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Well, First You -- Well, You Know
Anybody who has ever tried to explain a simple task that she is very familiar with to someone else has most likely found the experience to be a very frustrating one. Being able to do something is not in any way the same as being able to analyze and then describe a task so that another person can understand what is needed to accomplish the same task. At least as difficult is the task of describing how one does something so that another person can analyze it to determine if the task is being accomplished in the most efficient way. This paper provides a task analysis of a simple job that most people have performed: Making a Caesar salad. However, by breaking it down into its component parts and outlining how cause and effect run through this system, this paper demonstrates…
Crandall, B., Klein, G., & Hoffman, R. (2006). Working minds: A practitioner's guide to cognitive task analysis. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Kirwan, B. & Ainsworth, L. (eds.) (1992). A guide to task analysis. London: Taylor and Francis.
Juluis Caesar-Shakespheare -- A parallel text, Third edition- Perfection Learning-2004 copyright the concept violence rite a definition concept violence focused. Sum essence idea. The definition violence lens examine events play, Juluis Caesar.
Violence is one of the most exaggerated forms of physical aggression and it can exist for a series of reasons. It involves a person or a group of persons acting against another person or groups of persons with the purpose to achieve one or several diverse goals. In many cases violence results from individuals perceiving the acts of other people as hostile and thus wanting to act against these people before it is too late. Depending on the situation, more or less individuals might get involved in an act of violence, especially when they consider that it would be essential for them to do so.
illiam Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar provides audiences with an account involving the Roman…
Shakespeare, William, "Julius Caesar," (Cengage Learning EMEA, 20.08.1998)
attitudes oman armies "barbarians" Caesar's Conquest Gaul? How omans interact Celtic tribes? What Celts thought oman civilization? Analysis supported citations Conquest Gaul.
The oman Empire had an immense impact on the way in which civilization has come to be and a huge role in drafting the structure of the European historical, cultural, social, and economic background. In this context, the role of Caesar was essential. The vision as well as the historical context provided him the necessary means and abilities to undergo a series of conquests that would lead the oman Empire to an impressive expansion during his reign. As part of this endeavor, the conquest of the Gallic provinces and territories is a historical event that would set the basis of the Latin nature of current France. Furthermore, the way in which this conquest was achieved reveals a pattern of oman battles that, despite the fact that it was…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
McDevitte, W.A. And W.S. Bohn. "The Gallic Wars, by Julius Caesar" 2009 Available online at http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/gallic.2.2.html
Through Suetonius, we find that many of the emperors pursued artistic endeavors. For instance, Julius Caesar loved the art of debate, particularly that of philosophy. Nero was a talented musician, often giving concerts that lasted for hours (Suetonius, p.117). These glimpses into the lives of the rulers gives them a human side, which tends to balance the unscrupulous deeds throughout the rest of the book. Suteonius treats the emperors harshly, spending much time documenting their brutality.
In some cases, Suetonius provides a balanced account, highlights successes with failures, and misdeeds with kindness. In other cases, he is clearly against the leader, as with the case of Caligula. Surprisingly, Suetonius includes one account where he has nothing bad to say. Apparently, the short life of Titus was a fine example of humanity. If one were to form an opinion-based entirely on Suetonius, it would appear that he considered Julius Caesar to…
C. Suetonius Tranquillus. The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Loeb Classical Library. 1913. Online with original pagination preserved at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Julius *.html. Accessed October 21, 2008
Caesar's Gallic Campaigns
Caesar's Gallic Campaigns
Julius Caesar was an ambitious and ruthless man. He did not begin by attempting to conquer the world, as had Alexander the Great[footnoteef:1], but he did have the political ambition to at least rule the oman state as emperor. He had been a consul for several years and upon the end of his term, he was without anything to do. So, through influence he was able to secure the governorships of Cisalpine Gaul, Illycrium and Transalpine Gaul[footnoteef:2]. With these governorships he hoped to secure enough glory for himself that he could return to ome in triumph and be welcomed as the emperor[footnoteef:3]. With these ambitions, and the supposed uprising of the Helvetii, the scene was set for Julius to campaign in Gaul and return to ome as the conquering hero. Following is a year-by-year account of the Caesar's campaigns from 58 BC…
Athena Review. "Caesar's Campaigns in Gaul (58-50 BC)." Athena Review, 1:4 (2007).
Caesar, Julius. Commentarii de Bellum Gallico. Trans W.A. MacDevitt. New York: Everyman's Library, 1915.
D'Ooge, Benjamin Leonard & Frederick Carlos Eastman. Caesar in Gaul. New York: Columbia University Press, 1918
Ridd Stephen. Julius Caesar in Gaul and Britain. New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1995.
One aspect at which Cesar's work excels in the interrelation between the descriptive geography and the characterization of the Germans is the political geography approach. In fact, much of Cesar's work is relevant exactly because it is a very scientific description of the way the tribes lived together in tribal formations during that time and how they came in contact with one another. Cesar is always very descriptive in his approach and clearly marks the areas in which these tribes lived, including the Germans, but also many of the neighboring tribes (his focus is certainly on the Gauls).
The Rhine is obviously central to the existence of the Germans and Cesar mentions it several times in his work, although most of the time only so as to limit the theatre if his own operations in Gaul. As such, his approach is that the Rhine marks the delimitation and border between…
1. Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Translation by Emanuel Hoffman. Oxford -- Clarendon Press. 1898
Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Translation by Emanuel Hoffman. Oxford -- Clarendon Press. 1898
Classical and Historical Book Review:
Caesar, Julius. The Conquest of Gaul. New York: Penguin Books, 1983.
The author, Julius Caesar, of The Conquest of Gaul has been variously described as a "Roman patrician, politician, writer, reformer, general, dictator and," according to the decree of the Roman senate, later "a god." (Seindal, 2003) The military leader Julius Caesar's book upon his Gallic conquests famously begins, "Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres..." Or that Gaul is divided in three parts. The authorship of the book was motivated in part to define his legacy, as he fought these wars, as a great general and a great leader to the adoring Roman populace and the disapproving Roman senate. Thus, even during his lifetime, before he became an official God of the Roman world, Caesar was attempting to formulate his own following and legacy in print. Rather than allowing even his followers to…
Caesar, Julius. The Conquest of Gaul. New York: Penguin Books, 1983.
Lendering, Joan. "Julius Caesar: A biography in 12 parts." 2003. ancientRome. http://www.livius.org/caa-can/caesar/caesar04.html
Seindal, Renee. "Julius Caesar." 2003. Romans: Historical Persons. http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/766_Julius_Caesar-3.html .
But Augustus' real administrative breakthrough was to make the second element in the social and financial hierarchy, being the knights, into salaried employees of the State, both in civil jobs and in the army, for these men had already, over a long passage of time, been showing their talents for business and administration. But apart from their employment as judges, which was often highly contested by some senators, they had never before been systematically mobilized to occupy official posts. The knights, then, broadened the scope of Augustus' assistants in a very valuable way because they represented a whole class of new men from the towns of Italy and the provinces who felt somewhat unattached to the ideals of the traditional Republican leadership and were thus susceptible to the appeal of the new regime headed by none other than Augustus.
Unfortunately, this new system was doomed to failure, not so much…
Julius and Octavian Caesar
The history of ancient Rome is divided into eras based on the leader at the time. Two such leaders were Julius Caesar and Octavian, later Augusts, Caesar. The two men were alike in genealogy, close in time and temperament, and yet one was a pronounced success, heralded centuries and even millennia later, while the other is considered a failure when it came to creating a role for himself as sole ruler. hat determines a man is successful or unsuccessful? Historically, little is considered of individual successes or failures or who gained or lost the most domains for their empire. It is the will of the people that ultimately decides which is the better man. A tyrant may be an angel if he wins over the people, so too a benefactor may become a monster. History is written by the memory of the survivors. In the case…
Brown, Frazer. "The Achievements of Augustus Caesar." (2009). Web. 29 Nov. 2010.
De, Damas Nicolas. Life of Augustus. Bristol: Classical, 1984. Print.
Kreis, Steven. "Lecture 12: Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana." The History Guide. 17 Oct.
2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. .
Julius Caesar: Disruption and Justice
The central dilemma of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is the question of the value of republican virtues versus the value of stability. At the beginning of the play, Brutus and Cassius debate the risks of assassinating Caesar, versus Caesar being allowed to become a tyrant. Although Shakespeare’s literary version of Caesar clearly is not a bad man, the crowds who would allow Caesar to become king are all too willing to sacrifice democratic ideals for despotism, and Caesar seems unwilling to stop them. But after Caesar is killed, the government which emerges in his wake is even more tyrannical. The play is ambiguous. Caesar’s not-so-hidden desire to become a king results in the destruction of the republic, but the unlawful means used to stop it do not achieve their desired results. In fact, the unlawful attempt to stop Caesar’s illegitimate attempt at seizing power simply…
ender to Ceasar the Things That Are Ceasars
ender unto the Caesar the Things that are Caesar's
"ender unto Caesar what belong to the Caesars" is the beginning a phrase ascribed to Jesus in the synoptic gospel, which fully reads, "ender unto the Caesar what are Caesar's, and unto God what belong to God." This phrase has been a widely quoted and controversial summary on the relationship between the contemporary secular authorities and Christianity. The origin of this message was from the response posted to a question on how lawful it was for the Jews to pay taxes to the Caesar. This phrase gave rise to all possible and multifaceted interpretations (obert & Miller 1995, 421) concerning the conditions under which it could appear desirable for Christians to earthily commit themselves to earthly authorities. All the three synoptic gospels elicit a group of hostile questioners who tried to trick Jesus…
Alfred, Luis & Tennyson, Maurice. (1994). Not in vain the distance beacons: Singing hymns of the living tradition. Boston: Beacon Press.
Anne, Sidneys & Desmond, Elias. (1993). Titus silence and courage: Income taxes, war and Mennonites. MCC Occasional Paper, 16: 34-39.
Brown, Levis & John, Derrick. (1839). The law of Christ respecting civil obedience, especially in the payment of tribute. London: William Ball.
Calvin, Huningtone., George, Festus & Kennedy, Moreno. (1986). The Prophet-hood of all believers. Boston: Beacon Press.
Julius Caesar and George ush
William Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar explores the social and political underpinnings of perhaps one of the most famous assassinations of all time, the assassination of Julius Caesar by his friends. Currently we live in a time of major upheaval in the world, the combination of war and economic hardships have made this first decade of the new millennium a turbulent one. These two timeframes can be connected through their respective leaders. Shakespeare's Caesar bears a great deal of resemblance to our current leader, George W. ush. The following paper will attempt to make a comparison between these two figures, the Shakespearean Caesar and the real life President of the United States.
At the top of Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar is returning to Rome in a parade, triumphant in his victory over the Roman general, Pompey. This particular man is painted as Caesar's archrival, his nemesis…
Shakespeare, William. (1599) Julius Caesar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Hatfield, J.H. (2001) Fortunate Son: George W. Bush and the Making of an American President. Brooklyn: Soft Skull Press.
Associated Press. (2003, May 1) Bush Experiences Aircraft Carrier Landing. Las Vegas Sun.
Martin, Patrick. (2002, December 24) U.S. Senate Leader Trent Lott Resigns. Retrieved May 6, 2003 from World Socialist Web Site. Website: http://www.wsw.org/articles/2002/dec2002/lott-d24.shtml
But Shakespeare does not try to render Republican Rome in faithful and accurate historical detail. "Peace! count the clock," says Brutus (2.1) although the play is ostensibly set during ancient times, and the practice of bear-baiting is referred to when Octavius says "e are at the stake / And bayed about by many enemies" (4.1)The entertainment of bear-baiting, a reminder of the brutality of the Elizabethan age, was even enjoyed by the queen and often took place near the Globe theater where Julius Caesar was first performed: "The bear was tethered to a stake in the middle of the ring, able to move only a short distance before being drawn up sharply when it got to the end of its tether. That's where the phrase 'at the end of my tether' comes from - the frustration and agony of not being able to go any further. Dogs would be released…
Elizabethan education. William Shakespeare Info. 2005. April 16, 2009. http://www.ask.com/bar?q=Elizabethan+school&page=1&qsrc=2417&ab=0&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.william-shakespeare.info%2Fwilliam-shakespeare-biography-childhood-and-education.htm
Entertainment at Shakespeare's Globe Theater. No Sweat Shakespeare. 2004. April 16, 2009.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World: How Shakespeare became Shakespeare. New York:
The fear of "disorder" "had significant political ramifications. The proscription against trying to rise beyond one's place was of course useful to political rulers, for it helped to reinforce their authority. The implication was that civil rebellion caused the chain to be broken, and according to the doctrine of correspondences, this would have dire consequences in other realms," whether the king was good or bad ("The Great Chain of Being," CUNY Brooklyn, 2009). Because rebellion was a sin against God, the whole order of the universe would be thrown in disarray if people rebelled against a sovereign, and this disturbance would be reflected in disturbances in the animal world and the heavens. "The need for strong political rule was in fact very significant, for the Renaissance had brought an end for the most part to feudalism, the medieval form of political organization," and the era oversaw the establishment of effective…
Peters, M.J. "Elizabeth I and the Elizabethan Period: a Brief Introduction
Springfield High School English Department. 1996. April 8, 2009
"The Great Chain of Being." Borrowed from "The Renaissance" at CUNY:
Antony offered Caesar a diadem, but Caesar refused it, saying Jupiter alone is king of the Romans, "possibly because he saw the people did not want him to accept the diadem, or possibly because he wanted to end once and for all the speculation that he was trying to become a king" (Julius1 pp). In Shakespeare's account, Antony says at the funeral, "I thrice presented him a kingly crown, hich he did thrice refuse. as this ambition? Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And sure he is an honourable man" (Julius III.ii)
Julius Caesar. orld of Education. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://library.educationworld.net/s26/index.html
illiam Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://www.entrenet.com/~groedmed/jc.html
Julius1 Caesar: Historical Background. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/caesar.html
Julius Caesar. World of Education. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://library.educationworld.net/s26/index.html
William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://www.entrenet.com/~groedmed/jc.html
Julius1 Caesar: Historical Background. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/caesar.html
Thisclearly implies that this sort of perception was more of a weakness than an advantage.
Samuel Johnson's "The Vanity of Human ishes"
In this poem, the author demonstrates to the audience the reality of struggle in life. The author, just like, he mentions in the poem's title demonstrates how human wishes are, in many cases egoistic and useless. According to Meyers (p 1), Johnson had his reflection long years of human struggle, unavoidable fates, and theerroneous hopes. The author demonstrates some of the common situations that ordinary human being experience under the authority of certain political powers, which seem to have a hand in the sealing of their destinies. The author, in exploring this demonstrates how cruel, humiliating, and unwarranted such treatments are. The actions that the persona witnesses in the society make life to him more of a tragedy than anything else does. He in fact states that the…
Chaucer, Geofrey. & Purves, Laing, D, the Canterbury Tales, Auckland: The Floating Press, 2012
Cunningham, J. S, Samuel Johnson: The vanity of human wishes and Rasselas, London: Edward Arnold, 1982
Flohr, Birgitt, Swift's Attitude to Reason in Book IV of Gulliver's travels "Swift Was a Rationalist with No Faith in Reason." Retrieved August 5, 2013, http://www.itp.uni-hannover.de/~flohr/papers/m-lit-18-century1.pdf
The Life and Death of Julies Caesar Shakespeare homepage | Julius Caeser | Entire play, Retrieved, August 5, 2013, http://shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar/full.html
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…
Ashmawy, A.K. (1995). Cleopatra: The Last Pharoah, B.C. 69-30. History
of Alexandria. Online at <
Burstein, S.M. (2004). The Reign of Cleopatra. Greenwood Publishing
The Merchant of Venice, though ostensibly a comedy, is one of the more serious plays in the comedic genre. The Taming of the Shrew is far more humorous and light hearted, but it is not without its lessons. The specific lessons vary greatly depending on one's interpretation of the play, especially in performance, but one key lesson that most of the female characters fail to learn is the advantage of working in tandem with their husband. Petruchio manages to win a substantial amount of money through his new wife Kate's quick obedience; she has learned through the course of the play to at least give the appearance of docility and subservience, which the other women lack -- they have failed to learn anything from her transformation, seeing no problems in themselves form the outset. This failure costs them some cold, hard, cash.
It is in Julius Caesar, however, that Shakespeare…
Bush and His Presidential Administration:
Alternatively, inflated self importance can also be caused by messages communicated throughout the formative years and subsequent reinforcement, such as are typical for many individuals born into lives of wealth, power, and social privilege
(Branden, 1999). In that regard, former U.S. president George W. Bush may share some of the consequences of having been born into a privileged family. His characteristic
"swagger" and defiance to objective criticisms, all the while displaying a degree of intellectual ignorance rarely witnessed among heads of states (at least in the free world)
may be the product of a privileged upbringing in conjunction with the unconscious realization that he did not earn admission to prestigious universities and graduate schools on the merits of his academic achievements, that he was never qualified to lead a Texas
National Guard squadron, and that his election to both a state governorship and a national…
Branden, N. (1999). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.
Scheuer, M. (2004). Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror.
Uden, G. (1989). Longman Illustrated Encyclopedia of World History. London: Ivy Leaf.
Final Opportunity for Reflection and riting
"Stand and unfold yourself"
This quote comes from Shakespeare's Hamlet. Francisco and Bernardo are two guards standing watch in the middle of the night at the castle Elsinore. This is the second line of the play, spoken by Francisco in response to Bernardo's question of who goes there. It is an important part because it sets the tone for the rest of the play. Much of the story involves secret presences and the knowledge that people are being watched. This happens with Polonius as he is stabbed by Hamlet and with Hamlet when he is being watched by his uncle/stepfather. Uncertainty about being alone and who or what may be around lends to the overall confusion and mania of the characters which invariably leads to the tragedies which each of the characters then experience.
"tis the sport to have the enginer /…
Shakespeare, William. As You like It. 2000. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Pub., 2006. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Julius Caesar. Cambridge [England: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.
Antony and Cleopatra. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Brown, Lenora Inez. "Enter the Body: omen and Representation on Shakespeare's Stage." American Theatre. May 01, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Desmet, Christy. "omen's Matters: Politics, Gender, and Nation in Shakespeare's Early History Plays." Comparative Drama. September 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Hunt, Maurice. "Shakespeare's Venetian paradigm: stereotyping and Sadism in The Merchant of Venice and Othello." Papers on Language & Literature. March 22, 2003. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Julius Caesar, The Life and Death of. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Othello, The Moore of Venice. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Starks, Lisa S. "Like the lover's pinch, which hurts and is desired: The Narrative
of Male Masochism and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra." Literature and Psychology. December 22,…
Antony and Cleopatra. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Brown, Lenora Inez. "Enter the Body: Women and Representation on Shakespeare's Stage." American Theatre. May 01, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Desmet, Christy. "Women's Matters: Politics, Gender, and Nation in Shakespeare's Early History Plays." Comparative Drama. September 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Business Law and Christian Ethics
The terms limited liability and liability protection are often used interchangeably to describe business arrangements that limit the amount of a firm's liability, generally to the amount of assets held by the firm. In other words, those types of business arrangements protect an individual's personal assets from judgment should the person be sued in a professional capacity. One frequent example of a limited liability business arrangement is the limited liability partnership, which essentially "protects each partner from debts against the partnership arising from professional malpractice lawsuits against another partner" (Pakroo, 2013). In those instances, the liability limitation is not limited the individual assets of the partners, but also extends to property owned by the partnership.
Whether or not limited liability or liability protection aligns with a Christian worldview is a tricky moral question because it presupposes that all people who enter into those types of…
Pakroo, P. (2013). Limited Partnerships and Limited Liability Partnerships. Retrieved September 24, 2013 from NOLO website: http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/limited-partnerships-limited-liability-partnerships-29748.html
Scalici, S. (2007, March 30). The Christian Taxpayer. Retrieved September 24, 2013 from Crosswalk website:
He exemplifies the expansion of the middle class and commercialism during the era. The book is a kind of inventive biography -- little is known for certain of hakespeare's life but Greenblatt uses the skeleton of hakespeare's plays to fill in details of common concerns of many figures of the period.
Long, William J. "The Elizabethan Age: 1550 -- 1620." From Outlines of English and American
Literature. April 4, 2009. http://www.djmcadam.com/elizabethan-age.html
This is an excerpt from a survey book on literature that is well-reputed in the field, although somewhat out of date. It examines the philosophy and history of the Elizabethan age and how it affected the literature of the period. It suggests the patriotic zeal and cultural vigor that resulted from the defeat of the Armada, scientific discoveries, and foreign travel and exploration were the reasons for the substantial literary output of this period's authors. It covers pencer, hakespeare,…
Shakespeare, William. "The Tragedy of Julius Caesar." From the Language of Literature.
Edited by Arthur N. Applebee. New York: McDougall Littell, 2006.
"Julius Caesar" is one of Shakespeare's 'Roman plays.' It reflects the Elizabethan reverence of the classical age. However, it also reveals anxieties over succession and usurpation of royal authority. It exemplifies the Elizabethan fascination with the supernatural's influence upon world events. And the contrast between Brutus' nobility and the political fallout from his assassination -- or political naivete in the face of Mark Anthony -- highlights Shakespeare's ambiguous characterization.
Hamlet clearly melancholic view of the future of humanity, although he is capable of acknowledging goodness, as he does when he praises Horatio's character before the play-within-a-play, and he even praises Fortinbras' action in the name of the Norwegian's own father, although it goes against the interest of the Danish state. Finally, Hamlet admits that Laertes has a right to be angry on Polonius' account, as Hamlet's rash actions killed Laertes' father, even while Hamlet strove to avenge his own father. Thus, rather than a desperate view of human morality, Hamlet's inaction seems to arise from a combination of paralyzing depression about the nature of acting in a meaningless world and internal self-doubt. He also has an over-active intellect that enables him to rationalize both the murderous instincts of people going against his own interests like Laertes, and as well as his own revulsion at murder, as when he foolishly…
The metaphor of the jigsaw puzzle-- "what good would it do to finish early? Three, the jigsaw puzzle isn't the important thing. The important thing is the fun of four people (one thin person included) sitting around a card table, working a jigsaw puzzle"-- illustrates that fat people enjoy the process of life and live in the moment, versus thin people who are purpose-driven and obsessed with completing tasks, even leisure-time activities that are supposed to be fun.
Q5. Identify the author's purpose and discuss whether or not she achieved that purpose.
The purpose of the author is to deflate society's obsession with perfection and to turn a bit of conventional wisdom -- the superiority of thinness and perfectionism -- on its head. The essay, through humor, achieves this purpose. Asserting the position in a serious way would likely have given rise to a debate about the health problems fostered…
Night the Crystals Broke
Write where you got inspiration from?
The inspiration from this poem comes from my grandmother and her family, who lived through the pogroms and just before the Nazis took over Hungary. The title refers to the Kristallnacht, the event in which the Nazis burned synagogues and their religious items, and broke the windows. They also broke the windows of the local businesses. This poem also refers to the journey that was scary and arduous, over the Atlantic in the ship to Ellis Island. The statue at the end of the poem is the Statue of Liberty, which welcomed the "poor" and "hungry" masses, like my grandmother's people.
(2) Which author and poem did you refer to when writing this poem?
There is no one author or poem I referred to here. This is a completely original work. However, it is written in the form of a…
In 46 B.C., once again Sallust was given an opportunity to shine or fail, as he was made a practor and sailed to Circina where he proved himself by stealing the enemies' stores. In return, Caesar rewarded Sallust with the title of proconsular governor of all of the province of Numidia and Africa. Others with a much stronger background were expecting this position, but it may have just been that Sallust showed a greater skill at organization. Sallust, however, takes advantage of this situation and when returning to ome was cited for extortion. [footnoteef:16] Caesar quickly acquitted Sallust, but that was the end of his political career. It appears that Caesar may have made a deal with Sallust that if he quietly disappears, he would not be tried. [16: Ibid.]
At this point in Sallust's life, he says he made the decision to give up his political career. Or,…
Dorey, T.A. (Ed) Latin Historians. New York: Basic Books, 1966
Earl, Donald C. The Political Thought of Sallust. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1966
Handford, S.A. translator (1963) The Jugurthine War Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Laistner, M.L.W. The Greater Roman Historians. Berkeley: University California Press, 1963
In Bellum Iugurthinum he claimed that the state will gain more advantage from his otium than from the negotium of contemporary politicians
SALLUST'S HISTOICAL WOKS
Sallust wrote several historical works, but the two monographs that remain intact are the Bellum Catilinae and the Bellum Jugurthinum. There are also four speeches and two letters as well as approximately 500 parts of his Historiae that was published in five books. It is believed by historians that "Sallust's merits as an artist have obscured, or made his readers willing to forget, his faults. As a historical authority he is at best second rank…Yet Sallust's value to us is considerable, mainly because his writings contain an interpretation of oman history during the late epublic often differing from that in our other sources and opposed to optimate tradition."
Even his speeches are valuable historically, adds Laistner,
for they are full of ethos and convey Sallust's…
Allen, Walter Jr. Sallust's Political Career. Studies in Philology 51.1(1954):1-4.
Earl, Donald C. The Political Thought of Sallust. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1966
Laistner, M.L.W. The Greater Roman Historians. Berkeley: University California Press, 1963
Levene, D.S. Sallust's Jugurtha: A Historical Fragment. The Journal of Roman Studies. 82 (1992): 53-70.
This is clear enough from the play in which the man said, "Let them hate provided that they fear." He found to his cost that such a policy was his ruin.
When Antony and Octavian later reconciled, forming the Triumvirate with Lepidus, the young Caesar made no real effort to save Cicero when Antony immediately proscribed him. He had been informed, privately, of Cicero's quip to friends that the young man "must get praises, honors and push." In December, 43, almost two years to the day from his dinner with Caesar, Cicero was caught by Antony's soldiers in a halfhearted escape attempt. His brother Quintus and nephew had already been murdered. Cicero died bravely. His head and hands, cut off, were brought back and nailed to the ostra from which he had so often moved the crowd. Fulvia, Antony's remarkable wife, drove pins through the golden tongue which had so…
Church, Alfred. "The Baldwin Project: Roman Life in the days of Cicero by Alfred J. Church." The Baldwin Project. 2000. Lisa Ripperton. 22 Mar. 2005. http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=church&book=cicero&story=atticus .
Clayton, Edward. "Cicero: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2001. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 22 Mar. 2005. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/c/cicero.htm .
Cluett, Ronald. "Bryn Mawr Classical Review 96.11.5." Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. 1996.
Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. 22 Mar. 2005. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1996/96.11.05.html .
In other words, at every seven courses of stone, a layer of reed matting was laid and weep-holes and drainage shafts were placed, thus preserving the ziggurat from water damage.
Eventually the building fell into disrepair. Later, King Nabonidus restored the Ur ziggurat, along with other temples. Stiebing believes this was because he revered his mother's gods (285). Nabonidus claims in the clay cuneiform tablets found in the tower to have rebuilt it on the same foundations and using the same mortar and bricks. Ultimately it must have deteriorated after the Persian defeat by Cyrus in 539 BC.
Construction of Tower of Babylon (ca 600 BC)
While the biblical account of this great structure in Genesis 11 is perhaps legendary, scholars have come to view the "Tower of Babel" mentioned in the text as the ziggurat of the temple of Marduk in Babylon (known as Etemenanki). Expressing the scholarly consensus,…
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
..and it is unlikely that the military will attempt to take over the executive branch by a coup." (2007) the media is not informing the citizens of what is occurring in many cases and a recent attempt to make a citizens arrest by over 8,000 individuals in Washington of President ush relating to war crimes resulted in many of those individuals being tasered and arrested.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The future of the United States, according to what is known of the history of Rome, the predecessor upon which the U.S. originally based the form of its democratic government, appears to be bleak indeed. However, there is hope that the next presidential election will progress in a democratic manner and that the newly elected president will have the stamina and integrity required to see the United States return to the democracy upon which it was based and with the least pain…
Smitha, Frank E. (1998) From Republic to Emperor Augustus:. MacroHistory Online available at http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch18.htm
Urbinati, Nadia (2002) the Criticism of Intellectual Critics. Online available at http://logosonline.home.igc.org/urbinati.htm
Johnson, Chalmers (2007) Republic or Empire: A National Intelligence Estimate on the United States. Harper's Magazine. Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/01/0081346
Tomgram: Chalmers Johnson on the Fall of the Republic (2003) TomDispatch.com 9 Sept. 2003. Online available at http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/938/chalmers_johnson_on_the_fall_of_the_republic/
Assurance and Security (IAS) Digital forensics (DF)
In this work, we take a look at three laboratory-based training structures that afford practical and basic knowledge needed for forensic evaluation making use of the latest digital devices, software, hardware and firmware. Each lesson has three parts. The duration of the first section of the three labs will be one month. These labs would be the largest labs. The Second section would consist of smaller labs. The training period duration in these labs would also generally be one month. The third section would consist of smallest labs. The duration of training period in these labs would be one week. The training will be provided in the field of software, programming concepts, flowcharting and algorithms and logical reasoning- both linear and iterative.
Part 1 Larger Labs:
Lab 1(Timeline Analysis)
Purposes and goals of the Lab (Lab VI):
Use MAC (Media Access Control, internet…
 Lab VI: Timeline Analysis. Available at https://cs.nmt.edu/~df/Labs/Lab06_sol.pdf
 LAB IV: File Recovery: Meta Data Layer. Available at
 Lab V: File Recovery: Data Layer Revisited. Available at
 Windows Client Configuration. Available at
Superior Customer Value
eginning in 1998, Harrah's decided that it wanted to change its business culture from an operations-driven company that viewed every casino as a stand-alone property to a marketing-driven company with a holistic view of its properties and customers (light and Turk, 2004). The organization structure was revamped to become a national distribution network with a single, unifying brand. The company was then able to execute its corporate growth strategy, one that sought loyalty to increase same-store-sales growth. This required convincing gamblers to spend less at competitors and more at Harrah's. As discussed in this paper, enterprise collaboration, competitive positioning focused on customer service and gaming in the middle market, supply chain optimization, and regulatory considerations are all significant factors affecting Harrah's ability to deliver superior customer value.
Instead of building glitzy casinos with attractions such as volcanoes, sinking ships and replicas of the Eiffel Tower, Harrah's…
Bligh, P. And Turk, D. (2004, June). CRM Magazine. Cashing in on customer loyalty. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.destinationcrm.com/articles/default.asp?ArticleID=4115
Case in point: Harrah's. (2002, June 24). The Source. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:sx5dXg5XDuIJ:eu.icgcommerce.com/corporate/doc/html/downloads/thesourceissue3.pdf+Harrah%27s+sourcing& hl=en
Gambling on customers. (2003, July 14). The McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.forbes.com/2003/07/14/0714mckinsey.html
Levinson, M. (2001, May). Harrah's knows what you did last night. Darwin Magazine. Retrieved February 1, 2005 from Web site: http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050101/harrahs.html
Sumptuary Laws in the Roman Empire
The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire were both grandiose and both are a major part of the history of the world. However, they were quite different in many significant ways but they were also similar in some ways as it relates to social structure, the way people dressed and how society proceeded and developed. The major difference between the two was that the Senate and people had a lot of power in the Republic while the Emperor reigned supreme in the Roman Empire. However, the differences are a lot deeper than that in some ways. hile some people conflate the Roman Empire and Roman Republic, there is a lot more than meets the eye when it comes to Roman History.
The main differences between the Roman Empire and the Roman Republic are fairly easy to list. hen it came to the Roman…
Encyclopedia.com,. 'Sumptuary Laws Facts, Information, Pictures | Encyclopedia.Com
Articles About Sumptuary Laws'. Encyclopedia.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 27 Apr.
Fashion Encyclopedia,. 'Sumptuary Laws Regulate Luxury - Fashion, Costume, And
This godlessness might initially be viewed as being cynical. However, when one looks at the social and political climate of Shakespeare's time, and the reality that England was just passing through a conversion from Catholicism to the Anglican church, driven by Henry VIII's desire to divorce and remarry, it might not be accurate to label godlessness in the play as cynical. Perhaps that is the view that Shakespeare is suggesting is idyllic, given the turmoil that organized religion had helped create in his country in recent history. This lack of a clear-cut explanation of the godlessness in the play, and of the playful way in which Cleopatra obliterates any claim Antony might actually have to self-divinity, shows how cynicism and idealism are caught in this cycle.
Nowhere in the play is the cycle of cynicism and idealism more dramatically showcased than in the play's final scenes. Caesar has conquered Egypt…
Fuller, David. "Passion and Politics: Antony and Cleopatra in Performance." Antony and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Hirsh, James. "Rome and Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra and in Criticism of the Play." Antony
and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005. 175-192.
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…
Ferrill, Arther. Caligula, Emperor of Rome. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Translated with an introduction by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Co, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Translated by Katherine Jones. London: Hogarth Press, 1939. Print.
Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton, 1998. Print.
Rise to Power of Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, Trajan Emperor of Rome
This is an essay on Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, Emperor of Rome. It discusses his rise to power and rein as emperor. Two sources are used. MLA.
Trajan Emperor of Rome
Marcus Ulpius Trajanus was born on "the fourteenth day before the kaleds of March" or in other words, September 18th, probably in the year AD 52 at Italica near Seville, Spain. Being of Spanish origin made him the first emperor who did not come from Italy, even though he was from an old Umbrian family from Tuder in northern Italy. Having chosen to settle in Spain, the family was not a purely provincial one (Empire, pg).
Trajan was the son of a Senator, Consul, and Governor of Asia and Syria. His father, also Macus Ulpius Trajanus, commanded the Tenth Legion "Fretensis" in the Jewish ar of AD 67-68. He…
Rome of the Caesars. http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/trajan.html.
A accessed 04-08-2002).
The Roman Empire. http://www.roman-empire.net/index.html.
A accessed 04-08-2002).
Machiavelli and Shakespeare:
The Influence of Machiavelli on Shakespeare's Plays
The Italian enaissance-era philosopher and political adviser Nicolo Machiavelli is one of the most famous and infamous writers on the subject of politics. Despite the common use of the synonym Machiavellian for evil, Machiavelli's seminal tract The Prince was considered so ground-breaking because of his emphasis on the practical nature of holding principalities versus a philosophy of the divine right of kings. Cunning rather than religion was the reason leaders triumphed, according to Machiavelli. Machiavelli was not necessarily opposed to democracy but rather advocated strong-armed techniques because simply from the prince's perspective that these methods were superior in holding territories. Machiavelli offered hard-headed words of wisdom versus ethical theories. Machiavelli's unsentimental and irreligious attitude towards kingship was very controversial at the time and influenced many of the depictions of villains in the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare's plays, including Julius Caesar,…
Machiavelli, N. (2013). The Prince. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved from:
Shakespeare, W. (1993). Julius Caesar. Shakespeare Homepage. Retrieved from:
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed
Oscar Cullmann, Nolan, and Genezio Boff. Oscar Cullmann can be described as a Christian theologian within the Lutheran tradition. His most notable work involved the ecumenical movement. He was in part accountable for the formation of dialogue between the oman Catholic and Lutheran traditions.
Nolan was born in the city of Cape Town, South Africa. He is of English descent and is a fourth-generation South African. Influenced by Thomas Merton, Nolan became fascinated to the idea of spiritual life. Ultimately, Nolan joined the Dominican Order by 1954, studying in ome and South Africa eventually receiving a doctorate.
Born with the name Genezio Darci Boff, Boff hails from Concordia, Santa Catarina. Boff entered the Franciscan Order by 1959 being ordained as a Catholic priest by 1964. He spent subsequent years studying to earn a doctorate in philosophy and theology at the University of Munich, in 1970. His doctoral thesis studied measures…
Boff, Leonardo. Jesus Christ Liberator. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1978. Print.
Crossan, John Dominic. The Historical Jesus. [San Francisco]: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print.
Cullmann, Oscar. Jesus And The Revolutionaries. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. Print.
Hendricks, Obery M. The Politics Of Jesus. New York: Doubleday, 2006. Print.
prim geography teacher. She is a disciplinarian who adopts strict rules for her classroom. Her teaching style is a common-sense method with her former students and citizens of Liberty Hill regarding her as the embodiment of wisdom and gentility. Like Miss Dove, Leiningen believes in hard work, refusing to leave his estate despite a swarm of soldier ants nearing his property. Early in the story it is shown he is wise as well. "First he had vanquished primal forces by cunning and organization, then he had enlisted the resources of modern science to increase miraculously the yield of his plantation." However, there are some differences. For example, Miss Dove is strict, reprimanding David Burnham for swearing. "Nothing is achieved by swearing," Miss Dove's sentence read. "Twenty Times."
Leiningen is not like that with the people he works with on his estate. He encourages them to stay with him to fight…
Beka, A. ABEKA World Literature Fourth Edition Grade 10. Edited by Jan Anderson, 2012.
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…
Haaren, J. (2010). Famous Men of Greece. NY: ReadaClassic.
This classic work by Haaren is certainly a scholarly source, as Haaren was a highly respected classics professor and president of the department of pedagogy at Brooklyn Institute. His Famous Men series has been used by educators for decades to inform students about the history of the ancient civilizations. In this book, Haaren describes the lives and times of various important Grecian figures, including Pericles and Socrates. I plan on using this source to provide information on Athens and what it achieved during its height of empire as well as how it achieved it.
Homer. (2004). The Iliad. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Homer's epic poem is a classic of literature that has been respected, admired, taught and read for centuries. It provides insight into the Grecian mind as well as how the Greeks used mythology in their own lives. I plan to use this source in order to support the argument that Athens used culture to maintain its empire -- by building temples to the gods and goddesses, by celebrating art (drama), and by memorializing the heroic deeds of its ancestors.
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…
works cited at the end.
If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!
JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997
Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
Indeed, they are both supporter of Communism and here we are already talking about the mature period of Communist in its fight against the Imperialists (certainly, these are the same imperialists that would have paid Rivera for painting Rockefeller Centre) and the meeting between the couple and Trotsky is defining for the late phase of their relationship.
Artistic practices and values
Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath and Frida and Diego are extremely relevant for this category. First of all, Frida and Diego are members of the artistic community of Mexico and not only (and we are referring here to their presence in France during a time of artistic effervescence, as well as to their trip in the United States), this is the community that influences them and from where they draw their identity as artists. Additionally, it is their art that pulls them together each time the fall apart on…
1. Cleopatra VII - Ptolemaic Dynasty. On the Internet at http://www.pcf-p.com/a/m/rig/rig.html.Last retrieved on December 11, 2006
Cleopatra VII - Ptolemaic Dynasty. On the Internet at
St. Martin of Tours
Sulpicius Severus, who wrote the work The Life of St. Martin of Tours, wrote the life story of St. Martin out of his great admiration for the man. In his preface he says to the one who urged him to write the story that he feared his skill with language would not be good enough for such an important task. He finally wrote the work because in his words, "because I thought it disgraceful that the excellences of so great a man should remain concealed." Sulpicius saw St. Martin's life as one others should try to emulate, and for that to happen, people would have to know something about how St. Martin had lived.
Martin was drawn to Christianity when he was 10 and immediately began studying his new religion. Following Christ's example, he gave all he could to those who needed it more, keeping back…
At the end of the book, Sulcipius states that no one ever saw Martin enraged, or excited, or lamenting, or laughing; he was always one and the same: displaying a kind of heavenly happiness in his countenance...." Perhaps Sulcipius does not realize he has made Martin sound better than Christ himself, who was occasionally angered. Sulcipius has presented a fascinating account of St. Martin's life, but one that has to be considered within the biases of the author.
Constantine the Great was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and to make Christianity the official religion of Rome. This makes him one of the most important figures in estern history, and in fact, world history. Prior to Constantine's conversion, Christians were widely persecuted throughout the Roman Empire (Herbermann and Grupp). Making Christianity the official religion of Rome led to the downfall of the Roman Empire and the birth of the new Holy Roman Empire. Because of Constantine's conversion, Christianity became a dominant religious, political, and economic world power.
Constantine was born in Naissus, a city in the Moesia Superior region of the Roman Empire. Moesia Superior is modern day Serbia, and Naissus is the modern-day town of Nis. Constantine the Great's father was the Emperor Constantius. Constantine's mother Helena was a commoner but was later named as a Christian saint. Immediately after the death of his father…
Gill, N.S. "Constantine the Great." About.com. Retrieved online: http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/people/p/constantine.htm
Herbermann, Charles, and Georg Grupp. "Constantine the Great." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 18 Feb. 2013
Pohlsander, Hans A. "Constantine I (306-337 A.D.)." De Imperatoribus Romanus. Retrieved online: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm
Animal Experience - Abstract
Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (yatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.
In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First,…
Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.iol.co.za Web site: http://www.iol.co.za/scitech/science/news/rise-of-the-planet-of-the-apes-1.1326671
Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.
Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].
Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.animalethics.org.uk Web site: http://www.animalethics.org.uk/great-apes.html
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
Abraham to Jesus with other Major Historical Events
2100 BC: Abraham moves to Canaan under a direct order from God. Canaan later becomes Israel.
2000 BC: Jacob, grandson of Abraham, is born in Canaan. Jacob is later renamed Israel. His 12 sons become the heads of the 12 Tribes of Israel.
Hammurabi builds up Babylon in the Fertile Crescent.
The Minoan Bronze Age in Crete.
1900 BC: One of Jacob's sons (Joseph) is sold into slavery. Joseph rises to power in Egypt.
1500 BC: The Indian Hindu Scriptures the Rig-Veda are completed.
1400 BC: The Israelites (after being enslaved for four centuries by Pharaoh) are led by Moses out of Egypt. Joshua takes the lead after Moses dies. It is to Moses that the first five books of the Old Testament are attributed.
1200 BC: The Trojan War.
1000 BC: Saul becomes king of the Israelites. David is anointed. David…
Machiavelli, Luther, And Muntzer
Must a good politician be morally bad? In the context of the Reformation, this question revolves around how Christians would define what is "morally bad" had become suddenly and seriously complicated by competing definitions of what constitutes "morally good" behavior. The rhetoric very often yielded more heat than light: Luther's and Muntzer's apparently sincere eschatological belief that the Vatican was to be identified with the hore of Babylon in the Book of Revelations made the question of cooperation with wicked temporal powers more than a purely academic one. Yet it is arguably the religious situation of Roman Catholicism in the first place that leads to the ethical differences in the political philosophies of Machiavelli, Luther and Muntzer. Indeed, the religious distinction that Luther upheld against the Vatican -- insisting on salvation sola fide, by faith alone, rather than by deeds -- indicates that in response to…
Luther, Martin. "Temporal Authority: To What Extent It Should Be Obeyed" (1523).
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Translated by W.K. Marriott. Project Gutenberg; n pag. Web.
Muntzer, Thomas. "The Prague Protest" (1521).
Muntzer, Thomas. "A Highly Provoked Defense" (September, 1524)
Stockholders and the Bible
In modern definitions, stockholders or shareholders are individuals or institutions that legally own a share of stock in a public or private corporation. Stock represents assets of an organization and is usually partitioned into shares that are issued at the beginning of the business incorporation or later on with approval from the Board of Directors. Stock represents a fraction of ownership in an organization, and there may be many types of stock -- each having distinctive ownership responsibilities and benefits- or value. The basic principle is thus that stockholders have a special interest in an organization and, at least in modern business terms, have contributed to the value of that organization through their financial support (Investopedia, 2012). In modern culture, the idea of the stockholder has been expanded into the term "stakeholder" -- in which the individual can be positively or negatively affected by the actions…
Freeman, R., et al. (1983). Stockholders and Stakeholders: A New Perspective on Corporate Governance. California Management Review, 25(3), 88-106.
Gooden, S., et al. (2001). That Old Time Religion: Efficiency, Benchmarking and Productivity. Public Administration Review, 61(1), 116-20.
Investopedia. (2012, December). Stock and Shares. Retrieved from investopedia.com: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/stock.asp
ome, whose beginning can be traced in 753 B.C., is the capital city of Italy. Initially, kings ruled the city; however, the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. ome, then, became a republic for the next four hundred years. During this time, the republic was ruled by a Senate. The people to do different jobs in the senate were called Senators (Buckleitner, 58). However, not everyone was allowed to vote in these elections: women, slaves, and poor people were not allowed to vote. Those oman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'.
In 55 B.C. The oman general Julius Caesar conquered France (At the time the country was called Gaul, and the omans called it Gallia). The Gauls fought hard against the omans and had been helped by Britain. Caesar was disappointed by their assistance and attempted to invade Britain, first in 55 B.C. And then…
Buckleitner, Warren. Ancient History: Lives and Times in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. School Library Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, (2004): 58.
Dowling, Melissa Barden. A Time to Regender: The Transformation of Roman Time. KronoScope, Vol. 3, No. 2, (2003): 169-184.
Dyck, Ludwig Heinrich. CAESAR'S First Great Campaigns. Military History, Vol. 20 No. 6, (2004): 50-56.
Purcell, Nicholas. The Way We Used To Eat: Diet, Community, And History At Rome. American Journal of Philology, Vol. 124, No.3, (2003): 330-358.
Etruscans as a monolithic group, in fact, they covered a wide geographic area with a civilization that spans many centuries from a millennium BCE to their putative dissolution a couple of decades BCE (Time International, 2001). The sculpture Etruscan warrior supporting a wounded comrade, from the early fifth century BCE, was created in about the middle of the Etruscan era.
At the time this sculpture was created, the Etruscans had begun exploring the coast of what is now known as the Italian peninsula. The Etruscans enjoyed dominion on the seas at the time, giving them "tremendous potential for trade as well as piracy" (Time International, 2001). It is obvious from the embellishment on the clothing of the two warriors that the Etruscans enjoyed their sea-based wealth. It is also easy to believe, as Time (2001) contends, that the Etruscans were a more jovial people than were the omans who supplanted…
Dillard, Annie. (2004) Etruscans, losing their edge. American Scholar, March 22. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Julius Caesar Historical Background. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/caesar.html
Masters of power and pleasure: A display of Etruscan arts and crafts reveals a civilization that seemed to enjoy a good fight as much as a good party. (2001) Time International, February 12. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Rehak, Paul. (2001) Aeneas or Numa? Rethinking the meaning of the Ara Pacis Augustae. The Art Bulletin, June 1. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
2. What were the military, social, and economic events that led to the Gracchan land reforms (discuss one event each of military, social, and economic)? How did the Gracchi attempt to resolve these problems (discuss three)? How effective were they?
When Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune, the social structures that had nourished the Republic as it developed from an independent city-state were already breaking down. The consolidation of public land under the emerging latifundia system had turned roughly 7% of the population (Last, 1932a, p. 9) into indigents as displaced peasant farmers flooded Rome and other cities, only to find demand for their labor limited at best. Meanwhile, the army was starving for recruits as the traditional citizen military class proved too small to police the vast Roman frontier and quell slave revolts closer to home. Finally, relations with the Italian and even the Latin allies had become increasingly strained.…
Foremost, though, is the Nietzschian concept that freedom is never free -- there are costs; personal, societal, and spiritual. To continue that sense of freedom, one must be constantly vigilant and in danger of losing that freedom, for the moment the individual gasps a sigh of relief and feels "free" from contemplating freedom, tyranny will ensue. He believed that it was the internal cost that contained value. This, however, still presents a problem for Nietzsche, in that he must find a way to connect the objective -- the rose is beautiful, with the "idea" of beauty (essence). Thus, the idea of freedom and the objective reality of freedom are dependent upon the manner in which the individual perceives their own path towards such a concept. emembering that Nietzsche lived while monarchs still reigned, his view of freedom from a political and cultural paradigm was heavily influenced by Bismarckian politics, which…
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Camus, a. (1942). The Myth of Sisyphus. Cited in:
Kelly, R. (1998). Arthur Schopenhauer -- Essays. Cited in:
The size of the army reached nearly 200,000 (Everitt 2007). Augustus also instituted programs to provide additional payments to both retired and active Roman soldiers for their duties.
idespread efforts were made by Augustus to reduce unnecessary excess by government while increasing spending on beneficial programs that presented utility rather than the perception of power (Everitt 2007). Consistent with these efforts, Augustus melted down dozens of silver and gold statues constructed in his likeness to emphasis the importance of modesty and the dangers of excess (Everitt 2007).
Augustus' institution of regulated taxation provided dramatically increased revenue for Rome and allowed for the increased expenses of social reform (Everitt 2007; Suetonius, Graves, and Grant 2002). Similarly, private taxation was abolished and increased the taxation purview of the Roman governance (Everitt 2007). Augustus prudently utilized the nascent taxation reform to provide funding for the maintenance of extensive road networks throughout Italy, among…
Everitt, Anthony. 2007. Augustus. Random House, Inc., October 9.
Suetonius, Robert Graves, and Michael Grant. 2002. The twelve Caesars. Penguin Classics, December 31.
Niebuhr, H. Richard. Christ and Culture. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1951.
The author of Christ and Culture Richard Niebuhr is today largely remembered as one-half a famous pair of siblings. Reinhold was the more famous of the two Niebuhr brothers, but both Niebuhrs redefined Protestant theology for the 20th century. hile his brother Reinhold described himself as a devout Lutheran, Richard Niebuhr was "more inclined toward Augustinian, Calvinistic approaches to the realm of theological and ethical discourse" like Kierkegaard and even the postmodern literary philosopher Roland Barth (Swatos 2008).
Richard Niebuhr, like his older brother, grew up in Missouri, graduated from Elmhurst College (1912) and Eden Theological Seminary (1915), ashington University (M.A., 1917), and Yale University Divinity School (B.D., 1923; Ph.D., 1924). Niebuhr was an ordained minister in the Evangelical and Reformed Church (1916) and worked as a pastor. Also called the more philosophical of the…
Swatos, William. "Niebuhr, Helmut Richard." Encyclopedia of Religion and Society.
Hartford Institute for Religion Research. 2008. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/NiebuhrRH.htm
In Hamlet's case, the dark Ages conquer the light and the last scene displays before Fortinbras'(the Prince of Norway, whose father was killed by Hamlet's father) eyes. Fortinbras seems to be the symbol for the rebirth of Denmark, in the light of a young king that lacks the putrid inheritance of an alienated royal family, like Hamlet's. The Renaissance man, Prince Hamlet, seems aware of the inutility of trying to restore the reign of his royal family in Denmark, since its members are proved to be corrupt and not suitable any more to lead a country in the spirit a new born world. His acts could also be in the spirit of sacrifice, suitable for a Renaissance man, in the name of restoring the dignity of his subjects and the glory of his country. People like Galileo and Savonarola were ready to give up their most precious possession, life, for…
1. Shakespeare, Hamlet, the Literature Network, retrieved Jan., 22nd, 2007, Jalic Inc. 2000-2007
2. Hamlet, Study Guide, SparkNotes, retrieved Jan, 22nd, 2007, 2006 SparkNotes LLC, http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/hamlet/section15.rhtml
Even if they may not have the same force as divine law, the laws should not contradict the laws of heaven. This binding injunction to the people to obey also applies to rulers -- monarchs should not contradict the will of the divine, and endeavor to create a state that mirrors that of God. For example, Aquinas prohibited usury, or charging money at interest given Christ's condemnation of money changing, and stated that the governments should not allow such transactions to take place.
Although Aquinas at times cites Augustine in support of his ideas, Augustine's own ideas regarding the correct relationship between state and humankind seem to suggest that the laws of the state are less crucial and less significant in creating a moral framework for human beings. After all the state, human property, and the concerns of worldly affairs are transient. In his remarks upon the Gospel of John,…
Aquinas. Thomas. The Political Ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas. New York: Free Press,
Augustine. Political Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
The New Oxford Annotated Student Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 20031.