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The concept of transportation as a punishment for criminals dates back to before the establishment of the Australian colonies. The first ritish law establishing transportation as a means of dealing with criminals was the Transportation Act of 1718. This imposed sentences of transportation to the American Colonies for offences seen as too serious to be adequately punished by whipping but not serious enough to merit the death penalty. The American War of Independence effectively ended trans-Atlantic transportation, and felons sentenced to be transported were confined with ritain by means of prison hulks, in which conditions were appalling. Transportation overseas began again with the departure of the first convicts for the new Australian penal colony of otany ay in 1787. For nearly eighty years after that date, ritish convicts were sent to penal colonies in Australia; penal transportation was not abolished until 1857, and even after that date, until…
Albinski, Henry S., Australian External Policy Under Labor (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1977).
Dixson, Miriam, The Imaginary Australian: Anglo-Celts and Identity, 1788 to the Present (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 1999).
Emsley, Clive, Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (London: Longman, 1996).
Evans, Raymond & Thorpe, Bill, 'Commanding men: masculinities and the convict system', Journal of Australian Studies, no. 56 (2002).
Furthermore, if it came across the probability of war, it was not its plan to participate. Hence, focus on technological development with respect to warfare was ignored. It is ironic to state that a country which was leading the world in particular period of time ignored the possibility of having war. It is surprising to quote that the Great ritain could not comprehend the changed direction of winds which was starting to blow against it. Yet, in another words, it can be said that the Great ritain ignored the concept of self defence which forced it to deviate from developing defence related machinery and equipment.
When the War started and the Great ritain realised that it too was the part in it, it started its planning but it was too late to react in the right manner. The reactive approach forced the Great ritain to address the preset issues only…
Barber, Mark. The British Fleet Air Arm in World War II. UK: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2012.
Henry, Mark. The U.S. Navy in World War II. UK: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2012.
Morison, Samuel. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Illinois: University of Illinois, 2002.
Stevenson, David. 1914-1918: the history of the First World War. USA: Penguin, 2004.
At the start of the 20th century, France was still bitter about their loss of power in Egypt and continued fighting for African lands, including Morocco. Further fighting erupted over the canal, now between Britain and the newly alligned Germany and Turkey; however, the attempts at seizure were not successful. Soon after, France divided up a large portion of the Ottoman empire with Britain after the fall of Turkey in 1918.
The two rivals were still neck and neck in competition.
A New Imperialism and the "Scramble for Africa"
After a period in which the drive to conquer was partially put on the back burner (1860 -1880), a new lust for the expansion of empires took hold of Europe in the late 19th century. There were multiple reasons for this new wave among Europeans -- many of them similar to the reasons for the first rise of imperialism -- including:…
Aldred, John. British Imperial and foreign policy. Heinemann, 2004.
Bell, Jeffrey. Industrialization and Imperialism. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
Chamberlain, Muriel. The Scramble for Africa. Longman, 1999.
Chapman, J. The Westminster Review: Napoleon in Egypt. London: Frederick Warne and Co., 1898.
This, in turn would have a negative effect on the labor market, resulting in a sharp increase in unemployment.
While part of the goal of the EMU is for market convergence that will country-specific implications of EMU economic policies, there is no evidence that this will be true of the mortgage markets where people physically live, so Britain would be left with economic instability.
What type of British companies would most likely benefit from joining EMU?
Any company that exports to another Euroland country will no longer have the cost of converting one national currency to another. Multinationals also save money if all their subsidiaries trade in the same currency. Further, companies won't have to worry about exchange rate fluctuations and all will have access to a larger, more transparent market that will bring down prices and make firms better able to compete internationally.
Some believe that joining the EMU…
Britain's autonomy centers on Sterling and the Bank of England. he United Kingdom was the most prominent country to have abstained from Europe's effort to create a common currency, which caused such prominent and popular political figures as Lady Margaret hatcher to be ousted. Once a mere cog in the economic hegemony of the United States following the Bretton Woods conference, England is a currency trading powerhouse, with nearly 700 billion pounds sterling trading hands every day in London's interbank market. In that many believe or once believed the currency issue to have the ability to economically castrate Britain, the nature of the Bank of England, monetary policy, and the recent history of the Pound deserve our redress.
he determinants of the value of the Pound differ markedly from times past. Forward rates on foreign currencies are calculated on the basis of interest rates, the balance of trade, and monetary…
The Economist. Tomorrow, Perhaps. 1 November 1997. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=104007
The Economist. Batting for Britain. 1 May 1998. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=148411
Wall Street Journal. 4 April 2003.
Euro had a positive effect upon its members?
The euro has been the currency of the European Monetary Union (EMU) since January 1, 1999 (Auswartiges Amt, 2004). The euro was introduced slowly for member states. It has been a deposit currency since January 1999 and notes and coins have been in circulation since January 2002. Since March 2002 most European countries have exclusively used euro and cent as their currency.
The euro has become a new global currency as a transaction currency for trade and a reserve currency alongside the dollar (Auswartiges Amt, 2004). Thus, its benefits are vast, opening new doors for the euro zone representing a population of nearly 300 million, about 20% of global output and a 16.6% share of world trade. According to estimates by the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) the euro is more than just the…
Euro Facts. (2004). Countries, coins and timetable. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.theeurodebate.co.uk/facts.htm.
Mandelson, P. (May 22, 2003). There are six economic tests, not five. The Guardian.
Rinkinen, L. Hannu, S. (January, 2004). The Impact of EMU Membership and Euro Currency on Business - Experiences of Finnish Firms. Helsinki School of Economics.
Templeton, J. (2000). The UK and the Euro. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Britain is a country that has been shaped by turmoil and several significant events that have taken place in the nation's history. While some of the events have also had significant impact on other countries, Britain has mainly been shaped by events that have occurred within the country. Generally, British history is characterized by a variety of individuals occupying a wide range of regions. In some cases, the country has experienced intermittent periods of collaboration and rivalry between people occupying various parts of the United Kingdom. Some of the major events in British history that have dramatically influenced the United Kingdom, the British society, and Britain's international presence include the Battle of Britain, The Colonial Empire, and Defeat of the Spanish Armada.
The Battle of Britain:
The prelude to the Battle of Britain was characterized by little time between the Fall of France and the beginning of this…
Ayegboyin, D (2008), Martin Luther and Protestant Reformation, National Open University of Nigeria, viewed 7 August 2012,
Bungay, S (2010), The Most Dangerous Enemy: An Illustrated History of the Battle of Britain,
MBI Publishing Company, New York
Cobbett, W (1998), A History of the Protestant Reformation in England and Ireland, Tan Books & Publishers Inc., London
There are too many factors and situations that affect the performance of a country's economy that deciding on success or failure based upon on factor is highly unfair. Many of the factors that end up affecting a particular economy are many times things that a certain country has any control over. The world has gone global and so must the governing of countries economies. It is no longer just about what goes on at a domestic level but is more about what is happening across the globe. Not only does each country like Britain and Japan need to have economic policies in place for how to deal with their domestic economy there also needs to be policies in place to deal with the global economy as a whole. The global market has to be treated just like an economy all of its own, because of the tremendous influence that it…
Amadeo, Kimberly. (2009). Japan's Recession - What Caused Recession in Japan, and How it
Affects the U.S. Retrieved May 25, 2010, from About Web site:
While urbanization is identified as the main cause of poverty in Britain during the Industrial Revolution period, social problems related to health, education, and employment led the nation to poverty. As a result of increasing growth of population in the cities, poor living conditions became rampant, resulting to illnesses in urban areas. As a result, the government needed not only to provide help for people whose health has suffered, but it also had to bear the economic downturn that resulted from lack of workers in its industries due to low number of workers working its industries and factories.
In addition to community health problems, Britain also faced the challenge of negotiating with workers' unions in order to keep the economy running. The government's failure to address this social problem efficiently led to a slowdown in its economic activities, hurting its growth in the long run.
Lastly, education as a 'sub-cause'…
18th century Britain was a society that was undergoing a great deal of political, economic, and social change. The British Parliament was developing the modern form of parliamentary democracy, complete with elections, a Prime Minister, and power residing with the people's representatives. And while the previous centuries had been plagued with religious and political strife, the 18th century would be based upon economics and commercialism. Britain underwent a dramatic economic change which exacerbated the already fractious social divisions and creating an entire new type of society. One contemporary social commentator, who analyzed 18th century British society through his cartoons was William Hogarth and a study of his work can shed a great deal of light on the type of society in Britain at that time, as well as the types of social discord which were present.
The 18th century saw dramatic changes in all aspects of British society;…
Hogarth, William. (1822). Gin Alley. Retrieved from http://www.artoftheprint.com/artistpages/hogarth_william_ginlane.htm
Jacob, Margaret. (2001). The Enlightenment: A Brief History with Documents. Boston,
MA: Bedford/St. Martin's. Print.
As our textbook demonstrates, there were a range of factors that “loaded the dice of fate” in the favor of Britain to ensure that the industrial revolution occurred around 1800 in their nation. One of these factors were raw materials crucial for industrialization to occur. As our textbook illuminates, Britain had large quantities of coal and iron to use and invest in this revolution, and to ensure its success.[footnoteRef:1] There was also the advantage of accessibility of New World lands as means of financial investment and also to offer raw materials, should the movement of industrialization warrant it.[footnoteRef:2] However, perhaps the more compelling reason was social and environmental. Great Britain fostered an environment that was experimental and that frankly encouraged experimentation. For a great mind, this is a crucial. Even the most brilliant minds need the opportunity to try and fail repeatedly in order to create a more brilliant invention.…
NHS in Modern Britain
What are the most important factors influencing the NHS in modern Britain?
The National Health Service (NHS) was founded after the end of World War II. This is because the war highlighted a number of challenges that had to be addressed to include:
Inequality in the way services are delivered.
Financial difficulties associated with voluntary hospitals.
Views that the government could more effectively provide services to the general public.
The establishment of an existing emergency medical service as a part of the war effort.
The combination of these factors meant that there was a transformation in the way health care services were provided to everyone. This is when the NHS became the primary organization for delivering these services after 1948. (ivett 2011)
Since this time, the NHS has become an integral part in the way health care solutions are provided in Britain. However, this system has…
Health Care Spending Around the World, 2012, Guardian. Available from: [23 Sept. 2012].
Mackean, L, 2012, NHS Paid, BBC. Available from: [23 Sept. 2012].
Praites, N, 2012, Is the NHS becoming more Bureaucratic, Pulse Today. Available from: [23 Sept. 2012].
Rivett, G, 2011, National Health Service History, NHS History. Available from: [23 Sept. 2012].
Miscommunications between Britain and China abounded in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, culminating eventually in the Opium Wars. In the 1840 document from Lord Palmerston to the Emperor of China, and the 1792 letter sent directly from King George III to the Emperor of China both reveal British desperation to trade with China. Initially motivated by access to China’s tea markets, the British East India Company soon recognized the lucrative potential of diversifying into the global opium trade as well. Even prior to the newfound hunger for opium, the British sought free trade with China, evidenced in these letters. Yet as the tone and content of these two documents show, China had little to gain from doing business with Britain. China’s concept of international diplomacy also seems qualitatively different from that of the British, although these two British documents naturally offer only a one-sided view of the situation. The conciliatory…
France only had Britain as its enemy between 1803 and 1805. Napoleon Bonaparte, the famous French leader and politician, after conquering Italy and Egypt had its eyes on England territory for occupation. His Grand Armee sat idly around Boulogne in the hundreds of anchored ships in the channel ports. Napoleon's naval strategies to crush the British oyal Army using his French and Spanish fleets failed at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 (Dugdale-Pointon January 07, 2006). [1: Dugdale-Pointon, T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_napoleon.html]
The Naval Strategies of Britain and France (1803-1805)
Both France and Britain derived towards war due to a mutual misunderstanding. Both the countries were not fully prepared to conduct a renewed war against each other. There were no geo-strategic reasons that compelled the two opponents to declare a war against each other. Britain wanted to rebel against France simply because they could no more…
References" An Admirable Hero; His Radical Tactics Paved the Way for Nelson's Victory at Trafalgar. Now the Navy Is Paying Tribute to the Scot Who Saved Britain."The Daily Mail (London, England), October 11, 2010, 15. http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5045378449.Clayton, T., and P. Craig. Naval Historical Society of Australia, "Trafalgar - the Men, the Battle, the Storm." Last modified 2005. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.navyhistory.org.au/trafalgar-the-men-the-battle-the-storm/.Dugdale-Pointon, T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." Last modified January 07, 2006. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_napoleon.html Fisher, Herbert. 1913. Napoleon. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
health issue of obesity is gaining attention from diverse groups in society nowadays. For some years now, the many cases of health problems resulting from obesity have been the focus of research and studies of many scientists from different countries. Today, due to the increasing percentage of obese people in many nations, obesity research is among the major programs considered by health service groups and governments.
Obesity is a health problem that refers to excess fats in the body resulting to being overweight. Usually, obesity is caused by improper diet. Some critical illnesses that toll life are associated with obesity. Studies have shown that being obese causes an individual to lose a few years from his life expectancy.
Currently, countless of health articles, news, and journals regarding obesity are disseminated to bring attention to the public about its consequences. ecause of this, questions have been raised if such exposure of…
Curtis, Tom. Glasgow and Edinburgh Named UK's Fattest Cities.
News Scotsman. 07 June 2003. http://www.news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?id=288892003&tid=677
Josling, Leanne. Obesity: A Curable Epidemic.
World Socialist Web Site. 05 June 2003. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/apr2000/obes-a29.shtml
This increases the cost of living and diminishes people's savings, where it leads to poverty gradually.
From 1890 to 1914, Britain may have gone through a similar situation. Although later allied with France for military purposes, Britain may have not had any trade agreement. This implies that Britain was a self sustaining unit but using resources of her colonies. Even at that time Britain had nearly 1/4 of land area which commercially benefitted her directly and indirectly5. New industries were taken over by Germany and USA (electronics). In the mean time, traditional industries such as the 'steel industry' were fallen back and had been newly taken over by Germans and Americans5. This in turn might have generated a population of unoccupied personal searching for opportunities. In 1904 regular work was not sufficient to protect families against poverty and confirms owntree's conclusion that low wages were an important cause of poverty…
History Man Website2001, Britain, viewed 18 September, 2009,
conservation value of semi-Natural oak woodlands in ritain
Historically oak woodlands have produced a wide range of both commercial and non-commercial products as well as conservation and tourism benefits. However, woodlands are also vulnerable to human impact and this has "reduced the original forest cover in each area and there is concern that oak woodlands are still at risk, especially from impacts associated with increasing residential land-use conversion. (McCreary and Kerr)
The period of time over which woodlands in ritain have been negatively impacted stretches over millennia and therefore the damage to these areas is extensive. This has resulted in aggressive management strategies in the UK to increase woodland cover through government funded planting programs. (ibid)
Oak woodlands are habitats having oak and birch as the dominant species in the canopy. Other species of trees that are often found in the area or habitat include holly, rowan, hazel and alder.…
The countryside Agency. Countryside.gov.uk. Accessed; April 29, 2004. www.countryside.gov.uk/LivingLandscapes/countryside_character/south_west/quantock_hills.asp
Glentrool. Cree Valley Community Woodlands Trust. Accessed April 30, 2004 http://www.creevalley.com/glentrool.htm
Habitat Action Plans. 2003. Greater Manchester Biodeiversity Project. Accessed April 30, 2004, http://www.gmbiodiversity.org.uk/uplandoakwoodland.pdf
McCreary and Kerr. A Comparison of the History and Management of Oak Woodlands in Britain and California. USDA Forest Service Gen. 2002. Assessed April 30, 2004. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:JuMTQv91n20J:danr.ucop.edu/ihrmp/proceed/mccrearykerr.pdf+conservation+value+of+semi- natural+oak+woodlands&hl=nl
The United Kingdom and Ireland have both enjoyed geographic separation from the continent of Europe, enabling both to develop unique political cultures and institutions. Ireland has been even more removed from the fray, having never been part of the Roman Empire, and systematically resistant to the same invasions that affected England throughout much of their respective histories. However, the proximity between Ireland and England—and later the United Kingdom—has caused the two countries to be “intertwined politically, economically, and culturally for over 800 years,” (The Republic and Politics of the Republic of Ireland 5). British hegemony has generally meant that Irish identity has been largely oppositional in nature. Divergent trends have emerged in the political cultures and institutions of the United Kingdom and Ireland, especially with regards to the relatively power of the Church. Ireland’s political structures, institutions, and cultures have been inevitably influenced by the British system, but the Catholic…
rise of fascist states in Germany and Italy during the post World War I era was accompanied by similar movements in nations across the world; but most of these never achieved the same prominence. Great Britain saw the emergence of the British Union of Fascists, which gained thousands of supporters, but the organization never came to power. Largely this was for economic reasons: Britain did not suffer as severe an economic downturn after the First World War as many other nations did. Another explanation is the general rejection of the violent methodology employed by the British Fascists. It is tempting to argue that fascism was fundamentally opposed to the overall democratic nature of the British populous, but it is more likely that the failure of the fascist movement in Great Britain had economic origins.
There had never been a war quite like World War I. In its aftermath it was…
Conceptualizations of Racism in Contemporary ritain
Racism in contemporary ritain is a complex and often contentious issue. The important issues related to this concept are difficult for various critics to agree upon. Issues such as primordialism and the importance of class structures in the struggle for racial equality serve as the center of various debates surrounding race and racism in contemporary ritain.
Primordialism is a concept attached to the biological origins of race, and the effect of this upon social behavior (Mason in Rex & Mason 5). The question surrounding this issue is whether the phenotype or culture attached to racial origins has an independent effect or whether it is mediated by contemporary social meaning. This is reminiscent of the biological inferiority theories that provides race as an excuse for oppression. The scientific exploration of human origins is thus incorporated into racist theory. According to the ell Curve (published…
Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Jenkins, R. "Social Anthropological Models of Inter-ethnic Relations." Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Mason, D. "Controversies and Continuities in Race and Ethnic Relations Theory." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Mason, D. Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
The advent of the First World War brought with it the stark reality of the 'progress' which modern man had made. Mankind found out that despite the eloquence of the enlightenment, and the wonderful advancements made in medicine, education, literature, and the arts that man could still take up arms against his brother, and fight hand to hand if necessary in order to gain a foot of ground, or in retaliation for yesterday's loss of a comrade. The First World War plunged the entire western world into a deep pit, governed by the engines of war, empowered by the newly mechanized assembly line manufacturing of the industrial revolution. Fro all his advancement, and enlightenment, mankind was still closely related to the Romans who burned and conquered peopled under their iron fist, and the Huns where known to destroy everything in their path. Civilized, and enlightened, we still were…
DAYS LIKE THESE 19 MAY 1941. The Independent London, England. 5/19/2003
Brittain, Vera. Testament of Youth. New York: Penguin Books. 1994
Celtic history and influence in Britain spanned several centuries: between the 7th and 1st centuries BCE. The Celts originated in Central and Western Europe and they eventually migrated to the British Isles. The Celts would have a huge impact on early British linguistic and cultural development. They would later be considered adversaries of the omans, who successfully dominated and nearly obliterated Celtic culture on the islands. After the downfall of the oman Empire and waning oman rule in Great Britain, Celtic culture enjoyed a small resurgence. However, Druidic religion and culture would be overshadowed by Christianity.
However, the lingering effects of Celtic culture remained strong throughout British history. Celtic influence on British culture focuses on language, weapons, culture, religion, and art. Language and cultural identity are inextricable from Celtic influence, and many Celtic languages are still spoken throughout the British Isles today including Welsh, Manx, and both…
"The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Alfred the Great."
It seems surprising that while the events of the 17th Century can be
so clear, they leave much to interpretation. The events epicte in A
Monarchy Transforme are exceptionally clear, such as the Great Fire of
Lonon or the Gunpower Plot, an they help to lea into the narrative
which is what is really important, because it is necessary to know the
political story before history can be tol. The work begins with two
overview chapters which help to put the social an political context in
perspective before jumping into the narrative. It woul perhaps be helpful
for a more fitting overview, but that oes not etract from the effective
narrative in bringing the political etails of the British monarchy to
life. The Stuart ynasty is accurately, informatively, an with great
attention to reaability, mae clear as to their place in British history
an the political events in which they…
Kishlansky, M. (1996). A monarchy transformed : Britain 1603-1714. London:
Carrabine, Lee and South 193)
As has been said before, the UK no longer makes anything, builds anything or sells anything tangible. The decline in industrial production has resulted in an overall decline in employment of industrial workers, who have not been aided by a failing system to transition to other work.
Some would say that the changes occurring in the UK, at this time with the increased importance of service industry work and intelligence rather than physical labor employment is a natural byproduct of globalization and an evolutionary product of the next phase as a "developed" nation.
They evidence this by observing that all developed nations are leaning in this direction. Yet, the transition has not and will not be easy, whether it is normal or not, a point which remains to be proven.
ith the education system in the UK in serious need of reform…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000677576' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Some of that came from the sunk costs, but much of it also came from the escalation of commitment between the countries, as well (Beniada, 2006). In other words, if there are two entities working on a project and one of them says it will not back down and will finish the project, the other entity will often do the same to save face and to keep its commitment. That is an important way that companies and individuals continue with the commitments they have made to one another, but it can also be problematic when it leads to an overzealous belief that a project must be completed no matter what, and that both entities working on the project have to focus their entire beings on the project at hand. The Concorde was very expensive, took longer to build than expected, and cost both Britain and France much more than the…
Beniada, F. (2006). Concorde. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press.
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…
Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.
Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.
Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.
Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
S. were not "hostile" to evangelicalism (Bebbington, p. 367). After II, the Church of Scotland and British Methodism launched "sustained evangelistic thrusts" and in Britain the "National Young Life Campaign" got involved in evangelical activities, Bebbington continued.
The American Presbyterian denominations announced in 1946 that they were to become "a crusading organ for evangelical religion" (Bebbington, p. 367). And when Billy Graham began preaching and healing in the post-II era he did "almost as much" to bring the evangelical movement strength in Britain as he did in the United States, Bebbington asserts. Even in the staid, conservative Church of England there was a "new evangelical revival" by 1959; further promoting the movement was the fact that the British and American evangelical movements linked their talents and strengths across the Atlantic Ocean.
Bebbington notes that the charismatic movement in Britain during the 1960s was in part inspired by the writings of…
Bebbington, David. 1994. Evangelism in Its Settings: The British and American Movements
Since 1940. Eds. Mark a. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George a. Rawlyk, in Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and Beyond, 1700-1990. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bebbington, David W., and Bebbington, Davi. 1989. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A
History from the 1730s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge.
Great Britain has always possessed a rigid class structure with few chances for upward mobility. However, in modern times, class structure has received a new face-lift. Instead of the traditional three tiered social class structure, instead is in place a seven tiered class structure that has various ways to measure class that include social, cultural, and economical. Therefore, class within British society, is not just categorized through how much money a person has, but also how socially and culturally active they are. Still, there is some debate to whether or not class plays an important role in British society as much as it did in the past. Evidence suggest it does and the more money and influence a person has in society, the more likely they will do well and receive more opportunities, therefore removing the notion that class does not have much of an impact on a person's future.…
Akinwale, B., Lynch, K., Wiggins, R., Harding, S., Bartley, M. And Blane, D. (2010). Work, permanent sickness and mortality risk: a prospective cohort study of England and Wales, 1971-2006. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 65(9), pp.786-792.
Bianchi, S. And Milkie, M. (2010). Work and Family Research in the First Decade of the 21st Century. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), pp.705-725.
Boliver, V. (2010). Expansion, differentiation, and the persistence of social class inequalities in British higher education. High Educ, 61(3), pp.229-242.
Holden, C., Kilkey, M. And Ramia, G. (2011). Social policy review. Bristol, U.K.: Policy Press.
The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).
Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…
Bruce, J. Douglas. The Development of Arthurian Romance in Medieval France. The Sewanee Review 13(3)(1905): 319-35.
Chretien de Troyes. Erec and Enide. Accessed 5 June 2012. http://omacl.org/Erec/
Chretien de Troyes. Lancelot or, the Knight of the Cart. Accessed 5 Juen 2012. http://omacl.org/Lancelot/
Fulton, Helen. A Woman's Place. Quondam et Futurus 3(2)(1993): 1-25.
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…
references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).
Possible predictions about the future of British engineering
In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).
Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.
" (Stevens, 2006) While the pay of education staff has been lowered, tuition fees have been raised and yet public spending."..on higher education in the UK is one of the lowest in the industrialized world." (Stevens, 2006) Currently ritain is stated to spend only 1.1% of its national income on higher education, compared with the EU average of 1.2%." (Stevens, 2006; paraphrased) the U.S. spends 2.6% of its national income on higher education according to Stevens. The Labour and Conservative parties in ritain are conspiring to bring about an increase of private funding for higher education "but only to encourage the social stratification that has taken place." (Stevens, 2006) the proposal is for the establishment of a system in which a "select group of 'world class' universities would be established, with the majority of universities left to compete amongst themselves for ever dwindling public funding." (Stevens, 2006) Oxford and Cambridge…
Smith, Liz (2007) Report reveals UK youth abandoned by education system. WWS News 25 June, 2007. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2007/jun2007/educ-j25.shtml
Stevens, Robert (2006) Britain: Poorer Student Numbers Fall as Tuition Fees are Hiked Up. 27 Dec 2006. World Socialist Web Site. WEWS.org News and Analysis. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/dec2006/univ-d27.shtml
School Leaving Age to be Raised to 18 (2007) Evening Standard 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23381446-details/School+leaving+age+ 'to+be+raised+to+18'/article.do
Capital Support for the Expansion of Successful and Popular Secondary Schools (2007) Teachernet. Online available at http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/resourcesfinanceandbuilding/FSP/successfulandpopular/
East Asian Civilizations
(1) Unequal Treaties
(2) sino-japanese war 3
(3) MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT
(1) CHINA IN DECLINE
(1) CHINA's CIVIL WAR 7
(1) UNEQUAL TREATIES
The growing demand for Chinese tea, silk and ceramics by ritish had created severe trade imbalance for ritain. The ritish were also losing their silver reserves in exchange for Chinese goods. In late 1930's government of Great ritain found "opium" as a solution for resolving trade imbalance. Opium, which is more addictive than tea, was being supplied to China by ritish merchants. As demand for opium increased in China, ritain's imports increased and in this way silver bullion was flowing out of the China into ritain.
However Chinese government (Qing government) took serious steps to stop the trade of opium. Lin Zexu, which was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner for the Destruction of Opium, started an anti-opium campaign. During the campaign, opium stores were…
CIIC. "Formation of the Chinese Civilization." 2001. China Internet Information Center. .
Devine, Richard. "Japanese Rule in Korea After the March First Uprising." Monumenta Nipponic 52.4 (1997).
Dyke, Van and Paul Arthur. Tha Canton trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1998.
Liu, Li and Xingcan Chen. The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under," by Phyllis Edelson. Specifically, it will contain a brief analysis of British-Australian relations since the 1800s, along with the 19th and 20th century Australian views of Britain.
BITAIN AND AUSTALIA THEN AND NOW British and Australian relations have always been strained, to say the least. The first European settlement on Australia was a British penal colony in 1788. In other words, Australia was good enough for the dregs of Britain, and that was about all. The first settlement was located at what is now Sydney. Eleven ships brought 1,530 passengers with 700 convicts and the rest soldiers sent to guard the convicts and make sure they did a full day's work.
For the first thirty years of the 19th century, Australia was little more than a large holding cell for British prisoners, and Britain seemed to have little other…
Edelson, Phyllis Fahrie. Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under. New York: Ballentine Books, 1993.
evidence back thoughts. OPTION #1:Discuss advantages
Great Britain and the fledgling United States each held distinct advantages and disadvantages at the start of the Revolutionary War. Britain, for its part, was advantaged by the fact that it had a plethora of soldiers with extensive experience in warfare. It also had a population of approximately 11 million from which it could use to support its martial effort. Additionally, Britain was aided by the fact that it had roughly 500,00 soldiers already stationed in the colony prior to the war's start. Britain would also go on to add about 30,000 German soldiers to its ranks.
America's advantages were not as formidable as those of Britain when the war initiated. It did have good leadership with generals such as George Washington. Moreover, it was indubitably aided by the fact that it best understood the purpose of the war and it had more to…
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…
BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]
The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.
Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.
Criminal Justice System
After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.
Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says
efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…
BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e
CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html
Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/
Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective
The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…
Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf
Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73
Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
Patrick Henry's speech to in March of 1775 is one of the best-known speeches in American history, and captured the emotions being experienced by many people involved in the American evolution. Henry differed from many of the other leaders of the evolution in that he had not gained prominence and respect prior to the revolutionary period. Henry began life as somewhat of a ne'er do well, eventually choosing the practice of law. He eventually became a prominent member of the evolution, where he was considered a liberal firebrand and a powerful orator. Henry was an influential leader in the radical opposition to the British government, but only accepted the new federal government after the passage of the Bill of ights, for which he was in great measure responsible (A&E 2013, p.1). This was due to his commitment to individual liberty, which is evident in his most famous speech. He…
A&E Networks. 2013. Patrick Henry. Biography.com. Online. Available from Internet,
Henry, Patrick. 1775. Give me liberty or give me death. Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg.
On-line. Available from Internet,
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/politics/giveme.cfm , accessed November 14, 2013.
Industrial Revolution of Trade eyond ritain
In a period around the 1500s-1600s, the Industrial Revolution was a confine of ritain mainly due to technological breakthroughs tailored to suit ritish conditions and not profitable elsewhere. However, most ritish engineers aimed at improving efficiency and reducing the application of inputs that were considered cheap within ritain and the expensive elements. Consumption of coal from steam engines was sourced from 47 pounds for each horsepower-hour within the 18th century, and only two pounds are starting mid-nineteenth. The relationship of ritish engineering was undermined by the technological issues that led the creation of 'appropriate technology' in the advanced worlds. From the mid-nineteenth century, there were advancements in technology with profitable use in countries such as India with cheap labor and France with expensive energy. The achievement of such measures allowed Industrial Revolution to be a worldwide agenda[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Olson James; Encyclopedia of the Industrial…
1. Allen, R.C. 'The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective, How Commerce Created The Industrial Revolution and Modern Economic Growth. 2011.
2. Cook, Sylvia. Workers, Literary Ladies, The Industrial Revolution and Female Aspiration. New York, Oxford University Press, USA, 2007.
3. Davies, Stella. Living Through the Industrial Revolution. New York, Routledge, 2013.
4. Goloboy, Jennifer. Industrial Revolution, People and Perspectives. New York, ABC-CLIO, 2008.
Undeclared War in the Atlantic
America's move to escort convoys into the Atlantic meant America was ready to enter undeclared naval war with Germany during World War II, and yet these very actions have been subject of many criticisms. That is, many claimed it happened because during the time of this war, the oosevelt administration did not establish clear defense tactics that would have defended the U.S. during war. The United States may have been a sitting duck until a time when it was attacked. Some claim the U.S. security was deeply influenced by what was going on elsewhere in the world. For example, if Britain were to crumble under the weight of war, then the Axis powers would essential control the resources of the entire Old World. The New World would then be living in war. This paper discusses more about the United States' undeclared war against…
Bailey, Thomas A. & Ryan, Paul B. 1979. Hitler vs. Roosevelt: The Undeclared Naval War.
New York: Penguin.
Kershaw, Ian. 2007. Fateful choices: Ten decisions that changed the world. 1940-41. New York:
Penguin, p. 624.
Perceptions and Experiences of Taking Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Among People of Pakistani and Indian Origin
The ailment of type 2 Diabetes is four times more prevalent among South Asians of Pakistani or Indian origin than the rest of the British population. It's effects can be extremely debilitating, including conditions such as heart disease, renal failure, stroke, amputation, and blindness. The common approaches to dealing with these problems involve daily measuring and administration of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), which requires considerable patient responsibility. South Asian patients, however, hold beliefs which are contrary to the commonly held beliefs of estern medicine, in that drugs should be taken only when symptoms are present, and that long-term use of drugs is dangerous to the body. These preconceived notions must be recognized by the medical community of Britain, and addressed to this population in particular in order for better adoption and consistent use…
Lawton, J., N. Ahmad, et al. (2005). "Perceptions and experiences of taking oral hypoglycaemic agents among people of Pakistani and Indian origin: qualitative study." BMJ 330(7502): 1247-1251.
1770 and 1850, the economy of England became industry based as opposed to agriculture based as it used to be before (Toynbee, 1884). This was due to technological inventions that were ongoing in many spheres that were finally integrated. This led to the development of factories that really never existed before. The development of industries was owed to better transport system that created larger markets. It took the society some time to adjust to the new economic system different from the agrarian economy they were conversant with. This paper seeks to highlight why industrial revolution started in Britain. There were quite a number of factors that led to British Industrial evolution.
One of the major factors that caused industrial revolution in Britain was the expansion of trade save for the mercantile economic policies that had early been instituted. Because of decline of feudalism, farmers were no longer bound to the…
Kreis, S. (2011). Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved March 29, 2013 from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Mack, P.E. (2005). The British Industrial Revolution. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/britir.htm
Toynbee, A. (1884). Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/toynbee/indrev
British constitutional history has largely been a slow and deliberate process of evolution over a period of centuries. The following comments of a political scientist are thus largely true:
Nowhere else has the world witnessed a political evolution so relatively free from great civil commotion. Britain has not had a revolution comparable with the French Revolution of 1798 or the Russian Revolution of 1917. It is true that there have been threats of Revolution and so-called revolutions in Britain, but they did not deflect the main current of political development.
In this essay we shall discuss why the above comments are a reasonably accurate observation of the British political history.
Until the Middle Ages, Britain was a feudal kingdom that gradually transformed into a strong centralized monarchy. The monarchy came into its own in the middle ages and the monarchs felt secure enough in their position to seek the advice…
Kishlansky, Mark. "United Kingdom." Section on History. Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002
Belanger, Claude. "The British Constitution." Quebec History. February 26, 2001. Marianopolis College Web Site. December 6, 2002. http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/index.htm
Eamon de Valera seems to have been talking about more than one threat in his response to Churchill's persistence. On the surface, he is saying that Ireland will fight against invading forces...in other words, if Japan or Germany invaded Ireland in earnest, it is clear by de Valera's words that he intends England to hold no concern that Ireland would not be victorious against them. But a more careful reading of de Valera's words paints England, and Churchill, as just as much of a threat. hile not suggesting that either are a physical danger, he suggests that both are endangering Ireland's rights and autonomy, and therefore, according to de Valera, granting rights to Ireland's ports would be nothing short of abandoning the independence that was so recently won (twenty years earlier).
Propaganda in all nations was the order of the day -- it is very likely that both de Valera…
Althoz, Josef L.. Selected documents in Irish history . Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2000. Print.
Churchill, Winston, and Martin Gilbert. The Churchill war papers . New York: W.W. Norton, 1995. Print.
History of World War II . New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp., 2004. Print.
So alike yet distinct did these early writers create, that they are now required reading in British schools (Duquette).
In terms of religion, American culture emulated Britain less than many of the early settler were reactionary against British conservatism. Several of the original 13 Colonies were established by English, Irish, and Scottish settlers who were fleeing religious persecution. By 1787, in fact, the United States became one of the first countries to place a freedom of religion code into law, even if it was only at the Federal level (Gaustad).
Thankfully, America has a taste for more exotic foods and cuisine than the British, but if we think of many of the celebrated Holidays, they either derive from or are part of the British tradition. Thanksgiving, for instance, is now a traditional American holiday evolving from the Pilgrim's plight during the first winter of their landing. Christmas, Easter, and Lent…
Ciment, J., ed. Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. New York: Sharpe Reference, 2005.
Duquette, E. Loyal Subjects: Bonds of Nation, Race and Allegiance in 19th Century America. Trenton, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.
Gaustad, E. Proclaim Liberty Througout All the Land: A History of Church and State in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Gienow-Hecht, J. "A European Considers the Influence of American Culture." 1 Febuary 2006. America.gov - Engaging the World. .
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
race the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.
Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).
In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…
The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.
What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).
In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation, with new lands to populate and new challenges to face as well.
Good people do not use their power as belonging to the dominant group in society to make those who are minorities -- because of their race or their gender, their religion or their ethnicity -- feel lesser.
Simple, right? Multiculturalism preaches tolerance, and this is a very good first step. But critical multiculturalism teaches tolerance plus the need to be honest with ourselves and others about who in any relationship or interaction has power. Simple, right? Well, not really. One of the striking things about the responses to Straw was that while many of his critics chastised (or excoriated) him for siding with Western values against the values of his Muslim constituents, some of those who supported him praised him for siding with Western values (such as freedom and self-autonomy) against patriarchy and sexism. When he said that veils were not a good thing for a society that includes Muslim…
Bennett, D. (Ed.) (1998). Multicultural states. London: Routledge.
Calhoun, C. (Ed.) (1994). Social theory and the politics of identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Dallmayr, F. (1966) 'Democracy and Multiculturalism' in S. Benhabib (Ed.) Democracy and difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Parekh, B. (2000). Rethinking multiculturalism. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…
Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,
and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 1978.
Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
A context of economic stability strengthens the country's status in the world, increases the value of the national currency and attracts foreign investors. But there should also exist a certain level of flexibility in order to encourage investors to open businesses within the country. Foreign investors need both security but also the promises of adaptability and flexibility, which will help them conduct organizational operations.
Stability should be offered by most industries and sectors, as well as national institutions. Among the sectors which reveal increased importance in offering stability are the financial sector and the banking sector. The financial sector, supervised by the country's central bank, must be stable as to develop and implement fair financial regulations, maintain an appropriate value of the national currency and reduce inflation. The banking sector has to be stable as to offer numerous credit and savings opportunities for entrepreneurs.
Benito, C.A., Neo-Classical Growth Model,…
Benito, C.A., Neo-Classical Growth Model, Development Economics Sonoma State University, retrieved from www.sonoma.edu/users/b/benito/econ403/units/NeoClassical.ppton February 7, 2008
Elbaum, B., Lazonick, W., 1984, the Decline of the British Economy: An Institutional Perspective, the Journal of Economic History, Volume 44, Number 2
Gourvish, T., 2000, Entrepreneurship in Britain 1870-1914 - Failure or Adaptation, London School of Economics, Retrieved at http://www.dieboldinstitute.org/paper3b.pdfon February 7, 2008
Meade, J.E., 1962, a Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth, Retrieved at http://www.economyprofessor.com/economictheories/neo-classical-growth-theory.phpon February 7, 2008
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
Military -- ritish Royal Navy
Great ritain's geography, society, economy and politics are all ideally intimately connected. The interplay of these forces, along with Great ritain's early and continuing recognition of their importance, fostered the strongest navy possible for protecting the nation's economic and military interests. As a result, the Royal Navy eventually grew to become the dominant maritime global force by the 18th Century.
The interplay among Great ritain's geography, society, economy and politics was so organic in the rise of the Royal Navy to a dominant maritime force by the 18th Century that it is difficult to examine one aspect without also speaking of the others. Geographically, Great ritain's financial districts had access to national and international markets through its multiple ports on the sea, which gave even the smallest ports of the nation the advantages and difficulties of international trade.[footnoteRef:1] Unlike France, for example, Great ritain's economic…
Kennedy, Paul M. The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (Paperback). Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2006.
Rodger, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2005.
Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989.
British Empire in the 1950's
In the aftermath of the Second World War the British Empire was began to disintegrate with a number of colonies engaging in conflicts aimed at driving the British out and gaining their independence. In response to these uprisings, the British used a variety of strategies with a varying amount of success. The outcome of these "small wars" in colonies such as Kenya, Aden, Cyprus, and Borneo depended upon how the British operated in that particular area and their individual response to the uprisings. In short, each conflict was unique, contained unique circumstances, and therefore required a unique response on the part of the British.
The British operated their colony in Kenya as a place to resettle British citizens in the lush farmland formerly owned by the native Kenyans. As a result, when the native Kikuyu tribe revolted, the British used the revolt as a means…
Carver, Michael. 1981. War Since 1945. New York: Putnam.
Goktepe, Cihat. 2003. British Foreign Policy Towards Turkey, 1959-1965. London:
Frank Cass Publishers.
Walker, Jonathon. 2011. "Red Wolves and British Lions: The Conflict in Aden." In
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
social, economic, and political changes the country as experienced since 1783 are fulfilling the promises of the Revolution?
The American revolutionary war is one of the most significant events in the history of today's United States of America. It involved a war between the American colonies and Great Britain. This great historical event took place in the years 1775 to 1783 and led to the formation of United States of America. Conflicts leading to the war of independence arose from the tension between the 13 colonies of North America's residents and the Britain colonial government. The tensions leading to the America's independence war emerged from attempts by British government to raise revenue by taxing her colonies.
The war with Great Britain created awareness to Americans and pushed the nation into the search for a new and long-lasting society based on equality, liberty and independent ideas. Following the war of…
Morton, C.J. The American Revolution. United States of America: Green wood press, 2003. Print
Frank, A. American Revolution: People and perspectives. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Print
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…
Sudan's existence can be traced back to approximately 9 million years. It is a state in Africa which was formerly conquered by its neighbor; Egypt as well as Turkey. However, rebellion against this ruling regime gave Britain an opportunity to step in. consequently, it was in 1899 when an agreement was signed between Egypt and Britain under which Sudan was to be jointly administered by these two countries. It was not until 1955 when Sudan got its independence and was ultimately granted the right to self-govern. In addition, in 1916, Darfur joined the protectorate. As a matter of fact, while Sudan was under Anglo-Egyptian rule, it kept the North and the South separate. egardless of this divide, most of the development was focused in the North as compared to the South and other areas such as Darfur remained economically as well as politically marginalized. Although the…
Dagne, Ted. The Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa's Newest Country. CSR Report for Congress: Congressional Research Service, 2011.
Goulty, A. "United We Stand, Divided We Fall: The Sudan's After the Split," Woodrow Wilson International Working Paper No. 2. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/FINALAFR120228_policy5T_0329_rpt.pdf , (accessed 30th July, 2012).
Jhonson, Douglas. The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars: Peace or Truce (USA: Boydell & Brewer Ltd., 2003).
Latcher, Wolfram. South Sudan: International State Building and its Limitations (Berlin: Stiftung Wissenchaft, 2012).
England Faces Modern Britain -- From ace and Soccer to Women Bishops and Gay ights" has been chosen for the discussion on the intersection of gender, race and inequality.
The article published in International Herald Tribune by Mark Ashurt is about the various issues which the Modern England is facing. The title itself shows the theme of the article, as the issues of acism, Gender, and Ethnicity are still existent in the Modern Britain. The first issue concerns the soccer world and is related to racism. John Terry, the former England captain is accused of racially abusing an opponent of Queens Park angers (Anton Ferdinand). The verdict of the jury is set to be out soon and will open a number of debated regarding the racism issue. Sports have not saved it from being in the middle of controversies related to racism, sexuality and gender. The article has linked the…
Ashurt, M. (2012, 13th July). England Faces Modern Britain -- From Race and Soccer to Women Bishops and Gay Rights. International Herald Tribune
Wallman, S. (1977). "Ethnicity research in Britain," Current Anthropology, v. 18, n. 3, pp. 531 -- 532.
This research focuses on the health impacts of the Industrial evolution on various sectors of the British population, and hypothesizes that working class and poor laborers suffered from poorer health than their wealthier counterparts due to exposure to pollution and to lack of exposure to a varied diet.
Public health and the public health system existing in the 21st century is unrecognizable from what existed just a century before. As Wohl (1983) points out, poverty, ignorance, and poor sanitation plagued British public health throughout the Victorian era. It is important to understand what prompted the changes that led to increased knowledge, awareness, and application of ethical principles in health care. Armed with this knowledge, the bioarchaeologist and health care specialists alike can work together to transform health care outcomes in the future.
In particular, the Industrial evolution impacted individual and public health in significant and measurable ways. Coal…
Wohl, A.S. (1983). Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain.London: J.M. Dent.