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Budget Process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police
Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11927155
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budget process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD). LVMPD was formed in 1973 as a result of the merger of the Las Vegas Police Department with the Clark County Sheriff's Department. LVMPD serves the city limits of Las Vegas along with unincorporated areas of Clark County.

LVMPD is funded by the City of Las Vegas and Clark County. Police department funding is based on a complex formula determined by population, calls for service, and the number of felony crimes from the previous year. Both city and county governments must approve not just the annual operating budget, but also their respective percentage of the budget. In addition to funding supplied by the two governments, the department itself generates approximately one-third of its funds though property tax and the charging for certain services, such as special events. A special sales tax to fund commissioned positions generates additional funding.

The Law Enforcement…

Works Cited

Haynes, B. (2011). Board votes to tap Las Vegas police reserves. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvrj.com/news/board-votes-to-tap-las-vegas-police-reserves-120669354.html 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Amended Final Budget FY 2011- 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvmpd.com/pdf/FinalBudget2011-2012.pdf 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (n.d.). About Us Consolidation. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvmpd.com/about/consolidation.html 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Fiscal Year 2011-2012 Budget-in-Brief. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvmpd.com/pdf/BudgetinBrief2011-2012.pdf

Budgeting for Police Managers Although
Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74453450
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In this regard, Garner adds that, "A safety-smart leader realizes that while a $10 flashlight purchased in bulk at the local discount store may put out enough light to read a driver's license, a 20,000 candlepower light that sets the department back $90, may make all the difference in the world when the officer holding it faces an armed offender one dark night. Little things like that are not lost on the troops" (p. 92). In fact, as to budget priorities, Garner (1998) suggests that officer training and safety considerations should be at the very top of the police manager's list: "A competent police manager encourages and demands an organizational environment where safety is valued, taught and practiced. He mandates that supervisors and managers role model, inspect, reward and correct for safety. He assures that the very best safety training and equipment is made available to his personnel" (p. 92).…

References

Borrello, a. (2009, March). In defense of the police manager. Law & Order, 57(3), 64-65.

Carrick, G. (2003, April). Traffic safety in the new millennium. Law & Order, 51(4), 44-45.

Coulton, G.F. & Feild, H.S. (1995). Using assessment centers in selecting entry-level police officers: Extravagance or justified expense? Public Personnel Management, 24(2), 223-

Garner, G.W. (1998, December). A leader's role in officer safety. Law & Order, 46(12), 91-92.

Budgets in Order to Address
Words: 1145 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58811411
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125% to 6.0% would increase the estimated revenues by approximately $300 million, bringing this revenue to its highest level in history. This rate would still be lower than the state sales tax rate in neighboring Southwest states such as Arizona (6.6%), Texas (6.25%), Nevada (6.85%) and California (7.25%) (Sales Tax Clearinghouse, 2010). ith this increase, personal income tax rates would not need to be increased. Corporate income tax rates would also remain the same, as they are not a significant component of general revenues. hile the move to increase the state sales tax would prove unpopular, it would allow New Mexico to build for a more stable budget future, less reliant on federal transfers, while remaining competitive in terms of corporate and personal income taxes.

Appropriations will also need to be cut in order to save money. The main problem with appropriations in the budget is that a looming and…

Works Cited:

Massey, B. (2010). NM revenues weaken, more state budget cuts loom. Business Week. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from  http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9H3JT6G1.htm 

McCaffrey, S. (2010). State budget shortfalls may reach $180 billion this year. Boston Globe. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from  http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2010/01/04/state_budget_shortfalls_may_reach_180_billion_this_year/ 

McNichol, E.; Oliff, P. & Johnson, N. (2010). States continue to feel recession's impact. Center of Budget Policy Priorities. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from  http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=711 

New Mexico 2011 Budget. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://budget.nmdfa.state.nm.us/cms/kunde/rts/budgetnmdfastatenmus/docs/284016296-01-05-2010-09-15-31.pdf

Budget Qs the New Manager
Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 32314613
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Decreasing purchases of the items that regularly expire, assuming that such a decrease does not dramatically increase the per-unit cost of each of these items, would definitely present a cost savings to the organization. The other major costs that the organization has some (though not total) control over are the lost balls and the cost of trainers; it is likely that a move to hiring permanent trainers would be more cost-effective than hiring them on an as-needed basis, but more regular participation levels will need to be established for this to be effective. Likewise, it is possible for the organization to reduce lost equipment costs by erecting a temporary barrier to contain wildly hit balls, but the cost of the barrier would need to be fairly low and its durability fairly high to justify this.

6)a. Sales price variance = (25x40000) -- (25x39200) = 20000

Sales volume variance = (20x40000)…

Budgeting Financing Strategy for the
Words: 2463 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39273196
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We do not anticipate success is securing a non-voted debt issue. Given the time frame for the completion of the Commons project, the city will weigh our request vs. The upcoming needs for school repairs and roadwork. Education is a touchstone issue for voters, and roadwork affects all voters in the city. hould council decide to issue any of their remaining non-voted debt capacity, it is unlikely they would choose to use it for the Commons project ahead of those two other priorities.

Voted debt, however, they can issue. If the public votes 60% in favor, council will not face the same concerns about opportunity cost. We will not be competing for money with schools. A voter-approved special levy would function in much the same way (financed through property tax increases) but requires only a 50% vote in favor. Although the capacity for such special levies is only $90 million,…

Sources:

Johnson, Gerry. (2005). New Life Emerges in the Wake of Seattle Commons Failure. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved June 20, 2008 at  http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/272622_focus04.html 

Jacobson, Arthur Lee. (1995). The Seattle Commons, an Editorial Opinion. Olmsted Parks. Retrieved June 21, 2008 at  http://www.arthurleej.com/a-commons.html 

No author. (1995). The Commons: Time Line. Seattle Times. Retrieved June 21, 2008 at  http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19950911&slug=2141092 

History of Washington State votes at  http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7536

Budget and Finance 4235 1225
Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85415842
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This contribution to fixed costs is the same for every customer. Thus, the breakeven point is 250,000 / 500 = 500 customers.

In another example, if the price is 200 and the variable costs are 110, and the fixed costs are 100,000, then the breakeven point is 1112 customers. The breakeven point is always rounded up because to have less than that the company would not yet have broken even. By rounding up, the company has officially passed the breakeven point.

4. The relative value scales are 150, 300, 568.75, 264 and 160 for a total of 1442.75

The relative value scales indicate how much effort goes into each type of acuity. The cost per RVU is relative to the total nursing costs, so it is a weighted-average:

$36,389 for Acuity Level 1

$72,777 for Acuity Level 2

$137,974 for Acuity Level 3

$64,044 for Acuity Level 4

$38,814 for…

Budget Project Outline Environment the
Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63235339
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S. This has partially continued during the 90s as well, so protectionist barriers is one of the things Nissan needs to consider when exporting to its main partners.

There are two different actions Nissan may consider in the future in this sense. The first one refers to the fact that Renault, an European company, still holds a significant part of Nissan shares, which may facilitate exports on the European market. On the other hand, trade barriers can generally be avoided by direct implementation in the respective country, a measure which Japanese companies, especially Toyota, have successfully applied in the U.S. during the 80s.

2. Internal competencies

A. General Motor seems to be currently both the most important producer and the sales leader. However, this should come with several amendments. If we are referring to the market leader, there are several criteria worth mentioning. First of all, the number of cars…

Bibliography

 http://www.nissan-global.com/EN  / www.oanda.com  

Budgets City of Austin's 2007-2008
Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94747715
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The departmental and program breakdown of the information in the city of Detroit's budget does not provide quite the same level of detail or of annual change that the city of Austin's budget does, but this more than made up for by the ease of accessing what details are available, and by the different formats of the two cities' budgets almost necessitate these differences in clarity, but they do not entirely account for the lack of clarity in the city of Austin's budget. That budget is already organized by department and broken down into the individual programs; tabulating the department totals and providing a clear overview of the major expenditure and revenue items on the budget would not have entailed any undue extra effort. The city of Detroit's budget clearly shows that both detail and overall clarity are entirely achievable in a municipal budget, making it both more effective and…

References

Lee, R.; Johnson, R. And Joyce, P. (2008). Public budgeting systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Stenberg, C. (2007). Managing local government services: a practical guide. Washington. D.C.: ICMA.

Budget Problem Health Care Is
Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92902059
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S. debt.

Conclusion

Health care is a large part of the federal budget and it is increasing in importance. The rate of growth in health care outlays is greater than the rate of growth in the budget itself. The poses a problem, because the federal budget deficit is increasing in size. Debt service is going to be the most rapidly growing component of the federal budget over the next several years, highlighting the need to control costs in all aspects of the budget. The challenge, however, is that both demographic trends and health care cost inflation trends signal a dramatic increase in health care costs in the coming couple of decades. Health care reform is expected to help with cost containment, primarily through shifting some eligibility requirements, but greater solutions are required. Privatizing health care would take if off the government's books, but would have significant negative externalities with respect…

Works Cited:

Budget of the U.S. Government, fiscal year 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from  http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2011/assets/budget.pdf 

CBO. (2010). HR 4872. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from  http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/113xx/doc11355/hr4872.pdf 

Klein, E. (2010). Rep. Ryan proposes radical solution to budget problem. Washington Post. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/05/AR2010020504796.html

Budgeting Negatives Contending With the
Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2979516
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" (Huang & Chen, 1) This characterization of using the budgetary process to play 'games' carries with it a negative connotation, which is driven by the inherently threatening implications of tying personal income to performance evaluation.

That said, budgetary clarity is among the most important features to creating and implementing an effective plan of operation in any context. This is to argue that there is never an excuse for a failure to properly budget. This is a primary purpose of accounting, which allows an organization to identify those resources and conditions at its disposal and to determine how these can be used to yield functional operation, sustainability and profitability. Though the numbers which are yielded from a projected budget cannot be used as restraints with respect to operational creativity or mutability, these should at least help to establish a plan of action; anticipate certain milestones in the execution of the…

Works Cited:

Hope, T. (1997). Competing in the Third Wave. Harvard Business Press.

Huang, C. & Chen, M. (2008). Relationships among budgetary leadership behavior, managerial budgeting games, and budgetary attitudes: Evidence from Taiwanese corporations. ScienceDirect. Online at  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W58-4VDSJS0-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=987186959&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=570424efa71791707f3c9fc21199de67 

Walker, K.B. & Johnson, E.N. (1999). The effects of a budget-based incentive compensation scheme on the budgeting behavior of managers and subordinates. Journal of Management Accounting Research 11, 1-28.

Government Budget Process Over the
Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37867704
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("ender," 2010)

Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues

Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.

Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections

The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…

Bibliography

Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from:  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7834939/ns/us_news 

The Numbers. (2010). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved from:  http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/background/numbers/revenue.cfm 

Bender, B. (2010). Spending Critic Brown. Boston Globe. Retrieved from:  http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2010/04/08/spending_critic_brown_backs_mass_weapons_bid/ 

Dupy, T. (2010). Defense Secretary Wants Spending Cuts. Huffington Post. Retrieved from:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tina-dupuy/defense-secretary-wants-d_b_571906.html

Criminal Justice Organizational Issues
Words: 1090 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68671686
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Week 1 Discussion

Decision making in large organizations can be difficult to properly grasp because its characterized by numerous issues that emerge within the organization. Quantitative and qualitative decision making processes in public finance are similar in the sense that they are utilized to analyze data relating to budget management and other relevant issues. These processes in turn help in effective decision-making with respect to the desired objectives. However, quantitative decision-making process is based solely on empirical data while qualitative decision-making is based on a more holistic perspective. An example of qualitative observation is police testing of new, less lethal gun technology through consideration of the cost benefit analysis (CBS, 2015). On the contrary, an example of quantitative observation is the big budget cuts by state leaders through consideration of empirical data (News9.com, 2010).

Quantitative decision-making seemingly takes precedence in budgeting and issues affecting criminal justice agencies. Quantitative decision-making provides…

Budgeting Management Was Most Helpful to Me
Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94790945
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budgeting management was most helpful to me, I believe, in the sense that it actually helped clarify the various processes about which I wrote, providing me greater conceptual awareness of budget management planning, processes, and content. Of the essays I completed, I must admit that I like various parts of all of them, but feel that my third essay was the best. By then I was more confident about what I was writing. Overall, what I learned from writing all three essays, an insight that will, I believe, remain with me long after this course, is that one learns a great deal more about a subject from writing about it.

My third essay was the best-focused of the three, and most detailed and specific. It was the end result of much thinking I had done. My best sentence, within that essay was (I feel): "The top management, working with the…

Budget Compare and Contrast
Words: 5190 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16976181
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budgets of any major size will get most, but not necessarily all, of their money from taxpayers of several many sorts but the main goal of the agencies regardless of size and structure is to provide basic and needed services to the area they serve, whatever and wherever that may be.

While all budgets are quite similar in one form or another, they are all different in their own ways and this can include the aim(s) of the money to be spent, where the money will come from and the overall fiscal policy exercised within the budget including investment, tax rates and savings strategies.

Basic Description of each budget

Differences and similarities of each budget

Sources of evenues of each budget

Change of revenue accounts in the future

e. Budget's fit with mission of the domain

f. How to improve budget and/or revenue estimation for each budget

Conclusion

Budget Comparison…

References

HHS. (2014, June 1). HHS Budget in Brief. Department of Health & Human Services.

Retrieved June 28, 2014, from  http://www.hhs.gov/budget/fy2015/fy-2015 -

budget-in-brief.pdf

IRS. (2014, June 26). Forms and Pubs. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from  http://www.irs.gov/

Budgeting Project
Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40343940
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Advertising Budget

The product being promoted by this particular budget is a new ladies razor, and the name that has been decided upon is the "Eternal Ladies azor." The razor's value is that it lasts longer and is priced lower than the competitor's leading razor. Now it's time to get the word out to the targeted audience of single, hairy women between the ages of 20 -- 34. With our new razor they will be hairy no more!

The budget for this particular product is $50,000 for the initial campaign, with additional dollars being allocated to the campaign based on sales of the razor. The advertising budget objective is to provide an initial pop for the product with continuing sales throughout the year to establish a niche in the marketplace, culminating in a rise in brand awareness by 15 -- 20% within the year.

In order to accomplish that objective…

References

Clow, K.E. & Baack, D. (2007) Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications 3rd edition, New York: Pearson Education

Delgado-Bellester, E. & Munuera-Aleman, J.L. (2005) Does brand trust matter to brand equity?, Journal of Product Brand Management, Vol. 14, Issue 3, pp. 187-196

Potluri, R.M. (2008) Assessment of effectiveness of marketing communication mix elements in Ethiopian service sector, African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp. 59-64

Budget of New York State
Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5825445
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April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016, an estate of $3,125,000 is exempt.

April 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017, an estate of $4,187,500 is exempt.

April 1, 2017 and Dec. 31, 2019, an estate of $5,250,000.

Raising the estate tax rates will help the families of the most advantaged members of the population.

However, there were also provisions made for education that should increase funding for schools. However, most of these funding increases were geared strictly at charter schools. New York City charter schools will now enjoy some of the greatest protections in the country; under the new state budget agreement, for the first time ever, charter schools will be eligible for government funds (MYFOXNY, 2014). A $1.1 billion, or 5.3%, increase in education aid, with high-needs districts getting almost 70% of the hike; allocations of $340 million for universal pre-K during each of the next two years, with…

Works Cited

AP. (2014, March 24). NY budget talks continue in Albany as deadline nears. Retrieved from AP:  http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2014/03/ny_budget_talks_continue_in_albany_as_deadline_nears_1.html 

MYFOXNY. (2014, March 30). Huge win for NY charter schools. Retrieved from Fox NY: http://www.myfoxny.com/story/25108048/highlights-of-proposed-140b-ny-2014-15-budget

Weaver, T. (2014, March 29). 2014 NY State Budget. Retrieved from the Post-Standard:  http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2014/03/ny_budget_details_property_tax_freeze_30_million_for_onondaga_lake.html 

Weaver, T. (2014, March 29). NY Budget: Estate tax change. Retrieved from the Post-Standard:  http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2014/03/ny_budget_estate_tax_change.html

Budget in a Project
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73779763
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Project Budget and Control

Preparing a Budget

Top-down budgeting is business-planning system whereby the budgeting process begins with information flowing from the very top of the organization down to the departmental or divisional levels within the organization. The top down approach could be used in a large organization that deals with a project they have done before. The reason behind using this approach would be the fact that this is a big project. Therefore, an overall estimate would be made of task that are higher in level and then those estimates of higher-level tasks are then used in setting limits of the costs of lower level tasks. The advantage of using this method is the fact that there will be no need of relying on low-level managers to come up with information on budgeting. Therefore, the business will allow lower level managers focus on their specific departments and hence do…

Reference

Project controlsonline.com (2012). Project Controls: What is it and why is it important ? Retrieved July 11, 2014 from  http://projectcontrolsonline.com/Home/DefinitionandImportanceofProjectControls.aspx

Budget Components Policy Document Financial Plan Operating
Words: 2813 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88811460
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budget components (Policy Document, Financial Plan, Operating Plan, Communications Device), rank them in order of importance in your opinion and justify your rank order.

ank 1: Policy Document: The Policy Document is synonymous with a Budget Document. The budget document can be a line item detailed listing of every expenditure for every department within the government operation. The document conveys the policies and procedures of the administration and outlines its funding.

The expenditure amount is a further clarification of the entity's commitment to their underlying cultural and operating practices which complement their specific organizational goals and organizational strategies. Organizational strategies in accordance to the Policy Document include the Strategic Planning Document which details how the organization will propel itself into the coming years as a strategic city seeking to attract the best and the brightest to start businesses and to be residents. As the underlying specific goals to the macro…

References

Blocksidge, Charles. "The Art of the Budget." The American City & County 110.3 (1995): 6-. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2011.

PPBS. http://www.ninemoney.net/planning-programming-and-budgeting-system-models-ppbs.html

Thomas, John. "Operational Plan Framework: A Step Toward Sound Management." Optimum 15.2 (1984): 76-.ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 18 July 2011.

Budget Creation Management and Actions for X Company
Words: 1616 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86490172
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Company is a corporate development, management, Information Communications Technology (ICT), and support consultancy firm, offering its clients solutions to confidently research, survey, set up, and profit from business, as well as other opportunities. The firm aids civil society, public, and private clients in developing required relationships, advances in bonds and securing the required support services and systems in a cost-effective manner, in order to run optimally and accomplish their specified goals. Our objective is providing our clients with essential professional services, to be utilized as a springboard for instituting their business, as well as offering them and others the flexibility of operating without an office; that is, they can simply avail themselves of our Virtual Office Service as a start. X Company's strengths include:

Human esource: Our Company is constituted of a esourceful Managers' team, with highly- qualified members having strong preference for knowledge generation, dissemination and utilization. As knowledge…

References

DoIT Project Management Advisor. (2006). Stage 2: Initiate the Project. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.pma.doit.wisc.edu/initiate/5/how.html

Personal finance at duke. (n.d.). What is a budget and why is it important? Retrieved August 4, 2015, from  http://personalfinance.duke.edu/manage-your-finances/budget/overview 

Shapiro, J. (n.d.). Budgeting Toolkit. Civicus.

Westland, J. (2011, June 23). Project Management: 4 Ways to Manage Your Budget. Retrieved from CIO:  http://www.cio.com/article/2406862/project-management/project-management  -- 4-ways-to-manage-your-budget.html

Budgeting and Finance Uncovered and Applied
Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57381786
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Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are one of the most well-known entities that regulate markets, protect investors and facilitate the capital market structure. The SEC was founded in 1934 in the wake of the Great Depression -- The SEC was created by section 4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The SEC was established by the United

States Congress as an independent, quasi-judicial regulatory agency during the Great

Depression that followed the Crash of 1929. Now, more than ever, first time investors turn to the market to protect their future income, send their children to college, pay for homes. The primary duty of the SEC is to promote sound market regulation, sustain economic growth and encourage capital formation.

The Capital Market strategy is one of many used by this entity. It is a market for securities (debt or equity), where business enterprises and governments can raise their long-term funds.…

References

S.E.C. (1982). "The Role on the Capital Market in the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)," Lagos, SEC Quarterly June, Vol 4, No 2.

Sanusi, J.O (1984). The Capital Market: A Boost to Economic development (The banking Aspect)" Seminar Paper on the Capital Market, Lagos.

Matthew Shane., 1970. Capital Markets and the Process of Economic Growth, 77 i.e. Journal of Finance, Voi. 25, No. 4. (Sep., 1970), pp. 950-951.

Budgeting Whether for the Household
Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 66033541
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If we take the former approach, we must now combine men and women together demographically; women now work far more outside the home than they did in 1935. According to the United Nations, this is now roughly 80 years, meaning the retirement age should be pushed to 70, allowing 5-8 more years of pay ins, and far fewer years of pay outs (World Population Prospects, 2006). In addition, if we follow the original mandate, Social Security is a supplemental or emergency program, not meant for those who do not need it.

So, if we take a two-pronged approach; moving the retirement age to at least 70 and recategorizing those who take retirement benefits based on their savings and investment programs, we are in more of a fiscal position to tweak the system already in place. While this may seem unfair to some, if we think about it logically, those "baby…

REFERENCES

"Life Expectancy for Social Security," (2010). Social Security Office. Cited in:

 http://www.ssa.gov/history/lifeexpect.html 

"World Population Prospects -- Highlights." (2006). The United Nations Office of Economics and Social Affairs. Cited in:

 http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2006/WPP2006_Highlights_rev.pdf

Budget Application
Words: 2511 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90964918
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Control function, may it be management or accounting, plays the same key role. It is, in many ways, a two-way process. First of all, a top-bottom control flow, where the upper management or higher authorities oversee a certain process, but it is also a bottom-top process, as is the case when the feedback and follow-up actions come from the lower levels.

In the case of the expenditure process, the top-down circuit is, first of all, characterized by the budget restrictions that are imposed on the upper management levels of the company. In this sense, the top management defines a certain amount of money that can be spend and notifies accordingly the lower levels within the company. All acquisitions are thus limited by the expenditure levels fixed in the budget.

In many ways, the control function tends to be associated with management accounting. As we know, one of the most important…

Bibliography

1. http://www.iei.ul.ie/images/doument_images/Stg2/AC2902_intro.htm#Unit%203 

2. Bookkeeping and Accounting. On the Internet at http://www.onlinewbc.gov/docs/finance/bkpg_acct.html#4000

On the Internet at

Budgeting Manager
Words: 798 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23336485
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Functions That udgeting Accounts for Is the Planning Function

We will be arguing for the importance of the planning function in the overall budgeting activity and will be arguing for the many ways the budgeting planning function is coordinating with the company's strategic planning.

First of all, the planning function in terms of budgeting refers to the planning activities that the company, starting with the financial department, needs to (1) determine what the company's long-term strategy is, (2) determine what projects bring most added value to the company and (3) determine what priority these projects should have.

Let's refer to each of these steps in part and determine how they impact the budgeting strategy of a company. The long-term strategy for a company is essential in determining the overall objective of a company. For the long run, this may be increasing the volume of sales or increasing the market share…

Bibliography

1. The Training and Technical Assistance Division. Budgeting Techniques. On the Internet at http://www.tcada.state.tx.us/training/presentation/ppt/BudgetingTechniques.ppt#1

The Training and Technical Assistance Division. Budgeting Techniques. On the Internet at http://www.tcada.state.tx.us/training/presentation/ppt/BudgetingTechniques.ppt#1

Budget and Financial Planning for Bhp Billiton
Words: 1415 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 40203093
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BHP Billiton Budget and Financial Planning

Company Overview

BHP Billiton is a global Anglo-Australian company specialized in petroleum, metal and mining. Headquartered in Melbourne, the BHP Billiton is one of the world largest mining company using the 2013 total revenue. The BHP Billiton was established in 2001, and has been ranked as a top performing mining company in the world. At the end of 2015 fiscal year, BHP Billiton recorded $44.6 Billion as the total revenue with the net income of $1.9 Billion. In 2010, the company recorded a net income of $12.7 Billion, and by the end of 2014 fiscal year, the net income increased to $13.8 Billion. However, the company net income drastically declines to $1.9 billion at the end of the 2015 fiscal year. (Annual Report, 2015).

This report carries out a financial and budget planning for the BHP Billiton to enhance a greater understanding on the…

Sources of data to evaluate effectiveness of financial management process are:

Tracking items such as utilities, inputs, salaries, and materials.

Evaluate whether costs are allocated by the cost centers.

Financial reports are linked to financial budgets

Cash flow statements are accurate.

Budget Proposal on the Cost
Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37023495
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Environmental Impact Requirements. As noted above, many citizens maintain that the aesthetic impact of cellular towers lowers their residential property values, but there are other concerns involved in such installations as well. According to Crowell (1996), there have been a number of concerns voiced about the potential health and environmental problems that electro-magnetic radiation from cellular communications towers and their supporting facilities may create. In an effort to protect the aesthetics of these communities as well as to ensure public health and safety, local governments have increasingly applied zoning powers to regulate tower installations by requiring setbacks from residential or commercial structures, imposing height restrictions, and requiring safe zones in the event the tower collapses or debris falls from the tower; in fact, some municipalities have specifically established setback requirements for towers based on health and environmental concerns (Crowell 6). Still other local governments have imposed moratoriums on issuing facility…

Works Cited

Cellular Tower Installations through Public/Private Partnerships." (2005). WEL Associates, LLC. Available: http://www.welutz.com/cell_tower.html.

Clark, Martha L. (2005). "Massachusetts: The Land." In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Crowell, Anthony. (1996, June). "Local Government and the Telecommunications Act of 1996." Public Management, 78(6):6.

Czerniawski, June. (2000, March 19). "Fence Post: Police station needed." Daily Herald, 15.

budget analysis of Affordable Care Act
Words: 3557 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40836351
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Affordable Care Act decreased the number of Americans without health insurance by the millions, which was its primary objective. It used three different mechanisms to achieve this goal -- the expansion of Medicaid, the insurance exchanges, and the extension of coverage to young adults up to age 26. These changes have also helped to stem the growth of health care costs, and have delivered greater health care savings throughout the system, even private insurance customers, than was originally expected. There were some initial costs to the ACA, running from 2014-2019 but after the point the Congressional Budget Office expects the ACA will have a net benefit in terms of its impact on the budget, because of the new taxes it created.

The incoming government is expected to unwind the ACA, as this has been a stated goal of Trump, and of the epublican party. What this means has been studied.…

References

Abbott, R. K. (2015). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Large Employers: A Retrospective. Benefits Quarterly, 31(1), 8-14.

CBO (2016) Budgetary and economic effects of repealing the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from  https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/114th-congress-2015-2016/reports/50252-Effects_of_ACA_Repeal.pdf 

CBO (2016) Payment of penalties for being uninsured under the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from  https://www.cbo.gov/publication/45397 

HHS.gov (2016). The Affordable Care Act is working. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from  http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/facts-and-features/fact-sheets/aca-is-working/

Issues in EMS
Words: 3255 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: White Paper Paper #: 85697079
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EMS single-tier response (ST) or a multi-Tier response (MT) is optimal for a community?

While EMS are present in every community, each community has different needs and the response of the EMS should be tailored in a community-specific fashion. For example, some communities are far more dependent upon EMS to provide critical services because of their demographics. A large city such as New York will often have more critical incidents due to violence or safety hazards. Also, the logistics of mobility within a city can mean that a single-tiered response (ST) is more appropriate. At the other extreme, a rural area, because of a lack of medical resources such as nearby hospitals, can also benefit from a ST, given that aspects of primary care and treatment may need to be given immediately on the scene due to the lack of available resources at point of care. In terms of a…

References

Blackwell, T.H. & Kaufman, J.S. (2002). Response time effectiveness: comparison of response time and survival in an urban emergency medical services system. Academy of Emergency Medicine, 9(4):288-95.

Criss, E. (1994). EMS research. Retrieved from:

 http://www.pcrf.mednet.ucla.edu/pcrf/pdf1.pdf 

EMS dispatch and response. (1983). Fire Chief Magazine. Retrieved from:

Budgeting Questions and Issues
Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58747504
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Management accountability to stakeholders first requires consideration of who those stakeholders are. When considering financial accountability, the primary defined stakeholders for annual reports are the shareholders or owners of the firm (Elliott and Elliott, 2013). Therefore, this establishes the need for management accountability towards this group of stakeholders, the process which is satisfied not only for annual accounts, but also from quarterly earnings as well as other statements. However, there are other stakeholders which will have a direct impact on the firm, and either directly or indirectly influence their performance. This includes, but is not limited to, government, customers, and suppliers.

Government accountability requires a firm to demonstrate for compliance with regulation, and where governments are not fully satisfied that firms are acting in an appropriate manner, they are likely to introduce more legislation. Customers will have needs regarding the products and services they purchase, this will not only be…

References

Bodie, Z., Kane, A., & Marcus, A. J. (2014). Investments. London: McGraw Hill Higher Education.

Chyssides, G. D., & Kaler, J. H. (1998). An Introduction to Business Ethics. London: Thompson Business Press.

Elliott, B., & Elliott, J. (2013). Financial Accounting and Reporting. London: Pearson.

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., & Lampel, J. B. (2008). Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management,. Harlow: Financial Times / Prentice Hall.

Miami Budget
Words: 975 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62015664
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Budgeting, particular during pressing economic periods, is critical to the overall solvency of public organizations. Budgeting and proper forecasting provides a means for organizations to remain viable irrespective of the economic circumstances prevailing. History has proven that businesses along with public enterprises must endure various economy cycles and environments. The past decade has provided substantial evidence as to the importance of proper budgeting. Organizations that have failed to budget properly have suffered immensely in regards to lost reputation, profit and productivity. The subsequent decade will be no different in that regard. Budgeting in the public domain, must provide adequate reassurance that the public organization can withstands a litany of economic and monetary circumstances (Parks, 1991)

A budget provides organizations financial priorities in dollar terms. Particular in recessions or depression, public budgets, when analyzed, provide an idea as to the organizations priorities. During periods of mass euphoria and over optimism, budgets…

References:

1) Muir, Helen. (1953) Miami, U.S.A. Coconut Grove, Florida. Hurricane House Publishers. Pp. 33, 100

2) Parks, Arva Moore (1991). Miami: The Magic City. Miami, FL: Centennial Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-9629402-2-4

3) Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 502. ISBN 0-13-063085-3

Government Budget
Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4789517
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Budget Deficit

Government Budget

What are the consequences of an ever-burgeoning federal deficit and debt? Will there ever be a solution or compromise?

One of the most hotly-contested issues in contemporary American political life is how to deal with the current budget deficit. Despite running surpluses during the 1990s, the current budget is widely considered out of control by both Democrats and epublicans. The reasons for the deficit include two costly wars abroad and increased defense spending overall after 9/11; tax cuts, and the recent recession which required federal spending in the form of unemployment assistance and assistance to the states (who are legally required to balance their budgets); and less income tax revenue because of job losses. There also systemic factors that have contributed to high budget deficits (Amadeo 2012). Overall, "mandatory spending has increased. Spending to pay benefits for Social Security, Medicare and other mandated programs has been…

References

Amadeo, Kimberly. (2012). U.S. Federal Budget deficit. Retrieved at:

 http://useconomy.about.com/od/fiscalpolicy/p/deficit.htm 

Economic effects of a budget deficit. (2012). Economics Help. Retrieved at:

 http://www.economicshelp.org/macroeconomics/fiscal-policy/effects-budget-deficit.html

10 Million Fund Allocation Budget Plan
Words: 4256 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61902064
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Budget Plan for $10 Million Fund Allocation

Positive economic development in any city in the United tates relies on the provision of effective, efficient, and strong infrastructures that will attract investment to generate job opportunities in the city. A central goal of any city is also to improve health outcomes for the residents to improve their health outcomes. City public officials should also provide safety and securities, and improve students achievements to enhance quality of human developments . However, a city officials are required to keep proper accounts of all income and expenditures to deliver high quality financial resources.

As a newly elected public official of the city of between 50,000 and 250,000 population, our goal is to attract investment opportunities in the city through effective use of budgetary control to meet the economic and health needs of the residents in order to enjoy 100% federal funds. Our goal is…

Sources of Payment, and Incremental Costs, Health Affairs.

Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Financial Controls: A Safeguard Against Misuse of Public Funds. National Forum of Educational Administration & Supervision Journal. 27(4).

Nkuah, J.F. Tanyeh, J.P. & Asante, J.(2013). The Relationship between Financial Control Systems and Public Sector Efficiency in Ghana. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences.2(7):209-235.

Malloy, L.C & Merkowitz, S.P. (2015). The Economic Impact of Expanding Medicaid. Healthy Economy.

Popovcic-Avric, S. Mizdrakovic, V. & Djenic, M.(2014). Budget Control and Fund Accounting. International Conference: XIV International Symposium .

Assessment of Management of Budget
Words: 3529 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28549361
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Budget Management Analysis

The main purpose of this report is to establish the necessities as well as the costs of iPatientCare HE software to the already existent record keeping system of Home Health Care Agency. Home Health Care Agency is an organization that offers health care to patients in their homes in its targeted region. The agency provides both medical and non-medical services for adult patients in their places of residence. The agency is attributed to provide specified home care and private nursing. The health care services which are provided by the agency are split into two broad classifications which are skilled nursing and therapeutic services. This particular report will reveal the finance costs and also the deemed benefits of the capital expenditure item.

The issue at hand is that in the past number of years, Home Health Care Agency has had a healthy financial performance but the organization has…

References

Sachdev, R., Pendelton, A., Gustafson, J. (N.D). Compliance In The Age Of Electronic Medical Records. Retrieved from:  http://www.thehealthlawpartners.com/files/compliance_and_electronic_health_records_jlg.pdf 

Rodak, S. (2011). Key Compliance Considerations When Implementing EMRs. Becker's Health IT and CIO Review. Retrieved from:  http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/healthcare-information-technology/key-compliance-considerations-when-implementing-emrs.html 

Kaplan, R.S., & Norton, D.P. (2001). The strategy-focused organization. Strategy and Leadership, 29(3), 41-42.

Ruther, M., & Helbing, C. (1988).Use and cost of home health agency services under

Budgetary Control Budgets and Budgetary Control Benefits
Words: 2021 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22845272
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Budgetary Control

Budgets and Budgetary Control: Benefits and Limitations

Budgeting is a basic feature of business that is used by any business or company in order to set up a company's future endeavors by engaging in financial planning. These budgets are prepared for main areas of any business including: purchases, sales, production, labor, debtors, creditors, and cash (Penning, 2009, p.363). Further, these budgets provide detailed plans of a business and its planned endeavors for foreseeable future, often planning for the next three, six, or twelve months. As any successful business cannot hope to remain so without a solid financial leg to stand on, the topic of budgets and budgetary control is simply one that cannot be avoided in the business world, and as such, many key areas and factors of budgeting and budgetary control must be understood in order to achieve success.

Key Areas and Factors of Successful Budgeting and…

References

Accounting Financial. 2012. Advantages and Disadvantages of Budgets. Web. Retrieved

from:  http://accounting-financial-tax.com/2008/07/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-budgets-keuntungan-dan-kerugian-dari-anggaran  / [Accessed on 28 March 2012].

Accounting for Management. 2012. Master Budget. Web. Retrieved from:

 http://www.accountingformanagement.com/the_master_budget.htm  [Accessed on 30 March 2012].

Los Angeles Budget Assessment L A
Words: 2822 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 82555002
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The reason for this shortfall, as noted by the Balance Budget website, emanates from pension costs, previously agreed to cost of living pay increases, rising health care costs overall and a general weakness in the overall economic recovery that has ensued, albeit very slowly, since the end of the so-called "Great ecession" period that ended in approximately 2009 for the nation as a whole. The balance budget website notes that the shortfall in question is equivalent to 20% of the total police officer salary budget, 60% of the total firefighter budget and over 100% of the city's expenses for their libraries and parks (L.A. Budget Challenge, 2013).

Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, in this budget summary document, notes that budget shortfalls will be addressed through expenditure cuts and increase efficiency. He makes mention of "painful" layoffs but not addressing the real problem of employee-level costs per person being the issue…

References

City of Los Angeles. (2012, October 29). The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Adopted Budget. The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from  http://controller.lacity.org/AdoptedBudget/index.htm 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles: Office of Mayor: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from  http://mayor.lacity.org/Issues/BalancedBudget/index.htm 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from  http://www.lacity.org/index.htm 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Budget and Finance. The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://councilcommittee.lacity.org/budget/index.htm

Municipal Budget
Words: 1550 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95401588
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Municipal Budget Analysis

The objective of this work in writing is to assess the budget of the Municipality of Chicago, Illinois in terms of how well budget documents and auxiliary information address each of these functions. The assessment will be substantiated with examples and information from documents studied. This work will examine a variety of sources including the most recent approved budget of Chicago, Illinois.

The City of Chicago 2011 budget includes provisions of no property tax increases and no new tax, fee, or fine increases to balance the budget. This is to effect that there will be no additional budget to residents already impacted by the recession. Secondly, included is the preservation of $576 million in asset lease funds to protect Chicago's future, which is inclusive of maintaining the entire $500 million Skyway long-term reserve. Third stated is the maintenance of the commitment to provide critical services to Chicago…

References

City of Chicago 2011 Budget. City of Chicago Organization Online Retrieved from:  http://www.cityofchicago.org/content/dam/city/depts/obm/supp_info/2011BudgetKeyFacts.pdf 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Community_Survey 

Chicago Central Area Plan Foresees the Future (2002) Inside. 17-23 July 2002. Retrieved from:  http://www.insideonline.com/site/epage/6087_162.htm 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:

Public Budgeting With the Talk
Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37281215
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The problems with the budget are said to arise from politicians who are unable to make difficult decisions. The problem with these laws is that they do not explicitly force politicians to make those decision. GRH provides targets for the politicians to work towards, creating motivation, and the BEA provides a framework for penalizing inaction, but neither truly forces politicians to make the tough choices.

Real political solutions involve actually making those tough choices. This is not to discount the value of having these frameworks to guide the negotiations and hold Congress to the outcomes of those negotiations, but the negotiations themselves are the critical component to the budget problem. For example, if the sequester is initiated, Congress can follow it up with laws to build back some of those spending cuts, and it would likely do so quickly. There are no provisions in the BEA, for example, that call…

Works Cited:

Bancroft Library. (2011). 1985 Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/ROHO/projects/debt/1985grammrudmanhollings.html 

Mitchell, D. (1989). Sequestration Gramm-Rudman's potent weapon for spending restraint. Cato Institute. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/sequestration-grammrudmans-potent-weapon-spending-restraint 

Reischauer, R. (1993). CBO Testimony. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/103xx/doc10382/1993_05_13reischauertestimony.pdf 

Sahadi, J. (2012). What's in the fiscal cliff? CNN. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://money.cnn.com/2012/11/08/news/economy/fiscal-cliff/index.html

Accounting a Static Budget Is Defined as
Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3774204
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Accounting

A static budget is defined as a budget that is "planned ahead of time based on the owner's best guess about future actual activity." This type of budget is therefore put together for the upcoming time period, and is often based on the data from past time periods, plus or minus different adjustments that management thinks will be necessary. In contrast, a flexible budget is one where the business management can make changes in the midst of an accounting period. Flexible budgeting allows for management to make better decisions on the fly, because the information used in those decisions is kept more up-to-date. Static budgeting relies only on the ability of management to analyze the numbers after the period in order to determine the magnitude and direction of variance, along with the causes of variance. For a flexible budget, management can identify issues with the budget right away, and…

Works Cited:

Mueller, D. (2012). Static budget vs. flexible budget. eHow. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_7784641_static-budget-vs.-flexible-budget.html

Bigelow, L. (2012). Static vs. flexible budgets for new businesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/static-vs.-flexible-budgets-new-businesses-20879.html

Cash Budget and Target Cash Balance the
Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60004398
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Cash budget and target cash balance

The target cash balance is defined as the ideal cash amount a company intends to hold in its reserve at a given time. This figure seeks to strike a balance between the balance sheet costs of extremely little and too much cash. While a company with surplus cash at hand may misuse on investment opportunities, a company with poor cash will often be forced to make undesirable transactions to create more operating capital (Besley & Brigham, 2011). Individual investors are advised to set their target balance too. They may estimate at least the percentage of their holdings in cash to avoid such pitfalls.

Cash budget refers to the operating budgets and capital expenditures. It begins with the initial cash balances then cash inflows are added to the available cash. Cash outflows will then be subtracted to obtain the cash balance. If the cash balance…

References

Besley, S., & Brigham, E.F. (2011). Principles of finance. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.

Brigham, E.F., & Daves, P.R. (2012). Intermediate financial management. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.

Brigham, E.F., & Houston, J.F. (2012). Fundamentals of financial management. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Ehrhardt, M.C., & Brigham, E.F. (2009). Corporate finance: A focused approach. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.

Reality-Based Budgeting
Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25969486
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eality-Based Budgeting

The "Great ecession" that has crippled local economies throughout America has exposed the traditional budgeting procedures used by legislators and municipal leaders as a fallacious exercise in stopgap financing that fails to address the systemic problems of mismanagement, inefficiency, and wasteful spending. As an increasing number of city and state governments struggle to balance their budgets in the wake of curtailed income and overextended expenditures, economists have worked to develop innovate forms of budgeting which are better suited to meet the demands of modern financial planning. The concept of reality-based budgeting has emerged in recent years as a viable alternative to the traditional method of balancing governmental budgets, which is largely predicated on a combination of across the board spending cuts and untargeted increases in tax rates. As Bob Williams wrote in a recent article published by the non-profit organization State Budget Solutions, "reality-based budgeting assumes the rules…

References

Cuomo, A.M. State of New York, Division of the Budget. (2012). Governor cuomo's 2012-13 executive budget and reform plan outlines vision to continue building a new york. Retrieved from website:  http://www.budget.ny.gov/pubs/press/2012/pressRelease12_eBudget1.html 

Williams, B. (2013). Reality-based budgeting: How to permanently resolve state budget gaps. State Budget Solutions, 33(4), Retrieved from  http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/reality-based-budgeting-how-to - permanently-resolve-state-budget-gaps

Public Budgeting There Have Been
Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32139250
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This demographic understands how investment markets work and is likely to make the smart and responsible choices with these investment funds to ensure that they have a good retirement.

The demographic that is least likely to benefit from such a plan is the demographic at the lower end of the income scale, blue collar workers with less education, minorities, new immigrants, and rural people. These demographics are generally less wealthy to begin with, so they rely more on the Social Security benefits than the demographic that benefits most from having a defined contribution plan for Social Security.

A partially-privatized social security system therefore primarily benefits the type of consumer that is in the best position not to need Social Security at all. Such consumers can use their knowledge of financial markets to enhance their wealth or better protect it. Consumers that are less likely to benefit, having little knowledge of…

Works Cited:

Ohlemacher, S. (2012). Social security adds to budget deficit. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20120812/us-social-security-fact-check/ 

Hiltzik, M. (2012). Proposal to privatize Social Security rears its ugly head. LA Times. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://articles.latimes.com/2012/aug/21/business/la-fi-hiltzik-20120821

Videos Mayor Nutter's Budget Speech Contained Several
Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31909139
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Videos

Mayor Nutter's budget speech contained several effective elements. The mayor is delivering a challenging budget. IN order to deliver this news, he begins with two effective devices. The first is that he rallies the support of the people by pointing out that he is a leader they can trust (had an open house at City Hall) and that the people of Philadelphia had rallied to meet challenges before (picking up trash, etc.). The second effective device was that he wanted to create a sense of urgency about the situation. In order to deliver bad news, it is important that a sense of urgency is created because it compels the listener to want to act right away, as opposed to delaying action. Thus, the mayor effectively recounts how bad the recession is, and the ways that it has already had a negative effect on the national economy and on the…

Works Cited:

Peterson, J. (2012). 12 effective speech tips and checks. Speech Topics Help. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from  http://www.speech-topics-help.com/effective-speech.html 

Video: $14B auto bailout dies in Senate. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7PMnKUcL1U 

Video: Nutter paints bleaker picture on budget crisis. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://abclocal.go.com/wpvi/video?id=6492270

Public Budgeting the Idea of
Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46291404
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A sales tax is particularly regressive because low income people spend a greater percentage of their income. They might spend 100% of their income, which means they would pay a sales tax on all of that money. A wealthy person will spend more in terms of dollars on a sales tax, but will also not spend 100% of his or her income. Some of that income will be saved, meaning that not all of the wealthy person's income will be subject to this tax.

For poor people a higher portion of income will be taxed, and there is also less margin for tax increase in their budgets. A wealthy person can afford to pay a little more tax and still have a roof over his or her head, and food on the table. At lower income levels, even a moderate sales tax like 5% is going to put those things…

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2012). Regressive tax. Investopedia. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/regressivetax.asp#axzz2DYg31VBU 

McKinnon, J. (2011) Huckabee presses for national sales tax. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from  http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2011/07/21/huckabee-presses-for-national-sales-tax/ 

Montgomery, L. (2009). Once considered unthinkable, U.S. sales tax gets fresh look. Washington Post. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/05/26/AR2009052602909.html

Fiscal and Monetary Issues in America Economics
Words: 2730 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73454786
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Fiscal and Monetary Issues in America

Economics

There are high tensions in the American economy today resulting from speculations whether the government will be able to hit the debt ceiling. Failure to hit the debt ceiling has serious economic effects to many sectors of the economy both in the United States and various countries of the world. Political disagreements regarding the budget delay decision-making process as the date ceiling draws closer each day. The government debt will cause disruption and failures in the U.S. market system and beyond because some rates will double while others will completely fall. The consequences of these are both the government and private sector failures and the economy will not be in a position to sustain itself. Government securities will lose market value and the cost of bonds will double because of the risk premiums. The result of this is government deficits, which will require…

References

Eichner, A.S., & Kregel, J.A. (1975). An essay on post-Keynesian theory: a new paradigm in economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 13 (4), 1293-1314.

Moseley, F. (1995). Heterodox Economic Theories: True or False?. Brookfield: Edward Edger

Publishing

Lee, F & Bekken, J. (2009). Radical Economics and Labor. New York: Routledge Publishing.

Public Budgeting Public Schools Are
Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31499688
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Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.

Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…

Works Cited:

TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from  http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf 

Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335

Operational Issues of it Department Nhs Organization
Words: 4023 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93258711
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Operational issues of IT Department NHS

Organization UK

The objective of this report is to provide a proposal to reduce the IT operational costs. National Health Service (NHS) is a biggest healthcare service provider in the UK, and the organization delivers both primary and secondary healthcare since its formation. The UK government major objective for forming NHS is to provide the affordable and quality healthcare delivery for all social class in the UK. To achieve its objective, the government has implemented the IT project to improve the service delivered by the organization. Despite the implementation of the IT project to deliver the quality healthcare delivery for the UK population, there is an operational issues within the IT department. The external service providers are still delivering the IT services, which has been translated into the high operations costs. The report provides several recommendations to decline the operation costs within the IT…

References

Boddy, D. King, G. Clark, J.S. et al. (2009).The influence of context and process when implementing e-health. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 9:9

Hackney, R.A. & McBride, N.K.(2003). The Efficacy of Information Systems in the Public Sector: Issues of Context and Culture. Research Paper Manchester Metropolitan University.

Hendy, J. Fulop, N. Reeves, B.C et al. (2007). Implementing the NHS information technology programme: qualitative study of progress in acute trusts. BMJ.

Hendy, J. Reeves, B.C. Fulop, N. et al. (2005). Challenges to implementing the national programme for information technology (NPfIT): a qualitative study.

Human Resource Issues in Health Field
Words: 1627 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8292223
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Human esource Issues in Health Field

The field of health human resources in the health field deals with issues such as planning, performance, management, development, information, retention, and research on human resources in the health sector Successful realization the mission and goals in this field is determined by the dedication and skills that the specialists possess. This study identifies various issues that often arise and bedevils this field. Current trends relating to technological advancements affecting the success and performance of employees in this field are also identified (Fried, & Johnson, 2002). Therefore, in order to improve service delivery in the health sector and consequently promote a healthy society, it is critical to identify and analyze the various challenges facing human resources in the health sector. This will provide a basis for developing various interventions aimed at dealing with the identified challenges and consequently improving the quality of service delivery in…

References

American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration. (2012). American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration ... membership directory. Gainesville FL: Naylor.

Fried, B., & Fottler, M.D. (2011). Fundamentals of human resources in healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Fried, B., & Johnson, J.A. (2002). Human resources in healthcare: Managing for success. Washington, DC: AUPHA Press.

Kabene, S.M. (2011). Human resources in healthcare, health informatics and healthcare systems. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.

Evaluating Budget Documents
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budget document you selected.

The organization that was selected is the city of Los Angeles, California. This is because the government has been facing challenges from the lingering effects of the recession and there is a projected budget deficit of $1 billion for the 2013 to 2014 period. The documented that was selected is the Mayor's 2012 to 2013 Budget Proposal. This will provide specific insights, as to how officials are addressing these challenges and their long-term impact on various programs. ("2012 -- 2103 Budget Proposal," 2012)

Identify the specific type of budget document you selected.

The basic type of budgeting that is utilized is the zero based approach. This is when there is a focus on using the events and budget from the previous year to make determinations about the current situation. When this happens, the budget is adjusted upward or downward to address these realities and provide a…

References

2012 -- 2103 Budget Proposal. (2012), City of LA. Retrieved from:  http://cao.lacity.org/budget12-13/2012-13Proposed_Budget.pdf 

Awards Criteria. (2012). GFOA. Retrieved from:  http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/BudgetCriteriaExplanationsFY2012.pdf 

Zero-Based Budgeting. (2012). Investopedia. Retrieved from:  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/z/zbb.asp

Public Budgeting
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budget analyst guided by control concerns takes a more conservative view of the budget, and is likely to put forward conservative guidelines for the budget. These create a stronger form of control, and provide a basis for management to beat the budget. This is because the financial control aspect of budgeting is based on setting realistic benchmarks, and setting budgets in a way that forces management to be efficient. Management is more likely to take an approach that sets budgets higher. Management likely has a preference for having more resources at their disposal, and less tight control on activities. This is not because management does not want to succeed, but management does have an interest in working with a greater amount of resources.

Unit 3. There do not need to be opportunity costs associated with addressing control concerns…unless you specifically choose to blow off planning priorities or program management issues.…

References

IMF. (2014). Budget preparation. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from  http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/expend/guide3.htm 

Langfield-Smith, K. (1997). Management control systems and strategy: A critical review. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 22 (2) 207-232.

Simons, R. (1991). Strategic orientation and top management attention to control systems. Strategic Management Journal. Vol. 12 (1) 49-62.

Capital Budgeting and Applied Technologies
Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17290104
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ith a strong customer and employee basis, the company envisions taking early leadership of the global market. This is also to be based upon management excellence on a local scale. The management team is envisioned to be capable of translating vision into performance on both a local and global scale, while also investing strategically to maximize profitability and performance.

d. In terms of Research and Development, Applied Materials has increased its investments despite economic downturns. The purpose of this was to increase its potential future profitability by providing advanced manufacturing systems for its customers worldwide. This proved to be a good strategy, as the company had build a broad product line that catered for nearly every chip manufacturing stage. In order to reach the next step; integrating systems to perform a specific process sequence, a new facility was needed, and 1997 saw the beginning of construction on the Equipment and…

With a strong customer and employee basis, the company envisions taking early leadership of the global market. This is also to be based upon management excellence on a local scale. The management team is envisioned to be capable of translating vision into performance on both a local and global scale, while also investing strategically to maximize profitability and performance.

d. In terms of Research and Development, Applied Materials has increased its investments despite economic downturns. The purpose of this was to increase its potential future profitability by providing advanced manufacturing systems for its customers worldwide. This proved to be a good strategy, as the company had build a broad product line that catered for nearly every chip manufacturing stage. In order to reach the next step; integrating systems to perform a specific process sequence, a new facility was needed, and 1997 saw the beginning of construction on the Equipment and Process Integration Center (EPIC).

EPIC represents the first facility of its kind in the semiconductor industry, in its capacity as a dedicated 200mm pilot line integration facility. Specifically, the Center enables the company's customers to make their technology transitions with greater speed and ease. To do this, the Center enables them to evaluate and integrate new manufacturing systems in advance of installing these. This provides the company with an important leading edge in the global marketplace. To accomplish this was a challenge on multiple levels that did not end with the Center opening its doors in 1998. Indeed, in order to adhere to its central aims, engineers for the center had to effectively implement systems by which they could set up their systems as often as once per month and make quick modifications according to differing requirements.

Leadership Issues in Leadership -
Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48054450
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A parks recreational leader can encourage visitors through a brochure or other handout to talk with their doctors about their health and wellness. On the other hand, park recreational leaders can also talk with healthcare providers and team up. By doing this, recreational parks may provide some tests for visitors, like blood pressure checks or physical fitness and body mass index checks that offer visitors or those staying at the recreational facility an opportunity to find out whether they are in shape, and if not, what they can do about it.

Park leaders can also organize events like marathon races or shorter races like a 3k race for children and adults with various small prizes or tokens like a ribbon for the leader. They can encourage visitors to fill out forms or surveys where they would have an opportunity to write down what types of physical fitness activities they would…

References

Allen, L. (2005 Mar) Becoming good sports: professionals need to exercise their power by helping community youth develop through parks and recreation. Parks & Recreation Online, Available: BNet Research Center, March:  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1145/is_3_40/ai_n13787656 

Parks & Recreation

Beyond Budgeting as a Control
Words: 2247 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58279299
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According to de With and Dijkman (2008), "Management control is the process by which managers influence other members of an organization to implement the organization's strategies. This process consists of four different phases-strategic planning, budgeting, measurement and reporting, and evaluation-each of which leads to the next phase" (27). Beyond the foregoing formal phases, management control also includes informal communications and interactions such as meetings and conversations (de With & Dijkman 2008). In a National Health Service setting, though, a control strategy must recognize the need for flexibility throughout the budgeted period of time in ways that might not affect a private sector counterpart. In this regard, Byrne (2006) notes that, "Ideally, the annual budgeting process sets the performance agenda for the year ahead. However, healthcare budgets are often only an estimate of income and expenditure, with incremental budget setting the dominant budget type employed" (67).

Because the management and control…

References

Anderson, J.A., 2004, June. "8 Ways to Change Your Financial Life: These Basic but Powerful

Strategies Can Boost Your Net Worth." Black Enterprise 34(11): 280-281.

Bunce, P., 2008, June. "Beyond Budgeting: Public Sector Interest Group (PSIG)." Retrieved

from  http://www.bbrt.org/bbfiles/PSIG_Overview.pdf .

New Hampshire State Budget New
Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38963312
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The Category Totals for the 2006-2007 Biennial State Operating Budget, found in Chapter 176, Laws of 2005, are as follows:

Chapter 176 - Laws of 2005 - NH Operating Budget

Fiscal Year 2006

Fiscal Year 2007

Total Appropriation for Category 01

GENEAL GOVENMENT

AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01-403,003,676 416,233,183

ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for CATEGOY 01, GENEAL GOVENMENT

AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01

FEDEAL FUNDS 17,924,517 17,918,180

OTHE FUNDS 106,867,295 105,489,779

GENEAL FUND 278,211,864 292,825,224

TOTAL 403,003,676 416,233,183

Total Appropriation for Category 02

ADMIN of JUSTICE & PUBLIC PTN

AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02-420,003,205 424,638,566

ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for CATEGOY 02, ADMIN of JUSTICE & PUBLIC PTN, as INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02

FEDEAL FUNDS 52,837,182 50,445,675

OTHE FUNDS 152,998,319 155,855,692

GENEAL FUND 213,213,595 217,790,891

SWEEPSTAKES FUNDS

TOTAL 420,003,205 424,638,566

Total Appropriation for Category 03

ESOUCE POTECTION & DEVELOPMENT

AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.03-222,979,010 217,030,487

ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for…

References

Hall, D.E.. (Sep 2002). Six Programs Fueled State Spending Increases, 1993-2003. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at  http://www.nhpolicy.org/nhbudget/19932003v1.pdf 

Norton, S.A. (Dec 2006). Fiscal Feast and Famine. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at  http://www.nhpolicy.org/budget_trends2007.pdf .

Operating Budget for the State of New Hampshire (2004-2005). (2005). About the LBA-Budget Division. State of New Hampshire Office of Legislative Budget Assistant. Concord, NH. Retrieved February 7, 2007 at http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/LBA/Indexbudget.html.

President George W. Bush (07 Feb 2005). President Bush's Budget and New Hampshire: FY Budget. The White House. Retrieved February 8, 2007, at  http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/budget/2006/states/nh.html# .

Beyond Budgeting
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Beyond Budgeting" by Jeremy Hope

The Significance of Budgeting on Effective Management: Analysis of "Beyond Budgeting" by Jeremy Hope

In the book "Beyond Budgeting," author Jeremy Hope gave an altogether different conceptualization of the significance of budgeting on effective management. In it, he emphasized the need for better and well-thought out budgeting plans in order not to sacrifice the management decisions and ultimately, the efficient performance of a company or organization. The author aimed to create a strong argument illustrating this objective -- that is, the relationship of budgeting with management -- and successfully achieved this by centering his attention to the rudimentary, yet essential, details of budgeting in a more comprehensible manner. The book, in effect, was organized into three parts: firstly, an analysis of budgeting; secondly, on management; and finally, the role that budgeting plays on effective management.

One of the revolutionary ways in which budgeting was transformed…

Work cited

Hope, J. (2003). Beyond Budgeting. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Government Comparison of Three Budgets
Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36848788
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The State of Nevada and Clark County appear to have a different manner of meeting budget deficiencies. The Office of udget and Management has an amount of finances reserved for supplemental and emergency funding, at a total of $153.1 billion dollars. Neither Clark County nor the State of Nevada appears to have emergency or supplemental funding in their budgets.

State of Nevada

The budget for the State of Nevada is larger than Clark County. The total 2006 budget for the State of Nevada is reported to be $2,400 million dollars with a deficit of -2.3%. The state of Nevada's transportation budget for 2006 was $4.6 million dollars; agriculture $21.1 million; education $56.6 million; health and human services $69.2 million; and $21.0 million for justice programs. These amounts are considerably higher than Clark County in comparison. The State of Nevada's Department of usiness and Industry recently released a new prevailing wage…

Bibliography

Clark County (2006). Clark County. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from Nevada's Clark County

Website:  http://www.co.clark.nv.us/ .

Office of Budget and Management. (2006). The White House's Office of Budget and Management.

Retrieved September 22, 2006, from the Office of Budget and Management's Website:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/ .

Public Administration Budgeting an Important
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Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up vs. Top-down Budget Plans, 2010).

The budget rules that are prepared by top management are passed down through successive levels within the company. Managers at each level may make additions and offer greater detail for their subordinates. The managers at each level prepare the plans for items under their control. The budgeting process will caution management of possible problems that may occur. By knowing the problems, solutions may be formulated. For example, at the valleys in cash flow, a shortage of cash may occur. Knowing this ahead of time allows management to arrange for a short-term loan for the financing need rather than face an unexpected financing crisis. In a similar element, planning allows for a smooth manufacturing program to result in both lower production costs and lower inventory levels. It steers clear of a crisis circumstances requiring overtime or high transportation charges…

References

Fuller, Julia. (2010). How to Make a Budget for an Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2010,

from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_4464789_make-budget-organization.html

How to Prepare A Sound Budget Process. Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up versus

Top-down Budget Plans. (2010). Retrieved August 7, 2010, from Online Success Center

Marketing Budget During Economic Crisis
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All these were achieved with immense marketing budgets.

In the current situation when the United States and the world are threatened by an economic crisis, the giant shoemaker continues to sustain an increased marketing budget. A specification that must be made however is that changes in the structure of the budget have occurred. In this order of ideas, the marketing specialists at Nike are more centred on interactive and innovative marketing, rather than traditional marketing operations. In a time of financial difficulties then, the number one shoemaker of the globe is trying to approach the audience using less conventional means. Nike officials argued that they were not in the business of keeping the media companies alive, but that their primary interest was that of best communicating with the audience. In this order of ideas then, the multinational organization drastically reduced marketing budgets for television advertisements and other traditional means and…

Works Cited

Chandler, T., Nike Gets Engaged, Shrinks Traditional Ad Spending. Here's How Copywriters Can Benefit, the Copywriter Underground, 2007, http://copywriterunderground.com/2007/10/22/nike-gets-engaged-shrinks-traditional-ad-spending-heres-how-copywriters-can-benefit/last accessed on October 16, 2008

Lovell, C., Marketing Budgets Cut at Record Rate as Economic Crisis Deepends, Brand Republic, 2008,  http://www.brandrepublic.com/Campaign/News/852748/Marketing-budgets-cut-record-rate-economic-crisis-deepens/last  accessed on October 16, 2008

McNamara, C., All About Marketing, Free Management Library, 2008,  http://www.managementhelp.org/mrktng/mrktng.html . Ast accessed on October 16, 2008

Ford's Product Facing a Deepening Financial Crisis, Daily Times, 2006,  http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006 57story_7-5-2006_pg5_30last accessed on October 16, 2008

Yearly Budget Is an Integral Step in
Words: 3300 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76000821
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yealy budget is an integal step in the administation of the ciminal justice system in the United States. The budget is the souce of funding fo all pogams and agencies administeed though the Justice Depatment and the success o failue of such pogams is dependent upon the budgetay pocess. This pape will assess how public policy affects the budgetay pocess and how each the Executive and Legislative banches of the U.S. Govenment teat policy in making decisions egading how the budget is oganized.

The ecent histoy of the budget pocess and its effects on the ciminal justice system in the United States is examined. Pat of this examination includes an explanation as to easons fo why the ciminal justice system has failed in ecent yeas to accuately eflect public policy and suggestions as to how changes in the budgetay pocess might alte the path and diection of the nation's ciminal…

references Towards Criminal Justice Spending Priorities. Justice Quarterly, 317-335.

Mikesell, J.L. (2011). Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector. Boston: Wadsworth.

Office of Management and Budget. (2008). Circular No. A-11 General Information. Washington, D.C.: Office of Management and Budget.

U.S Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1993). The Role of General Government Elected Officials in Criminal Justice. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Advisory Commission.

Criminal Justice Budget

Public Budgeting
Words: 6131 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64152660
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public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…

References

Budget.Gov. 2012. Fiscal year 2012: Historical tables -- Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Budget.Gov. 2012a. Fiscal year 2012: Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Dinapoli, T.P. (2011). Report on the State Fiscal Year 2011-12 -- Enacted Budget. New York State Comptroller

Leigland, J. And Russell, H. 2009. Another lost decade? Effects of the financial crisis on project finance for infrastructure, Grid Lines No. 48. Washington, PPIAF.