the brain; instead, they block the re-uptake of serotonin which gives…… [Read More]
Introduction and Theory
Cognitive psychology is an area of scientific research that explores the human mental processes and their impact on human behavior. Using cognitive psychology, researchers can study a variety of subjects including how people perceive the world, how those perceptions impact behavior, and how both emotions and thoughts influence behavior. The article "Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury" uses a cognitive psychology perspective to study behavioral responses and changes in persons who have experienced a traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury is associated with social isolation and withdrawal, which in turn leads to depression and other serious mental health issues. For this reason, it is important to study ways to mitigate the tendency toward social withdrawal. Because Facebook can be used to connect with people in a non-threatening way, from the safety of one's own home, the…… [Read More]
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
MENTAL EPESENTATIONS AND THE MIND-BAIN
The Dualism Argument
Pure Materialist Viewpoint
Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli
Neurons and Synapses
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…… [Read More]
psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can be long-term and very harmful. Using marijuana may seem harmless, and less harmful than other types of drugs, such as alcohol, but it is very harmful, and can have long-term affects on people who use it regularly.
Marijuana has many chemicals that are harmful. Doctors Bell and Hall note that THC is the most well-known and harmful of these chemicals. They write, "Among them, THC is the most psychoactive in humans, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration" (Bell & Hall, 2005). These affects do not typically last longer than a few hours, depending on how much of the drug the subject ingests, but the affects on the brain can…… [Read More]
innings" account and the "prudential lifespan" account support the age-based prioritization in organ allocation by suggesting that there is a certain amount of time that people should live: for example, if a young man of 25 dies, it is viewed as a tragedy because he was so young -- he died before his time. But if an old man of 85 dies, it is viewed differently -- then it is his time. Williams says this is a biased kind of thinking that does not consider quality of life but rather quantity of years. The man of 25 could have a far worse quality of life than the man of 85 -- but that is not taken into consideration by many people. Thus, if a person was asked who should receive an organ for an organ transplant, most would answer that the young man of 25 should receive it because he…… [Read More]
Technology has emerged and pervaded the lives of many people as it becomes more advanced and more a part of society. A good and prominent example of this is video games. Even with the leisure and perceived positive effects of video games, their effect on the brain is a cause for concern among many in the scientific and academic communities. While many of the effects could absolutely be good, there are other effects that could be bad with age and stage of brain development being important factors to keep in mind.
One factor that clearly aggravates the situation of people playing video games and it might or does affect the brain is the fact that the younger people who still have the development of their brains in motion. As such, verifying whether or not there are effects on cognition and that development of the brain structure is an important item…… [Read More]
Anomic Aphasia is also known as nominal aphasia, dysnomia, and amnesic aphasia and refers to a disorder that generates difficulties in recalling names or words. This brain disorder is considered as a dearth of expressive language that makes it difficult for an individual to recall names or words. In addition, patients suffering from anomic aphasia experience difficulties in recalling numbers. While an individual has clear understanding of what he/she is attempting to name or write, he/she requires a relatively long period of time to recall it or may experience tremendous challenges in articulating the word, name or numbers. In some cases, patients suffering from anomic aphasia produce jargon words or other words when attempting to recall or express certain words, names or numbers. The other symptom of this condition is the inability for a patient to identify the appropriate word for an object or individual through he/she has the capability…… [Read More]
If the child's needs are not met at home or at school -- for example, if he or she is a traumatized recent immigrant from Haiti or lives in a food insecure household in the inner city -- the child may not be able exhibit the maximum extent of his or her ability.
Even children who are accustomed to testing can experience environmentally-related problems. In fact, children who are already classified as special needs or learning-disabled may be all too familiar with assessment, and bring an assumption that they are 'stupid' or incompetent to the process, even before the assessment begins. "Facet-based instruction centers around the idea that students, faced with a problem situation, apply preformed ideas from previous experiences or construct ideas and reasoning to make sense of the situation," including ideas about themselves (Facet-based instruction, 2010, the Hunt Lab). The assumptions that students bring to the testing environment…… [Read More]
120). Together these chemicals control and boost the sexual experience. It should be noted, that while dopamine dominates the desires of wanting to have sex it is another group of chemicals that govern enjoyment. Opioids are the brains equivalent of morphine and endorphins. Dopamine may propel the behavior but the opioids are necessary for experiencing orgasm.
During orgasm, opioids boost the reward circuit to add to the effect of dopamine. In the orgasmic phase, the body releases a shot of dopamine. However, after orgasm dopamine, levels fall precipitously and individuals lose interest in sexual encounters of a time. As levels of dopamine fall, prolactin and oxytocin levels increase. Oxytocin levels increase for a short period after orgasm and produces the bonding effect (Allchin, 2011). Prolactin functions as a dopamine suppressor. It halts the action of dopamine and brings the body back to a normal level. This marks the beginning of…… [Read More]
function of the brain as it relates to psychology. Understanding the function of the human brain is critical in understanding how and why people think and act the way they do. Studying the brain can also explain many different types of behaviors, such as emotions, stress, and even the development of language, and all of these are extremely useful in the study of psychology.
The brain is divided into four sections, called lobes. Emotions are associated with the Frontal lobe, along with reasoning, movement, planning, parts of speech, and problem solving. The neurological pathways associated with perceiving and producing emotions come from two individual neurological pathways. Two scientists found, "The first pathway connects the prefrontal cortex, the brain's emotional command center, to the nucleus accumbens, a region linked primarily to positive emotion; the second connects it to the amygdala, which is linked primarily to negative emotion" (Editors, 2008). Studies have…… [Read More]
brain is the final frontier, even more so than outer space. Studying the brain is as difficult as studying outer space due to the limitations of technology. However, there are also ethical limitations to neuroscience research, as well as research design, methodological, and statistical limitations. The basic structure of the brain has been fairly well documented, but brain chemistry remains elusive, as do general process modeling and other abstract and location-independent functions such as memory.
Technological limitations will remain a challenge for brain researchers. Current technologies in brain imaging continue to offer fruitful results in research, but fail to offer significant breakthroughs that can aid in the study of consciousness. Through current technologies, localized functions and processes can be witnessed, but more complex ones such as imagination and dreams cannot be tested for using technologies. Language and linguistics are also difficult to research using technology, and tend to rely on…… [Read More]
Any brain injury is serious and Julie should not have continued the climb. Seeking immediate medical attention as soon as the injury occurred may have saved Julie's life. The severe headache and ringing in her ears is another sign that the bump on the head was not so light, but still consistent with a Grade 1 concussion. Although Julie did not lose consciousness, she still had the key signs of a concussion.
The treatment of a concussion includes rest and inactivity. Aspirin should be avoided, as it may contribute to continued internal bleeding. Continuing the hike may have caused Julie's blood pressure to remain high, contributing to the inability of her body to form clots at the injury points. The onset of severe headache was a sign that things had become critical. Julie's life may have been saved had the severity of the injury been recognized from the beginning and…… [Read More]
For centuries, people have sought to explain not only what people dream about, but also why humans dream. In older times, dreams were used for prophecy. Later, they were used in the growing field of psychology.
But, until fairly recently, people only theorized about what dreams mean, and not why people themselves have evolved the capacity to dream.
This paper examines various theories that explain why human beings dream. The first part of the paper looks at the writing of Sigmund Freud regarding dreams as the royal road to the unconscious. Implicit in Freud's writings is the view that dreams evolved as humans were forced to sublimate their natural desires to live in society.
The paper then looks at the work of J. Allan Hobson, who saw dreams as a result of the natural physiological workings of the brain. In this body of research, Hobson meticulously matches the features…… [Read More]
Brain's Reward Pathway in the Context of Addiction
The brain's reward pathway involves the mesolimbic dopamine system controlling the way that an individual reacts to stimuli. Natural rewards such as food, sex, and diverse interactions with others can thus play an important role in motivating a person. One of the simplest ways to describe the brain's reward pathway would be to consider the fact that an individual learns that he or she needs to repeat an action in order to get a reward. Memory is connected with the reward pathway, as memory centers concentrate on identifying all the steps that lead to the reward and attempt to recreate these respective actions. Drugs that are addictive have an effect on the reward system as they reinforce certain behaviors, with the dopamine reward pathway being stimulated by these substances.
The reward pathway is particularly old when regarding things from an evolutionary point-of-view.…… [Read More]
Neurological Models of Behavior
Understanding the roots of human behavior is a complicated process. Attempting to explore this concept from a neurological perspective is even more complicated, as it requires some sense of an ongoing pattern to describe the neurological process of learning certain behavior traits. Kozma et al. attempted to generate a mathematical model within a controlled environment.
According to Kozma et al., the human psyche is composed of complex combinations, known as vectors, which represent particular values at any one moment in question. Each neuron has a designated condition that ultimately impacts the conditions of surrounding neurons, thus allowing for a mathematical modeling of human behavior given the combinations of values that exert their influence on numerological components of the brain (Sayama et al., 2013). This model is within a controlled environment, where learning inputs invoke a response but do not need full neurological supervision to conduct learning…… [Read More]
Brain Might Contextual
The information we receive from the surrounding is analyzed in different areas in the brain. These areas are interconnected. Visual impulses reach the occipital lobe in the brain from where they are carried to the somatosensory are in the parietal lobe. The parietal lobe also receives sensory information from other areas of the brain. These stimuli are integrated and stored. The stored information is used to reason similar stimuli in the future. This creates a quicker response in recognition. This theory is consistent to the top down process created by ichard Gregory.
The brain is a complex body organ consisting of two cerebral hemispheres, two cerebellums and a brain stem. The brain stem is a continuation of the spinal cord. It consists of the mid brain, pons and medulla. The brain is made up of complex neurons that transmit impulses to other body organs. These impulses help…… [Read More]
Brain Factors That Influence Psychopathy
Psychopathy is among the conditions that burden the performance of most global states in the current contemporary society. A variety of factors causes psychopathy. The factors include biological, environmental, and brain factors. Psychopathy presents with different symptoms including, violence, deceitfulness, aggression, irresponsibility, lack of guilt, and impulsiveness among other symptoms associated with it. Significant researches conducted in the past have failed to create an understanding of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. Therefore, the following essay presents an analysis of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. The analysis presents results obtained from studies conducted to create an understanding of the relationship.
According to Verona, Sprague, and Sadeh (2012) psychopathy refers to a condition characterized by diminished abilities for remorse and low abilities to control behaviors. Cale and Lilienfeld (2002) show in their definition that defining psychopathy should not only focus on the…… [Read More]
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…… [Read More]
Mind and the Brain
There are several theories that have been proposed for explaining the relationship between one's mind and brain. If truth be told, it can be said that it is one of the most talked about philosophical fields.
Mind vs. Brain
Mind and brain are interrelated. For a majority of people, there is no difference between the two. Many scientists and philosophers hold the belief that the brain and the mind are one and are inseparable. These two words are mostly used as alternatives of each other. In general, brain is regarded as a physical object whereas mind is considered as a mental thing (Prabhat, 2011).
The brain is made up of hundreds and thousands of nerve cells and blood vessels. On the other hand, mind being an unseen item is not composed of any cells or vessels. Whilst the brain has a distinct shape of its own,…… [Read More]
.....backed by other research works, is chiefly grounded in Luby and coworkers' 2013 research project titled "The Effects of Poverty on Childhood Brain Development: The Mediating Effect of Caregiving and Stressful Life Events". It was obtained from EBSCOhost's database via a search activity, utilizing the expression "poverty and the brain".
Poverty during the early childhood stage of life has an adverse effect on the development of the individual's brain, as indicated by school-goers' MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans (Lipina & Colombo, 2009; Lende, 2012). That environmental stimuli serve to enhance the production of hippocampal cells within lab animals in comparison to animals subject to relatively rare stimuli is an established fact ("Poverty, neglect in childhood...", 2013). This research work aimed at ascertaining whether or not the early childhood income-needs ratio influences school age kids' brain development and at examining the mediating factors of the abovementioned influence.
For analyzing the impacts…… [Read More]
patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.
The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference.…… [Read More]
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…… [Read More]
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]
The complex dynamic processes that underlie the development of the various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain continue to be studied by researchers working to uncover the pattern of brain development. Earlier, there was a battle between the role of nature and nurture in brain development of a Child. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made possible the focused study of the various developmental stages of the brain in an infant. Particularly, the portable, safe and easy to use Optical tomography has brought the scanning device to the infant instead of having to carry the infant to the scanning device. It is also now a known fact that the emotional and behavioral development of…… [Read More]
A cornerstone concept of pop psychology, the left brain/right brain divide is "largely bogus," (Lombrozo, 2013). However, the metaphor of left brain/right brain does somewhat accurately allow us to classify people into those whose worldviews are governed by logic and reason versus those whose worldviews allow for a greater degree of impulse and emotionality. My personal worldview is thankfully somewhere between these two extremes. Too much left brain emphasis leads to rigidity and an inability to welcome new ideas, whereas too much right brain focus may lead to superstition and poor decisions.
The left brain/right brain metaphor demonstrates the need for fusing qualitative and quantitative research methods. Social scientists who discount the relevance or validity of qualitative methods can be considered left brained in their worldview. As important as quantitative analyses are, social science research does not always lend itself to quantification. Human beings are not robots. Human…… [Read More]
rmstrong arguing mind . brain disticntion a distinction a difference (akin a distinction a kleenex a tissue)? Does adequately explain human conduct?
rmstrong - mind theories
There is much controversy regarding the difference between mind and brain, as while some support the belief that the mind has nothing to do with the brain because there is nothing physical about the former's functioning, others consider that the mind and the brain are basically the same thing. ccording to ustralian philosopher David Malet rmstrong, it is safe to say that the mind and the body are one and the same, particularly when considering each of them to be "that in which mental processes occur' or 'that which has mental states'" (rmstrong, 1993, p. 1). People are typically inclined to believe that the mind is not physical because it is seen (through history) as an entity that has no physical shape, being the…… [Read More]
Anger and Its Effects
Anger is a very intense feeling, and can be characterized by a number of behaviors. These include grinding teeth, an increased heart rate, rising blood pressure, clenched fists, and other signs of aggravation or frustration (Hendricks, et al., 2013). Each person reacts to anger in a different way, and some of the manifestations of anger may not be outwardly apparent. ises in blood pressure and heart rate, for example, are not easily noticed by others, but they can still be very damaging to the person who is struggling with the anger itself (Hendricks, et al., 2013). People also get angry for a number of different reasons, and they may react in an angry manner when they feel hurt, threatened, frustrated, or disappointed (Hendricks, et al., 2013). This is a relatively natural reaction for the majority of people, but that does not mean it is healthy or…… [Read More]
Using MRS chemical composition of the tumor and the metabolite intensities can also be ascertained along with the morphological characterisitcs. Thus MRI provides better information which is useful in grading the tumor. For grade 4 astrocytoma's spectroscopic studies reveal high Cho, high lipid, high lactate and low NAA values. However, the MRI testing is time consuming (40 to 90 minutes) and is problematic for claustrophobic patients. [eMedicine] iopsy of the affected brain tissue will also help in determining the nature of the abnormal tissue growth.
Treatment for astrocytoma includes, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and gluco corticoid medication. Treatment improves the survival rates for patients and the type of treatment depends on the growth and location of the tumor. First grade tumors such as Pilocytic Astrocytomas are easily treated by resection. In most cases removal of the affected part would be sufficient. However, if the location of the tumor makes surgery…… [Read More]
Design Project -- A&P Lab
Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.
About this Organelle
I came up with the idea for this organelle…… [Read More]
The BANS is another test used to assess individuals possibly suffering from dementia, brain injury, stroke or other neuropsychological impairments. It involves asking the test subject to recall word lists, details from a paragraph, and replicating complex designs. It is also brief, under 30 minutes, and often praised for its ability to be tailored to suit different conditions (dementia, brain injury, a loss of cognitive capacity due to Parkinson's, HIV, are some examples). The BANS has been found to be both reliable and valid in a variety of cultural as well as clinical settings (Groth-Marnat, 2009, p. 514). Because it is highly sensitive to cognitive impairment, it can be used to track subtle improvements or losses of functioning, although it must be cautioned that, like the Bender, it is not a complete test of all neuropsychological domains, despite the fact that it consists of five separate subsections (Groth-Marnat, 2009,…… [Read More]
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]
How do cells in a multicellular organism communicate with one another?
Cells communicate by chemical signals. Chemical signals are passed from one cell to another for example saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast of bread; wine identifies potential mates by chemical signaling.
Direct contact, cell to cell.
Through formation of connections or cellular junctions to neighboring cells.
By use of receptors whereby signaling molecules bind.
Forming groups' i.e. group together in a colony.
Communicate using light.
Through chemical and physical touch.
Through use of cell junctions, signal transduction pathways and cell to cell recognition.
Communicate with the aid of junctions holding cell firmly together.
Through production and receiving of chemicals and electric signals.
What are the usual physiological changes of aging and how are these differentiated from diseases?
According to Suzanna and Jennifer, (2006) these changes include; sensory changes, digestion, circulation and sexuality.
Diminishing sense of tastes, smell and touch.…… [Read More]
Higher Order Cerebral Functioning
This is an article critique of a paper written on Higher Order Cerebral Functioning
The Article hypothesizes the difference between conscious and unconscious thoughts and suggests that higher order cerebral functioning refers to the cognitive ability of an individual i.e. consciousness.
The primary basis of the article is to create a differentiation between the conscious and unconscious state. Though potentially confusing the literature review does allow the reader a better understanding of the subject. The writer attempts to make clear the fact that there are many instances where we are consciously acting but because the action is so customary or 'conditioned' it seems as if it is being done unconsciously. Seemingly a paradoxical statement the writer is apt to get lost in his own argument. However, he presents his arguments in a well-organized manner with a logical development that saves it from being 'lost'.
Rosenthal suggests…… [Read More]
Given that schizophrenia is known to impact cognitive functioning, it is no surprise that the results demonstrated significant impairment in all cognitive domains except for psychomotor speed. Furthermore, there were gender differences in both the experimental and control groups; both healthy and schizophrenic and healthy women outperformed men in verbal learning and memory. While the findings reaffirmed the researchers' expectations, the research could have some implications for future research as well as treatment for schizophrenics. It is worth noting that the patients with schizophrenia, despite being considered stable, showed significant impairment vs. The control group. The researchers believe that these differences could indicate that schizophrenia is more than the symptoms that manifest, but is more of an underlying cognitive disorder. Moreover because the impairment exists even in stable patients, they believe that this cognitive disorder is resistant to the current treatments for schizophrenia. However, there are two things that make…… [Read More]
The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).
BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…… [Read More]
Applied Behavioral Analysis on How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) has considerable impacts on the normal functioning or operation of the brain. In most cases, brain injuries damage nerve cells to an extent that these cells no longer transmit information to each other in the ordinary manner. Brain injuries are usually divided into three major categories i.e. mild, moderate and severe depending on the extent of neurological damage that takes place. Given their impact on neurological functioning, brain injuries have impact on one's cognitive ability levels. Some of these impacts include cognitive disabilities, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and effect on life roles at different development stages and ages. Therefore, the extent with which brain injuries affect a person's cognitive ability levels is an important topic of study. Is there a direct link between brain injuries…… [Read More]
Dominant Hemispheres of the Brain
There is considerable evidence that each brain hemisphere has specialized abilities, however an individual should not assume that he or she has two brains or functions with only half of a brain (Right pp). Yet, each side has its own unique and special abilities, the right side being intuitive, while the left side is logical (Right pp).
According to research, the majority of people have a dominant side of the brain, individuals who are more verbal, analytical and problem solvers are predominately left sided, while those who are artistic, visual, and good with math are predominately right sided (Right pp). It is believed that when thinking becomes increasingly more complex, dominance goes into affect, however although, each hemisphere has its own set of functions in information processing and thinking, research suggests that these functions are not exclusive to one hemisphere (Right pp).
There are a…… [Read More]