Breast Cancer Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Cancer the Medical Name for Cancer Is

Words: 1628 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55201743

Cancer

The medical name for cancer is malignant neoplasm. There are approximately forty different types of cancers, including a few varieties of leukemia and lymphoma. Cancer is a disease that has increased in frequencies in countries such as the United States of America during the latter part of the 20th century and into the 21st. In fact, according to statistics gathered by leading clinics in the U.S.A., cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S.A. This paper will describe some approaches to cancer treatment. Cancer treatment certainly includes treatments to fight the disease, but there are also treatments that support the person carrying the disease, as well as anyone who is close to the cancer patients and functions as part of the patient's support system in some way. The paper will offer some tips toward prevention of cancer, diagnosis of cancer, and describe the different stages of cancer. Cancer treatment is not a straight forward process and there are risks as well as complications. As with any disease and treatment, there are side effects, which are another aspect of the disease that should be treated and supported. Therefore, the paper will attempt to describe both the physical…… [Read More]

References:

American Cancer Society. (2012) Cancer Basics. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerBasics/index. 2012 July 13.

Dugdale, III, MD, D.C, & Zieve, MD, D. (2010) Cancer. U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002267/. 2012 July 10.

National Cancer Institute. (2012) Cancer Topics. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics. 2012 July 12.
View Full Essay

Cancer Drug Development Economic Issues Special Health

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53476587

Cancer Drug Development

Economic issues

Special health needs

Process (decision, steps) involved in program

Benefits of program

Cancer is amongst fatal diseases that involve abnormal growth of body cells resulting is unusual growth and division of cells. The result is tumor formation effecting one particular or many parts of the body. Since there is high probability of cancer cells invading the neighboring tissues of body parts, early detection and careful treatment of cancer is deemed absolutely necessary. The treatment is not only costly but involves multi-stage radiation treatments (Castro, 2001). More than 13% of human deaths world over are caused by cancer related diseases. Since the treatment of cancer diseases is costly throughout the world, new drug development also involves multi-million R&D on cancer drugs. Series of rigorous tests are conducted in laboratories before cancer drugs are approved for being administered to patients. Drug development process involves preclinical and translational work. This white paper is aimed at presenting major issues in cancer drugs including economic issues, special needs of specific population being served, process and steps involved in program, and benefits of drug treatment program. Visuals will also be added in this paper to help brief the potential patients regarding…… [Read More]

References

Castro, J.B.D. (2001). Cancer: Cause, Care & Cure. B. Jain Publishers.

Elwyn, G., O'Connor, A., Stacey, D., Volk, R., Edwards, A., Coulter, A., ... & Whelan, T. (2006). Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process. Bmj, 333(7565), 417.

Helixor. (2013). Integrative Cancer Therapy. Retrieved from: [http://www.helixor.com/site.php?mainkat=02&subkat=01&id=22]

McIllmurray, M.B., Thomas, C., Francis, B., Morris, S., Soothill, K., & AL-HAMAD, A. (2001). The psychosocial needs of cancer patients: findings from an observational study. European Journal of Cancer Care, 10(4), 261-269.
View Full Essay

Cancer Cells Have Been Proven

Words: 340 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52579724

These behaviors need to be taken more seriously in order to prevent further deaths.

3. Several different cancers affect women and men separately. The cancer most prevalent in women is breast cancer, which kills over 40,000 women in America each year, (National Cancer Institute, 2008). Breast cancer is followed by lung cancer and colorectal cancer, (Medicinenet.com, 2008). Men are most afflicted by prostate cancer, which is then followed also by lung and colorectal cancer. The most vicious and notorious cancers, which are responsible for the most amount of deaths in the United States are lung cancer and breast cancer. Together these two cancers are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths per year.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Medicinenet.com. "Leading Cancers in Women, Men, & Children." www.medicinenet.com.2008. Retrieved on 4 May, 2008 at  http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25264 

National Cancer Institute. "Cancer in Women." U.S. Institutes of Health.

A www.cancer.gov.2008. Retrieved 4 May, 2008 at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/womenscancers
View Full Essay

Against Odds Australian Women's Experiences Recovery Breast

Words: 2058 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54043107

Against Odds: Australian Women's Experiences Recovery Breast Cancer

Elmir, R, Jackson, D, Beale, B., & Schmied, V 2009. Against all odds: Australian women's experiences of recovery from breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, pp.2531-2538.

Elmir, Jackson, Beale & Schmied (2009, p.2531) investigates the younger female's experiences following breast cancer-linked breast surgery. The purpose of the study was to create an understanding of the experiences of women who under-go breast cancer surgeries. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) study aimed at contributing to the base of knowledge for clinicians practicing in the field of breast cancer. The underlying principle behind the study carried out by Elmir and associates is the prevalence of breast cancer among younger women and inadequate studies concerning recuperating from breast cancer-linked surgery.

McMurray & Clendon (2010, p. 241) assert that breast cancer is affecting younger women between 20 and 40 years given the better surveillance and earlier detection. The younger women experience aggressive forms of breast cancer and reduced survival rate compared to postmenopausal women. Younger women with breast cancer experience shorter life span, but prolonged treatment up shots with possibility of premature menopause and infertility (McMurray & Clendon 2010, p. 241). According to Elmir and associates,…… [Read More]

References

Willig, C 2013. Introducing qualitative research in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Pequegnat, W., & Stover, E 2010. How to write a successful research grant application: A guide for social and behavioral scientists. New York: Springer.

McMurray, A., & Clendon 2010. Community health and wellness: Primary health care in practice. Australia: Elsevier Australia.

Mott, D 2008. Emergency room use: A phenomenological study of community-based healthcare. Texas: ProQuest.
View Full Essay

Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95494676

Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Breast cancer is a very common disease, and is the most common type of cancer in women, although it is not unheard of for a man to have breast cancer. About one women in eight (12% of all women) will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Approximately 50,000 women die from breast cancer every year. Early detection is an important factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Utilizing monthly self breast exams, periodic professional exams, and mammography breast cancer can usually be detected early. With early detection, breast cancer can be treated more effectively and patient outcomes improve. Mammograms are an essential part of this screening process. Although there is some controversy, the generally accepted recommendations for mammogram include a screening mammogram at age 35, annual mammograms every one or two years from age 40-50, and an annual mammogram after age 50. The mammogram does not make the diagnosis of cancer. It can show changes that may represent cancer. Often these changes are too small to be felt on examination. When these changes require a diagnosis, they have traditionally been removed with surgical excision following wire localization. The mammogram is used as a…… [Read More]

Reference:

Robert L. Howisey, Marita B. Acheson, Ronald K. Rowbotham and Alan Morgan, A Comparison of Medicare Reimbursement and Results for Various Imaging-guided Breast Biopsy Techniques American Journal of Surgery, May 1997 395-398

International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification

(ICD-9-CM)
View Full Essay

Medical Advances in Cancer

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44527155

Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research

This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.

In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose of removing the tumor. That treatment option is still being used today to cut the tumor out of the body. The changes in treatment following surgery however have changed dramatically. Today patients are given a variety of options and given much more detailed explanations as to how those treatment options…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Diagnosis of Cancer There Is

Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77105913

He may also be humiliated by his having the disease or may be avoided by others who do not know how to approach the patient or are discomfited by doing so, particularly since cancer indicates mortality and mortality is one aspect of life's facts that individuals generally like to avoid.

Other feelings of inferiority and shame are caused by loss of autonomy and independence, vulnerability, and mutilation and most frightening of all is the fear of death. Clinical depression can easily become an outcome.

Some may also experience psychiatric disorder as a result, with the Psychological Collaborative Oncology Group finding that 47% of patients who had been diagnosed with cancer fell into psychiatric disorder with two thirds having depressed or anxious moods whilst one third experienced major depression, delirium, anxiety disorder, or some other major mental illness (Sandoval-Cros, 1999)

Methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

The three most common types of effects causing physical and psychological consequences are anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and delirium. Methods used for reduction of their symptoms can be spread to other negative areas too.

Drugs can be used for anxiety. These include benzodiazepines such as lorzepam or clonazapem. Busiprone can be helpful too and…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society Staging www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/staging

MD Anderson Cancer Center: Diagnostic tests www.mdanderson.org/.../diagnostic-tests/index.html

MedicineNet.com: Chemotherapy and cancer treatment, coping with side effects www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21716

Sandoval-Cros CJ. (1999) Common psychological problems in the cancer patient Moffitt Cancer Center
View Full Essay

Lung Cancer Research in Gene

Words: 1903 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58102126

Cancer nurses with sufficient knowledge of the biological basis of these therapies would be better equipped to deal with the practical clinical implications and provide better symptoms management. The technical understanding of the nurses is also crucial in educating and in enabling the patients to take care of themselves. Further, it also goes without saying that nurses, as the primary caregivers are responsible for the emotional well being of the patients. Improving the quality of life is one of the most important features of cancer care and the cancer nurse plays a large role in this by providing proactive and treatment centric nursing interventions for symptoms palliation.… [Read More]

Bibliography

CDC, "Lung Cancer: Statistics," Accessed!4th Dec 2007, available at  http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lung/statistics/ 

Caldas, C. (1998) "Science, medicine and the future - Molecular assessment of cancer': British Medical Journal: No.316 pp. 1360-1363,

Available online at, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1113070

3) Nobuaki Ishii and N. de Tribolet, "Are p53 mutations and p53 over expression prognostic factors for astrocytic tumors? Critical reviews in Neurosurgery, vol 8 / no 5, Sept 1998.
View Full Essay

Nutrition & Cancer Rates There

Words: 3994 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73183034

In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:

Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.

Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.

Selenium -- This substance may be poisonous if wrongly used however, there is evidence that this trace element may provide some protection against the individual developing cancer.

Artificial sweeteners -- there is some evidence that these cause cancer in animals. The long-term risk of developing cancer due to use of the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.

Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.

Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html

Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
View Full Essay

Role of Lifestyle Factors in Inducing Cancer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72545690

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

Course code

Cancer is one of the leading international causes of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle factors that contribute to causing cancer have been widely studied in recent years. Summarizing relevant studies, lifestyle factors identified include smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, weight management, physical activity, and environmental exposure. These studies use a variety of methodologies to determine the link between the lifestyle factor and risk of cancer. Issues with the methods of these studies can be addressed by future research that attempts to remedy methodological defects while replicating results. Valid and reliable information is essential to using information about lifestyle factors to combat cancer.

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

As one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, it is estimated that cancers will have killed 10 million people around the globe by 2020 (Haque et al. 2010). In 2009, the American Cancer Society estimated that there were nearly 1.5 million new cancer cases and about 560,000 cancer deaths (Khan, Afaq, and Mukhtar, 2010). Unfortunately, there is no guaranteed form of treatment for cancer and emphasis has been placed on prevention and early detection in order to combat this disease (Haque et al., 2010).

While the precise…… [Read More]

References

Bissonauth, V., Shatenstein, B., Fafard, E., Maugard, C., Robidoux, A., Narod, S., & Ghadirian, P. (2009). Weight History, Smoking, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk among French-Canadian Women Non-Carriers of More Frequent BRCi Mutations. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, 2009, 1-11.

Boniol, M. & Autier, P. (2010). Prevalence of main cancer lifestyle risk factors in Europe in 2000. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2534-2544.

De Vries, E., Soerjomataram, I., Lemmens, V.E.P.P., Goebergh, J.W.W., Barendregt, J.J., Oenema, A., Moller, H., Brenner, H., & Renehan, A.G. (2010). Lifestyle changes and reduction of colon cancer incidence in Europe: A scenario study of physical activity promotion and weight reduction. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2605-2616.

Haque, N., Salma, U., Nurunnabi, T.R., Haque, A.K.M.F., Mukti, I.J., Pervin, S., & Nahar, R. (2010). Lifestyle Related Cuases of Cancer and Chemoprevention through Phytonutrients. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(19), 916-926.
View Full Essay

Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (Robinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy or the complete removal of bladder is done to remove it completely from the system. Though the bladder cancer treatments are effective in most cases, it nevertheless has some side effects such as frequency of urination and severe pain during urination.

In short, bladder cancer is a preventable and treatable…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
View Full Essay

Diet and Cancer

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42988149

diet and cancer. The Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)

Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)

Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)

Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)
View Full Essay

Recurrence of Cancer Psychosocial Impact

Words: 1578 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10493753

(2009, March). Women's Health Law Weekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).

CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).

Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official Website.

Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm

Heyman, Patrick & Sandra Wolfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm

Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke

Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:

Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest

Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).

Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.

Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 34-38. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343201).

Strauss, Phyllis Koling. (1992). Chronic maternal illness: The adjustment of young adult offspring. Ph.D. dissertation, Yeshiva University, United States -- New York. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text database. (Publication…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).

Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?

Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
View Full Essay

American Cancer Society the Foundation Has Possess

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3570896

American Cancer Society

The foundation has possess the quality and fiscal support to focus on short-term goal setting by looking and focusing on identification and ways to cure and heal the patients that have cancer never leading toward concern and sympathy in putting a stop to malignant cells and prescribing the right medication to save lives. In reviewing the process of the Society and its decisions it needs to make and carry out for the next 6 months, it has done exceptionally well by starting to put more time and concern in to collecting donations and contributions that really make a difference in how the American Cancer Society, (ACS), can spend money. There is three ways in which this foundation is looking at improving the money they are funded with in order for them to carry out experimentations, look for cures, and afford research, as well as improve the facility's rapport with their patients and their families. The American Cancer Society is currently working hard to build up the education and knowledge of focusing on mammographic exams, foreign interactions, and different methods and programs for prevention (Epstein, 1999).

The American Cancer Society has a close connection with the mammography, procedure…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society. (2011, April 15). The American cancer society collaborates with key u.n. agencies and global health leaders to advance women's health worldwide. Retrieved from  http://cancer.blogs.com/international/2011/04/the-american-cancer-society-collaborates-with-key-un-agencies-and-global-health-leaders-to-advance-w.html 

Epsein, S. (1999). American cancer society: the world's wealthiest "nonprofit" institution. Retrieved from http://www.preventcancer.com/losing/acs/wealthies_links.htm
View Full Essay

Mechanisms of Cancer the Cancer

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84221798

This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).

In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, RNA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased risk due to negative inducible NO synthase or iNOS regulation. In the same study, the cellular workings of breast cancer was stated by that the "polymorphism of the gene encoding the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which convert O2 to H2O2 alters protein trafficking" (Hussain 2003, p. 282) thus…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society (n.d.) Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-and-figures-2010 [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

American Cancer Society (n.d.) What Causes Cancer?, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/index [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

Croce, C. (2008) Oncogenes and Cancer, N Engl J. Med, 358, p. 502-511.

Hasty, P. (2005) the impact of DNA damage, genetic mutation and cellular responses on cancer prevention, longevity and aging: observations in humans and mice, Mech Ageing Dev, 126(1), p.71-77.
View Full Essay

Treatment and Management of Cancer Diagnosis Obligations

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16892447

Treatment and Management of Cancer

Cancer Diagnosis

Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare

Cancer Diagnosis

The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.

Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of diagnosis such as breast, throat, lung, brain and many other types. Cancer is caused by many factors, both internal and external. The internal causes include poor immunity conditions, metabolic and inherited mutations and hormones. The external causes include consumption of chemicals, radiations, nicotine inhalation and other organisms that are infectious.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Dealing With Side Effects of Treatment and Diagnosis Approach to Care of Cancer

Words: 1816 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90758422

Care of Cancer

Cancer has overtaken HIV / AIDS and malaria to top the list of headaches for medical departments and policy makers alike. In 2012, cancer claimed a massive 8.2 million lives, with breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, and liver cancers accounting for more than three-quarters of these. Alcohol and tobacco use, lack of physical activity, low vegetable and fruit intake, and high body mass index have been found to be responsible for a significant 30% of cancer deaths, with tobacco use causing 70% of the 1.59 million global lung cancer deaths reported in 2012. Metastasis, the process occasioned or characterized by unusual growth of abnormal cells, which end up invading adjacent parts, eventually extending to neighboring organs, is the mainspring of death from cancer. The World Health Organization projects that annual cancer cases will hit 22 million by the year 2020, but maintains that mortality can be reduced if cases are diagnosed, and treated early. However, the high levels of ignorance among the public, and the fact that most people consider 'cancer' a taboo subject present significant obstacles to the fight against cancer. It is time we took initiative and fed the public with the right information regarding the…… [Read More]

References

Epstein, J.B., Thariat, J., Bensadoun, R.J., Barasch, A., Murphy, B.A., Kolnick, L., Popplewell, L. & Maghami, E. (2012). Oral Complications of Cancer and Cancer Therapy: from Cancer Treatment to Survivorship. CA Cancer J. Clin, 62(6), 400-422.

Kelvin, J.F. & Tyson, L. (2010). 100 Questions and Answers about Cancer Symptoms and Cancer Treatment Side Effects (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

NCI. (n.d.). Cancer Staging. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2014 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging

Redd, W.H., Montgomery, G.H. & DuHamel, K.N. (2001). Behavioral Interventions for Cancer Treatment Side Effects. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93(11), 810-823.
View Full Essay

Women's Health Issue Ovarian Cancer

Words: 1127 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51840849

These include bloating, abdominal or pelvic pain, frequent and/or urgent urination, and difficulty eating because one feels very full very quickly (MedicineNet, 2009). However, these were only agreed upon in 2007 and not all doctors feel that these are the best markers of ovarian cancer (MedicineNet, 2009). A lot of women experience at least the first two of these symptoms quite often during their menstrual cycle, and the others are not that uncommon, either. Women cannot be running to the doctor every time they have one small symptom, but a group of symptoms that appears and is persistent is certainly worth checking out, if only to provide peace of mind for a woman who may be worried about whether she has cancer or something much more benign (MedicineNet, 2009).

Like many other cancers, ovarian cancer does seem to have some genetic link. In other words, if a lot of people in a family have had cancer, of any kind, other people in that family are more likely to have it, too. This means that women with strong family histories of cancer will want to get checkups more often, pay more attention to their bodies and any kinds of symptoms that…… [Read More]

References

MedicineNet (2009). Ovarian Cancer. Retrieved from: http://www.medicinenet.com/ovarian_ cancer/article.htm

MedlinePlus (2009). Ovarian Cancer. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ovariancancer.html

National Cancer Institute (2009). Ovarian Cancer. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/ovarian/
View Full Essay

Thromboembolism Venous Thromboembolism Cancer Care

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623853

bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,

Salgado R,

Weytjens R,

Colpaert C,

Benoy I,

Huget P, van Dam P,

Prove a,

Lemmens J,

Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic Breast Cancer', British Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705

John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.

Diana M. Beck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"

MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf

Race, Tara Kay BSN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254

Susan Begelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism', Retrieved 29th Feb 2008, from, ' http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/cardiology/vthromboembolism/vthromboembolism.htm

Roxanna Boelsen, RN, MS, AOCN, (2001), 'Clinical Focus: Deep Vein Thrombosis', Vol 5, No 4, Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. Available online at, http://www.ons.org/publications/journals/cjon/Volume5/Issue4/0504167.asp

Theresa Wicklin Gillespie (2005), 'Nursing Interventions in the management of patients with cancer associated Thrombosis', Seminars in Oncology Nursing,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at http://www.tigc.org/pdf/cancervte05.pdf

Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,
View Full Essay

Living With Incurable Cancer at the End

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3990699

Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients' Perceptions on Quality of Life

Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD

This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.

Qualitative

Quantitative

Research question

How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?

N/A

Problem

Patients with terminal cancer often receive palliative care (treatment to relieve systems) in order to secure QoL at the end of life. Most often treatment is limited to procedures to alleviate physical symptoms such as pain and fatigue.

N/A

Purpose

This study was designed to explore the not only the physical dimensions…… [Read More]