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roject Title: Women who chose Lumpectomy Over rophylactic Mastectomy as Treatment for Early Stage Breast Cancer May have an Increased Risk for ost-Treatment Anxiety Regarding Fear of Recurrence.
This proposed research plan will address the post treatment psychology of Stage I breast cancer patients who have received the less invasive breast retention surgery, referred to as lumpectomy.
Do women with early stage breast cancer have more intrusive thoughts (stress) regarding recurrence after lumpectomy than after prophylactic mastectomy? Within the survivor group the study will specifically address issues of psychological anxiety related to recurrence of cancer. The study will be retrospective, based upon cognitive memories of post treatment anxiety related to recurrence of breast cancer and subjects will be chosen in a non-random fashion. The main research query will be: Do women who choose prophylactic mastectomy after early stage breast cancer return to their pre-diagnostic sense of wellness as…… [Read More]
Breast Cancer in Malaysia
Breast cancer has turned out to be one of the most common cancers in women in almost every part of the world. Nonetheless, there is a noticeable geographical difference in the incidence and also the stage of presentation. It has ben documented to be uppermost in North Europe and North America, in-between in Mediterranean nations and South America, and not high at all in Asia and Africa nations (Abdullah, 2003). During the year of 2000 there had been 1,050,346 circumstances of breast cancer that had been documented international and 372,969 deaths from the illness (Sharifah, 2010). In industrialized nations the incidence was around 94.93 per 100,000 populace, and in less advanced states it somewhere around 19.66 per 100,000 populations (Taib, 2012). With that said this essay will discuss breast cancer in Malaysia.
Background and Definition of the Problem
The basic issue is the lack of a…… [Read More]
Breast Cancer Pathophysiology
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. There are three general determinants associated with the cause of the disease: heredity factors, environmental factors, and hormonal factors. The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age, as 78% of cases are diagnosed in women ages 50 and older. isk factors are distinguished by their respective etiological influences, such as family history, lifestyle, and exposure to pollutants. The pathophysiology of breast cancer is focused into two cellular models: sporadic clonal evolution and cancer stem cell. The pathological progress of breast cancer stages is understood and is used for diagnostic purposes. Treatment for breast cancer often involves invasive interventions; the future of breast cancer treatment is concentrated within genomic targeted therapies and the identification of cancer stem cell biomarkers as a preventative treatment method.
Breast cancer is the most frequently…… [Read More]
Partial Mastectomy- a procedure that remove part of the breast that contains the cancer and some tissue around the affected tissue. This type of surgery is also called a segmental mastectomy (Breast Cancer Treatment).
In addition the National Cancer Institute reports that patients who undergo the aforementioned types of surgeries may also have some lymph nodes removed (Breast Cancer Treatment).
Another type of surgery that does not conserve the breast is the total mastectomy. During this type of surgery the entire cancerous breast is removed (Breast Cancer Treatment). This type of surgery is also referred to as a simple mastectomy. As an aspect of this surgery lymph nodes, the lining of the chest muscles and the chest wall muscles may also be removed (Breast Cancer Treatment). A patient may also undergo a radical mastectomy which involves the removal of the cancerous breast along with the muscles underneath the breast and…… [Read More]
hile the incidence of carcinoma in situ has been increasing, the incidence of invasive breast cancer has remained fairly steady or even decreased slightly in the past 25 years, and the mortality rate has declined (Common types of invasive breast cancer, 2008, Eli Lilly). The earlier the detection of breast cancer, in its first stage, rather than the subsequent second, third, or fourth stages, the better the prognosis, regardless of its type or the age of the woman.
Nurses have an extremely important role to play as educators regarding breast cancer. First of all, they can help women have a realistic appraisal of their risk for the disease, based upon their family background, age, and lifestyle. Nurses can play a role in health promotion throughout a patient's life by encouraging women to minimize or manage high-risk behaviors that contribute to the likelihood of contracting the disease, such as…… [Read More]
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that originates from tissues in the breasts commonly from within the inner lining of milk ducts or alternatively lobules which supply milk to the ducts. Breast cancer can occur in both humans and other mammals but .The majority cases in humans occur in women, however breast cancer also occurs in men but in very rare instances. Those few cases of breast cancer in men occur to men in the ages between 60 and 70.from statistics white women are seen to be at a higher risk of the development of malignant breast cancer as compared to Hispanics or Asians. Breast cancer comes second when it comes to cause of deaths due to cancer in women aged between 45-50.there is an increase in the number of women who are diagnosed with cancer each year. If cancer is detected early enough than the chances of survival…… [Read More]
Although it remains true that many Americans will die of acute illnesses, injuries, and accidents, it is at the same time becoming the case that more and more Americans are dying of chronic diseases such as cancer. In fact, cancer is expected in the future to be the leading cause of death in the United States, and any integrated plan for providing quality medical (including) nursing services in the future must focus on the treatment of such long-term illnesses.
Among the most common forms of cancers, breast cancer cases are increasing the most quickly (Ku 2001), with the overall lifetime risk for American women having grown to one in eight (American Cancer Society, 2001). The reason for this increase is not understood, although a number of factors are known to come into play, and it may be possible that the increased risk is a combination of these various…… [Read More]
Breast Cancer Treatments
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer related deaths in females and its rising incidence makes it the second most common cause of deaths due to cancer in both genders. Its incidence increases with the following risk factors, age and first degree relatives affected with the illness. However, only five to ten percent of all breast cancers are hereditary. The BCA1, BCA 2 and the p 53 genes have proven to be the involved mutations. Other risk factors include prior breast cancer, a lengthy reproductive life, null parity, obesity, exogenous estrogen intake and an already existing proliferative fibrocystic change, especially atypical hyperplasia. (Abbas et.al, 739-750)
Treatment affectivity depends on several factors. The type of tumor determines its aggressiveness. A well defined tumor that is small in size, belonging to a less invasive variant, with estrogen and progesterone receptor sensitivity, generally responds well to treatment. However,…… [Read More]
osenberg (ScienceDaily, 20010) suggests that oral contraceptives have evolved over a great many years and thus it is relevant to discuss once again the effects of oral contraceptives on women and their likelihood of getting breast cancer.
Marchbanks et al. (2010) did conclude that either present or earlier use of oral contraceptives among women ages 35 to 64 did not increase their chances of getting breast cancer. Their research was adamant about the results, which said that oral contraceptive use does not increase the risk of breast cancer later on in life, when the chances of a women getting breast cancer is higher than when they were younger.
What also needs to be considered is that the biology of white and black women may be significantly different and thus their bodies react differently to oral contraceptives. Because of this reason (as well as numerous others) and the fact that we…… [Read More]
" (O'Malley, 190) The basic argument is that there is a certainty of a relationship between low-income and diminished health standards and treatment opportunities. Thus, the close association between low-income and the African-American race has a direct bearing on the severe disparity in racial vulnerability to breast cancer.
As stated, this is also often because those in races tending toward lower income will often not receive proper screening and, if even possible, will be forced to undergo a treatment with its own health risks. Upon diagnosis, primary treatment is centered on chemotherapy, which uses traditional radiation methods to attack the cancer cells leached to one's system. Additionally, where tumors are present in the breast, a surgical procedure called a mastectomy will be performed. The mastectomy is generally considered the first choice in attacking a tumor in the breast and is effective in cases where detection occurs early enough. It is…… [Read More]
Education as the key to awareness
Cancer awareness information needs to be available to the general public
Teaching children about breast cancer awareness
Taking the matter to the streets -- encouraging volunteers to interact with individuals in their neighborhoods with the purpose of informing them concerning the gravity of the situation
Devising ways of providing proper educating the masses
Academics are often available for such campaigns and can easily join one if they are provided with the chance to do so
People tend to trust scholars more
You are important!
Learning to take rapid action
Know the difference between normal and abnormal
Doctors are your friends!
Prevent serious problems
Become accustomed to getting tested
Acknowledge the fact that you are the most important person who can help you
Care for your loved ones
a. Age is a primary factor associated with breast cancer
Encourage people close to you…… [Read More]
Breast Cancer Treatment
Breast cancer is not an illness which can be cured with medication, it is a fatal disease. If not detected at an early stage it is incurable. A famous Chinese proverb states "We cannot control the wind, but we have the power to adjust its sails"; in the same manner, we cannot prevent breast cancer, but it is in our power to take appropriate measures to reduce its fatality. Annual mammography screening is one of the ways to detect this disease at an early stage. Doctors recommend women to get it done at least once in a year. Despite all this, African-American women do not give much attention to this. Cancer screening, spreading awareness about its side effects and health related issues are concepts alien to these women. Such an attitude constitutes a major obstacle in the way of dealing with this disease. This article attempts to…… [Read More]
Breast Cancer Immunization
The need for increased breast cancer screening: New Zealand
The incidence of breast cancer in New Zealand is comparable to that of the rest of the developed world. After skin cancer, it is the most commonly-diagnosed and most common cause of death of women from cancer (Cunningham, Shaw & Sarfati 2010:2). In general, white, highly-educated women have a higher instance of breast cancer, and cancer risk increases with age. "Older age at first birth, lower parity, lack of breast feeding, younger age at menarche, older age at menopause and use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) are all related to increases in breast cancer risk" (Cunningham, Shaw & Sarfati 2010:2).
The need for early detection is widely acknowledged, but screening programs have come under increased scrutiny because of their high rates of false positives. A recent study found that while "43 deaths from breast cancer prevented for every…… [Read More]
women living in Western society will develop breast cancer during her lifetime. Germline mutations in BRCA1, a breast cancer tumor suppressor gene, are responsible for 50% of inherited breast cancers and 90% of combined inherited breast and ovarian cancers. The BRCA1 protein, BRCA1p, is involved in many important cellular pathways, including regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, transcription, and cell proliferation. It has been shown to bind over 20 different proteins. One such protein is
the retinoblastoma protein, Rbp. Rbp is the product of another tumor suppressor gene, termed Rb. Like
BRCA1p, Rbp is known to be involved in regulation of the cell cycle and cell proliferation.
Regulation of cell proliferation and maintenance of genome stability are major functions of many tumor suppressors, including BRCA1p and Rbp. Rbp expression is known to decrease cell proliferation in a wide array of cells and tissues, consistent with its ubiquitous expression in…… [Read More]
Preventing and educing the isk of Pre-Menopausal Breast Cancer: A Proposal for Youth Education
The incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer is on the rise. In recent years many different factors have been identified that contribute to this increased risk. Among the more common include an earlier onset of menses, obesity or overweight in youth which pre-dispositions a person to breast cancer, use of hormonal replacement therapy and long-term use of oral contraceptives (Claudio, 2000; Emanoil, 2000). Many studies have suggested that women are not taking adequate steps to assure early detection of breast cancer (Emanoil, 2000).
The aim of this proposal is to develop a workshop geared toward educating young adults about the risk factors associated with pre-menopausal breast cancer and educate the community about the importance of early detection. The author hypothesizes that by addressing and educating youths, the incidence of breast cancer and deaths associated with breast cancer…… [Read More]
tragedy that, at such a young age, a woman such as Igna has to deal with the pain and emotional stress of breast cancer. It is important to explore whether early detection through genetic testing and counselling could have prevented the disease, or if these pre-emptive measures would be beneficial for her two young daughters.
esearch into genetic factors involved in the occurrence of breast cancer have yielded some interesting and crucial findings. Studies have shown that mutations within certain genes have been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer. The effects of genetic mutations on the risk of breast cancer have been observed to be a function of a woman's age, with the greatest ratio of age-specific risks found at young ages (TransMed Network, 1997). Specifically, two major genes linked to breast cancer susceptibility are located on chromosomes 17q and 13q, and their corresponding names are BCA1 and…… [Read More]
Following are copies of the articles consulted to create the poster. All were retrieved 25 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com. The APA reference information has been placed at the head of each article, rather than the text as it appeared on the Web site as headlines and bylines.
All spot art was obtained from a icrosoft Word program, Office 2000. The pictures are free clip art, not copyrighted.
Exercise and Breast-Cancer Prevention: Study Finds It's Never Too Late to Start, Activity Need Not Be Strenuous. (2003) Ascribe Higher Education News Service, September 9, 2003. Retrieved 25 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
SEATTLE, Sept. 9 (AScribe Newswire) -- Increased physical activity, even when begun later in life, reduces overall breast-cancer risk by 20% among women at all levels of risk for the disease, according to a study led by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Their findings appear in the Sept.…… [Read More]
This kind of mammogram is called a selective or screening mammogram. This process is chosen according to the distinctiveness and preferences of women to find breast cancer when there are no obvious symptoms. Generally, a mammogram necessitates two radiographs or images of each breast. These images make it likely to identify possible tumors which cannot be felt through the skin or to find micro-calcifications that occasionally are a sign of the presence of breast cancer (What is a Mammogram, 2010).
Mammograms can also be utilized to find breast cancer after having discovered a lump or other indication or symptom of the cancerous tumor. This kind of mammogram is called a diagnostic mammogram. Some indications of breast cancer are pain, skin thickening, nipple discharge or a change in breast size or shape. Nevertheless, these indications can also be a sign of a benign abnormal cellular growth. A diagnostic mammogram may also…… [Read More]
Breast cancer has been controlled across many different variables, but it has rarely been researched specifically across socioeconomic status. The main focus is whether there is a higher incidence of breast cancer among people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Studies have shown that this group does have less access to health care (CDC, 2005), and even when people in this situation do have access they are less likely to actually utilize those services. Women are much less likely to get a breast cancer screening (mammogram) if they are economically disadvantaged. Thus, it is actually more difficult to conduct studies regarding this population. However, there is evidence to suggest, among the women from this classification, that there is actually a lower incidence of breast cancer than in women who are economically more affluent.
There have been very few studies that have looked at the socioeconomically disadvantaged population and breast cancer, but some…… [Read More]
It would be impossible for this review to be inclusive of the vast body of work that is available on the subject of breast cancer. It is useful, however, in helping medical personnel determine if the particular study cited in this work is one that might prove useful to the medical practitioner's current problem, patient, or other focus in his or her work and continuing education.
A journal article appearing in Family Planning Perspectives, by D. Hollander (2002), studies the risk factor for breast cancer for women who breast feed, versus those who do not breast feed. The article is brief, targeting the mother-to-be, or the new mother. The article does not give D. Hollander's credentials for writing this article, but the writer's credentials probably are along the lines of journalism, if a degree at all, because the article cites professional studies in a very limited way, using a simplistic…… [Read More]
In this particular instance the place to start would be to launch an education program aimed at both patients and providers as to the importance of early detection screening for breast cancer. The goal would be to implement outreach strategies to improve access to screening for women who have rarely or never been screened. A second thing that would need to be done would be that of developing a transportation and child care program that could be utilized by these women in order to help them to seek services. The hope would be that by raising awareness about the importance of early detection and providing access to screening services that a larger percentage of rural women would obtain screening procedures.
Another barrier that would need to be addressed would be that of insurance availability. For those women who have access to insurance the reason for not seeking screening may be…… [Read More]
breast Cancer diagnosis among African-American and Caucasian women?
Breast cancer in the United States is the most widely spread cancer in ladies aged 45 through 64. The American Cancer Society in 2014 stated that, around 232,670 ladies were determined to have breast cancer, and nearly 40,000 of them died because of it. It has been affirmed that race plays a part in breast cancer survival and incidence. While White women will probably get breast cancer, African-American women will most probably die from it as compared to any other group (ACS, 2014). The five-year survival rate for breast cancer is 90% among White women and 79% for African-Americans (ACS, 2014). The expenses of breast cancer treatment are non-paltry and in this way its difference by race should be investigated. Over a five-year treatment plan, the societal expense of metastatic breast cancer is $98,571 or $12.2 billion per person annually (Means, ice,…… [Read More]
The site urges people to stay away from being "cut" (having surgery) or "poisoned" (receiving chemotherapy). Instead, it takes readers on a nine-stage process to cleanse body and soul. Some of the steps include "Cleanup and detoxification," "cancer recovery diet," "psychotherapy," "support group," and "meditation/visualization." Although I thought the prognosis this site offered was a bit cocky, as was the advice to avoid all traditional medications, many of the therapies suggested are no different than those a doctor or nurse in traditional care would prescribe. After all, who would object to his or her patient praying or meditating? Or joining a support group? Or eating a better diet for that matter?
The next site I came upon, though, did strike me as invalid. The page is entitled simply, "Focus on Health," but the subheading reads: "Cancer Cures: Natural, Safe, Effective & Scientifically Proven esults -- Cure for Cancer!" The "cures"…… [Read More]
Phase 1: Introduction
The research topic selected is the Support for Breast Cancer Patients. The purpose for the selection of this topic is to assess the impact that support for breast cancer survivors has on them. The research will investigate the type of support that has tangible positive impact on the breast cancer survivor. Surviving breast cancer can be a traumatic encounter for any patient. Having some form of support from professionals may be necessary to help the survivors in their psychological recovery process. Research shows that participating in breast cancer support groups is fundamental for the reduction of anxiety and stress that emanates from diagnosis with breast cancer. This research will investigate the legitimacy and impact of breast cancer support. The outcomes of this research are supposed to educate cancer survivors and breast cancer support groups on the importance of support.
Diagnosis with breast cancer can be a devastating…… [Read More]
The subjects for the study were referred by local oncologists and to protect their rights they were provided with informed consent before participating. In other words, what would be studied and why was explained to them and they could then decide whether they wanted to participate or decline. There was no requirement to participate and patients could stop any time that they felt uncomfortable.
It is vital that individuals who are participating in something like this are made to feel comfortable and that they are clear on the fact that they are capable of choosing to discontinue participation. It is very difficult to get honest and complete answers from people who feel as though they have been coerced into something. It is a much better choice when people are participating of their own free will and when they feel as though they are gaining something and helping others in the…… [Read More]
Cancer risk factors associated with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels in healthy women" (Barnes et al., 2009). The method for determining causality in this study was the statistical program . In this, a variety of statistical tests were run on the data, including t-test, Chi-Squared, Fisher's exact test, and Pearson correlations. The study also sought to control for other factors. This is necessary because there are many different potential factors that can influence the development of disease. The control and study groups, and the statistical tests used, need to isolate the independent variable in order to demonstrate that it is a causal factor. This statistical work owes a lot of its underpinnings to Bradford Hill, but also the web of causation. The web of causation reflects that disease is related to many different factors. The factors may in turn influence each other. "All predisposing factors of any type and their…… [Read More]
How breast cancer changed Kobayashi’s perspectives on life and how the society has influenced on her perspectives about the disease?
Breast cancer ranks among the top most common types of cancers among women all around the globe. In addition to being a dreaded disease, cancer, in general, attracts very culturally biased opinions. As a result, those who are diagnosed with cancer are ‘forced’ to manage the disease in silence, and in the most conservatives communities – cancer patients are secluded from the community and isolated even by family members (Bhatti, Salek & Finlay, 2011). In Japan, breast cancer is among the most common cancers among women and statistic show that breast cancer incidences are only increasing with time. Statistics show that more than 40000 women in Japan are diagnosed with breast cancer annually. Japan being a largely conservative society, there is a ‘fear’ of cancer and a stigma attached…… [Read More]
The ability to critically evaluate a quantitative design research literature is a significant skill for any practitioner in any discipline, including nursing. Critically evaluating an article enables the practitioner to rightfully judge the usefulness and integrity of the evidence as well as the conclusions made in the article. It is without a doubt that today’s healthcare has become effective as a result of evidence-based research and practice. The driving force of research based on evidence is the ability to interpret and quantify a phenomenon as well as examine the relationship among variables numerically. In the case of nursing, the research trend has been evolving from being centered on interactions among the nurses and the patients to finding evidence that would be necessary for nursing practice. Mainly, the main researches have been focused on quantitative research which involves collecting data o variable sand analyzing it. This helps in identifying the…… [Read More]
The Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality has issued its recommendations for breast cancer screening. In this article, they make a few different recommendations. First, they recommend screening for women 50-74 years. They note that women under 50 should make the choice for themselves as to whether or not they wish to begin screening. They note that there is little evidence to support screening age 75 onward. This body, however, recommends against teaching breast self-examination.
Also noted is that "the current evidence is insufficient to assess the additional benefits and harms of clinical breast examination beyond mammography. They also find that there is insufficient evidence of incremental benefits for the use of digital mammography or MI. The lack of evidence does not mean that these things are ineffective or do not provide value, just that there is no evidence that they do, which is different.
The most controversial aspect…… [Read More]
cancer genes that are associated with breast cancer. Scientists have known for years that the most common breast cancer genes are BRCA1 AND BRCA2, but there are many more than those two genes that scientists now much cope with. Another aspect of the focus is on whether or not to tell a woman that she has genes that might lead to breast cancer; the ethical questions are serious and this is complicated by the fact that ovarian cancer and breast cancer "share genetic risk factors."
The overall problem is breast cancer, but within the problem of breast cancer is determining which genes are likely to cause tumors and which are present but do not necessarily lead to breast cancer. The identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was thought to hold the keys to identifying those women who had those genes as possible breast cancer victims. But with the "rapid expansion of…… [Read More]
Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).
Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).
During a clinical breast exam the…… [Read More]
, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]
Dr. obb-Nicholson's data best supports the scenario that more incidents of breast cancer will be discovered due to the reduced number of screenings that the new guidelines suggest. According to the numbers she gives, the mortality rate for breast cancer decreases every year and this decrease can be attributed to the previous screening guidelines. She writes that the USPSTF has based the new guidelines on statistics rather than clinical data and the message that they are conveying to the public is that the number of deaths that regular screenings at beginning at the age of forty is too small to keep the guidelines as they were previously. (6)
The best approach would be to keep the guidelines the way they were before the change. There was not enough clinical data to support the change in guidelines. Also, because the mortality rate for breast cancer has steadily declined with women following…… [Read More]
True Courage; Facing Breast Cancer
When we think of courage it is easy to look at heroes that are portrayed in the media; individuals who may be seen as an inspiration because they have faced difficult situations, often where there is a significant amount of danger, putting the needs of others before their own safety. There is little doubt that this is courage, but it is only one form of courage. If courage is defined as facing fears and have the resolution to overcoming difficulties there are many types of courage that may go unnoticed as they do not attack headline news or gossip. It can take courage to stand up to bullies, especially if they are larger or more powerful than yourself, to stand up for what you believe in even if others disagree and to overcome a phobia. These all require courage, as they involve facing a fear…… [Read More]
The authors point out that nurses have the ability to influence patient expectations of care if they are educated properly. However the article also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to educating nurses regarding the psychological impact a diagnosis with breast cancer may have. These findings apply to any situation where a nurse is caring for patients with potentially life threatening illness. The article also suggests that further research should be conducted to determine the extent to which nurse's perceptions of patient outcome may impact a patient's psychological state and ability to remain optimistic throughout therapy.
The article can be used as the impetus necessary to incorporate more psychosocial coursework in nursing education.
Powe, B.D., Underwood, S., Canales, M. & Finnie, . (2005, Jun). "Perceptions about breast cancer among college students: implications for nursing education." Journal Nursing Education, 44(6):…… [Read More]
Against Odds: Australian Women's Experiences ecovery Breast Cancer
Elmir, , Jackson, D, Beale, B., & Schmied, V 2009. Against all odds: Australian women's experiences of recovery from breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, pp.2531-2538.
Elmir, Jackson, Beale & Schmied (2009, p.2531) investigates the younger female's experiences following breast cancer-linked breast surgery. The purpose of the study was to create an understanding of the experiences of women who under-go breast cancer surgeries. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) study aimed at contributing to the base of knowledge for clinicians practicing in the field of breast cancer. The underlying principle behind the study carried out by Elmir and associates is the prevalence of breast cancer among younger women and inadequate studies concerning recuperating from breast cancer-linked surgery.
McMurray & Clendon (2010, p. 241) assert that breast cancer is affecting younger women between 20 and 40 years given the better surveillance and earlier…… [Read More]
Stereotactic Breast Biopsy
Breast cancer is a very common disease, and is the most common type of cancer in women, although it is not unheard of for a man to have breast cancer. About one women in eight (12% of all women) will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Approximately 50,000 women die from breast cancer every year. Early detection is an important factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Utilizing monthly self breast exams, periodic professional exams, and mammography breast cancer can usually be detected early. With early detection, breast cancer can be treated more effectively and patient outcomes improve. Mammograms are an essential part of this screening process. Although there is some controversy, the generally accepted recommendations for mammogram include a screening mammogram at age 35, annual mammograms every one or two years from age 40-50, and an annual mammogram after age 50. The…… [Read More]
Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research
This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.
In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…… [Read More]
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
Selenium…… [Read More]
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]
diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Food, Diet and Cancer
Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.
This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:
There is a correlation between diet and cancer
Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer
There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]
(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).
CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).
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Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm
Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm
Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke
Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:
Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest
Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).
Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.
Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…… [Read More]
This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).
In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…… [Read More]
Treatment and Management of Cancer
Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare
The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.
Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…… [Read More]
Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160
Huget P, van Dam P,
Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705
John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.
Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"
MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf
Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254
Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…… [Read More]
Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients' Perceptions on Quality of Life
Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD
This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.
How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?
Patients with…… [Read More]
Pharmacotherapy for Hematologic Disorders
The hematologic disorder selected in this case cancer –specifically, breast cancer. It is important to note, from the onset, that breast cancer has been identified as one of the leading causes of death amongst women across the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2018), without taking into consideration some skin cancer types, breast cancer is not only “the most common cancer in women” in the United States, but also “the second most common cause of death from cancer among white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, and the American Indian/Alaska Native women.” The first position, as far as mortality rates amongst women with cancer is concerned, is occupied by lung cancer.
The most prominent symptom of breast cancer is a lump inside the breast. Other symptoms, according to the National Cancer Institute (2018), could be inclusive of an inverted nipple, sore nipple, and…… [Read More]
Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer
Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).
Development of Cancer
Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…… [Read More]
Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.
Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]
treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.
The esearch Question and its Importance
After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…… [Read More]
Missed reast Carcinomas
Mammography is a particular type of imaging which use an x-ray system, which has a low-dose for the purpose of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. ut even with the help of Mammography, in 10-30% cases of breast cancers would be missed. y way of this paper an attempt has been made to understand the factors, which cause for missed breast cancers, and discuss ways to reduce the false negative rate of mammography.
The false negative rate of mammography was around 8-10% according to the data of the reast Cancer Detection Demonstration project. Another study was of the opinion that the rate of missed breast cancers with regard to mammography was very high as 35%. (Harvey, Fajardo, Lnnis, 1993) In another study of 10 radiologists the true cases of cancers were considered to be in 74-96% cases which were understood after analyzing 150 mammograms. (Elmore,…… [Read More]
neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).
Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:
Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors
Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…… [Read More]
Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health Education
Article Critique Analysis: Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education, by E. Haozous, V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale
The journal article, "Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education" by E. Haozous et. al. (2010), promotion of education on breast health was explored using a specific and unique tradition as the framework of the study. This tradition, called the Circle of Life (COL), is an "intertribal cancer prevention program focused on breast health education" and is specifically implemented among American Indian (AI) women (378). Using the COL as framework, the authors aimed to achieve "cultural congruency" in exploring, discovering, and identifying the different dimensions concerning breast health education and promotion effectiveness in the context of AI women's culture -- specifically, Comanche women (378). Harmonized understanding of the Comanche community, female and health cultures led to…… [Read More]
[Donaldson S, 2004] A diet rich in refined sugar creates a high glycemic load. The present culture of eating packaged and fast foods on a regular basis implies the consumption of high levels of refined sugar in our diet. This results in induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism, which is reported as a high risk factor for cancer. [Donaldson S, 2004] A recent European study by Dr. Par Stattin et.al (2007) has confirmed abnormal glucose metabolism as a high risk factor for cancer. Red meat is associated with cancer. Many recent studies such as Bingham SA (2002) and Norat T. et.al (2002) have attested this correlation between red meat consumption and cancer.
In conclusion we can say that the chemopreventive effects of a diet comprising of vegetables and fruits is due to the synergestic effects of many plant-based nutrients. While most of the phytochemicals act as effective antioxidants, some nutrients such…… [Read More]
How Genes Influence Breast Cancer
Director of the National Cancer Institute
How Genes Influence Breast Cancer
Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…… [Read More]
Immunotherapists can provide sensitive and accurate cancer diagnostic tools for the successful treatment of the disease and to stop it well in its tracks (cancerresearch.org, 2009). The outward advantages of immunotherapy are as follows: certain drugs have fewer side effects and offer patients a higher quality of life, bolstered anti-cancer effectiveness and rates of survival, benefits are often reaped quickly for the patient (cisncancer.org). The disadvantages are as follows: some varieties of this treatment have serious side effects, are very expensive and occasionally offer just a short-term efficacy (cisncancer.org)
5. An overexpression of proto-oncogenes can cause cancer as mutated forms of these genes can promote unrestrained cell proliferation: "oncogenes actively promote proliferation (analogous to the gas pedal of the cell cycle). Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes typically increase the activity" (Hyland). An underexpression of tumor suppressor genes can also put an individual in a precarious situation. Tumor suppressor genes…… [Read More]
Care of Cancer:
In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.
Causes of Cancer:
There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…… [Read More]
Care of Cancer
In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.
There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;
This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…… [Read More]
Breast Cancer and Imaging
There are still a number of cases where women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer exhibit metastatic disease at the first presentation, this despite the fact that there have been significant steps made towards early detection of breast cancer. In the United States alone, five percent of such cases have been reported with a further thirty percent of women with early-stage, non-metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis having the possibility of developing distant metastatic disease. A cure has not been found for metastatic breast cancer, however the introduction of newer systematic therapies has led to significant improvements in survival (Scott, 2015).
What is breast cancer?
Cancers are named depending on the location of such mass of tissue, therefore when the cell division and growth in the breast is abnormal there occurs breast cancer. Most of these abnormal cell growth happen slowly and over time before they…… [Read More]
In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.
The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.
The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…… [Read More]