Breast Cancer Essays (Examples)

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Against Odds Australian Women's Experiences Recovery Breast

Words: 2058 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54043107

Against Odds: Australian Women's Experiences ecovery Breast Cancer

Elmir, , Jackson, D, Beale, B., & Schmied, V 2009. Against all odds: Australian women's experiences of recovery from breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, pp.2531-2538.

Elmir, Jackson, Beale & Schmied (2009, p.2531) investigates the younger female's experiences following breast cancer-linked breast surgery. The purpose of the study was to create an understanding of the experiences of women who under-go breast cancer surgeries. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) study aimed at contributing to the base of knowledge for clinicians practicing in the field of breast cancer. The underlying principle behind the study carried out by Elmir and associates is the prevalence of breast cancer among younger women and inadequate studies concerning recuperating from breast cancer-linked surgery.

McMurray & Clendon (2010, p. 241) assert that breast cancer is affecting younger women between 20 and 40 years given the better surveillance and earlier…… [Read More]

References

Willig, C 2013. Introducing qualitative research in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Pequegnat, W., & Stover, E 2010. How to write a successful research grant application: A guide for social and behavioral scientists. New York: Springer.

McMurray, A., & Clendon 2010. Community health and wellness: Primary health care in practice. Australia: Elsevier Australia.

Mott, D 2008. Emergency room use: A phenomenological study of community-based healthcare. Texas: ProQuest.
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Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95494676

Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Breast cancer is a very common disease, and is the most common type of cancer in women, although it is not unheard of for a man to have breast cancer. About one women in eight (12% of all women) will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Approximately 50,000 women die from breast cancer every year. Early detection is an important factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Utilizing monthly self breast exams, periodic professional exams, and mammography breast cancer can usually be detected early. With early detection, breast cancer can be treated more effectively and patient outcomes improve. Mammograms are an essential part of this screening process. Although there is some controversy, the generally accepted recommendations for mammogram include a screening mammogram at age 35, annual mammograms every one or two years from age 40-50, and an annual mammogram after age 50. The…… [Read More]

Reference:

Robert L. Howisey, Marita B. Acheson, Ronald K. Rowbotham and Alan Morgan, A Comparison of Medicare Reimbursement and Results for Various Imaging-guided Breast Biopsy Techniques American Journal of Surgery, May 1997 395-398

International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification

(ICD-9-CM)
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Medical Advances in Cancer

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44527155

Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research

This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.

In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…… [Read More]

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Diagnosis of Cancer There Is

Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77105913

He may also be humiliated by his having the disease or may be avoided by others who do not know how to approach the patient or are discomfited by doing so, particularly since cancer indicates mortality and mortality is one aspect of life's facts that individuals generally like to avoid.

Other feelings of inferiority and shame are caused by loss of autonomy and independence, vulnerability, and mutilation and most frightening of all is the fear of death. Clinical depression can easily become an outcome.

Some may also experience psychiatric disorder as a result, with the Psychological Collaborative Oncology Group finding that 47% of patients who had been diagnosed with cancer fell into psychiatric disorder with two thirds having depressed or anxious moods whilst one third experienced major depression, delirium, anxiety disorder, or some other major mental illness (Sandoval-Cros, 1999)

Methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

The three most common…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society Staging www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/staging

MD Anderson Cancer Center: Diagnostic tests www.mdanderson.org/.../diagnostic-tests/index.html

MedicineNet.com: Chemotherapy and cancer treatment, coping with side effects www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21716

Sandoval-Cros CJ. (1999) Common psychological problems in the cancer patient Moffitt Cancer Center
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Nutrition & Cancer Rates

Words: 3994 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73183034

In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:

Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.

Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.

Selenium…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.

Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.

Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html

Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
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Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
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Diet and Cancer

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42988149

diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.

Food, Diet and Cancer

Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.

This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:

There is a correlation between diet and cancer

Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer

There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)

Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)

Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)

Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)
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Recurrence of Cancer Psychosocial Impact

Words: 1578 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10493753

(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).

CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).

Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.

Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm

Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm

Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke

Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:

Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest

Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).

Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.

Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).

Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?

Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
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Mechanisms of Cancer the Cancer

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84221798

This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).

In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society (n.d.) Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-and-figures-2010 [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

American Cancer Society (n.d.) What Causes Cancer?, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/index [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

Croce, C. (2008) Oncogenes and Cancer, N Engl J. Med, 358, p. 502-511.

Hasty, P. (2005) the impact of DNA damage, genetic mutation and cellular responses on cancer prevention, longevity and aging: observations in humans and mice, Mech Ageing Dev, 126(1), p.71-77.
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Treatment and Management of Cancer Diagnosis Obligations

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16892447

Treatment and Management of Cancer

Cancer Diagnosis

Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare

Cancer Diagnosis

The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.

Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…… [Read More]

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Dealing With Side Effects of Treatment and Diagnosis Approach to Care of Cancer

Words: 1816 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90758422

Care of Cancer

Cancer has overtaken HIV / AIDS and malaria to top the list of headaches for medical departments and policy makers alike. In 2012, cancer claimed a massive 8.2 million lives, with breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, and liver cancers accounting for more than three-quarters of these. Alcohol and tobacco use, lack of physical activity, low vegetable and fruit intake, and high body mass index have been found to be responsible for a significant 30% of cancer deaths, with tobacco use causing 70% of the 1.59 million global lung cancer deaths reported in 2012. Metastasis, the process occasioned or characterized by unusual growth of abnormal cells, which end up invading adjacent parts, eventually extending to neighboring organs, is the mainspring of death from cancer. The World Health Organization projects that annual cancer cases will hit 22 million by the year 2020, but maintains that mortality can be reduced if…… [Read More]

References

Epstein, J.B., Thariat, J., Bensadoun, R.J., Barasch, A., Murphy, B.A., Kolnick, L., Popplewell, L. & Maghami, E. (2012). Oral Complications of Cancer and Cancer Therapy: from Cancer Treatment to Survivorship. CA Cancer J. Clin, 62(6), 400-422.

Kelvin, J.F. & Tyson, L. (2010). 100 Questions and Answers about Cancer Symptoms and Cancer Treatment Side Effects (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

NCI. (n.d.). Cancer Staging. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2014 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging

Redd, W.H., Montgomery, G.H. & DuHamel, K.N. (2001). Behavioral Interventions for Cancer Treatment Side Effects. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93(11), 810-823.
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Thromboembolism Venous Thromboembolism Cancer Care

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623853

bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,

Salgado R,

Weytjens R,

Colpaert C,

enoy I,

Huget P, van Dam P,

Prove a,

Lemmens J,

Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705

John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.

Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"

MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf

Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254

Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at http://www.tigc.org/pdf/cancervte05.pdf

Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,
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Living With Incurable Cancer at the End

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3990699

Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients' Perceptions on Quality of Life

Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD

This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.

Qualitative

Quantitative

Research question

How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?

N/A

Problem

Patients with…… [Read More]

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Dietary Fats and Its Links With Cancer

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66235136

Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer

Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).

Development of Cancer

Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ACS. "Genes and Cancer." American Cancer Society (2014).

-- . "Wilms Tumor ." American Cancer Society (2015).

Alison, Malcolm R. "Cancer." NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.

Harras, A. "CANCER RISK FACTORS." NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SENIOR SERVICES (2002).
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Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760721

Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
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Nursing and Midwifery Cancer Scenario

Words: 2821 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28937469

treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.

The esearch Question and its Importance

After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…… [Read More]

References

ANS (2010) Cancer Facts And Figures 2010. American Cancer Society. https://old.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf

Banerjee, S., Saxena, N., Sengupta, K. and Banerjee, S. K. (2003) 17 alpha-estradiol-induced VEGF-A expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is mediated through ER independent but PI3K-Akt dependent signaling pathway. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.300, 209-215.

Banning M (2012). Adherence to adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a review cc_1295 1.10

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0052637/
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Missed Breast Carcinomas

Words: 3074 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26919318

Missed reast Carcinomas

Mammography is a particular type of imaging which use an x-ray system, which has a low-dose for the purpose of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. ut even with the help of Mammography, in 10-30% cases of breast cancers would be missed. y way of this paper an attempt has been made to understand the factors, which cause for missed breast cancers, and discuss ways to reduce the false negative rate of mammography.

The false negative rate of mammography was around 8-10% according to the data of the reast Cancer Detection Demonstration project. Another study was of the opinion that the rate of missed breast cancers with regard to mammography was very high as 35%. (Harvey, Fajardo, Lnnis, 1993) In another study of 10 radiologists the true cases of cancers were considered to be in 74-96% cases which were understood after analyzing 150 mammograms. (Elmore,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Harvey J.A, Fajardo L.L, Lnnis C.A. (1993) Preview mammograms on patients with impalpable with breast carcinomas: retrospective vs. blind interpretation, AJR Am J, Roentegenol, 161:1167, 1172

Elmore JG, Wells C.K, Lee C.H, et al. (1994) Variability in Radiologists' interpretation of mammograms. N Engl J. Med, 331: 1493-1499

Patel MR, Whitman GJ (1998) Negative mammograms in symptomatic patients with breast cancer. Acad Radiol, 5:26-33

Burrel HC, Sibbering DM, Wilson AR, et al. (1996) Screening interval breast cancers: mammographic features and prognosis factors. Radiology, 199: 811-817
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New Ways to Treat Cancer

Words: 1980 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20394557

neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).

Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:

Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors

Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…… [Read More]

References

About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:

http://chemocare.com/chemotherapy/what-is-chemotherapy/about-immunotherapy.aspx

Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:

http://www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/INTX/05/desc_2.html
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Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41464869

Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health Education

Article Critique Analysis: Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education, by E. Haozous, V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale

The journal article, "Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education" by E. Haozous et. al. (2010), promotion of education on breast health was explored using a specific and unique tradition as the framework of the study. This tradition, called the Circle of Life (COL), is an "intertribal cancer prevention program focused on breast health education" and is specifically implemented among American Indian (AI) women (378). Using the COL as framework, the authors aimed to achieve "cultural congruency" in exploring, discovering, and identifying the different dimensions concerning breast health education and promotion effectiveness in the context of AI women's culture -- specifically, Comanche women (378). Harmonized understanding of the Comanche community, female and health cultures led to…… [Read More]

Work cited:

Haozous, E., V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale. (2010). "Use of Talking Circle for Comanche Women's Breast Health Education." Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Vol. 21, No. 377.
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Anti Cancer Diet Research Has

Words: 973 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70163356

[Donaldson S, 2004] A diet rich in refined sugar creates a high glycemic load. The present culture of eating packaged and fast foods on a regular basis implies the consumption of high levels of refined sugar in our diet. This results in induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism, which is reported as a high risk factor for cancer. [Donaldson S, 2004] A recent European study by Dr. Par Stattin et.al (2007) has confirmed abnormal glucose metabolism as a high risk factor for cancer. Red meat is associated with cancer. Many recent studies such as Bingham SA (2002) and Norat T. et.al (2002) have attested this correlation between red meat consumption and cancer.

In conclusion we can say that the chemopreventive effects of a diet comprising of vegetables and fruits is due to the synergestic effects of many plant-based nutrients. While most of the phytochemicals act as effective antioxidants, some nutrients such…… [Read More]

9. Padayatty SJ, Sun H & Wang Y et.al (2004), 'Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use', Ann Intern Med 2004, 140:533-537

10. Butt M.S & Sultan MT, (2009), 'Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies', Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 49(5): 463-73

11. OSU, 'Cruciferous Vegetables', Accessed Apr 27th 2009, Available at, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/foods/cruciferous/
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 2352 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Breast Cancer

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Director of the National Cancer Institute

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.

Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.

Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.

Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.
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Cellular Proliferation Cancer One-60-Year-Old Might

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23453679

Immunotherapists can provide sensitive and accurate cancer diagnostic tools for the successful treatment of the disease and to stop it well in its tracks (cancerresearch.org, 2009). The outward advantages of immunotherapy are as follows: certain drugs have fewer side effects and offer patients a higher quality of life, bolstered anti-cancer effectiveness and rates of survival, benefits are often reaped quickly for the patient (cisncancer.org). The disadvantages are as follows: some varieties of this treatment have serious side effects, are very expensive and occasionally offer just a short-term efficacy (cisncancer.org)

5. An overexpression of proto-oncogenes can cause cancer as mutated forms of these genes can promote unrestrained cell proliferation: "oncogenes actively promote proliferation (analogous to the gas pedal of the cell cycle). Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes typically increase the activity" (Hyland). An underexpression of tumor suppressor genes can also put an individual in a precarious situation. Tumor suppressor genes…… [Read More]

References

Cancer.gov. (n.d.). Understanding Cancer Series. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/cancergenomics/AllPages

Cancer.gov/topics. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/tumor-markers

Cancer.org. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.org: http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/ExamsandTestDescriptions/TumorMarkers/tumor-markers-common-ca-and-t-m

Cancerresearch.org. (n.d.). Cancer and the Immune System: Advantages of Cancer Immunotherapy. Retrieved from Cancerresearch.org: http://www.cancerresearch.org/resources/cancer-immune-system/cancer-immunotherapy-advantages.html
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Care of Cancer In the Past Few

Words: 1961 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15672668

Care of Cancer:

In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.

Causes of Cancer:

There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…… [Read More]

Reference:

Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists

website:  http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/PDF/barraclough.pdf 

"Cancer Complications." (n.d.). Info.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from  http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416 

"Cancer Staging." (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
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Care of Cancer Diagnosis in Many Cases

Words: 1666 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53309325

Care of Cancer

Cancer diagnosis

In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.

There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;

Biopsy

This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…… [Read More]

References

Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Diagnosis.aspx 

American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/treating-cancer/stages-cancer

Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer 

Info.com.(2013).Cancer complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
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Comparing Pet Ct to Bone Scans in Bone Metastases

Words: 789 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73922079

Breast Cancer and Imaging

There are still a number of cases where women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer exhibit metastatic disease at the first presentation, this despite the fact that there have been significant steps made towards early detection of breast cancer. In the United States alone, five percent of such cases have been reported with a further thirty percent of women with early-stage, non-metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis having the possibility of developing distant metastatic disease. A cure has not been found for metastatic breast cancer, however the introduction of newer systematic therapies has led to significant improvements in survival (Scott, 2015).

What is breast cancer?

Cancers are named depending on the location of such mass of tissue, therefore when the cell division and growth in the breast is abnormal there occurs breast cancer. Most of these abnormal cell growth happen slowly and over time before they…… [Read More]

References

Morris, P.G. et al. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography may render bone scintigraphy unnecessary to investigate suspected metastatic breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2010; 28(19): 3155-3159.

Sahin, Ertan et al. Is 99 mTc-MDP whole body bone scintigraphy adjuvant to 18F-FDG-PET for the detection of skeletal metastases? JBUON 2014; 19(1): 291-296.

Scott, A.F. Systemic treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women: Chemotherapy. 2015

Online: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/systemic-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-in-women-chemotherapy?source=search_result&search=breast+cancer&selectedTitle=9~150
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Teenage Breast Augmentation This Is

Words: 5573 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60862518

In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.

The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.

The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agence France-Presse Newswire Service. Germany to Ban Cosmetic Surgery for Children. Paris, 23 April 2008.

Annas, George. The rights of patients: The basic ACLU guide to patient rights. New York City: Humana Press, 1992.

Clough, Craig. "Doc Urges Caution on Teen Breast Implants." 4 April 2008. lifewhile.com. 3 August 2009 .

Duenwald, Mary. "How Young is Too Young to Have a Nose Job and Breast Implants." New York Times 28 September 2004: F5.