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What does the breast implant controversy reveal about society's attitudes toward product safety, about the legal liability of manufacturers, and about the role of regulatory agencies like the FDA in protecting consumers?
The breast implant controversy is illustrating how the public will often disregard product safety. The reason why is because: celebrities, millionaires and other affluent individuals are having these procedures done. This means that consumers will begin following the trends that have been established by this group despite the possible dangers. As far as the legal liability is concerned, this is illustrating how manufacturers are responsible if their products are impacting the health of consumers. Where, they have a legal liability to ensure that there is proper testing and updates about possible dangers. In the case of regulators, this is illustrating how they are provided with greater amounts of control and power in the overall quality of…… [Read More]
Overall complications and complexities associated with breast implants are capsular contracture or implant rupture, leakage, infection, cosmetic flaws, loss or increase of nipple sensation, bleeding or fluid accumulation (Eitenmiller, 2011).
Solutions and Outcomes
A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results reast Implant Surveillance Study conducted on women who received breast implants following mastectomy showed no survival disadvantage in those younger than 65 years of age (Le et al., 2005). The respondents were from San Francisco-Oakland, Seattle and Iowa between 1983 and 1989. The risk of mortality with breast implants following mastectomy is about half for those without implants. reast implants continue to be the choice form of breast reconstruction among breast cancer patients. There has been no significant change in design despite an overall decrease in implant use among them (Le et al.).
The solution should be improvement rather than perfection (Eitenmiller, 2011). Complications in women undergoing reconstructive surgery after a diagnosis…… [Read More]
The most serious problems occur when tissue around the implant contracts, the implant ruptures or the area becomes infected (Vanderkam 4).
Clearly, the safety of breast implants needs to continue to be studied. "The [FDA approval] panel stressed women will need yearly mammograms to check for signs of leakage since silicone can leak without immediate knowledge to the patient because the silicone leaks out slowly [...]. If there is leakage or a break in the implant, the implant(s) should be replaced" (Staff). However, breast implants have been totally safe for many women for years, and the recent ruling by the FDA to allow them again only adds to the strong belief many in the medical field hold that breast implants are a safe alternative for millions of women who hope to enhance their figures, or reconstruct their figures after a mastectomy.
It is quite clear that the choice to undergo…… [Read More]
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…… [Read More]
In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.
The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.
The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…… [Read More]
cultures have customs and traditions involving body modifications and while some generate serious controversy in the contemporary society, others are widely accepted. Some are inclined to associate body modifications with vulgar ideas and believe that people who have them are uncivilized. The fact that most body modifications involve a form of self-mutilation further contributes to making it seem that a person would have to be out of his or her mind in order to do something like this. The reality is that body modifications are an active concept today and some people believe that they are a good way to express their feelings and thinking in general.
'Normal' body modifications
Numerous individuals believe that there is nothing wrong with having a tattoo or having a part of one's body pierced. Most of the modern society promotes the idea that it is perfectly normal for girls to have their ears pierced…… [Read More]
S. government has promoted breast implants, at the taxpayers' expense: According to the Army, between 2000 and 2003 its doctors performed 496 breast enlargements (women must pay for the silicon implants) (Schaler 29).
Health safety does not seem to have an impact on those desiring cosmetic surgery, nor does the comments of authority figures. In 1958 Pope Pins XII warned that operations for mere "vanity" or to enhance the "power of seduction, thus leading others more easily into sin," or "to hide a criminal from justice" were not in keeping with the church's teachings (Feldman 66). Some Christian and Jewish clergy agreed. However, not even the clergy could fight the studies saying that people with better looks had a greater chance for success (Feldman 66).
Last month, the FDA reneged on its earlier findings about breast augmentation; after a 14-year ban, it decided that silicone implants do not pose any…… [Read More]
Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.
In a country, and dare say…… [Read More]
Product liability is an area of law in which any organization that either makes products (manufacturers) or distributes to the public (makes available) may be held responsible for potential injuries that may be caused by those products. In the United States, claims for product liability are usually associated with some type of negligence, breach of warranty, or other consumer protection issues. However, the large majority of product liability laws vary considerably because they are determined from state to state. This, of course, makes it problematical to litigate across state boundaries, as well as ensure that manufacturing requirements are met more universally (Golden, 2000).
Case -- Jennings v. Baxter Healthcare Corporation. 331 Oregon 285.14.P.3d596 (2000)
In 1978, Plaintiff received silicone breast implants following a mastectomy. Both implants partially deflated: the first in 1980 (and was replaced), the second in 1992. In 1993, Plaintiff had the implants removed, and it was discovered…… [Read More]
Then values of x are plotted with the corresponding values of y. If the relationship between the variables is positive then a line drawn through the points will slope upward. This upward slope signifies that as the values for x increase the values corresponding values for y also increase. The opposite will be true for a negative relationship. In this case the line will slope downward and the correlation would be negative.
In interpreting the correlation coefficient there is one other factor to consider and that is the p value. The statistical program will produce a probability statistic that suggests how likely the result that is observed is the product of chance. The researcher then examines the p value and compares it to the predetermined alpha level that was set for this particular test. If the p value is less than the alpha level the researcher must make a decision…… [Read More]
reaking the definition of business ethics into individual ethics and organizational ethics helps provide an optimal definition. As an individual one must be able to look at him and be comfortable with their conscience. Further an individual must have self-esteem and self-confidence to do take the right action. Remaining patient allows a person to look at the long-term results of his actions and avoid being too focused on the short-term consequences. Ethical rules have no value if they are not practiced consistently. Taking time to reflect before acting also allows one to consider appropriate behavior.
From an organizational level the same principles should apply. The organization must develop do's and don'ts initiated by the managers at the highest levels. Employees need to feel positive as individuals and feel positive about the organization. Each worker must continue to hold to his values and realize that consistent long-term application of values leads…… [Read More]
Representation of Women Through Media Has Changed From 1960s
How representation of women through media has changed from the 1960s
Susan Douglas suggests that fifty years ago, mass media existed in the form of music, television, and magazines. However, she suggest that the journey has been tough owing to the manner in, which the media represents women. The media used a sexist imagery to represent women, especially women who took part in music. Although researchers suggest that the media is a powerful tool, she suggests that the public had an option to resist the media by turning off their television, or ignoring advertisements in the magazines (Douglas 1995). Mass media had substantial influence on the social, cultural, economic, spiritual, political, and religious phases of the society as well as personal level thinking, feeling, and acting. Notably, mass media has both a good side and a bad side; it is insidious…… [Read More]
Levy makes reference to Girl's Gone ild and uses it as an example of how our society has allowed females to be exploited for profit. (Levy, 7-17) I agree with her here, but at the same time I don't believe this marks the death of feminism, for all females, but rather only for a select part of society who chooses to participate in such events as flashing big groups of people, or making out with other females for the whole world to see.
Another one of Levy's examples are based on other television programs such as HBO's Sex and the City and G-String Divas, a show in which strippers talk about their experiences. Although these shows have indeed redefined what it means to be a woman for those who buy in to the idea, there are still many women who don't believe they themselves fall in to that category of…… [Read More]
Johnson and Johnson have a written ethical policy that mandates the patient's welfare and well being to be the highest priority in the business.
n addition the policy calls for the fair and ethical treatment of physicians that will recommend and prescribe their products.
t is our fundamental responsibility to place the well-being of the patient first by appropriately balancing risks and benefits and to ensure that the best interests of patients and physicians who use our products receive utmost consideration (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm).
t is our responsibility to help ensure access to our products in the communities where we develop them (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm)
t is our responsibility to ensure all Company-based, medically relevant product information is fair and balanced, accurate and comprehensive, to enable well-informed risk-benefit assessments about our products (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm)."
The responsibly to challenge each other with regard to things such as ethical concerns and medical concerns.
One…… [Read More]
Portrayal of omen in Music, Tv, Film, Advertising, & Other Media Since 1990
This essay addresses how the portrayal of women has changed in one segment of the media (music, tv, film, advertising) from the early 1990's when the book here the Girls Are: Growing Up Female ith the Mass Media by Susan J. Douglas was completed. Discussed are the commonalties between women currently important to American pop culture and the women examined in the book, the differences or changes that have occurred, whether conditions have improved for women, and whether there has been a continued backlash against feminism in American popular culture over the last decade. Four sources are used. APA.
here the Girls Are: Growing Up Female ith the Mass Media
Susan J. Douglas in her book "here the Girls Are" examined the portrayal of women in the pop culture of the last part of the 20th century.…… [Read More]
PESTEL Analysis of the Medical Devices Industry in Australia
The medical devices industry in Australia has become the focus of political leaders in recent months. For instance, the Australian Senate launched an investigation into regulation of the medical device regulation in response to growing concerns about Poly Implant Prostheses breast implants. According to Murphy (2012), "The inquiry, which is being conducted by the Senate's Community Affairs Committee, follows a senate committee inquiry into Australia's medical device regulation that was completed late last year and that generated 18 recommendations on how to improve the regulations" (p. 1). Increased regulatory oversight, though, is complicated by the very nature of the medical devices industry. According to Breton and Stinson, "The medical device world is a shapeless blob" (2010, p. 27). This point is also made by Egan (2001) who emphasizes that while there have been a number of major pieces of legislation…… [Read More]
The button downs made for men tend to accentuate and broaden different areas than for women, for example, the shoulders. Both genders accessorize in different ways and one way is through shoes and bags. Women tend to wear high heels while men don't, and the former tend to carry a purse while the latter accessorize with a cross-body or messenger bag. Hair is another way to accentuate the gender difference for men and women fashion it differently, whether it is in terms of length or cut. As well, women tend to shave their hair in places men may not, for example, underarms and legs. Men may just shave their facial hair should they choose not to grow a beard.
Body modification or plastic surgery varies in both genders. Women may choose to get breast implants while men opt for pectoral implants. As well, in various cultures, certain body changes are…… [Read More]
Middle ange Nursing Theorist: ozzano Locsin
Dr. ozzano Locsin attained a PhD in nursing at the University of the Philippines in 1988. He is currently a tenured Professor of Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. Locsin has extensive experience in nursing research in a variety of nations: "Through the Fulbright Scholar Award, he developed the first Masters program in Nursing in Uganda while researching the phenomenon 'waiting-to-know' and the lived experiences of persons exposed to patients who died of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). His current research interests focus on themes of technology and caring in nursing and "life transitions in human health" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). Locsin calls his mid-range theory the "technological competency as caring model."
Theory development: How the theorist came about to develop his/her theory
Locsin's theory arose because of the frustrations he perceived in nurses when they were coping…… [Read More]
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More]
hat does this statement imply for both the patients and the doctors?
The idea of 'first, do no harm,' as stated in the Hippocratic Oath, is considered one of the oldest, perhaps the oldest principle of medicine. Doctors are supposed to be healers, not harmers of the human body. No ailing person should go to the doctor fearing that he or she will be taken advantage of, because of his or her vulnerable position as a patient. A patient should not fear that information will be withheld from him or herself, as part of an experiment, as was the case in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis study in which patients with the condition were knowingly denied treatment. Patients will fear going to physicians if they are terrified they may leave sicker or more damaged then when they entered treatment.
Physicians may make mistakes, some treatments may be ineffective, and…… [Read More]
It has kept going ever since" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 66). Morley's wife, Julia (a former beauty pageant winner) joined him in 1970 to help organize the competition to help maintain the contestants' morals and to ensure their modesty was suitably protected ("not invariably with success") (Cavendish, p. 67). Miss World has subsequently attracted television audiences in almost every country in the world and has earned an enormous amount of money for charity (Cavendish, 2001).
During the first few years of the competition, the Miss Great Britain title was a highly prized award, but Cooke suggests that it represented one of the only ways women had at the time to express themselves in a legitimate fashion: "My feeling," she says, is that it was, perversely, a kind of liberation for some women -- a way of making their only assets and their skills (the application of lipstick, the ability to walk…… [Read More]
identity institutionalized in mainstream culture?
Belonging to a group differentiated by character and trait best defines the identity of an individual. Identity can also be distinguished in a qualitative and quantitative approach by means of identifying the disposition and similarity of a person. The state of being as "I'm" denotes the individuality of a man in a common state within a group since the individual is all but one. Such that, a man can be qualitatively identical to another man by means of his trait but can never be identical to another man in terms of individuality or the state of being one. Wikipedia further explains this by citing:
"Examples of this might be two wine glasses made in the same wine glass factory on the same production line ... (at least, for a relaxed standard of exact similarity)
For example, Clark Kent is numerically (quantitatively) identical with Superman in…… [Read More]
Flows in Health Care
Since the government had started the practice of handing over major departments to private sector like health care and education, these areas are now more focused on employing techniques that can draw major profit flow. On examining the three crucial aspects of profit earning such as the number of patients, quality of staff and management, we come to a conclusion that all three areas go side by side and need to be checked upon regularly (Michael, 2006 ).
The numbers of patients are important, to a hospital; patients are the customers who are taking advantage of the health care services provided by that respective hospital. Another item that is associated to the number of patients is the type of patients coming in which is directly associated with the services that a hospital is providing at that particular time. In order to earn more profit in this…… [Read More]
Iso-Electric Point and Iron Content in Iron Hydroxide Impregnated Aluminosilicate-Based Geopolymers
Rahil Abou Saleh
Dr. Kiril Hristovski
Iron hydroxide impregnated aluminosilicate-based geopolymers (Fe-ASG) is a novel water treatment media currently under development for simultaneous removal of arsenic and inorganic contaminants. The goal of this study was to determine whether varied iron contents impregnated aluminosilicate impacts the surface charge in different pH conditions. The study tests for media types of virgin and iron impregnated ASG diluted in potassium nitrate (KNO3) for charge dispersion. pH of the sample was gradually adjusted using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and nitric acid (HNO3). Results demonstrated no significant relationship between iron content impregnated ASG and iso electric point, which suggests that surface area properties impacts the relationship.
I am especially appreciative of the guidance, encouragement, and patience exuded by Dr. Hristovski throughout the duration of this research project. Also I would like to give special thanks to…… [Read More]
Satire on Teenage Girls
They look so good, all in a row. Their jeans, lower than a plumber's pants, shimmer in the light because of all the glitter flung on their thighs. Tan lines from all of them are visible, so low are their extra low jeans. The sparkles on their pants match their eye shadow, which comes in a variety of colors: purple, silver, and the ever popular pink! The girls can choose whichever shade they prefer, to assert their individual personalities. As long as the shiny lip gloss matches, of course.
Their rear ends shake to the music blaring from the radio. They giggle in unison as they dance, arms flailing and bearing temporary tattoos. Two out of the four girls have belly button rings. The others have belly button rings and a tongue piercing. A melange of boy bands and Brittany blasts through the girls' bedroom. Whose…… [Read More]
Teen Girls and Media
Because of its pervasiveness, mass media such as magazines and television programs are increasingly in a position to influence the behavior and attitudes of teenage girls. In fact, television programs such as ER and sports-oriented teen magazines have been lauded for providing girls with positive role models.
Unfortunately, these programs and magazines remain the exception rather than the rule. Rather than promote healthy lifestyles or give positive role models, much of the media targeted to teens are both physically and psychologically harmful. This paper examines two of these main effects - the promotion of unhealthy habits and lifestyles and the growing tendency of these media to sexualize teens and turn them into consumers.
For noted feminist Germaine Greer, the popularity of television shows such as Baywatch represent a growing pandemic, where all women are expected to conform to an unrealistic body shape. Greer terms…… [Read More]
Deliberate and Emergent Strategies
Companies have a number of different options as they chart their course, seeking to maximize their advantages and limit their liabilities. Two of the major strategies that companies can follow are deliberate strategies, which consist of a systematic course of action that is pursued to allow a company to reach a desired object of goal. Another basic strategy approach is that of the emergent strategy, which involves a company's responding to the particular conditions and dynamics of a particular situation. This paper describes three companies (in three different sectors) that are pursuing a deliberate strategy and three that are pursuing an emergent strategy.
Deliberate Strategy deliberate strategy may be seen as one that is initiated from within a company and that accords with the company's intrinsic goals. Of course, it is unlikely to be the case that any company can ever pursue what might…… [Read More]
It was especially effective when evaluated for the specific demographic segmentation the organization was targeting. Young adult males were particularly inclined to watch the commercial, thanks to the buxom, bikini-clad beauty as the star. In addition, young adult females were more likely to relate to the star of commercial, more so than if they had cast a middle-aged housewife. Although these demographics were more likely to watch the commercial, such a small portion of the commercial was devoted to the actual message, it's difficult to determine the effectiveness on whether or not these viewers would take action, such as learning more about breast cancer or conducting monthly self breast exams, or other behaviors that would help with early detection of breast cancer, to ensure the likelihood of survival.
egarding the seven Ps of marketing, the Save the Boobs campaign was more effective than originally anticipated regarding the place of the…… [Read More]
Body modification is also used as a form of entertainment, as in cases of suspension, where individuals pierce their bodies with fish hooks, wire or other objects and then hang or elevate their body much like a "circus" trick (Leo 1).
There are many side effects of body modification, often contingent on the amount of or intensity of body modification a person is involved with. For example, ear piercing might leave few side effects other than some scar tissue in the ear; the same is true of piercing in other locations. Any form of body modification involving piercing the skin or cutting into the body introduces the risk of infections (Bendle 193).
Modern plastic surgery may leave scarring, especially when invasive procedures including tummy tucks or breast augmentation are performed; despite this many people are advocates of body modification, which has in its own right created a culture…… [Read More]
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…… [Read More]
Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
THE TWO SIDES
Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).
Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson…… [Read More]
http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)
There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).
Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…… [Read More]
These are designed to be confusing for terrorists who attempt to circumvent them. The unpredictability is enhanced by varying them for location to location. What makes the threat especially insidious is the fact that current full body scanners used in airports across the world cannot detect items concealed inside the body with great accuracy. However, improving existing technology can change this capability for the better, according to aviation security experts.
The main likely reaction to the latest intelligence is to expand and improve security at airport checkpoints. As security measures after 9/11 have expanded and improved, terrorists have responded by creating innovative evasion measures to avoid common screening practices at airports.
The publication Today Online (2011) refers to the surgically implanted devices as "belly bombs." The report quotes Transport Security Administration spokesman Kawika iley in asserting that there has been a trend among terrorist groups to respond to increased security…… [Read More]
The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…… [Read More]
Overall sensitivity for whole-body and PET/CT was 96% and 93% respectively, while specificity was 87% and 88% respectively.
The study showed that both methods are relevant for detecting metastases in breast cancer patients, but also showed that the method chosen should be appropriate to the type of tumor which may be suspected based upon the laboratory and clinical findings. While the study found that both 1.5- and 3-tesla MI scanning were feasible for the purpose of finding metastases, the team discovered that there is still much work to be done on refining the methods used for 3-tesla scanning. This could lead to further improvements in the results yielded by this method.
Breast gamma imaging spots DCIS better than mammo, M
Breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) is a functional study which is unaffected by dense tissue, implants or architectural distortion in the breast. The aim of the study was to…… [Read More]
The recommendation for the safest, most practical contraceptive device today's woman should consider would be the IUD. The choice between the ParaGard and the Mirena product should be up to the woman and her physician, once a good bit of research is conducted by the woman, and questions are asked of her doctor. If a device can be implanted and be effective for up to 10 years, and not have any serious - or even minor - side effects, that device would be well worth trying. In the event that it becomes unpleasant for any reason, the woman's doctor can easily remove it at any time.
Brody, Jane. "Jane Brody: New Devices and Effective Options in Contraception." The New
York Times (October 24, 2006). Retrieved 8 Nov. 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com.
Doheny, Kathleen. "The Birth-Control Choice of Female Docs." Shape 25.7 (March 2006)
86. Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…… [Read More]
As a result of these experiments, researchers realized that this is the mechanism by which nighttime lighting increased cancers in nighttime shift workers.
Nighttime shift work disrupts the normal rhythm of the circadian clock, which suppresses melatonin production; suppressed melatonin levels correspond to decreased resistance to cancers in tissues with melatonin receptor sites and to increased growth rates in tumors with melatonin receptor sites. Colorectal cancer is probably the type of cancer affected most by melatonin levels, because the same modern lifestyle that causes exposure to nighttime lighting also includes a high-fat, low fiber diet that is a known factor in rectal cancers.
The two final piece of the puzzle fell into place when researchers also determined that: (1) mice exposed to very low levels of light, even during nighttime sleep, also had higher cancer growth rates; and (2) people who are completely blind have lower rates of the same…… [Read More]
A strange phenomena is occurring and affecting American girls in a unique manner, they are entering puberty earlier than ever recorded. Liz Szabo, in her article "Girls hit puberty earlier than ever, and doctors aren't sure why" discussed this topic and revealed not only the personal effects of this development but also a variety of possibilities as to why this is happening. One of the major aspects of early development in girls is the fact that although this may appear to be a biological disorder, there often are accompanying behavioral, psychological, and social effects. But within the text of this enlightening article may lie the seeds to understanding this problem and developing a means to curb it.
In order to personalize the effects of what would otherwise be an interesting, but somewhat intellectual, subject, Liz Szabo delved into the story of a young American girl suffering from…… [Read More]
For candidates not considered good prospects for conventional LASIK because of extreme nearsightedness and who are leery of the long recovery period of PRK, phakic intraocular lenses can be implanted. "In these cases, a phakic intraocular lens may be used. This lens is implanted inside the eye and can effectively treat nearsightedness up to -20 diopters" (Randleman & Payne 2010, p.4). Intracorneal rings (thin plastic segments) implanted into the peripheral cornea to flatten the cornea can be used for individuals wary of the side effects of the surgery. hile visual recovery is less predictable with the intracorneal rings, the procedure has the advantage of being reversible. However, it is only able to correct up to -3 diopters of myopia (Randleman & Payne 2010, p.4).
Because it is not considered necessary surgery, and because the conditions it is designed to treat can be corrective with less expensive glasses and contacts, most…… [Read More]
Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical
Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…… [Read More]
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]
The procedure itself and the hospital stay associated with it is only one small chapter in the patient's life. They will eventually go home and will have many years after the procedure. It is important for the nursing staff to make a positive impact on how they feel about the procedure. The procedure will represent a lasting memory to the patient. If the patient perceives this to be a time of strength and care from nurturing individuals then it will help them to be able to develop the coping mechanisms necessary to learn to live with the after-effects of the procedure.
If the patient sees this as a negative experience, then it could produce unwanted effects such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other emotional problems that could have an effect on their ability to cope with the life changes. Those that develop appropriate coping mechanisms will be more likely…… [Read More]
..] and they have to take classes in make up, hair care, poise, and etiquette," (Lorber 1994).
So, I decided to use this expectation as a way to show just how prevalent gender associations are in a social setting. One night I attended a local club in a much different way than how I normally go out. Rather than wearing a dress or skirt with heals and make up, I went out this night in baggy Dickey shorts, borrowed from a friend, and no make up whatsoever. I chose this cultural role as a way to show just how much physical appearance was a part of how we assigned gender identity. I had previously thought that this was an important part of gender, due to the extreme actions many people take in order to adapt their physical appearance to their gender role. Various plastic surgery procedures, such breast augmentation, liposuction,…… [Read More]
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…… [Read More]
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…… [Read More]
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…… [Read More]