Breast Cancer Essays (Examples)

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Against Odds Australian Women's Experiences Recovery Breast

Words: 2058 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54043107

Against Odds: Australian Women's Experiences ecovery Breast Cancer

Elmir, , Jackson, D, Beale, B., & Schmied, V 2009. Against all odds: Australian women's experiences of recovery from breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, pp.2531-2538.

Elmir, Jackson, Beale & Schmied (2009, p.2531) investigates the younger female's experiences following breast cancer-linked breast surgery. The purpose of the study was to create an understanding of the experiences of women who under-go breast cancer surgeries. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) study aimed at contributing to the base of knowledge for clinicians practicing in the field of breast cancer. The underlying principle behind the study carried out by Elmir and associates is the prevalence of breast cancer among younger women and inadequate studies concerning recuperating from breast cancer-linked surgery.

McMurray & Clendon (2010, p. 241) assert that breast cancer is affecting younger women between 20 and 40 years given the better surveillance and earlier…… [Read More]

References

Willig, C 2013. Introducing qualitative research in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Pequegnat, W., & Stover, E 2010. How to write a successful research grant application: A guide for social and behavioral scientists. New York: Springer.

McMurray, A., & Clendon 2010. Community health and wellness: Primary health care in practice. Australia: Elsevier Australia.

Mott, D 2008. Emergency room use: A phenomenological study of community-based healthcare. Texas: ProQuest.
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Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95494676

Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Breast cancer is a very common disease, and is the most common type of cancer in women, although it is not unheard of for a man to have breast cancer. About one women in eight (12% of all women) will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Approximately 50,000 women die from breast cancer every year. Early detection is an important factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Utilizing monthly self breast exams, periodic professional exams, and mammography breast cancer can usually be detected early. With early detection, breast cancer can be treated more effectively and patient outcomes improve. Mammograms are an essential part of this screening process. Although there is some controversy, the generally accepted recommendations for mammogram include a screening mammogram at age 35, annual mammograms every one or two years from age 40-50, and an annual mammogram after age 50. The…… [Read More]

Reference:

Robert L. Howisey, Marita B. Acheson, Ronald K. Rowbotham and Alan Morgan, A Comparison of Medicare Reimbursement and Results for Various Imaging-guided Breast Biopsy Techniques American Journal of Surgery, May 1997 395-398

International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification

(ICD-9-CM)
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Medical Advances in Cancer

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44527155

Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research

This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.

In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…… [Read More]

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Diagnosis of Cancer There Is

Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77105913

He may also be humiliated by his having the disease or may be avoided by others who do not know how to approach the patient or are discomfited by doing so, particularly since cancer indicates mortality and mortality is one aspect of life's facts that individuals generally like to avoid.

Other feelings of inferiority and shame are caused by loss of autonomy and independence, vulnerability, and mutilation and most frightening of all is the fear of death. Clinical depression can easily become an outcome.

Some may also experience psychiatric disorder as a result, with the Psychological Collaborative Oncology Group finding that 47% of patients who had been diagnosed with cancer fell into psychiatric disorder with two thirds having depressed or anxious moods whilst one third experienced major depression, delirium, anxiety disorder, or some other major mental illness (Sandoval-Cros, 1999)

Methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

The three most common…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society Staging www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/staging

MD Anderson Cancer Center: Diagnostic tests www.mdanderson.org/.../diagnostic-tests/index.html

MedicineNet.com: Chemotherapy and cancer treatment, coping with side effects www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21716

Sandoval-Cros CJ. (1999) Common psychological problems in the cancer patient Moffitt Cancer Center
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Nutrition & Cancer Rates There

Words: 3994 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73183034

In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:

Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.

Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.

Selenium…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.

Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.

Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html

Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
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Role of Lifestyle Factors in Inducing Cancer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72545690

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

Course code

Cancer is one of the leading international causes of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle factors that contribute to causing cancer have been widely studied in recent years. Summarizing relevant studies, lifestyle factors identified include smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, weight management, physical activity, and environmental exposure. These studies use a variety of methodologies to determine the link between the lifestyle factor and risk of cancer. Issues with the methods of these studies can be addressed by future research that attempts to remedy methodological defects while replicating results. Valid and reliable information is essential to using information about lifestyle factors to combat cancer.

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

As one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, it is estimated that cancers will have killed 10 million people around the globe by 2020 (Haque et al. 2010). In 2009, the American Cancer Society estimated that there…… [Read More]

References

Bissonauth, V., Shatenstein, B., Fafard, E., Maugard, C., Robidoux, A., Narod, S., & Ghadirian, P. (2009). Weight History, Smoking, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk among French-Canadian Women Non-Carriers of More Frequent BRCi Mutations. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, 2009, 1-11.

Boniol, M. & Autier, P. (2010). Prevalence of main cancer lifestyle risk factors in Europe in 2000. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2534-2544.

De Vries, E., Soerjomataram, I., Lemmens, V.E.P.P., Goebergh, J.W.W., Barendregt, J.J., Oenema, A., Moller, H., Brenner, H., & Renehan, A.G. (2010). Lifestyle changes and reduction of colon cancer incidence in Europe: A scenario study of physical activity promotion and weight reduction. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2605-2616.

Haque, N., Salma, U., Nurunnabi, T.R., Haque, A.K.M.F., Mukti, I.J., Pervin, S., & Nahar, R. (2010). Lifestyle Related Cuases of Cancer and Chemoprevention through Phytonutrients. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(19), 916-926.
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Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
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Diet and Cancer

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42988149

diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.

Food, Diet and Cancer

Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.

This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:

There is a correlation between diet and cancer

Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer

There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)

Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)

Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)

Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)
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Recurrence of Cancer Psychosocial Impact

Words: 1578 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10493753

(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).

CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).

Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.

Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm

Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm

Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke

Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:

Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest

Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).

Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.

Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).

Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?

Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
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Mechanisms of Cancer the Cancer

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84221798

This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).

In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society (n.d.) Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-and-figures-2010 [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

American Cancer Society (n.d.) What Causes Cancer?, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/index [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

Croce, C. (2008) Oncogenes and Cancer, N Engl J. Med, 358, p. 502-511.

Hasty, P. (2005) the impact of DNA damage, genetic mutation and cellular responses on cancer prevention, longevity and aging: observations in humans and mice, Mech Ageing Dev, 126(1), p.71-77.
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Treatment and Management of Cancer Diagnosis Obligations

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16892447

Treatment and Management of Cancer

Cancer Diagnosis

Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare

Cancer Diagnosis

The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.

Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…… [Read More]

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Dealing With Side Effects of Treatment and Diagnosis Approach to Care of Cancer

Words: 1816 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90758422

Care of Cancer

Cancer has overtaken HIV / AIDS and malaria to top the list of headaches for medical departments and policy makers alike. In 2012, cancer claimed a massive 8.2 million lives, with breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, and liver cancers accounting for more than three-quarters of these. Alcohol and tobacco use, lack of physical activity, low vegetable and fruit intake, and high body mass index have been found to be responsible for a significant 30% of cancer deaths, with tobacco use causing 70% of the 1.59 million global lung cancer deaths reported in 2012. Metastasis, the process occasioned or characterized by unusual growth of abnormal cells, which end up invading adjacent parts, eventually extending to neighboring organs, is the mainspring of death from cancer. The World Health Organization projects that annual cancer cases will hit 22 million by the year 2020, but maintains that mortality can be reduced if…… [Read More]

References

Epstein, J.B., Thariat, J., Bensadoun, R.J., Barasch, A., Murphy, B.A., Kolnick, L., Popplewell, L. & Maghami, E. (2012). Oral Complications of Cancer and Cancer Therapy: from Cancer Treatment to Survivorship. CA Cancer J. Clin, 62(6), 400-422.

Kelvin, J.F. & Tyson, L. (2010). 100 Questions and Answers about Cancer Symptoms and Cancer Treatment Side Effects (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

NCI. (n.d.). Cancer Staging. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2014 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging

Redd, W.H., Montgomery, G.H. & DuHamel, K.N. (2001). Behavioral Interventions for Cancer Treatment Side Effects. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93(11), 810-823.
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Thromboembolism Venous Thromboembolism Cancer Care

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623853

bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,

Salgado R,

Weytjens R,

Colpaert C,

enoy I,

Huget P, van Dam P,

Prove a,

Lemmens J,

Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705

John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.

Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"

MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf

Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254

Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at http://www.tigc.org/pdf/cancervte05.pdf

Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,
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Living With Incurable Cancer at the End

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3990699

Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients' Perceptions on Quality of Life

Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD

This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.

Qualitative

Quantitative

Research question

How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?

N/A

Problem

Patients with…… [Read More]

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Dietary Fats and Its Links With Cancer

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66235136

Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer

Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).

Development of Cancer

Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ACS. "Genes and Cancer." American Cancer Society (2014).

-- . "Wilms Tumor ." American Cancer Society (2015).

Alison, Malcolm R. "Cancer." NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.

Harras, A. "CANCER RISK FACTORS." NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SENIOR SERVICES (2002).
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Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760721

Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
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A Concise Analysis of Nursing and Midwifery Cancer Scenario

Words: 2821 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28937469

treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.

The esearch Question and its Importance

After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…… [Read More]

References

ANS (2010) Cancer Facts And Figures 2010. American Cancer Society. https://old.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf

Banerjee, S., Saxena, N., Sengupta, K. and Banerjee, S. K. (2003) 17 alpha-estradiol-induced VEGF-A expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is mediated through ER independent but PI3K-Akt dependent signaling pathway. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.300, 209-215.

Banning M (2012). Adherence to adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a review cc_1295 1.10

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0052637/
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Missed Breast Carcinomas

Words: 3074 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26919318

Missed reast Carcinomas

Mammography is a particular type of imaging which use an x-ray system, which has a low-dose for the purpose of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. ut even with the help of Mammography, in 10-30% cases of breast cancers would be missed. y way of this paper an attempt has been made to understand the factors, which cause for missed breast cancers, and discuss ways to reduce the false negative rate of mammography.

The false negative rate of mammography was around 8-10% according to the data of the reast Cancer Detection Demonstration project. Another study was of the opinion that the rate of missed breast cancers with regard to mammography was very high as 35%. (Harvey, Fajardo, Lnnis, 1993) In another study of 10 radiologists the true cases of cancers were considered to be in 74-96% cases which were understood after analyzing 150 mammograms. (Elmore,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Harvey J.A, Fajardo L.L, Lnnis C.A. (1993) Preview mammograms on patients with impalpable with breast carcinomas: retrospective vs. blind interpretation, AJR Am J, Roentegenol, 161:1167, 1172

Elmore JG, Wells C.K, Lee C.H, et al. (1994) Variability in Radiologists' interpretation of mammograms. N Engl J. Med, 331: 1493-1499

Patel MR, Whitman GJ (1998) Negative mammograms in symptomatic patients with breast cancer. Acad Radiol, 5:26-33

Burrel HC, Sibbering DM, Wilson AR, et al. (1996) Screening interval breast cancers: mammographic features and prognosis factors. Radiology, 199: 811-817
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New Ways to Treat Cancer

Words: 1980 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20394557

neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).

Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:

Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors

Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…… [Read More]

References

About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:

http://chemocare.com/chemotherapy/what-is-chemotherapy/about-immunotherapy.aspx

Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:

http://www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/INTX/05/desc_2.html
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Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41464869

Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health Education

Article Critique Analysis: Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education, by E. Haozous, V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale

The journal article, "Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education" by E. Haozous et. al. (2010), promotion of education on breast health was explored using a specific and unique tradition as the framework of the study. This tradition, called the Circle of Life (COL), is an "intertribal cancer prevention program focused on breast health education" and is specifically implemented among American Indian (AI) women (378). Using the COL as framework, the authors aimed to achieve "cultural congruency" in exploring, discovering, and identifying the different dimensions concerning breast health education and promotion effectiveness in the context of AI women's culture -- specifically, Comanche women (378). Harmonized understanding of the Comanche community, female and health cultures led to…… [Read More]

Work cited:

Haozous, E., V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale. (2010). "Use of Talking Circle for Comanche Women's Breast Health Education." Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Vol. 21, No. 377.
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Anti Cancer Diet Research Has

Words: 973 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70163356

[Donaldson S, 2004] A diet rich in refined sugar creates a high glycemic load. The present culture of eating packaged and fast foods on a regular basis implies the consumption of high levels of refined sugar in our diet. This results in induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism, which is reported as a high risk factor for cancer. [Donaldson S, 2004] A recent European study by Dr. Par Stattin et.al (2007) has confirmed abnormal glucose metabolism as a high risk factor for cancer. Red meat is associated with cancer. Many recent studies such as Bingham SA (2002) and Norat T. et.al (2002) have attested this correlation between red meat consumption and cancer.

In conclusion we can say that the chemopreventive effects of a diet comprising of vegetables and fruits is due to the synergestic effects of many plant-based nutrients. While most of the phytochemicals act as effective antioxidants, some nutrients such…… [Read More]

9. Padayatty SJ, Sun H & Wang Y et.al (2004), 'Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use', Ann Intern Med 2004, 140:533-537

10. Butt M.S & Sultan MT, (2009), 'Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies', Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 49(5): 463-73

11. OSU, 'Cruciferous Vegetables', Accessed Apr 27th 2009, Available at, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/foods/cruciferous/
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 2352 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Breast Cancer

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Director of the National Cancer Institute

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.

Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.

Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.

Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.
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Cellular Proliferation Cancer One-60-Year-Old Might

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23453679

Immunotherapists can provide sensitive and accurate cancer diagnostic tools for the successful treatment of the disease and to stop it well in its tracks (cancerresearch.org, 2009). The outward advantages of immunotherapy are as follows: certain drugs have fewer side effects and offer patients a higher quality of life, bolstered anti-cancer effectiveness and rates of survival, benefits are often reaped quickly for the patient (cisncancer.org). The disadvantages are as follows: some varieties of this treatment have serious side effects, are very expensive and occasionally offer just a short-term efficacy (cisncancer.org)

5. An overexpression of proto-oncogenes can cause cancer as mutated forms of these genes can promote unrestrained cell proliferation: "oncogenes actively promote proliferation (analogous to the gas pedal of the cell cycle). Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes typically increase the activity" (Hyland). An underexpression of tumor suppressor genes can also put an individual in a precarious situation. Tumor suppressor genes…… [Read More]

References

Cancer.gov. (n.d.). Understanding Cancer Series. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/cancergenomics/AllPages

Cancer.gov/topics. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/tumor-markers

Cancer.org. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.org: http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/ExamsandTestDescriptions/TumorMarkers/tumor-markers-common-ca-and-t-m

Cancerresearch.org. (n.d.). Cancer and the Immune System: Advantages of Cancer Immunotherapy. Retrieved from Cancerresearch.org: http://www.cancerresearch.org/resources/cancer-immune-system/cancer-immunotherapy-advantages.html
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Care of Cancer In the Past Few

Words: 1961 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15672668

Care of Cancer:

In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.

Causes of Cancer:

There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…… [Read More]

Reference:

Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists

website:  http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/PDF/barraclough.pdf 

"Cancer Complications." (n.d.). Info.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from   http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416  

"Cancer Staging." (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
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Care of Cancer Diagnosis in Many Cases

Words: 1666 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53309325

Care of Cancer

Cancer diagnosis

In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.

There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;

Biopsy

This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…… [Read More]

References

Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Diagnosis.aspx 

American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/treating-cancer/stages-cancer

Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer 

Info.com.(2013).Cancer complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from   http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
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Comparing Pet Ct to Bone Scans in Bone Metastases

Words: 789 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73922079

Breast Cancer and Imaging

There are still a number of cases where women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer exhibit metastatic disease at the first presentation, this despite the fact that there have been significant steps made towards early detection of breast cancer. In the United States alone, five percent of such cases have been reported with a further thirty percent of women with early-stage, non-metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis having the possibility of developing distant metastatic disease. A cure has not been found for metastatic breast cancer, however the introduction of newer systematic therapies has led to significant improvements in survival (Scott, 2015).

What is breast cancer?

Cancers are named depending on the location of such mass of tissue, therefore when the cell division and growth in the breast is abnormal there occurs breast cancer. Most of these abnormal cell growth happen slowly and over time before they…… [Read More]

References

Morris, P.G. et al. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography may render bone scintigraphy unnecessary to investigate suspected metastatic breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2010; 28(19): 3155-3159.

Sahin, Ertan et al. Is 99 mTc-MDP whole body bone scintigraphy adjuvant to 18F-FDG-PET for the detection of skeletal metastases? JBUON 2014; 19(1): 291-296.

Scott, A.F. Systemic treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women: Chemotherapy. 2015

Online: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/systemic-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-in-women-chemotherapy?source=search_result&search=breast+cancer&selectedTitle=9~150
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Teenage Breast Augmentation This Is

Words: 5573 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60862518

In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.

The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.

The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agence France-Presse Newswire Service. Germany to Ban Cosmetic Surgery for Children. Paris, 23 April 2008.

Annas, George. The rights of patients: The basic ACLU guide to patient rights. New York City: Humana Press, 1992.

Clough, Craig. "Doc Urges Caution on Teen Breast Implants." 4 April 2008. lifewhile.com. 3 August 2009 .

Duenwald, Mary. "How Young is Too Young to Have a Nose Job and Breast Implants." New York Times 28 September 2004: F5.
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Colorectal Cancer the Gastrointestinal Tract

Words: 2490 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3623909

Tobacco use or cigarette smoking is also linked to the development of colorectal cancers most especially after more than 35 years of smoking. but, there is no biological explanation for this link.

Colorectal cancer is often incidentally found in screening procedures and may be completely asymptomatic. ut approximately half of patients with colorectal carcinoma experience abdominal pain, this is the most common symptom. About 35% of patients have altered bowel habits, 30% with occult bleeding, and 15% with intestinal obstruction. For right-sided colon cancers, there is a tendency that they are larger and more likely to bleed, whereas left-sided tumors tend to be smaller and more likely to be obstructing.

Presenting symptoms of Colorectal Cancer vary with the anatomic location for the tumor. Stool is generally liquid and passes through the ileocecal valve into the right colon. Cancers arising in the cecum and ascending colon may become quite large but…… [Read More]

Braunwalk, et. al.. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine." 15th ed., McGraw Hill, Vol.1, pg 581-586, 2001.

University of Missouri. "Anatomy and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract" Health Care, 2008. May 9, 2008 http://www.muhealth.org/weightlosssurgery/anatomy.shtml

Wafik S. El-Deiry, MD, PhD. "Colon Cancer, Adenocarcinoma," eMedicine, Oct 11, 2006. May 9, 2008 http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic413.htm www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6915"Dennis Lee, MD. "Colon Cancer Screening and Surveillance," MedicineNet.com, March 25, 2005. May 9, 2008.  http://www.medicinenet.com/colon_cancer_screening/article.htm
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Colorectal Cancer

Words: 1585 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27279919

Colorectal cancer is said to be one of the most common cancers in the U.S. In this text, I largely concern myself with this type of cancer. In so doing, I will amongst other things take into consideration not only its pathophysiology but also its clinical manifestations, treatment options, interventions, and expected outcomes.

Colorectal Cancer: A Brief Overview

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- CDC (2011) observes that "of cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cancer killer in the United States…" In basic terms, this type of cancer as CDC (2011) further points out affects the colon (large intestine) or the rectum.

Pathophysiology

The exact causes of colorectal cancer remain unknown. However, it is important to note that a number of risk factors do exist. These include but they are not in any way limited to age. Indeed, according to the…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- CDC (2011, July 18). Basic Information about Colorectal Cancer. Retrieved January 6, 2013, from the CDC website:  http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/basic_info/index.htm 

Davey, P. (Ed.). (2010). Medicine at a Glance (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Medifocus (2011). Medifocus Guidebook On: Colorectal Cancer. Medifocus.com, Inc.

National Cancer Institute -- NCI (2012, September 11). Colon Cancer Treatment. Retrieved January 6, 2013, from the National Cancer Institute Website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/colon/Patient/page1/AllPages
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Health Policy and Politics

Words: 1763 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51648360

H..

Health Policy and Politics

In Support of H.. 80: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013

Sender's Name

Sender's Address

Tel [HIDDEN]

Honorable Kathy Castor

14th District of Florida

4144 N. Armenia Ave., Suite 300

Tel [HIDDEN]

In Support of H.. 80: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013

Dear Mrs. Castor:

I am writing to urge your support for H.. 80, a bill sponsored by epresentative Sheila Lee (D, TX) and introduced into the House Energy & Commerce Committee on January 3, 2013. The title of the bill is "Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013" and its goal is to provide funding for additional research into triple-negative breast cancer. The bill also authorizes funding to support the gathering of evidenced-based information about triple-negative breast cancer and its dissemination to the public and medical care providers, with the goal of increasing early…… [Read More]

References

CDC (2013). Age-adjusted invasive cancer incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals by state. National Program of Cancer Registries, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 29 Jan. 2013 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs / cancersrankedbystate.aspx#Footnotes.

Chu, Quyen D., Henderson, Amanda E., Ampil, Fred, and Li, Benjamin D.L. (2012). Outcome for patients with triple-negative breast cancer is not dependent on race/ethnicity. International Journal of Breast Cancer, 2012, doc. # 764570.

Fessler, Pam. (2013, Jan. 30). Study: Nearly half in U.S. lack financial safety net. Morning Edition, National Public Radio. Retrieved 30 Jan. 2013 from http://www.npr.org/2013 / 01/30/170561872/study-nearly-half-in-u-s-lack-financial-safety-net.

Fornier, Monica and Fumoleau, Pierre. (2011). The paradox of triple negative breast cancer: Novel approaches to treatment. Breast Journal, 18(1), 41-51.
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Particularly Focuses on the Impact of Vitamin

Words: 1745 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 914006

particularly focuses on the impact of Vitamin D on Breast Cancer. Since health concerns have become a widespread issue, thus researcher on a constant basis are carrying out investigations that can determine the exact causes of diseases like breast cancer. One particular study has come under focus in this dissertation that lay key emphasis on African and European-American descents and how these races are vulnerable to breast cancer. Moreover, the impact of vitamin D on breast cancer has also been widely included in the study.

Health on a broad spectrum has become an emerging and grave concern, as the populace is experiencing the advancements of the competitive and industrialized world. Besides, the well-being and welfare of the citizens of the nations has also become significant that can lead to an affluent, flourishing and successful civilization. Considering the health issues that have become prevalent in the today's time, cancer is one…… [Read More]

References

Dowd, J. & Stafford, D. (2010). The Vitamin D Cure. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.

Higdon, J. & Drake, V. (2011). An Evidence-Based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals: Health Benefits and Intake Recommendations. 2nd Edition. China: Thieme.

Rakel, D. (2007). Integrative Medicine. 2nd Edition. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Trump, D.L. (2011). Vitamin D and Cancer. London: Springer.
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Promoting Positive Health Behaviors Every Woman Matters

Words: 1487 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4230584

Promoting Positive Health ehaviors

Every Woman Matters Program was launched in 1992 in Nebraska, United States of America, for the women residents of the state. This program encourages women to get annual check-ups for free. The program is designed for women aged between 40 to 74 years, who have none or restricted health insurance, along with earning low levels of income. The women residents of Nebraska can fill out enrollment forms available to them from various hospitals as well as on the internet in order to be facilitated by the program (Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). If the application is accepted, the program will send a welcome pack which the applicant should take with them on their doctor's appointment. They should ensure to inform the doctor beforehand that they are a part of Every Woman Matters Program.

The Program administrators will then inform the applicant of their…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adkins, A. (2012). Nebraska Medicaid Income Requirements. Retrieved from eHow: http://www.ehow.com/list_7502474_nebraska-medicaid-income-requirements.html

Breast Cancer in Young Women. (2012, June 26). Retrieved from WebMD:  http://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/guide/breast-cancer-young-women 

Department of Health and Human Services. (2012, October 30). Office of Women's and Men's Health Income Eligibility Scale for Nebraska Colon Cancer Screening Program. Retrieved from Department of Health and Human Services: http://dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/Documents/EWM_2012-2013IncomeGuidelines.pdf

Educating Young Women about Breast Cancer. (2012). Retrieved from The EARLY Act: http://wassermanschultz.house.gov/earlyact/
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Promoting Positive Health Behaviors

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73279774

Nursing

There are many diseases that can be treated if they are detected at an early stage. A number of such diseases include cancers including colon, cervical and breast cancers. All of the mentioned diseases can be fatal if they are not treated in a timely manner. For treatment in a timely manner, it is important that the disease is detected while it is still benign and not that harmful. For that purpose people need to get screened so that they know if they have any kind of morbidity. Many campaigns are being run all over the world for creating awareness about these screening tests among women so that they can help fight their disease while it is still at an early stage. However, there are many hurdles to the effectiveness of such campaigns and one of which is the financial limitations. Therefore, there is a program that has been…… [Read More]

References:

Backer, E.L., Geske, J.A., Mcllvain, H.E., Dodendorf, D.M. AND Minier, M.D. (2005).

Improving Female Preventive Healthcare Delivery Through Practice Change: An Every Woman Matters Study. JABFP, Vol, 8 (5).

Every Woman Matters Program (2013). Helping Women Live Healthier Lives <  http://dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/Pages/womenshealth_ewm.aspx >

UNFP. 2011. "Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control" http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/ENGLISH-%20Cervical%20Cancer%20Guidance.pdf .
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Health Behavior the Theories at a Glance

Words: 7053 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74310569

Health Behavior

The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]

References

Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

Bronfenbrenner, U 1994 'Ecological Models of Human Development', International Encyclopaedia of Education, Vol 3, Oxford, Elsevier.

Eddy Module 2. Dr. James Eddy. Social Learning Theory (SLT/SCT): Reciprocal Determinism, Expectations, Value Expectancies. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip1.wmv

Eddy Module 2a. Dr. James Eddy. SLT/SCT (cont'd): Observational Learning, Reinforcement, Self-Efficacy, Emotional Coping. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip2.wmv
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Half of Those in This Very Class

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51810506

Half of those in this very class are women and are directly at risk for breast cancer. Of the half that are men, ironically enough, each of them has a one in one thousand chance of developing breast cancer themselves. Of the men who will not develop it, they all have a mother, or perhaps sisters, aunts, cousins, grandmothers, or girlfriends that may be affected. Breast cancer is not something that happens to other people, it happens to all of us. One particular organization that can directly reduce the number of women who die each year from breast cancer is the National Breast Cancer Foundation. This organization provides the best chance for early detection of breast cancer available to women by increasing awareness, as well as "funding free mammograms for women who could otherwise not afford them and supporting research programs in leading facilities across the country." (National Breast Cancer…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Breast Cancer Awareness Information, Support & Merchandise | Breast Cancer Society,

Inc. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. http://www.breastcancersociety.org/

2011.         http://www.breastcancer.org/        

National Breast Cancer Foundation Official Site - Information, Awareness & Donations. Web. 28 Oct. 2011.
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Sponsored by Roche Laboratories a

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61716681

The sample population for the stomach cancer trials included 594 patients that were Her2 positive. It is not known if patients in the stomach cancer trial included both males and females. Exclusionary criteria were not made available for either of the studies. All of the patients were receiving standard chemotherapy treatments, in addition to receiving Herceptin (Pollack, 2009). The sample populations for these studies were large for a clinical trial. Many times, it is difficult to find patients that fit the criteria for inclusion in the study. This was not a problem for these studies. The sample population of the study improves the validity of the study and confidence in the drug to be effective in patients that meet the criteria for administration of Herceptin.

The study design in both cases used a comparative study. One group was the test group and would receive the treatment being tested, in this…… [Read More]

References

F. Hoffman-L Roche Ltd. (2009). Herceptin (Trastuuzumab). Retrieved June 6, 2009 from http://www.roche.com/products/product-details.htm?type=product&id=102.

Pollack, A. (2009). Promising Results in Stomach and Breast Cancer Drugs. The New York

Times. May 31. 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/01/business/01drug.html
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Evidence-Based Nursing Assessment Item Critical

Words: 1304 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40218100



Sampling method -117 patients with primary breast cancer; all who had same-day surgery as part of their treatment.

Appropriateness of sample -- Appropriate for circumstances under consideration.

Results (when applicable: credibility, transferability, dependability, & conformability)

Study found significant differences between the control and experimental group in terms of post-surgery mood, confusion, tension, and home management.

Ethical considerations -- All ethical considerations; privacy, etc. followed- professional study.

Relative strengths of each publication -- Peer reviewed strong work and sense of issues surrounding pain, fatigue and emotional disturbances after surgery.

Relative weaknesses of each publication -- Larger sample than previous study, but still limited in scope, demographics, psychographics and geographic extrapolation.

Application of each article in nursing practices -- Using any intervention that helps patient's after a traumatic surgery is helpful; especially if that patient can ventilate their emotions, angst, and stages of healing. Short-term telephone intervention using the AFSMI technique proves…… [Read More]

Yarbo, C., Wujcik, D., Holmes-Gobel, B. (2010). Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practices.

Philadelphia, PA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

5 | Page
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Technology Has Revolutionized Society Communication Transportation Commerce

Words: 1736 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84215378

technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…… [Read More]

References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database:  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/ 

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
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Family Power and Authority Influences Introduce Topic

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99376532

FAMILY POWER AND AUTHORITY INFLUENCES Introduce topic Introduce speakers DEE What affirmative views topic Brad make opposing views. Declares debate open AFFIRMATIVE VIEW OPPOSING VIEW Give equal time members opposing team Facilitate discussion Dee rebuttal Dan ( affirmative rebuttal) Dan rebuttal Dee ( Negative rebuttal) Dee summary (restate proposition significant argument favor change) Dan summary (restate proposition significant argument favor change) (PLS ADDRESS ONLY THE DEE PORTION AND INTRODUCTION -- the AFFIRMATIVE AND REBUTTAL PORTION OF DEE BASED ON SCENERIO BELOWAND MORE IF YOU COULD ADD SPICE TO IT, THANKS)…THE TOPIC IS ABOUT ISLAMIC OR MUSLIM FAMILY WITH CULTURAL DILEMMA.

Dee:

Ladies and Gentlemen,

We live in a world that is nowadays prone to injustice, social inequality, and cultural discrepancies. Today's debate deals precisely with this type of reality: the reality of a family that was defined by a particular cultural background and has been shaped by another cultural environment.…… [Read More]

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Unexpected Temporal Situational and Attributive Dimensions of

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91529923

Unexpected: Temporal, Situational, and Attributive Dimensions of Distressing Symptom Experience for Breast Cancer Survivors

Describe the data collection procedure.

The researchers for the study conducted a secondary analysis of data that was collected for an earlier study, Survivor Loneliness of Women Following Breast Cancer (osedale & Fu, 2010). The data collection procedure for the earlier study was based on interviews of volunteer participants. The interviews, which lasted approximately 90 minutes, included the participants completing a questionnaire, speaking freely on their experiences, and sharing any personal written or artistic material they wished, such as diary entries or poetry (osedale, 2009). The interviews were recorded and the researcher also recorded notes with their own impressions of the participants' demeanor, nonverbal behavior, and emotional responses (osedale, 2009).

How did the authors address the reliability and validity of their methods?

To address reliability and validity, the authors implemented a series of checks and balances…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society. (2010). Reach to Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/SupportProgramsServices/reach-to-recovery

Rosedale, M. (2009). Survivor loneliness of women following breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 36(2), 175 -- 183.

Rosedale, M., & Fu, M.R. (2010). Confronting the unexpected: Temporal, situational, and attributive dimensions of distressing symptom experience for breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(1), 28-33.
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Purpose Statement for Pharmacy Program

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83303884

Pharmacology

One of my most important life goals is to continue my studies in pharmacology and become the most skilled practitioner that I am able to be. I am applying to the PN [Is it Pacific Northwest? ] University for a Masters Degree in Pharmacology primarily because of two factors. The University has a reputation for developing knowledgeable graduates whose high level of skills positions them to make strong contributions in their field. The second factor stems from experiences in my personal life.

My name is Reem AL Qahtani and I am 25 years old. I live in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where I am currently a teaching assistant in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy at Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University. I became interested in pharmacology because of a family history of breast cancer. My aunt had a benign breast cancer. My grandmother was not as fortunate…… [Read More]

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Nursing Literature

Words: 1675 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48611587

McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.

Are there any HIPAA concerns that are evident in this study?

Both caregivers and patients were required to sign informed consent documentation in order to participate in the study. Were any concerns related to HIPAA indicated in the protocol or procedures for conducting the study, those concerns would need to be delineated in the consent documents and explained to the participants. Since caregivers were an integral component to the hospice care and quality of life measures for patients, patient privacy could be maintained just as with any other medical or healthcare services.

What methods were put in place to ensure that the subjects were giving true informed consent?

The inclusion criteria and protocol for participating in the study required that patients and caregivers both be…… [Read More]

References

McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.

Rosedale, M., & Fu, M.R. (2010). Confronting the unexpected: Temporal, situational, and attributive dimensions of distressing symptom experience for breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(1), 28-33.