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During the construction process, dead loads "can be accurately calculated," (Brannigan: 15). Yet, live loads are much harder to plan for. Carefully planning for the planning of these types of considerations in building design has been crucial. ecent fire codes have begun to implement live load constrictions. All of these elements can have an effect on the health of a structure during a disaster like a fire.
Constructing smart means preventing disaster and maintaining structure quality through a multitude of disasters. Through proper adherence to fire codes, which have been created in order to prevent disasters, and intelligent design practices, buildings have a chance against the harmful disasters which plague cities and towns everywhere.
Brannigan, Frances L. (2007). Brannigan's Building Construction for the Fire Service. Jones & Barlett
Carr, obert F. (2009). Health care facilities. Whole Building Design Guide. etrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.wbdg.org/design/health_care.php.
Conway, Brian. (2009). Office…
Brannigan, Frances L. (2007). Brannigan's Building Construction for the Fire Service. Jones & Barlett
Carr, Robert F. (2009). Health care facilities. Whole Building Design Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.wbdg.org/design/health_care.php .
Conway, Brian. (2009). Office building. The Planning Site, LLC. National Institute of Building Sciences. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.wbdg.org/design/office.php .
INEE. (2009). Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction: Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery. Prevention Web. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.preventionweb.net/files/10478_GuidanceNotesSaferSchoolConstructio.pdf .
The fires burned "out of control" on six of the lower floors at #7 which seriously damaged the floor framing on several floors. hen a main girder on the 13th floor "lost its connection to a critical interior column that provided support for the long floor spans" on the east side of #7, that caused the 13th floor to collapse and from there on down it was like a domino effect down to the 5th floor (Stein).
In 2005 NIST published its research on 22 collapses of buildings resulting from fires. Looking specifically at the building materials used on those 22 collapses, the NIST research revealed: 7 buildings were built with concrete; 6 were built using structural steel; 5 were built with brick/masonry; 2 buildings were built using wood; and in the remaining 2 buildings it was unknown as to what materials were used (Beitel, 2005). .
Thirteen of those…
Beitel, Jesse, and Iwankiw, Nestor. (2005). Historical Survey of Multistory Building
Collapses Due to Fire. Fire Protection Engineering, 158(6).
Post, Nadine M. (2003). Experts Debate Using Structure to Resist Fire Loads. ENR:
Engineering News-Record, 251(15), 14-14.
In modern building construction, there are numerous codes and regulations that contractors and builders are compelled by law to follow. Though different states and municipalities have variation in their particular regulatory regimes, there are some standard guidelines that all state and local governments must abide. First, regulations require buildings to be structurally sound; that is, in the case of fire or disaster, buildings and homes must be able to withstand the shock of a sudden fire or destructive event. A sound foundation and frame can aid rescue workers by giving them the security that the building will better hold up while firefighters engage in rescue operations. Second, most regulations require that building and interior materials meet fire retardation standards. Many contemporary building materials are made with new plastics and polymers that do not, or are resistant, to burning. Fire retardant materials can help prevent a building from burning…
Each of these codes and regulations can have a considerable impact on building construction. First, abiding by the codes can increase the cost of construction, since builders must seek and use the latest in both structurally sound and fire retardant material -- as technologies such as nanotechnology go public, each succeeding generation of fire retardant building material may be required for not only building, but for renovation of existing structures as well. Also, there may be increased costs to architectural firms as they must alter plans and designs to incorporate features such as fire escapes and clear pathways to meet building codes. As a building is being designed, there has to be a foundation to support its structure, and this can increase the cost of seeking the appropriate location for the building -- i.e., the land must be able to support the relevant structure.
It is obvious that it is in the public's interest to ensure that new structures (and renovated older buildings as well) are subject to numerous codes and regulations. History is replete with examples of catastrophic fires and mass death due to fires and natural disasters; take for example what happened to San Francisco during the earthquake and resulting fire in 1906 or in the 2003 Rhode Island Station nightclub fire in which ninety-six patrons were killed. And of course, in the age of terrorism, fire and building safety become paramount in protecting the public's well-being and security. But in order for there to be safety and security, builders and contractors must be held to account for shoddy or inferior workmanship, and the only way to ensure that homes and buildings are safe and secure, is to use the force of law through regulations and codes to oblige builders to design and build safe and secure structures.
Codes and building standards are very important for firefighter and rescuer safety. Through the use of codes and regulations, buildings and structures can be designed to ensure maximum rescuer "safer" access and exit, thus facilitating the timely rescue of persons and property. Also, fire safe building design can aid in the quick exit of occupants, thus giving firefighters "less to do," so to speak, thus both limiting the amount of time a firefighter must remain in a burning structure and the number of trips a rescuer must enter the disaster area. Also, by requiring features such as sprinklers, fire extinguishers and numerous and easy emergency exits can aid fire fighters by ensuring that occupants themselves have the ability to limit or forestall the spreading of a fire while giving them the ability to quickly exit the burning structure as the fire spreads. All this can limit the danger a firefighter can potentially face.
Within the project management process, there are monetary values that stakeholders allot to manage the risks in order to enhance the successful completion of the project. Suppose, stakeholders allot $250,000 to manage the project risks and after completion of the project, a project manager will calculate all the costs used in the risk management. The total costs used to manage the risks will determine the risks management outcome of completed projects. If the planned costs to manage the risks are higher than the actual costs, the risk management carried out for the project is not effective. However, if the planned costs for the risk management are equal or less than the actual costs, there is an effectiveness procedure used in the risk management for the completed projects.
Moreover, overall project costs are another determinant to assess the risk management outcomes of completed projects. The planned costs of a project vs.…
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010). Features Article: A Statistical Overview of the Construction Industry. Australia.
Barber, R.B. (2004). Systemic issues in risk management in projects; why the as/NZS 4360 approach is not enough. Australian Project Manager 24 (1), 24-27.
Project Management Institute (2004) a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (3rd Edition). PMBOK Guides.
Richard, a.U. (2009). Documentation and Monitoring of Construction Projects. A Research Project in Partial Fulfillment of B. sc in Building. Nnamdi Azikiwe University. Nigeria.
Codes and egulations
Building rules are applicable in situations whereby the property owners decide to modify, demolish or establish heir buildings according to the jurisdiction of the building codes and conducts. According to Ching and Winkel (2012), structures and construction projects are governed by various codes and regulations during the construction of new houses, refurbishments and changes in the use of building among other construction activities. These building codes and regulations are to assist in maintenance of building sanity since the construction activities require no federal permits. Building plans are subjected to reviews for adherence with the laws and building codes.
The first code governing the construction of buildings requires the buildings to have fire protection systems installed. Fire protection systems such as automatic fire sprinklers are major requirement for constructors establishing buildings for commercial or public use. Legislations have been passed to make buildings comply with codes such as…
Ching, F., & Winkel, S. ( 2012, April 24). Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2012 International Building Code. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved May Thursday, 2012, from www.bizjournals.com: http://www.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/2005/04/25/focus5.html?page=1
Land Lord Zone. (1990). Fire Safety. Retrieved May 31, 2012, from www.landlordzone.co.uk: http://www.landlordzone.co.uk/fire_safety.htm
San Diego Municipal . (2010, June 1). Codes, Regulations, Requirements. Retrieved May Thursday, 2012, from www.sandiego.gov: http://www.sandiego.gov/development-services/industry/codes.shtml
Inexcusable delay - these postponements outcome from a contractor's own fault or his subcontractors or substantial dealers
Table 3-1 the Most Important Delay Factors According to Contractors
Preparation and approval of shop drawings
Delays in contractors progress payment by owner
Design change by owner during construction
Delay in the special manufacture out side of Saudi Arabia
Owners cash problems during construction
Slowness of owner's decision making process
Slow delivery of construction material
Design errors made by designers
Waiting for sample materials to be approved
Table 3-2 the Most Significant Delay Issues Conferring to Architectural Engineers
Owners cash problem during construction
Financing by contractors during construction
elationship between different subcontractors schedules
Slowness of owner's decision…
Acharya, N.K., Young, D.L., & Im, H.M. (2006). Conflicting factors in construction projects: Korean perspective. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 13(6), 543-566.
Alaghbari, W., Mohd, R.A., Salim, a., & Ernawati. (2007). The significant factors causing delay of building construction projects in malaysia. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14(2), 192-206.
Al-Kharashi, a., & Skitmore, M. (2009). Causes of delays in saudi arabian public sector construction projects. Construction Management and Economics, 27(1), 3.
Arditi, D., & Robinson, M.A. (1995). Concurrent delays in construction litigation. Cost Engineering, 37(7), 20-20.
project leader for the office building construction project, formulate a vision statement for the team project.
According to Gray and Larson (2008) a vision is unlike a project scope statement, which includes: budget, end dates, and performance requirements, a vision involve the less tangible aspects of project performance. It refers to an image a project team holds in common about how the project will look upon completion, how they will work together and/or how customers will accept the project (p. 361-362). A simple level of a shared vision will answer the question, what do we want to create? Not everyone will have the same vision, but the images should be comparable. Additionally, vision comes in a variety of shapes and forms such as: in a slogan, a symbol and/or written as a formal vision statement (p.362).
A vision can also inspire members to give their best effort. However, shared visions…
Carbasho, T. (2008). Integrated Project Delivery Improves Efficiency Streamlines Construction. Retrieved from http://www.tradelineinc.com/reports/0A03D1C0-2B3B-B525-85702BCEDF900F61
Edmondson, A. C, & Rashid, F. (2009) Integrated Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc. Boston: Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing.
Gray, C., & Larson, E (2008). BUS 517: Project management: The managerial process: 2009 custom edition (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Lewis, J. (2003). Project leadership: Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
(CPA News, 2008)
It is related in the CPA News article that brand and marketing strategy should involve making clients aware of the green building services of the firm prior to beginning construction on a new green building or in the case in which they are thinking about "retrofitting an existing one. There are substantial tax deductions available..." (2008) for both.
FINDINGS & CONCLUSION
It has been indicated in this study that the role of accounting and financial management in the green building construction is one that is vital and determinative of project success and is a role that requires the individual take the initiative in addressing construction design and development and the associated costs, initiative funding, and even marketing and sales. This study has found that 'green construction' holds great financial promise for many years to come.
Miller, Stephani I. (2008) Green uilding Regulations Proliferating. Residential Architect. 23…
Miller, Stephani I. (2008) Green Building Regulations Proliferating. Residential Architect. 23 Jul 2008. Online available at http://www.residentialarchitect.com/industry-news.asp?sectionID=275&articleID=743900
Meyerson, Andrew (2005) the Dollars and Cents of Green Construction. Consulting Case Study. Journal of Accountancy. May 2005. Online available at http://www.aia.org/static/state_local_resources/adv_sustainability/Green%20Economics/Dollars_Cents_Green_Construction.pdf
CPA Green Marketing:Growing Your Practice (2008) CPA News. Online available at http://sourcecorp.wordpress.com/2008/08/01/cpa-green-marketing-growing-your-practice/#more-117
Green Building Construction from an Accounting Perspective
Craft not art?
a. Though it is undeniable that manufacturers of objects not generally esteemed as art such as fabric and dishes are still artists, the fact that their contribution to cultural aesthetic is not valued similarly or at least regarded similarly to that of a sculptor is fundamentally incorrect.
b. This shift in regard of "craft" as either an art or not an art has occurred as the world modernizes and more distinct lines are drawn between objects and pieces of art. Historically, earthen ware jugs, rugs, dishware all these things which now would not be regarded as are were in the past regarded as such and given great care and detail
c. The devaluation of craft objects as simple objects not objects to be admired or appreciated beyond their functionality and superficial connection to an overall aesthetic has resulted in a paradox for individuals who make craft. They…
Building Design Construction Methods and Collapse
General building design and construction methods
Contemporary building regulations are effective in ensuring the safety of occupants throughout the life cycle of the structure. Government agencies have the responsibility of inspection to ensure safety and enforcing compliance to regulations and codes during constructions. Building design and construction methods evolve in response to emerging trends and demands in the industry. Advancements within the design and construction industries transform the demands and orientation of structures as per the consumer demand.
Building designs and construction methods have associated types of collapse. Designs and construction methods determine the gravity resistance system of buildings. Different building designs and construction methods have related hazards from the collapse of structures.
Fire resistive buildings
Fire resistive building designs integrate the application non-combustible materials in construction. This prevents the construction materials from adding to the fire load and smoke within and spread from…
Bukowski, R., Jensen, R. & Laurel, A. (2012). Addressing the Needs of People Using Elevators for Emergency Evacuation. Fire Technology, 48: 127 -- 136.
Ling, F. & Soh, L. (2005). Improving the design of tall buildings after 9/11. Structural Survey, 23 (4): 265-281.
Mohammad, H. (2009). On the challenges of evacuation and rescue operations in high-rise buildings. Structural Survey, 27 (2): 109-118.
Randall, M. (2005). OSHA to the Rescue: Roofing industry benefits from agency's efforts. Professional Safety, 50 (2): 38-40.
This is when the available supply will address demand.
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Bakar, a, 2010, 'Causes of Delays in Iranian Construction,' International Journal…
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Iran's Budget Shortfalls, 2009, PR Log. Available from: [21 Feb 2010]
building industry. The building industry is a cyclical business based on residential and business construction. The industry has faced several years of constrained demand, despite low interest rates. Two firms within the industry are Eagle Materials (EXP) and Apogee Enterprises (APOG). These two firms will be compared with one another in terms of their finances and their recent news in this paper. First, Eagle will be studied including its key financial ratios and recent news, and then the same treatment will be given to Apogee. The conclusion of the paper will discuss the future of the industry and which of the two firms would make a better investment for someone looking to put money in the building industry today.
The Building Industry
The building industry is a cyclical business based on construction. Both construction firms and their suppliers are part of this industry. The two companies being studied are industry…
Apogee Enterprises Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended 2012.
Eagle Materials Fiscal Year 2012 Form 10-K.
Eagle Materials. (2013). Eagle Materials Inc. reports continued growth in sales volumes and earnings in the third quarter. Eagle Materials Retrieved March 30, 2013 from http://ir.eaglematerials.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=738571
Forbes. (2013). Apogee Enterprises about to put more money in your pocket. Forbes Dividend Channel. Retrieved March 30, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/dividendchannel/2013/02/01/apogee-enterprises-about-to-put-more-money-in-your-pocket/
Construction Systems and Fire Behavior
The fire destruction menace is an accident that lives with the societies on a daily basis and as long as there are activities within any building, there are predispositions to fire accidents without exclusion. This comprises the domestic buildings, high commercial buildings and even the office blocks within the city. There are procedures that can be followed while putting up a building or renovating a building that will ensure there are enough measures that help in the eradication of fires or at least suppression of fires when one breaks out.
One such system is the general rule of having effective fire separation within the building which could be between one floor and another or even within the same floor. This is rarely the case since even where such systems are put in place, they are often imperfect in nature and inmost cases not existing at…
CFBT-U.S., (2014). Commercial Fire: Durango, CO. Fie Behavior Case Study. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from http://www.cfbt-us.com/pdfs/cs_0002_durango_co.pdf
Frassetto R., (2012). Understanding Building Construction Types. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from http://www.firefighternation.com/article/truck-co-operations/understanding-building-construction-types
Gregory Havel, (2013). Construction Concerns: Unpredictable Fire. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from www.fireengineering.com/articles/2013/08/construction-concerns-unpredictable-fire.html
Building Information Modeling
Evolution of BIM
Characteristics of BIM
Managing BIM Models
Barriers to BIM
The Future of BIM
ecently, a lot of revolution has been taking place to bring change in the fabric of the audiovisual design and integration of business. Nasser (2010) noted that Building Information Modeling (BIM) is not a new innovation to the field of construction. It has been around for decades, even though the term BIM was introduced more recent by Professor Charles Eastman of Georgia Tech, who developed the first no-commercial BIM tool almost three decades ago and called it Engineering Data Model (EDM), when has undergone through a number of iteration (Nasser, 2010). In this paper, we evaluate the concept and application of Building Information Modeling (BIM).
ecently, a lot of revolution has been taking place to bring change in the fabric of the audiovisual design and integration of business.…
Mihindu, S., Arayici, Y.: Digital Construction through BIM Systems will drive the Re-engineering of Construction Business Practices, International Conference on Visualization IEEE Computer Society 2008, 29-34.
Dean, R. (2007). Building Information Modeling (BIM): Should Auburn University Teach BIM to Building Science Students? Graduate Capstone, Department of Building Science, Auburn University.
Rosenburg, T.L. (2007). "Building Information Modeling." [WWW document] URL http://www.ralaw.com/resources/documents/Building%20Information%20Modeling%20-%20Rosenberg.pdf
Thompson, D.B., and Miner, R.G. (2007). "Building Information Modeling - BIM: Contractual Risks are Changing with Technology" [WWW document] URL http://www.aepronet.org/ge/no35.html
Building a Bridge
Cherry oad Bridge Project
This is a proposal to create a solidly engineered pony truss bridge at Cherry oad to be concluded by August 31, 2012. We have assembled a competent project team to help us accomplish this task. We have carefully selected project members based on area of expertise. Guided by the overall engineering and design blueprint and under the direction of a capable Project Manager, each team member will employ his or her unique skill set (and extended team members) to see this project through to completion in a safe, cost effective, and timely manner.
Principal Team Members
Owner: Tom Jones -- [HIDDEN]
Project Manager: Geoffrey Hendricks -- g. -- [HIDDEN]
Senior Designer: Marilyn Branson -- [HIDDEN]
Constructor: Scott Cooley- scott. -- [HIDDEN]
The Owner, Mr. Tom Jones, has initiated this project and will ultimately assume ownership upon its completion. A long-time private…
Quality in the Constructed Product: A Guide for Owners, Designers, and Constructors, American Society of Civil Engineers Manual No. 73, ASCE, New York, 1990.
Assembling and testing the PC
Once you've acquired all the components, the next step is to assemble and test the laptop. The steps to accomplish this are provided here:
Open the laptop case up and lay in the motherboard. Use screws to tighten it into place.
Next, layer in the other components including disk drive, memory, and microprocessor. Snap them all into place carefully.
With the components in place, next close the lid and secure it using the screws included. The case is now solidly closed.
Plug in the power cable and see if the computer comes up. You will hear a slight whirring sound as the disk drive spins up to speed.
The screen shows light but is not showing any characters. That's because the operating system needs to be loaded.
Testing your PC at this point starts with a series of utilities than can be found at ZDNet.com…
Homeowner agrees to provide Contractor with the necessary access to Homeowner's property and to reimburse Contractor for the purchase of building and other materials listed on the separate document entitled "List of Materials" attached hereto as a second page and bearing the initials of Homeowner next to each item.
Homeowner agrees to extent the period for the completion of this project by any delay caused directly by the unavailability of any necessary item or materials or to arrange for the delivery of appropriate substitute items or materials.
This agreement and the attached addendum referenced above constitutes the entire agreement between the parties and neither party may modify this agreement except in a writing bearing the signature of both parties.
Agreed to April 4, 2009.
66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.
St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).
4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…
Albright, W.F. (1936), "Archaeological Exploration and Excavation in Palestine and Syria, 1935," American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 40 (1): 154 -- 167
Baedekers Frankford: a city guide series. Prentice Hall Press, 1987. Print.
Bennett, M. The Hutchinson dictionary of ancient and medieval warfare. Chicago, Il: Helicon Publishing, 1998. Print.
Billings, Malcolm. The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars. New York: Sterling
The model that emerged from the study proposes that there is a relationship of life mission with transformational learning and self-directed learning. Adult educators may improve their learning process when they provide some way for learners to understand their life's mission and relate it to learning. This may help the learning experience go from being teacher-directed to being more student-directed. The study suggests that purpose seeking must be included in emancipatory learning as well as awareness building (Kroth, p.134).
Stephen Brookfield recently published a study of the theory entitled epositioning ideology critique in a critical theory of adult learning about adult learning and how it differs from other types of theories. Looking at contemporary readings in adult educational, particularly those of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, as interpreted by Habermas, who taught "risk sliding into an exclusive engagement with the pragmatic dimensions of his thought to the exclusion of…
Brookfield, S. (2001).Repositioning ideology critique in a critical theory of adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, vol. 52(11.
Brookfield, S. (2002). Overcoming alienation as the practice of adult education: the contribution of Erich Fromm to a critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 52(2).
Barry-Craig P. Johansen and Gary N. McLean (2006). Worldviews of adult learning in the workplace: a core concept in human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 8(8.)
Belzer, a. (2004). "It's not like Normal School": the role of prior learning contexts in adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 55(1).
Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it…
Averyt, William. (2005). E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age. American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Chaffee, a. (2000-08-17). "What is a web application (or "webapp")?"
Cohen, JE. (2000). Examined Lives: Informational Privacy and the Subject as Object. Stanford Law Review 52(5): 1373.
Bourquard, J.A. (2003, March). What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan it May Provide a Means to Reduce State
As the general contractor of a medium size, one of the most important decision points in construction is a go no-go decision. Go no-go decisions have become common in the modern construction industry because of the changing marketplace that has in turn generated complex procurement choices. In light of the changing marketplace in the construction industry, construction companies face new challenges in identifying the most suitable project proposals to adopt and develop vetting measures that help in making the appropriate go no-go decision (Illia & ubin, 2014). Despite the complexities of such decisions, go no-go decisions remain very crucial choices in this sector because of their significance in weighing costs for the most appropriate project fit.
Contractors need to conduct a go no-go analysis in order to determine the best project fit depending on project specifications and needs. The analysis helps in several aspects including serving as a process…
Bagies, A and Fortune, C (2006) Bid/ no-bid decision modelling for construction projects. In: Boyd, D (Ed) Procs 22nd Annual ARCOM Conference, 4-6 September 2006, Birmingham, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 511-521.
Bryan Construction Inc. (n.d.). Design-Bid-Build Construction Projects. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from http://bryanconstruction.com/company/articles-info/design-bid-build-construction-projects/
Illia, T. & Rubin, D.K. (2014, October 6). Firms Refine Steps to Bid the Right Job. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from http://www.enr.com
Rudy, L.J. (2014, June 11). Getting Started with Go/No-Go Decision Making. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from https://business.tutsplus.com/articles/getting-started-with-gono-go-decision-making -- cms-21362
According to Montgomery (2003), "Higher floors of buildings tended to rent at a substantial discount, due to the need to climb several flights of stairs to reach one's workplace or residence. Otis's invention of the safety elevator at mid-century heralded the end of this constraint on vertical real estate development" (495). Likewise, Masden notes that the increasingly confident use of the relatively new ' elevators' also fueled demand for more steel frame structures; such new steel-framed buildings were known during this early period as "elevator buildings" instead of skyscrapers, a term that was first coined in 1883 (Marsden 78).
The underlying theory behind steel frame construction during its early use, though, fueled some well-intentioned but misguided efforts that adversely influenced future applications, selection of building materials, site selection and other salient factors involved in construction. In this regard, Mumford (1959) reports that, "Unfortunately, the skyscraper was an almost automatic response…
Code of Standard Practice. 2006. American Iron and Steel Institute: Committee on Framing Standards. Steel Framing Alliance Practice Guide CF06-1.
Fanjoy, Rob. 2006. "As an alternative to lumber, cold-formed steel framing has advantages and disadvantages. Here's what you need to know." Steel Framing Solutions. 18 Nov. 2006 http://forpros.lowes.com/articles.cfm?aid=103.
Marsden, Donald. 2005, January 1. "How Chicago Got All High and Mighty." The Daily Mail 78.
Montgomery, M.R. 2003. "Keeping the Tenants Down: Height Restrictions and Manhattan's Tenement House System, 1885-1930." The Cato Journal 22(3):495.
The panels could also be assembled quickly often within a day. Some panels have an in-built wiring in them making the housing construction to be faster. The panelized off-site building technologies could also involve exterior wall of building designed to provide the load bearing structural support, and the panelized building system could be made of light gauge steel, timber, structural insulated panels (SIPs), non-structural or concrete, which could be used to create the whole building.
(Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2003). On the hand, Burwood and Jess (2005) reveal another method of panelized building system which is closed system. However, closed system is more complex because it involves the use of more factory fabrication such as insulation and lining materials. Different type of panels may include steel frame or timber frame and they may consist of prefabricated load bearing panels.
There are several advantages that could be derived from…
AMA Research (2011). Bathroom and Kitchen Pods Market-UK 2010.2014. AMA Research Ltd., UK.
Azman, M.N.A. Ahamad, M.S.S. Majid, T.A. et al. (2010). The Common Approach in Off-Site Construction Industry. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(9): 4478-4482.
Barker 33 Cross Industry Group (2006) Modern Methods of Construction (MMC) for the Provision of Housing: Barker 33 Review: Recommendations, Barker 33 Cross Industry Group, London.
Barker, K. (2003) Review of Housing Supply: Securing our Future Housing Needs, Interim Report: Analysis, HMSO, London.
Shah Signature, Navi Mumbai
The Shah Signature building is located in Navi Mumbai. The clients in this project are Shah group Projects and infraprojects Ltd. And the project was executed by Soyuz Talib Architects. The site where the building is located is 1800 sqm, a footprint of 825 sqm and a built up of 13,000 sqm and the total built up area was 138,000 Sq.F.t. The total cost of putting up the building is estimated to be 2387.40 Lacs (Kalpana Struct, 2012).The project for the Shah Signature building was designed by the Firm Associates, Architects in India, Asia which is a team famous for its sustainability intrinsic to good designs. The structural consultants of this building were Shanghai & Associates. Work on the building commenced on the 2nd of February 2012 and the work completed on the 30th of April 2013.it is a commercial project for showrooms as well as…
NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., (2010). The Firm Sustainability Intrinsic to Good Design. Retrieved March31, 2014 from http://www.nbmcw.com/articles/architects-a-project-watch/5533-the-firm-a-multi-design-practice-offering-architecture-interiors-and-landscape.html
Dsouza, B.(2012). Shah Signature at Vashi by Shah Group in Navi Mumbai. Retrieved March31,2014 from http://masssnews.weebly.com/4/post/2012/05/shah-signature-at-vashi-by-shah-group-in-navi-mumbai.html
Kalpana Struct.(2012). Shaha Signature-commercial Building construction. Retrieved March31, 2014 from http://www.kscpl.com/ongoing/shah-signature-commercial-building-construction/
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
They were constructed or rather carved as a tribute to Pharaoh Ramses II and his queen Nefertari. The Temple of Edfu (237-57 BC) also shows the expertise and the cultural depth of the Egyptian culture. This temple on the West bank of the Nile in the city of Edfu is the second biggest temple in Egypt after Karnack. The religious foundations of the culture are clearly evident in aspects of the construction. For example, the decorations of the walls of the temple to the god Horus provide a cast array of scientific and mythological knowledge. This temple has also provided archeologists and Egyptologists with knowledge about the culture and its scientific and its advances in fields such as mathematics and astronomy.
In terms of materials and technological processes, the great ziggurats and pyramids show the use of ramps for building upwards and a strong durable material (mud-brick or granite).…
The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers (AISEE) pushed for a "national conference on safety" and as a result the Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC) was held (in 1912) and out of that meeting the National Council of Industrial Safety (NCIS) was founded. Later, the NCIS evolved into the National Safety Council (NSC) (Goetsch, p. 6).
On-the-job accidents "and even fatalities" were "an accepted fact of life in the construction industry" during the early 1900s, writes author Richard Hislop on page 4 of his book, Construction Site Safety: A Guide for Managing Contractors. Construction workers helping to build the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, for example, were in harm's way constantly. hen the budget was established and the projections for the Golden Gate were prepared, "it was expected that there would be on fatality for each million dollars of construction work," Hislop explains (1999, p. 4). And since the…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2007.
Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cfoi.nr0.htm .
Goetsch, David L. (2003). Construction Safety and Health. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
In other words, at every seven courses of stone, a layer of reed matting was laid and weep-holes and drainage shafts were placed, thus preserving the ziggurat from water damage.
Eventually the building fell into disrepair. Later, King Nabonidus restored the Ur ziggurat, along with other temples. Stiebing believes this was because he revered his mother's gods (285). Nabonidus claims in the clay cuneiform tablets found in the tower to have rebuilt it on the same foundations and using the same mortar and bricks. Ultimately it must have deteriorated after the Persian defeat by Cyrus in 539 BC.
Construction of Tower of Babylon (ca 600 BC)
While the biblical account of this great structure in Genesis 11 is perhaps legendary, scholars have come to view the "Tower of Babel" mentioned in the text as the ziggurat of the temple of Marduk in Babylon (known as Etemenanki). Expressing the scholarly consensus,…
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…
1. Cultural Environment
Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.
Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.
Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
building program: Using AutoCAD® Architecture
One commonly used program to draft plans for buildings using CAD software is AutoCAD® Architecture. Program capabilities include the ability to draw walls, to create a 'slope' to mimic the real-world conditions of a foundation, and the ability to annotate notes directly onto a plan. Creating structures such as doors with a 'swing' can also be superimposed upon the plan to ensure that they have enough room to maneuver. There are automatic scaling devices to include tags, texts, and other objects within the layout. One user noted that it is with such detailing that the program distinguishes itself from the competition. "For example, when entering column sizes they used to pick an approximate size for use throughout the entire building. Now, they can isolate particular columns and properly detail them out. e can save space, make room for drains, you name it. It's been a…
"Case studies." AutoCAD® Architecture. [3 Feb 2014].
epresentative Building Information Modeling Implementations in Other Countries
As noted above, evaluating the effectiveness of building information modeling systems remains challenging because of the relatively recent addition of this suite of modeling tools to the architect/designer repertoire, but there are some salient successful examples of such deployment from around the world as set forth in Table 1 below.
epresentative Building Information Modeling Implementations in Different Countries
Approximately 33% of architects and engineers were using BIM applications according to a 2007 survey; no case studies or other surveys of Finnish engineering firms have been conducted to date to the authors' knowledge (Wong, Wong & Nadeem, 2010). The major adopters of BIM include VTT. Building information modeling guidelines are being formulated with industry-wide support and collaboration (Wong et al., 2010).
The Norwegian Homebuilders' Association has encouraged the adoption of BIM industry wide; the major adopter of…
'a Case Study of BIM Implementation in India.' (2012, August 30). AEC Bytes: Building the Future. [online] available: http://www.aecbytes.com/buildingthefuture/2012/InformArchitects-CaseStudy.html.
'Around the world with BIM.' (2012). AEC Bytes. [online] available: http://aecbytes.com / blog/2012/05/09/around-the-world-with-bim/.
Cotts, D.G., Roper, K.O. & Payant, R.P. (2010). The Facility Management Handbook. New York: American Management Association.
Fisk, R. (2011, February 24). 'Tripoli: A City in the Shadow of Death.' The Independent
Developing BIM Implementation Strategy for Libyan Construction Sector
Construction, on any project, is a piecemeal affair that often provides so much confusion of parts that it is difficult to ensure that there is not some important element either lost or forgotten. Charles Thomsen, a leading builder, looks inside a construction trailer and sees "a plan rack with separate drawings for architectural, mechanical, plumbing, electrical and civil…special sets of drawings for landscaping, lighting, security networks, way-finding graphics…shop drawings are in racks, buckets or drawers. Book shelves hold loose-leaf notebooks full of FIs" (2010). A need existed for this to all be organized into one package that allowed construction to run more seamlessly than it had in the past. With the amount of material needed for the construction of even a simple structure, organization of the planning material is essential.
Technology provided the means for securing this organization through a…
Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry (FWCI). (2009). Building information modeling: Understanding and operating in a new paradigm. Retrieved from http://www.awci.org/pdf/bim.pdf
Howell, I., & Batcheler, B. (2005). Building information modeling two years later -- huge potential some success and several limitations. Retrieved from http://www.laiserin.com/features/bim/newforma_bim.pdf
Lavy, S., & Fernandez-Solis, J. (2010). Complex healthcare facility management and lean construction. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 3(2), 3-9.
Lu, J., & Price, A.D.F. (2011). Dealing with complexity through more robust approaches to the evidence-based design of healthcare facilities. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(4), 3-8.
Under Anglo-American common law, Ungern-Sternberg (2004) reports that, "When a property has changed owner, it is quite possible that no insurer is liable for subsidence damage, even though it has been permanently insured. Many homeowners suffer from the illusion that their building insurance will automatically pick up the whole bill but some have found this an expensive pipe dream" (p. 49). In reality, when consumers purchase a new home, it is carefully inspected and all known faults are identified, but unknown faults are also inherited in the transaction (Ungern-Sternberg, 2004).
Consequently, the experiences of many homeowners to date have been encounters with previous policyholder's insurance company disavowing responsibility for such damage as well as the new insurance company that will argue the damages are the result of pre-existing conditions. This nebulous area of building insurance remains controversial, and Ungern-Sternberg (2004) emphasizes that the practice continues to adversely affect building purchasers.…
Are you fully insured? (2011, March). Society of Chartered Surveyors. Retrieved from http://www.scsi.ie/publications/Downloadreport/hri2011 .
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bonato, D. & Zweifel, P. (2002). Information about multiple risks: the case of building and content insurance. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 69(4), 469-471.
Hoffman, a.V. (2003). House by house, block by block: The rebirth of America's urban neighborhoods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Construction Project Financing/Valuation
A brief search of Internet-listed one-bedroom apartments in Abu Dhabi confirms a current yearly rental price of AED 75,000 for most properties in the city (Justentals.com, 2012). Many apartments located in different buildings and in different [arts of the city are listed for exactly this amount, though some were also found for lower (AED 60,000) and several were found that were higher (approx. AED 85,000), however as an average current price AED 75,000 seems quite accurate (Justentals.com, 2012). Likewise, an estimation of AED 120,000 as the current annual average rent for a two bedroom is also fairly accurate; there is a greater variance observed in prices for two bedrooms that is likely reflective of differences in actual size and also appears to be neighborhood- and building-driven to a greater degree than is the pricing of one-bedroom apartments, however AED 120,000 does seem to be a…
Jones, M. (2011). CEO Magazine Interview. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.ceoqmagazine.com/economicoutlook/gcceconomicoutlook.htm
JustRentals.com. (2012). Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.justrentals.com/abu-dhabi-rent/1-bedroom-abu-dhabi-apartments-for-rent.html
PropertyWire.com. (2012). Downturn for property rents in Abu Dhabi as market is flooded with new supply. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.propertywire.com/news/middle-east/abu-dhabi-rental-prices-201203286352.html
Reuters. (2011). S&P keeps Abu Dhabi outlook. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.emirates247.com/business/economy-finance/s-p-keeps-abu-dhabi-outlook-2011-05-24-1.396898
Since their issue, the International Organization for Standardization has designated IFCs as being the "construction information standard" for BIM applications (Lyon, 2009, p. 40). Because the same types of needs have been identified in other sectors, the need for standardization in the BIM realm was also well recognized. For instance, according to Lyon (2009, p. 40), "Like CD, BIM will need standardization to share complex information between organizations." ccording to Twati (2008, p. 2), though, this key driver is languishing behind adoption levels in other countries. In this regard, Twati (2008) advises that, "While finances were not a problem for the wealthy country of Libya, it has historically used far less than its available computing capacity. The use of technology in Libya is minimal, regardless of it being one of the wealthiest countries in frica" (p. 1).
Building Information Modeling Implementations in Different Countries
Based on its proven efficacy in…
A recent example concerning the uptake of BIM in the United Kingdom is a public-private initiative intended to facilitate the design and development process using building information modeling applications. The project has been implemented at Niven Architects in a joint effort with Teesside University to promote developments in the use of BIM for building design and construction (Laing, 2012). According to this reporter, "Niven Architects has begun a two-year knowledge transfer partnership (KTP) with the university on building information modelling (BIM) as part of a Government and private sector scheme to improve businesses" (Laing, 2012, p. 32). In this case, Niven Architects is developing an innovative approach to modeling building information using these applications to help all stakeholders better understand what part they play in the process and what is expected from them in terms of support. In this regard, Laing (2012, p. 32) advises that, "When it comes to construction, instead of trying to interpret generic 2D drawings, the contractor has access to all of the information they need about every part of the project from the BIM model. We want all our consultants to move forward with us in BIM and will help them with their BIM implementation strategies as part of the KTP, which will support design and construction in the region." Of particular interest was the technique described by the architectural firm in which they expect to develop a virtual rendering of buildings that would provide clientele with the ability to actually walk through third-dimensionally projected buildings to get a better feel for what the space and built environment will look like when completed. According to Laing (2012, p. 32), Nivens "hopes to use Teesside University's 'Cave', a high-quality, immersive virtual environment and gaming facility, which would allow clients to physically 'walk into' and experience their new building before it is built." The project leader, Professor Nashwan Dawood, director of Teesside University's Technology Futures research institute, enthused that, "BIM can save time, energy and money. One of the problems in construction is the element of having to 'suck it and see'. You start to do the work and then suddenly there are problems" (2012, p.32).
In sharp contract, the introduction of the BIM applications has provided practitioners with the ability to render buildings in ways that allow every nook and cranny to be examined in detail, and in cost effective ways. In sum, "We can simulate the processes in advance on a computer screen in 3D, work out how things are going to be done and communicate this with the supply chain. It enables companies to virtually iron out problems before they happen" (Laing, 2012 at p. 32). These highly desirable attributes make BIM applications indispensable tools in modern construction projects, including the Libyan construction sector which is discussed further below.
Validation of the Strategy for Construction and Infrastructure Sector Organisations in the Libya Construction Sector
construction of a person who feel disconnected from his social setting? What are the elements of a person's experiences that combine to disconnect him or her from his social environment, and create the archetype misfit? Sometimes the person's ethics create the desire within him to be separate from his social surroundings sometimes the person is thrust into a setting with which he does not share any connections. Sometimes the simple choices of the individual separate him or her form the social surroundings, and create an isolated individual who is searching for meaning, and purpose. Such is the case for the characters in Ethan Frome, and Recitatif.
In the case of Ethan Frome, to combat the silence, isolation, and loneliness in his life, he marries a woman who is dissimilar to him, names Zenobia Pierce after his mother's death. While Ethan wants to leave their home town of Starkfield, his new…
Gothic vs. Romanesque Architecture
The Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture are key to the artistic development of the Middle Ages. They are they result not only of an aesthetical development, a natural consequence of improving socioeconomic conditions and a growing interest of individuals and groups to showcase their wealth and power with churches and other constructions, but also a result of technological developments. Indeed, many of the components of these styles came about as architectural necessities: to support the new constructions, technical innovations needed to be implemented and this sometimes translated into stylistic expressions.
This paper will investigate each architectural style in part, focusing both on a separate, relevant description of the main elements and on a comparison between the Romanesque and Gothic styles. To the degree to which this is possible, the paper will aim to showcase the description and the comparison with concrete examples from the civic…
1. Rolf Toman, Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Konemann, (1997)
2. Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology.
3. Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004)
4. Pevsner, Nikolaus. An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books. (1964)
Art on the Mexico and US Border
How Art is Being Used for Social, Cultural, and Political Expression
The border between the United States and Mexico has been a focal point of a significant amounts of media attention in recent years. The newly elected US president has consistent stated his intentions to build a wall between the two countries in an overall effort to crack down on illegal immigration. In some of his acts as President, the newly elected Donald Trump has ordered increased immigration enforcement which has come in the way of mass deportations and cancelled visas from certain countries that have been associated with terrorism in the Middle East. He had previously announced that he would build a wall between the US and Mexico and even went as far as claiming that he would make Mexico pay for its construction; a contemptuous claim that has worked to polarize…
Brouillette, L., & Jennings, L. (2010). Helping Children Cross Cultural Boundaries in The Borderlands: Arts at Freese Elementary Creates Cultural Bridges. Journal for Learning through the Arts.
Brown, P. (2016, October 26). No Walls Here: Between Tijuana and San Diego, an Art Ethos Thrives. Retrieved from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/30/arts/design/between-tijuana-and-san-diego-an-art-ethos-thrives.html
Lee, R. (2012). Tijuana Dreaming: Life and Art at the Global Border. Canadian Journal Of Latin American & Caribbean Studies, 269-271.
Moctezuma, A. (2007). Strange New World: Art and Design from Tijuana. Artforum International, 257-258.
Thousand Oaks vs. Amelco Electric
Broward County Vs. Great American Insurance
Great Monument Vs. Pinellas County
Pasco County School Board vs. Norwood Co
Cho Dae Presbyterian Church vs. Norwood County Zoning Board
Lafayette ealty vs. City of Hawthorne
City of Hackesack vs. Bergen County
City of Thousand Oaks vs. Amelco Electric
Amelco Electric was awarded a contract by the city of Thousand Oaks' to construct the electric portion of the Civic Arts Plaza project. The contract was worth over 6.1 Million Dollars. City representatives paid Amelco $1,009,728 extra to make changes. Amelco committed a faux paus when it failed to utilize the additional funds towards making the new changes as stated. They also claimed that it was difficult to verify the problems as it was impossible. Amelco claimed damages as they believed that the changes were a betrayal of their contract. The management pressed for lost…
Public Construction Law, Cheri De Love, 2003 ( http://www.publiconstructionlaw.com/Cases.htm#PERFORMANCE%20SURETY%20OFFER )
Great Monument Construction vs. Pinellas County (Carlos Moncada, The Tampa Tribune, 2003)
Cho Dae Presbyterian Church vs. Zoning Board, Norwood County, (Adam Geller, 2000; Publication: The Record (Bergen County, NJ)
City of Hawthorne vs. Bergen County (Hugh R. Morley, The Record,1995)
In the photographs provided, the building's architectural context has quite obviously changed over time.
The oldest-looking photo of the three shows little development in the surrounding area, while the placement of trees on the building's immediate ground looks artful.
The other two photos are more recent, as one shows subsequent development in the area behind the building.
One give a glimpse of a large white building whose twentieth-century style does not sit entirely harmoniously with the Victorian-seeming construction of the building under consideration -- and also shows broken windows visible in the main central tower.
The other photo displays recent blight and disrepair on a smaller building -- advertising posters, missing bricks and roof tiles -- although it's not clear whether this smaller building is part of the larger complex around the building under consideration.
One other noteworthy bit of context can be glimpsed in the oldest of…
The use of renewable materials is excellent when possible as it ensures that the environmental costs of building the house will be paid off in months instead of decades (BEST 2009). The use of reclaimed materials is even better, however, as there is absolutely no additional environmental involved in using, for instance, a century-old dance floor as the hardwood covering in a new living room. eclaimed resources can be difficult to locate, but are often worth the price in addition to the environmental savings (BEST 2009).
Technological innovations also allow for much greater efficiency. Inert-gas windows and better insulation materials and techniques can improve the envelope of a house, drastically reducing the amount of energy needed to heat or cool a home or building (ADPS 2009). Heating and cooling units themselves have also greatly improved in efficiency in recent years, with additional improvements still ongoing (BEST 2009).
The best ways…
ADPSR. (2009). Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.adpsr.org/
BEST. (2009). Building Environmental Science & Technology. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.energybuilder.com/
Ohio Capitol Building
Discuss the overall design of the building. Upon what earlier buildings or styles was the design of this structure based? hy is that significant?
According to those who helped to construct the building, the Ohio Capitol was intended to be a building that was designed simplistically, to reflect the refinement and simple nature of the people in the state (Gilkey 1902,-page 651). The Ohio Capitol Building's design is based upon Greek and Roman architecture. It has been considered a premier example of Greek revival architecture which became popular during the 19th century in the United States and Europe (Gilkey 1902,-page 652). The structure was designed before the United States Capitol building and thus does not have the round dome that most capitol buildings have, although that structure too was designed after Grecian and Roman architecture. Subsequent additions to the building, either because of the need for additional…
Gilkey, Elliott Howard et. al. (1901). The Ohio Hundred Year Book: a Hand-book of the Public
Men and Public. Taylor: Columbus, OH.
"The Ohio Statehouse." (2012).
A second major facto in the growing trend for a new greener industry is that these measures also represent a more efficient operation from a financial perspective as well. For instance, recycling aluminum cans on the job is an example of a sustainable practice that contributes in a positive way to the bottom line (Shepherd, 2009). ecycling aluminum cans on the jobsite help to feed the local economy as well. These new cost-cutting measures are necessary, as green construction typically drives up the price of a new home by 10% (Shepherd, 2009). Companies must take measures to reduce costs in as many areas as possible.
How Can These New Innovations Affect a Career in the Construction Industry?
Changes within the construction industry will have an impact on those involved in the industry of the future. These new innovations represent changes in attitude toward the job site, project flow and project…
AGC (2009). National Construction Group calls for New Federal Incentives to Encourage
Recycling of construction Materials, Purchase of More Efficient Construction
Equipment.Concrete Producer Online. March 23, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://www.theconcreteproducer.com/industry-news.asp?sectionID=1419&articleID=916304
Baccinelli, M. (2008). New Features and Technologies Boost Refrigerator Efficiency. Building Products. March/April 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://www.ecohomemagazine.com/green-products/new-features-and-technologies-boost-refrigerator-efficiency.aspx
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…
Outside unrendered. Set in woodland
Strawbale residential complex,
1. Strawbale multi-purpose conference / workshop/rehearsal space -- approximately 1,320 square feet; and,
2. Strawbale fully equipped communal kitchen/meeting place
Strawbale barn, Deanburn Cottage
Devon TQ11 0JQ
Post and beam/strawbale infill on limestone block foundation, approximately 30 square meters. Built in 1999 by Kevin and Helen Ireland. No cement or concrete used in building. Built with permission of Dartmoor National Park Authority; also serves as location for strawbale building seminars
Monkton Wyld Court
Dorset DT6 6DQ
Load-bearing strawbale walls on a raised wooden deck on telegraph pole "stilts," approximately 400 square meters, lime-plastered exterior, mud plastered interior, tin roof, underfloor straw insulation, stained glass window, built in 1999 during a workshop
Cork acecourse, Mallow
Co. Cork, Ireland
Load-bearing strawbale walls, lime-plastered exterior, thatched roof, built during a workshop as part of the…
Leedy, Phillip D. 1997. Practical Research: Planning and Design (6th ed). Upper Saddle
Pritchard, Mark Bigland & Adrian Pitts. 2006. "Evaluation of Strawbale Building: Benefits and Risks." Architectural Science Review 49(4): 372-373.
Decreasing Quality in Construction
In the modern estern world, quality construction is generally taken for granted. Although it was once expected that each member of a town or village participate in construction. few people today are involved in the building of their own homes. Only a small percentage of the population is involved in the construction of the roads on which the majority of the population drives. It is a vast minority of people that have played any part in the creation of the structures in which they live, work, or shop. To the average person, there is little connection made mentally between the solid floors supporting his or her weight many stories above the ground, or the protective roof keeping out the elements overhead, and the actual labor which was put into these things. If the construction process is flawless, then no one will have to think about it…
(2003, August 19) China launches crackdown on fake, inferior construction products. People's daily Online. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://english.people.com.cn/200308/19/eng20030819_122575.shtml
Chini, A.R., & Brown, B.H., & Drummond, E.G. (1999, April) Journal of Construction Education. ASC Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference, California Polytechnic State University. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://asceditor.unl.edu/archives/1999/chini99.htm
C-Risk. (2001) Construction defect. C-Risk Consultants in Risk Management. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://www.c-risk.com/Construction_Risk/CR_CDs_01.htm
Garrity, K. & Olson, S. (1998, May 5) Local groups trying to bring workers into construction. The Seattle Daily jounal of Commerce. Retrieved on February 27, 2005 from http://www.djc.com/special/constequip98/10038833.htm
1931, the Empire State Building was the highest building in the world. It was surpassed in its impressiveness only by the first orld Trade Center in the 1970s. The man who played a significant role in the development of the ESB was Al Smith, an ambitious man and a reformer. From the 1920s on, New York was continually reinventing itself. Families of immigrants had already become an important part of the city's life. Led by their hopes to fulfill the American dream, many of the immigrants dealt nevertheless with the social conditions of the time. Smith, who became governor of the United States in 1918, was himself a man who could identify with them, having grown up on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. As a child, he witnessed the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, a project that represented one of the foolproof elements that New York was developing into…
Lemire, Elise, and Flowers, Benjamin. Skyscraper: The Politics and Power of Building New York City in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009. Print.
United States. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Empire State Building. OMB No. 1024-0018. Web. 30 Sep 2013
According to Finkel (1999), "The American construction industry is a vibrant and dynamic segment of the overall economy. It is annually responsible for nearly 4% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP)" (p. 3). The historic performance of the construction industry has remained positive, even during downturns in the national economy. In fact, the last decade has been a period of healthy growth from the construction industry worldwide; however, a continued economic slowdown may result in somewhat slower growth in the future (Law, 2008).
The historic growth patterns of the construction industry are shown in Table 2 below and illustrated in Figure 1.
Construction industry market analysis: 2001-2004.
Compound Annual Growth ate (CAG)
Source: U.S. Census Bureau cited in BPlans, 2008 at http://www.bplans.com/sample_business_plans/Construction_and_Engineering_Business_Plans/Formwork_Construction_Business_Plan/Market_Description_fc.cfm.
Figure 1. Construction industry market analysis: 2001-2004.
Source: Based on tabular data from.S. Census Bureau cited in BPlans, 2008.
The company's strategy…
BPlans. (2008). [Online]. Available: http://www.bplans.com/sample_business_plans / Construction_and_Engineering_Business_Plans/Formwork_Construction_Business_Plan / Market_Description_fc.cfm.
Classification of building related sitework. (2008). UNIFORMAT II. [Online]. Available: http://www.uniformat.com/classification-of-building-related-sitework.html.
Finkel, G. (1999). The economics of the construction industry. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Law, P. (2008, April 26). With lean times ahead, a positive image is needed. The Birmingham Post (England), 8.
Health and Safety in Construction Industry
The construction industry is by far the most dangerous one as it takes more lives every year and results in many short- and long-term minor or severe injuries. The UK government regulatory bodies have been playing a significant role in ensuring that proper health and safety procedures are followed. Throughout the last four decades, its role has been impeccable in decreasing fatalities in the construction industry, although the excessive rules and regulations, frequent changes, bureaucratic structure and lack of project management and risk management techniques have dented its efficiency in protecting small construction companies and contractors, resulting in a compensation and claim culture engulfed with individual profiteers such as insurance companies, lawyers and health and safety consultants. These excessive regulations have pushed constructors to adopt some illegal practices in order to decrease cost and probability of claims from injured workers. The risk management and…
Five steps to risk assessment. Viewed 27 October, 2012,
Hubbard, D. 2009. The failure of risk management: why it's broken and how to fix it. John Wiley & Sons. p. 46.
Health and safety executive. 2007. Managing health and safety in construction (Construction Design and Management) Regulations 2007 Approved Code of Practice.
Health and safety executive. 2011. Five steps to risk assessment, Viewed 28 October 2012
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…
Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20
October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>
"CSR Building Materials Rockwool Insulation," 2008, viewed 20 October 2010,
Project Life Cycle:
The most initial phase in the conception of the home began with the financing of the projected costs associated with the entire development of the home. As described, the bank, to which the customer obtained their financing, was also in charge of assigning the developer who stood in as the highest project managing agent. According to the limitations of financing amounts provided by the bank to the customer, the specifics for the completion of the home were dictated. As available through this budget, each category of management was directed according to the financial specifics that were handed down from the bank to each descending sector of construction. Upon the agreement of these initial phases and the definitive associations given to each crew's categorical confines, the execution of the building process was then set to begin. Distributing the responsibilities and the necessary materials among these categories, the primary…
Denton, Raj. 2001. The Steps of Project Management. Pensington Press, New York, NY.
Gatlin Education Services. 2007. Retrieved from the World Wide Web, August 19, 2007. http://www.gatlineducation.com/projectmanagement.htm
Home-Repair.com. 2007. The homebuilding timeline, retrieved from the World Wide Web; August 19, 2007. http://www.repair-home.com/Home_Building_Timeline
Smartdraw.com. 2007. Gantt charts; http://www.smartdraw.com/resources/signup_srv.htm?src=srv&edition=0&ext_ref=trialsurvey&custom2=7259327&custom3=1375&custom4=D3656B92-66ED-4E80-AFEA-2C8FF72A44E6&custom1=gan
Although Root was already a well-established Chicago architect, the north side of the Monadnock "emerges as a definite departure from the mainstream of Root's practice and the rest of the contemporary Chicago school at the time, with only its "carefully conceived proportions" and sculptural form harkening back to earlier Root works ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.5). Root created the illusion that the structure 'grew' organically from massive granite blocks of the ground floor, while the "inward curve of the wall at the second story" suggests a pylon without making explicit pastiche or parodic references to the Egyptian era ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.2). Likewise, "the outward flare of the parapet, the gentle chamfering of the building's corners, and the rhythm of uniform oriel windows...seem to grow from the wall surface" as do the contours of brick beside them…
History." Monadnock Building. 11 May 2008. http://www.monadnockbuilding.com/history.htm
Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. Excerpted at Great
Buildings Online. 11 May 2008. http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Monadnock_Building.html
Monadnock Building." Based on "The Monadnock Block" by the Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks. 11 May 2008. http://www.aallnet.org/press/Monadnock_History.pdf
"The north half is often called a fountainhead of modern architecture because of its total absence of exterior ornament. Root evidently felt that all that was needed here was graceful form for the structure itself. The south half of the building, on the other hand, is a masterful early application of classical architectural principles to the design of a tall building" ("History," Monadnock Building, 2008).
The early death of Root was not the only problem to plague the office complex -- when the building was finally finished and built, it was "so heavy that it sank into the ground after....requiring [reinforcement]...and steps to be installed at the entrances" to support the massive weight and to enable people to enter the structure ("Monadnock Building," Archinform, 2008). There was also some contention about what style of windows to use: "Chief developer Peter Brooks originally ruled out any projecting bay windows, but he…
The Building." Monadnock Building. http://www.monadnockbuilding.com/building.htm. Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
History." Monadnock Building. http://www.monadnockbuilding.com/history.htm. Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
Monadnock Building." Archinform. http://eng.archinform.net/projekte/6406.htm . Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
Monadnock Building." Emporius.com. http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=monadnockbuilding-chicago-il-usa . Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
The Central building of the ISU campus is Beardshear, l located on Beardshear oad. It is the central building on campus is therefore very important. The reasons why it is an important building in the campus would be its history. The second reason would be its location in the campus. The third and the last reason would be what it contains inside. The campus's history is rich with stories of this building and its role as central provider of classroom, office, and living space. No other building on campus has as much historical value as Beardshear Hall.
Beardshear was the second building built on the ISU campus. I was going there to get my ISU card and was astonished to learn that the building itself is over one hundred years old. Based on this knowledge, I was able to understand how it was so beautifully designed and built,…
Grund, M. (2009). "Beardshear Hall Restoration." Art on Campus Museum Brochure.
Iowa State University. (2008). "Building Information." ISU Homepage Accessed October 18, 2011 at http://www.fpm.iastate.edu/maps/building.asp?id=13 .
Iowa State University. (2011). "History of Iowa: People of Distinction, William Beardshear." ISU Library Homepage. Accessed Oct. 20, 2011 at http://www.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/exhibits/150/template/beardshear.html .
Iowa State University Guide. (2011). "Beardshear Hall." University Guide Brochure. Ames, Iowa: ISU Publishing.
Forces on Buildings
When constructing my pre-fire plan for the furniture and appliance store, a number of problems are immediately apparent. Among these, the building is designed with heavy timber construction, and this poses certain potential dangers. The fist problem would be that timber lends itself to burning easily and quickly, so the primary building material can act as tinder in the case of a fire. In the event of a fire, the building can quickly go up in flames simply due to the nature of the construction materials. Second, timber lends itself to rot over time, and rotting timber can degrade structural integrity and weaken the building's frame and supporting materials. The building itself may be weak and that in and of itself could present a problem in case of a fire or collapse. Third, due to the nature of the building's materials, there may be a potential termite…
esidential Construction Project
Version description/reason for updating the document
The company will provide project management services to the client for all stages of the residential home construction. Our process consists of the following phases, which are greatly simplified here: Initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.
This project is being undertaken in order to build a new residence for the Jones family. The construction project is for a single-family swelling on a half-acre lot located at 100 Blue Spruce Lane, in Waterstown, New York. The project will commence on January 4, 2015 and be completed by Monday, December 22, 2015. The construction will emphasize use of the energy-saving technologies and will be compliant with all relevant building codes. The company will oversee the construction of the home, however, bonded subcontractors may be engaged to complete certain aspects of the construction.
The contract is fixed-price, with the contractor…
Fisk, ER, & Reynold, WD. 2013. Construction project administration, 10th edn. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Levy, SM. 2011 Project management in construction. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Summary and Conclusion
There is no way to protect construction workers from every accident that could possibly befall them. The nature of the work is such that complete safety is not guaranteed or even realistically possible. However, that does not mean that the number of fall accidents that occur cannot be reduced. Quite often, it is not a true accident but actual carelessness that is the cause of injuries and deaths on construction sites. Many construction workers forego safety harnesses, for example, because they can be cumbersome and inconvenient. They can make the work take longer, and make it more difficult for the worker to move around. That is especially true in cases where required work means the construction worker will have to unhook and re-hook his harness frequently. This aggravation is a small price to pay for saving lives, but the value of a harness is only seen if…
Burke, K. & Tracy, T. (2014). Queens construction worker is dead in horrifying accident. New York Daily News. Retrieved from http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/fatal-accident-queens-article-1.1247254
Seagram uilding by Mies Van Der Rohe
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was born in the year 1886 in Aachen, Germany. His father was a stonemason, and the young Mies underwent training under him, after which, at the age of nineteen, he moved on to erlin. erlin being a land of numerous opportunities at the time, Mies was able to train under the 'art nouveau' architect and Interior Designer, runo Paul. At the age of twenty, Mies van der Rohe was good enough to receive his own first independent commission to build a house for the famous philosopher, Alois Riehl. y the year 1908, Mies started to work for the architect, Peter ehrens, and although he was technically working for this architect, Mies was also studying the architectural styles and ways of the two famous architects of the time, the Prussian Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and Frank Lloyd Wright, and by…
Barcelona, Spain, the Barcelona Pavilion. Available From
http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/spain/barcelona/mies/pavilion.html ; Internet;
Accessed 18 July, 2005
Bauhaus School. Available From
Controlling Construction Cost:
It is seldom that the initial bid estimate to carry out a specific construction activity is the same as the actual cost of doing the work. Generally, the estimate cost tends to be higher or lower due to the various unforeseeable factors that contribute to the differences. Therefore, it is increasingly essential for the project manager and contractor to keep current on the costs of a project through maintaining an accurate and reliable cost control system, especially if a contractor is to make a profit. However, the project manager has an overriding role of providing the project management team with necessary strong and proactive leadership during the construction period. This overriding role and task includes ensuring that the most effective approach to control construction has been adopted and tracking construction activities and costs.
Since the construction phase of a project is usually affected by various external factors…
Chartered Institute of Building 2010, Code of practice for project management for construction and development, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Olawale, Y.A & Sun, M 2010, 'Cost and time control of construction projects: inhibiting factors and mitigating measures in practice,' Construction Management and Economics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp.509-26.
P Construction Gas Pipe Line
THE ROLE OF P IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE AKU-TILISI-ERZURUM
The aku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline is a massive project that involves three countries -- Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. It is a project that is based on the natural gas deposits, of more than one trillion cubic meters, in Azerbaijan's portion of the Caspian Sea, an area known as the Shah-Denz gas field- 12km in width and 30km length of a stripe of the Caspian Sea. The stripe has a depth of 50m on the northern side and 500m on the southern side. The deposit is the biggest gas deposit situated in Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea. This pipeline was constructed being parallel to the aku-Tsibili-Cyehan oil pipeline that runs from Azerbaijan to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The TE pipeline is also known as either South Caucasus (gas) Pipeline or Shah Deniz pipeline.…
Baloghlanov, Elshan. Azerbaijan & New Energy Resources. June 8, 2009. www.azconsulatela.org.
Muttitt, Greg, and James Marriott. Some Common Concerns. Lincolnshire: PLATFORM Campagna per la Riforma della Banca Mondiale, CEE Bankwatch Network,, 2002.
Petersen, Alexandros. "The Case of the East-West Transport Corridor." Integrating Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey with the West, 2007: 1-20.
Shenoy, Bhamy, Gurcan Gulen, and Michelle Michot Foss. "Analysis Suggests Economic Viability of Trans-Caspian Sea Gas Line." The Oil & Gas Journal, 1999: 51-58.