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Oil was tucked deep in the belly of the earth and was often mixed with brine. It required innovations in drilling and refinery. In timber production, it demanded innovation in the felling of trees, sawing mills and processing of wood. California was the first place to have an offshore drilling station. Water had to be moved for long distances for hydroelectric power and irrigation. Technological innovations allowed all this demands to be met and increase output which had the net effect of a rapid growth of California's economy.
With prospectors flocking to California in the mid-18th century to 19th century, supportive institutions were created to foster growth in region. The U.S. government made policies which favored the economic growth of California. It was granted instant statehood in 1850. Californians took the reins of government and setting up policies which favored the growth of the industries. The state also levied taxes…
Walker, a. Richard. California's Golden Road to riches: natural resources and regional capitalism, 1848-1940.
California Proposition 8: Same Sex Marriage
The equal right to marry for same-sex couples in the United States has acquired growing public support over time, with a quantity of state-level laws passed and others presently up for debate. Proposition 8 was a ballot proposition and constitutional amendment that was passed in the November 2008 state elections in California. The measure added a new provision, Section 7.5 of the Declaration of Rights, to the California Constitution, which provides that only marriage between a man and a woman is legitimate or recognized in California. By limiting the acknowledgment of marriage to opposite-sex couples, the proposition reversed the California Supreme Court's ruling of In re Marriage Cases that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to get married (Newman, 2010). The wording of Proposition 8 was exactly the same as Proposition 22, which had passed in 2000 and, as an ordinary statute, had been…
Hirsch, Alan. 2004. "Separate Still Not Equal." Web. 9 January 2012. Available at:
Holloway, Carson. 2009. "Same-Sex Marriage and the Civil-Rights Movement: A
Problematic Analogy." Web. 9 January 2012. Available at:
Chief Judge Posner of the U.S. Seventh Circuit stated in 1999, (Quote) "If the taxpayer is accompanied to the audit by a lawyer who is there to deal with issues of statutory interpretation or case law that the revenue agent may have raised in connection with his examination of the taxpayer's return, the lawyer is doing lawyer's work and the attorney-client privilege may attach." (Unquote) [Nelson, 2005]
In United States v. Kovel case, the Court extended the attorney-client privilege to communications between a client and an accountant retained by an attorney. Thus California law recognizes an attorney-accountant-client privilege as a legal entitlement. [Segal, 1997] presents a review of conditions where accountant-client relationship can be considered privileged just like an attorney-client relationship. Segal also cites situation where the privileged is waived by the client's action or if it is considered not applicable due to accountant's work is not considered equivalent of…
McCormack, J.W. Laying the Groundwork for the Protection of a Tax Professional's Work Product, Retrieved from Internet on 28 October 2005,. http://vls.law.vill.edu/orgs/tax-law-compendium/Student/mccormack.htm
Nelson, M.B., The value of attorney-client privilege, retrieved from Internet on 29 October 2005. http://www.go-offshore.com/attorneyclientprivilegedet.htm
Schreiber, W.L., It's a matter of integrity - Professional Ethics; accounting, California CPA, 2003
Segal, M., Journal of Accountancy, April 1997, Retrieved from Internet on 28 October 2005. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6280/is_n4_183/ai_19290147
S. federal government: Unhappy with loss of 'face' in dealing with Japan internationally as well as revenue loss due to trade complications regarding agricultural products and other goods
California residents: Damaged by loss of revenue and possible trade war reducing choice
Step 6:Viable solutions from the above evaluations include:
Cold storage alone without the use of pesticides by far seems to be the most viable and natural solution, despite its long-term costs and somewhat inefficient storing methods during off-seasons. To placate growers concerns about costs, one possible measure might be to seek government assistance in building these facilities on the part of the growers, given the vital role the Californian agricultural community plays in maintaining good relations with Japan for continued U.S.-Japanese economic relationships. The increased interest in organic produce amongst American consumers and concern in Europe about 'frankenfoods' such as GMOs (genetically modified organism) might actually mean that a…
Dawson, Anne Dawson, Sarah Hassenpflug, James Sloan, & Izumi Yoshioka. With the assistance of Andrew Procassini. "Combating the Medfly Menace." Monterey, CA: Center for Trade and Commercial Diplomacy, Monterey Institute of International Studies, 1998.
Hispanic parent work so hard at low paying job (maid; agricultural; day laborer, etc.) just to feed and shelter them, and parent don't have anymore time or energy for insisting about homeworks and graders. But this, I feel, will downfall California eventually if something to help their Hispanic education levels does not happen. Now Hispanic adults even are working in Disneyland and McDonald's but that person needed for doctor and engineer careers instead. Disneyland job will be fine for young kid, but after that, which Hispanic people will be able to work in computer jobs in Silicon Valley; maintain infrastructures; participate in state government, and in California industry and health, accounting, and legal professions? There are just too many Hispanics here for them not to enter these professions in much bigger groups! California must work hard with the children of all: rich poor and middle class people equally - now,…
Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. California Dreams and Realities: Readings
For Critical Thinkers and Writers. 3rd Ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's,
Early California history: An overview. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cbhtml/cbintro.html
Introduction to a Sierra Nevada Gallery. The Sierra Nevada Gallery. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://www.sierranevadaphotos.com/intro.html
Klamath Mountains. Encyclopedia ritannica. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9045718
Michaelsen, J. And Chamberlin, S. Queen Calafia slept here. University of California, Santa arbara. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g148_f04/readings/intro_04.html
Parsons, J.J. (1987). A geographer looks at the San Joaquin Valley. 1987 Carl Sauer Memorial Lecture. University of California, erkeley. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://geography.berkeley.edu/ProjectsResources/Publications/Parsons_SauerLect.html
Sierra Nevada (U.S.). Wikipedia. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Nevada_%28US%29
The geography of California. NETSTATE. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://www.netstate.com/states/geography/ca_geography.htm
Wanket, J.A. Relicts and refugia: late Quaternary forests of the Klamath Mountains. Department of Geography, Sacramento State University. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:yp5t6uz0bf4J:www.calbotsoc.org/lectures/wanket.doc+%22Klamath+Mountains%22&hl=en
Background, Death Valley. Exploratorium. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://www.exploratorium.edu/learning_studio/news/january98/mainstory_jan98.html
California Central Valley. Wikipedia. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Central_Valley
California's coastal mountains. California Coastal Resource Guide. California Coastal Commission. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://ceres.ca.gov/ceres/calweb/coastal/mountains.html
Cletheroe, J. Cascade Mountains, British Columbia, California, Oregon and Washington State. Retrieved January 16, 2005 from Web site: http://freespace.virgin.net/john.cletheroe/usa_can/usa/cascade.htm
The author also specifically mentions California's increased need in terms of its high crime rate. High crime rates require an increase of police and corrections, and therefore higher revenues to pay for these. Low fiscal needs are generally exhibited only where populations are low. A high population would naturally have a high fiscal need in terms of infrastructure.
According to Tannenwald, California's index of fiscal need rose in the last decade of the 20th century, where economic growth rates lagged. Furthermore, an unfortunate fact is that fiscal need and tax capacity do not always coincide in all the states. California however shows both a high tax capacity and high fiscal need. This means that its potential fiscal comfort is considerable.
In obtaining possible infrastructure solutions to the above-mentioned problems, a correlation is required among governments throughout the state, as well as excellent governance by its leaders. Solutions have been offered…
Kousser, Thad. Is San Diego a Low-Tax City? UC San Diego.
League of Women Voters of California. About Municipal Government. 2009. Retrieved from http://www.smartvoter.org/gtg/ca/state/overview/municipal.html
Schwarzenegger, Arnold. Letter to California State Senate. State Water Resources Control Board, California Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from: http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/water_issues/hot_topics/20x2020/docs/govltr_to_legislature022808.pdf
Tannenwald, Robert. Fiscal Capacity, Fiscal Need, and Fiscal Comfort: New evidence and its relevance to devolution. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 2008. Retrieved from: http://220.127.116.11/Fiscal_Capacity.htm
California Pizza Kitchen is a gourmet pizza restaurant that provides unique pizza styles, as well as other entree options, to their customers. The client base primarily orders pizzas, which California Pizza Kitchen gladly caters to (CPK.com, 2011).
California Pizza Kitchen marketing strategies emphasize quality unique pizzas while providing upscale yet casual customer service. The restaurant was founded in 1985 by then-attorney's ick osenfield and Larry Flax, who introduced flavors from around the world (CPK.com, 2011). The products of California Pizza Kitchen are now consumer brands, and the customer base is quite loyal. The company has grown to serve customers at 265 restaurants in 32 states and ten foreign countries (CPK.com, 2011).
The California Pizza Kitchen market has reported a profit margin of 17% in the last twelve months, and aims to raise this number to its five-year average of 19% (Forbes, 2011). With the unique style, advanced customer service, and…
CPK.com. (2011). Investor relations. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/Business/Economy/story?id=4375720&page=1
Forbes.com. (2011). California pizza kitchen. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://finapps.forbes.com/finapps/jsp/finance/compinfo/Ratios.jsp?tkr=CPKI
Horovitz, B. (2008, March 2). Hard times are on the menu at restaurants. Retrieved February
11, 2011 from
California has given rise to some of the most significant changes in American labor relations. Throughout its history, the state has been able to provide jobs in various sectors of the economy, from agriculture to aerospace. Currently, California unions represent workers in every industry, including education, entertainment, construction, health care, petroleum refinery, clothing, and transportation. Since the nineteenth century, workers in every field have struggled to create and maintain healthy working conditions and reasonable wages. After the Industrial evolution, the need for organized labor increased. Because poor working conditions and low wages contributed to workplace injury and poverty, workers began uniting in their common cause. Management, which had previously had the upper hand in dealing with their employees, finally had to contend with the collective, collaborative, and cooperative nature of labor unions. Early labor unions in California, such as the Japanese-Mexican Labor Association (JMLA), often had to contend with burgeoning…
California Labor Federation AFL-CIO: http://www.calaborfed.org/index.html
Labor History." Virtual Oral/Aural History Archive of California State University, Long Beach. http://salticid.nmc.csulb.edu/cgi-bin/WebObjects/OralAural.woa/wa/collection?pt=109&ww=814&wh=636
The Official Web Page of the United Farm Workers: http://www.ufw.org
There are different moments in the day that are captured by the painter, be it a sundown or a moonrise in "Nocturne" (Granville Redmond, n.d.). At the same time, he tried to capture most of the elements of the natural landscape, the violent yet harmonious waves in "Opalescent Sea" or the wild bushes of the traditional secluded areas of California, which inspire the feeling of a certain end of the world in "Twilight."
In time, the focus slowly shifted away from the dramatic landscape of the mountains and plains and there was a certain development by introducing the human body as the center of the image, rather than a completing element that only added value to the main actor which was the natural landscape. In this sense, the evolution was obvious and, although the Californian landscape remained the center piece in the canvases, it remained as an element of identification…
Cheney, Martha Candler. Modern Art in America. New York: Whittlesey House, 1939.
DavidHockney. "About David Hochney." 2003. http://www.davidhockney.com/bio.shtml (accessed 22 November 2007)
Granville Redmond: The Artist. N.d. http://www.granvilleredmond.com/(accessed 22 November 2007)
Hackett- Freedman. "David Park: artist overview." 2007. http://hackettfreedman.com/templates/artist.jsp?id=PAR (accessed 22 November 2007)
California." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Color in the River. orld and I; 3/1/1999
Edwards, Bob. MORNING EDITION from NPR News Host. 09-08-2000.
Gold Rush." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004..
Kyle, Douglas E. "Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California." California History Spring 2004: 72+.
Landazuri, Roberto. "Days of Gold! Songs of the California Gold Rush." California History inter 2000: 228..
Lavender, David. California: Land of New Beginnings. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.
Roberts, Brian. American Alchemy: The California Gold Rush and Middle-Class Culture. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. Questia. 12 Dec. 2006 http://www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=author:%5bSTARR%3bKEVIN%5dStarr, K. America's Golden Dream - Historian H.. Brands' vigorous narrative history of the gold rush as a defining American event is an interpretive tour de force. http://www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=Californian+gold+rush%20publication:%5b%22orld%20and%20I%22%5dorld and I. www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=Californian+gold+rush%20pubdate:%5b20021229;20030104%5dJanuary 1, 2003
California." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Color in the River. World and I; 3/1/1999
Edwards, Bob. MORNING EDITION from NPR News Host. 09-08-2000.
California Proposition 8:
Fighting for Same-Sex Marriages and ights
Introduction to Same-Sex Marriages in California
Same-sex marriage has been a sensitive subject in America for more than the last couple of years. In California, gay marriage has had a unique history. The mayor of San Francisco, issued marriage certificates in 2004 in which same sex couples were allowed to apply and be approved for. Californians were outraged and began to press charges against the San Francisco mayor.
At its end, the Supreme Court of California determined that they were to grant equal rights protection to same-sex couples-including marriage (Holton, 2008). Less than six months later, the marriage rights ended with the passing of Proposition 8. Proposition 8 made marriage legal only for one man and one woman, and limited the rights that same-sex couples were able to have (Voters Guide, 2008).
Ethical Issues Addressed in Proposition 8
The ethics of…
Declaration of Independence. (1776, July 4). The declaration of independence. Retrieved March
9, 2011 from http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/
Dolan, M. (2008, May 17). Gay marriage ban overturned. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2008/06/san-francisco-3.html
Glionna, J.M. (2008, June 17). San Francisco mayor: Defeating gay marriage is literally the bush agenda. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from
California Critical Incident Management: Three Primary Issues
The objective of this work is to research California OES recommendations for emergency responses by local law enforcement and to follow links to the Federal Government level. This work will examine the three most important issues raised in the research. Toward this end the "California Critical Incident Management: OES Law Enforcement Guide to Emergency Operations -- edbook" has been reviewed and critically examined.
An analyses of any type of procedural information relating to emergency response operations requires identification of the primary processes that have been integrated into the process to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in service response to an affected region. This too is the case for California Law Enforcement emergency response in the State of California.
Noted first in the review of the "California Critical Incident Management: OES Law Enforcement Guide to Emergency Operations -- edbook" is the factor of 'communication'…
California Critical Incident Management: OES Law Enforcement Guide To Emergency Operations - "Redbook" (2003) OES.Gov website. Retrieved from: http://www.oes.ca.gov/WebPage/oeswebsite.nsf/PDF/Law%20Enforcement%20Guide%20for%20Emergency%20Operations%20/$file/Redbook%20Revision%20Sep%202009.dy.pdf
Murray, the first wave of ed Scare was characterized by "a nation-wide antiradical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in America was imminent -- a revolution that would destroy property, church, home, marriage, civility, and the American way of life." This time of massive scare also generated intense fear of foreigners as most aliens were seen as conspirators. Many alien related laws were passed and massive arrests were made during this time. It was not a good time for immigrants as "the federal government consistently targeted alien radicals, deporting them [...] for their speech or associations, making little effort to distinguish true threats from ideological dissidents." series of bomb explosion targeting Attorney General Palmer led to the controversial Palmer raids in which tens of hundreds of aliens were arrested on one pretext or another. Initially the American public responded in a positive manner and…
1] Levin, Murray B. (1971). Political Hysteria in America: The Democratic Capacity for Repression. Basic Books, pg. 29.
2] Cole, David D. (2002). "Enemy Aliens." Stanford Law Review Vol. 54 (Issue: 5): pp 953+.
3] Farquhar, Michael (2003). A Treasury of Great American Scandals. Penguin Books, pg. 199
California." The Columbia Encyclopedia, (2004) Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…
Alonso, a. (2008). A brief history of the Los Angeles-based Crips. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from Street Gangs: http://www.streetgangs.com/crips/
Crips. (1995). What we celieve in. Nationwide Rip Ridaz. Quality Records.
Davis, Mike. (1992). City of Quartz. Vintage Books.
Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence (2006). Gangs. Find Articles Retrieved April 2, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0002/ai_2602000260
, and inhibits herbivores and pathogens" (Las Pilitas Nursery). This is the reason the manzanita is such an excellent survivor: it has good roots. Thus, the manzanita can grow for over a century if the conditions are right.
Manzanitas also serve as a good source of nectar for some of the more pleasant fauna of nature: butterflies and hummingbirds. The manzanita, therefore, is a shrub that can bring an element of natural beauty to the native Californian landscape.
A view of the different hybrids that are available may give some indication of the different varieties of manzanitas available for different tastes.
First, there is the "Austin Griffith" manzanita -- which is a cross between the A. densiflora and the Dr. Hurd. It can reach a height of 10 ft and a width of 6 ft. It is a flowering shrub (the flowers are small and pink) and the leaves are…
"Las Pilitas Nursery." Web. 24 July 2011.
Moreover, aside from focusing on the California Indians, Hurtado perhaps wants the readers to learn from the problems that was brought about by racial and gender discriminations.
In gender, the novel Indian Survival on the California Frontier is not just a story of how the native American Indian survived in the middle of nineteenth century but a story of how the society faces problems because of misconceptions and discriminations that they practice to other groups of people.
Indian Survival on the California Frontier.
etrieved on November 10, 2005, from Online.
Web site: http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=0300041470
Indian Survival on the California Frontier.
Retrieved on November 10, 2005, from Online.
Web site: http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=0300041470
As the UFCW president and director Shaun arclay says, "This pact fits the same pattern of their actions three years ago when they forced UFCW members and their families into the streets and disrupted shoppers for nearly five months in a grab to end meaningful health care coverage for employees."
UFCW] the pay hikes that the CEO's of these supermarkets received last year attests to their improving profitability proving that the supermarkets are crying wolf. [UFCW]
However, the situation has turned around and currently the workers are once again bargaining with the supermarket chains. Unlike three years ago, this time the Union is negotiating with the supermarkets individually. [Uprising] the plan seems to workout better for the Union. As a positive trend, the UFCW has successfully negotiated good contracts with Stater ros and Gelsons, two comparatively smaller supermarket stores. [UFCW]. If these two smaller supermarkets can do this without the…
Abigail Goldman, "Grocers lose their Wal-Mart leverage," Accessed May 8th 2007, Available online at, http://www.groceryworkersunited.org/walmart_excuse_not_working.htm
UFCW, "Supermarket Workers Nationwide Call for Good Jobs and Affordable Health Care," Accessed May 8th 2007, Available online at, http://www.ufcw.org/press_room/index.cfm?pressReleaseID=305
UFCW, "Talks Break Off Between Grocery Workers and Southern California
Supermarkets," Accessed May 8th 2007, Available online at, http://www.ufcw.org/press_room/index.cfm?pressReleaseID=304
California istory: A Tour of the State through Three Novels
California is the nation's largest state. Within its borders it encompasses many contradictions and offers different modalities of life. The idea of an 'alternative lifestyle' may have been coined in California, but clearly there is more than one alternative offered by the state. Even the state's stereotypes, such as the 'outdoorsy' person, or the beatnik who distains social conventions, or the Pacific Rim immigrant who needs to make a new social and economic future for him or herself within the state, are diverse in their nature. California exemplifies the vastness of the American dream in imagination and financial growth.
The one connecting element between all of these stereotypes, and indeed between all of the fictional individuals that embody them over the course of elen unt Jackson's novel Ramona, Jack Keota's quasi-autobiographical The Dharma Bums, and the more recent Picture Bride…
Helen Hunt Jackson's novel catalogues Ramona was written to call attention to the terrible plight of the Mission Indians in Southern California. Their struggles are mirrored in the fate of the heroine, however. At the end of the novel, Ramona weds an Indian man, Alessandro. Her decision comes after she has decided to live with the Indians because she was not told she was a 'half breed' until she had lived for many years with whites. Eventually, the novel ends with the words that she has given birth to another "Ramona," the "daughter of Alessandro the Indian." (Jackson, Chapter XXV, novel retrieved on December 8, 2003 at ( http://www.xooqi.com/iboox/xo_0024_jackson_ramona.html ) After many years of struggle trying to find her identity, Ramona gives birth to a girl whom presumably will have no such struggles. However, the first Ramona's struggles highlight the prejudice and intolerance waged against these native people, the often insurmountable divide between white and native in terms of culture, and the persistence presence of those such as the title character whose very existence was a challenge to this divide.
Picture Bride by Yoshiko Uchida also illustrates a similar tension, between native-born Japanese individuals and recent Japanese immigrants. This internal tension is exacerbated, however, with the nation's entry into World War II, as all individuals of Japanese extraction are forced to live in internment camps, in states of filth and privation. At the beginning of the novel, a young Japanese woman named Hana comes to America to find her identity, to escape Japan and the oppression of women and arranged marriages. However, at first her new husband seems no better than what she has left. Also, Hana's own behaviors and expectations are still quite located in her past community, where female behavior is formal and contained. "Hana was overcome with excitement at the thought of being in America and terrified of the meeting about to take place. What would she say to Taro Takeda when they first met, and for all the days and years after?" (Uchida, Chapter 1, 3) Through the United States, Hana seeks liberation but finds only limitations in marriage and the law, although she also establishes an inner sense of self and identity as a woman, through contact with individuals with other ideas of how Japanese women should behave.
In contrast to these struggles, the anti-heroes of The Dharma Bums seems almost anti-climatic. Kerouac's fictional alter ego seeks a new identity in the wilderness of deserts and roads of California, hoping Buddhism will give him a new philosophical lease on life. For Kerouac, California, the farthest state from New York was the state of anti-civilization. But his community of outsiders exhibits their own cruelty. "Don't you realize all this life is just a dream? Why don't you just relax and enjoy God? God is you, you fool!" says one of Cody's friends, Ray, to a woman in a state of deep paranoia and depression. God is you, Ray believes, is the answer to his own identity struggles, however, the Dharma Bums do not find any answers, because their new viewpoints are too convoluted with their own emotional needs to give them a new, ideological lease on life. All character in all novels demonstrate that wilderness alone will not give one peace, newness is not enough -- rather, one must create one's new Californian identity with previously untapped but preexisting inner strength.
California Versus Greenwood
The police in Greenwood's local area suspected him of conducting illegal drug trade from his residence. The police did not have any evidence to secure a search warrant in his residence. So, they decided to rummage through the garbage he had left for pick up at the curb of his residence. They uncovered evidence that suggested drug abuse. They used the evidence to successfully secure a search warrant. They proceeded to search his house and arrested him and charged him for felony (Minor, 2-4). The search was illegal. The subsequent debate for scholars and critics alike was on whether the search without a proper warrant amounted to a violation of the Fourth Amendment.
The case under review touched on the protections extended by the law in the 4th Amendment including the exclusionary limits. The question arises on what exactly the limit of an individual's privacy…
This is important as any analyses and conclusions which are drawn from the study are directly applicable to the intended population. The survey was issued in a wide variety of language, which ensured wide participation from the immigrant population and ensured that the language barrier was not a limitation to the study. The study conducted the survey over the telephone, which would have ensured a wider participation than postal survey. The study also gained a 55% participation from a total of 11,039 which indicates that the survey would be truly representative of the immigrant population due to the large numbers of immigrants participating. The surveys were conducted in 2000, which was 5 years before the article, which indicates that factors may have changed within the period. It may have been more accurate if the data were to be published within a shorter time period after collection.
The respondents were…
Passel, J.S. (2005) Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population. Pew Hispanic Centre. Retrieved on November 3, 2007, at http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=44 .
Ponce, N., Nordyke, R.J. And Hirota, S. (2005) Uninsured working immigrants: A view from California County. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7(1): 45-53.
Tanner, J. (2003) Reading and Critiquing Research. British Journal of Perioperative Nursing, 13(4): 162-164.
By the time the class is set to be over, each pair is then expected to bring about one Inspiration web for the case of presentation to the entire class, which is usually then presented in front of the entire class. These can then be set to be saved in their own folders for further usage in the studies pertaining to the book. (Educational Technology Unit) The question still remains as to whether this gives the computer and software dominance on the education of the students that it does not deserve.
This level of categorization of knowledge now exists for all subjects and in the new California State standards, there are three overall model content standards. The first of these is to show relevant knowledge and competency in motor skills, movement patterns and strategies needed to perform a range of physical activities. In the second set, there has to be…
Educational Computing and Technology Standards" The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Retrieved at http://cnets.iste.org/ncate/n_intro.html . Accessed 7 November, 2005
Educational Technology Unit" Retrieved at http://www.soe.usfca.edu/departments/edtech/downloads/edt. Accessed 7 November, 2005
Mat Course Descriptions" Retrieved at http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/AcadProg/mat/courseDescription.html. Accessed 7 November, 2005
New California State Standards" Retrieved at http://www.peworkshop.com/framework.htm#topAccessed 7 November, 2005
The Mohave and the Chemehuevi
The objective of this paper is to explore the history, social organization, and customs of two California tribes: The Mohave and the Chemehuevi. The scope of the paper includes a review of the current status of the two tribes.
The Mohave and The Chemehuevi
The American Indian tribes are the original immigrants of the continent of America. In fact, the people of these tribes are of old Eastern origin, believed to be descendants of the Mongloid race in Asia. Over a period of thousands of years, these tribes gradually populated the unoccupied Western Hemisphere, from the Bering Strait to the southern most tip of South America, and from coast to coast. These first settlers were not savages and, in fact, possessed ancient knowledge about the laws of the universe and nature. They developed varying types of social organization and mechanisms, which satisfied their…
Driver, Harold E. And William C. Massey. 1957. Comparative Studies of North American Indians. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
Dutton, Bertha P. 1983. American Indians of the Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. 2000. Native Peoples of the Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Hallowell, Irving A. And Frederica De Laguna. 1960. Selected Papers from the American Anthropologist. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
All other factors being equal, an investor will seek to maximize return for equivalent risk levels. This means that the investor will choose the investment that offers the best risk-return ratio. It is believed that for the most part, investors tend towards risk aversion. Often, decisions are made under conditions of uncertainty, and in this situation they will use perceived risk as their guidepost rather than objective risk, as thought do not know the latter (ScienceDaily, 2010). Risk aversion is often assumed in financial modeling.
The most important thing about risk aversion, however, is that the degree of risk aversion is critical to setting the desired rates of return. The more risk averse an investor is, the higher the rate of return that will be demanded in order to undertake the investment. Thus, risk aversion is critical to the investment decision and to determining the rate of return that a…
Investopedia. (2011). Dividend discount model. Investopedia. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/ddm.asp
ScienceDaily. (2010). The psychology of financial decision making and economic crises. Science Daily. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100922111428.htm
California Clinics, an investor-owned chain of ambulatory care clinics, just paid a dividend of $2 per share. The firm's dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5% per year, and investors require a 15% rate of return on the stock.
What is the stock's value?
PO = D 1 / ( KS - G )
P PO = Price
D1 = The next dividend. D1 = D0 (1 + G)
KS = Rate of Return
G = Growth Rate=D1/(Ks-G)
P = 2.10 / (15% - 5%)
P = $
Suppose the riskiness of the stock decreases, which causes the required rate of return to fall to 13%. Under these conditions, what is the stock's value?
P = 2.10 / (13% - 5%)
P = $26.25
Return to the original 15% required rate of return and assume a dividend growth rate estimate increase to 7% per year, what…
California's Electoral System of Today -- No return to the New York Tammany!
It would be tempting to view the defeat of the Tammany Hall Political Machine by the opponents of political corruption as the clear triumph of good over evil. But the victory of the greatness of the 'morning glories' sniffed at by the politicians over Boss Tweed and his ilk was not so simply realized. The fall of the party bosses had as much to do with negative as well as positive political, historical and social influences upon the urban landscape of America. The first foremost and most sweeping example of this is the Great Depression that precipitated the subsequent nationally-based New Deal policies of the Roosevelt administration. This economic catastrophe created a program of federal social welfare surmounted the informal 'good corruption' policies on a local level that had allowed the Tammany politicians of the George Washington…
To find out the stock's value with the information provided, the Gordon Growth Model would be used. The Gordon Growth Model is used to determine the price of a stock if the dividend, dividend growth rate and discount rate are all known. The underlying assumption behind the Gordon Growth Model is that the stock price is based on the expected future dividends -- investors are only investing for the known future cash flows. As a result, only the dividend and the discount rate are taken into account, along with the expected future growth rate of the dividend. Capital gains are not taken into account in the Gordon Growth Model.
The formula for the Gordon Growth Model is as follows:
Source: Investopedia (2011)
Thus, $2 / (.15-.05) = P
P = $
The stock's value if the riskiness of the stock changes would be calculated with the same formula,…
Amadeo, K. (2012). Inverted yield curve. About.com. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://useconomy.about.com/od/glossary/g/Inverted_yield.htm
Baker, S. (2009). Perils of the internal rate of return. Economics Interactive Tutorial. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://hspm.sph.sc.edu/courses/econ/invest/invest.html
Chmielowiec, M. & Granger, B. (2011). Cost of risk: Show me the money. U.S. Captive. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www.pointright.com/pdf/PR_Article_2011_Cost_of_Risk_Show_Me_The_Money.pdf
Investopedia. (2011). Gordon growth model. Investopedia. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/gordongrowthmodel.asp#axzz1lFGk3bQ3
Statistics show that hospitals bore more than $5 billion in costs in treating uninsured patients. This creates a huge financial pressure on them and there is no alternative but to have the uncompensated care costs to be charged to the insured patients. As a recent article from the California healthcare foundations quotes "They prepare for this reality by: Setting prices for the insured that are higher than expected costs.." [CHA] These financial details clearly indicate that immediate action has to be undertaken in terms of restructuring the healthcare system so as to facilitate hospitals in managing the overwhelming burden they are expected to handle.
Diminishing Insurance Coverage
One further reason that contributes to the problem is the declining rate of insurance coverage offered by corporates to their employees. The trend seems to be worsening as statistics indicate. Job-based coverage, which stood at 60.4% in 2003 has dropped to 59.8% in…
State of California, "Gov. Schwarzenegger Tackles California's Broken Health Care System, Proposes Comprehensive Plan to Help All Californians," Accessed on Apr 15th 2007, Available at, http://gov.ca.gov/index.php?/press-release/5057/
Author not available, "Top 10 Indicators: California's Health Care System Is Broken," Accessed on Apr 15th 2007, available at http://www.chhs.ca.gov/docs/Top%2010%20Indicators%20010807.pdf
California Hospitals' Financial Condition: On Life Support," California Healthcare Association, June 2004
Dr.Barry Simon, "Emergency Rooms on Front Line of Health Care," Contra Costa Times, 12/22/06
1). Ironically, these workers who feed others are often hungry themselves, even when they bring home some of the rejected crop they harvest to feed their families. A 2007 study of agricultural workers in the area found that nearly half (45%) met the criteria of food insecurity. 34% of respondents were food insecure without hunger while an additional 11% were food insecure with hunger (irth et al. 2007, p.1). "Nearly half (48%) of eligible respondents reported utilizing the food stamp program, which is comparable to 53% of eligible Fresno County residents. However, food stamp participation varies by season. hereas 55% of eligible respondents utilized the program in the winter, only 37% of eligible respondents did so in the summer. Many respondents interviewed during the summer believed they were not eligible for this program because they were working or earned too much" (irth et al. 2007, p.24). They had little or…
Fresno California. Greenwich Mean Time. February 29, 2009. November 29, 2009.
Drury, Pauline. "Fresno." Ancestry.com. November 29, 2009.
California's Proposition 226 California's Proposition 226
California's Proposition 226
California's Proposition 226
California's Proposition 226
The California's Proposition 226 effectively addresses the workers' rights with respect to their autonomy and freedom in which they are empowered to decide for the utilization withholding taxes that are deducted from the employers and are provided to the unions which utilize the generated monetary funds based on their autocratic decisions and lack to provide transparency in their decisions.
Advantages of California Proposition 1
Disadvantages of California Proposition 1
The California Proposition 226 apprehends for the employers and labor organizations in which these entities are required to get the permit from their employees in order to charge any withholding amount, union dues and amount to be contributed in political activities. The proposition makes the employee permission in this respect with the utilization of a mandatory form which ensures the consent of employee and helps in…
Ballotpedia.(1998). California Proposition 226, the "Paycheck Protection" Initiative (1998). Available from: http://ballotpedia.org/California_Proposition_226,_the_%22Paycheck_Protection%22_Initiative_ (1998)
Bucher, M. (n.d).Strong Majority of California Voters Support Paycheck Protection Initiative. Yes on, 226.
California Secretary of State. (1998). Proposition 226. Available from: http://primary98.sos.ca.gov/VoterGuide/Propositions/226yesarg.htm
Germond, J.W.&Witcover, J. (1998).Anti-union Proposition 226 stays ahead in trend-setting California. The Baltimore Sun.
The planning systems are more oriented towards a growth strategy that can scale from just a few locations being opened to several in a given financial period. This strategy of planning based on regional expansion, where stores have been more branding, marketing (Berman, 2010) was also seen throughout the information obtained about their planned sale (MacFadyen, 2010) (Marcial, 2009). The information produced from these sources, all gained through academic search engines, was excellent. The Business Source Complete database and Academic Search Premier database delivered excellent results. After looking for peer-reviewed articles featuring KPC, it was possible to find an abundance of information o n their planned sale of the company.
Daily ecord Staff. (2006, October 14). California Pizza Kitchen to donate 100% of Oct. 30 sales to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. The Daily ecord, p. 1.
Marcial, G. (2009). Marcial: Pros Turn Cold on California Pizza. BusinessWeek Online, 4. etrieved…
JOSEPH ASCENZI. (2007, May 28). REAL ESTATE & RETAIL / / Indian Wells mixed-use project lands tenants. The Business Press, p. 4.
Dennis K. Berman. (2010, April 10). California Pizza Chain Is Said to Be on the Block. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1
Daily Record Staff. (2006, October 14). California Pizza Kitchen to donate 100% of Oct. 30 sales to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. The Daily Record, p. 1.
MacFadyen, K. (2010). California Pizza Kitchen Seeks Takeout. Mergers & Acquisitions Report, 23(16), 22. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
"Finally, we have the time to do proper nursing care and fully evaluate each patient's needs," said Kathy Dennis, an RN at Mercy General Hospital in Sacramento. "e now have time to check each patient's chart and make sure there are no treatment delays" (MNT).
The various studies as to the effectiveness of the legislation show positive results, according to an article in the National Nurses United website. In 2012, the Agency of Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) Healthcare Innovations Exchange conducted a study of the California Safe Staffing Law and explained that "…Higher nurse workloads" are linked with "…more patient deaths, complications, and medical errors" (NNU.org).
The Healthcare Risk Management study in 2008 found that adding just one full-time RN on staff each day resulted in "…9% fewer hospital-related deaths in intensive care units" and 16% fewer deaths in surgical units (NNU.org).
In conclusion, it seems California comes up…
California Safe Staffing Law. (1999). Choices for State Health Care Bills. California Nurses
Medical News Today. (2008). California's Historic RN-To-Patient Hospital Staffing Ratios
Upgraded Again With New Year. Retrieved August 2, 2013, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com .
California Teaching Standards are an example of how industries codify their objectives and establish guidelines for practice. Although I am not an educator, I can appreciate the California Teaching Standards because of how specific and relevant they are to daily practice. If more professional organizations had codified lists of standards, rather than relying on arbitrary and subjective means of assessment, then fewer miscommunications would arise.
Having worked in the corporate sector, I know what it is like to have a painful lack of standards as specific as the California Teaching Standards. In several of the firms I worked for, I sought but could not find absolute guides that could help me to understand my roles and the tasks designated to my post. Without standards, employers find it easy to make workers do tasks that were not included in their job descriptions. Without standards, employees cut corners in order to make…
With all the resources of normal use for Indians in missionary control, Indians began to attack the missions and military forces to steal animal and take revenge of sexual assaults on Indian women. Continuous demand of laborers for the missions impacted the Indian tribes greatly and finally in 1836, the Mexican Republic who officially took over from Spain in 1823, took away the missions powers of obtaining forced labor from Indian and the missions collapsed.
One third of the California Indian population, over 100,000 Indians perished to deaths attributable to missions of California. The 1824 constitution of Mexican Republic promised Indians voting rights as citizens but they continued to be treated as slaves.
The discovery of Gold in California in 1848 subjected the Indians to the most horrible period of their history. California was seized by U.S. military from Mexico in 1846 and sufferings of the Indians multiplied by the…
California Indians Past and Present, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.allianceofcatribes.org/californiaindians.htm
Census 2000, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.nahc.ca.gov/California 'sNativeAmerican, Eskimo and Alute populations.htm
Five Views: An Ethnic Site Survey for California, Nov. 2004, [Online] retrieved from Internet on 21st April 2008, http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1.htm
Heizer, R.F. The Destruction of California Indians: A Collection of Documents from the Period 1847 to 1865 in Which Are Described Some of the Things That Happened to Some of the Indians of California, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1993.
ater conservation can only provide so much of the resource. Other resources need to be developed to keep up with demand. The Clavey-ards Ferry project will create a reservoir that will provide an extra 12,000 acre of water for supply to the growing population needs of the San Francisco Bay area (Ibid, 3)
2) Due to the energy crisis, all sources of clean energy must be exploited. Hydroelectric power emits no air pollution. The increased energy needs of the state are graphically indicated in Exhibit 1 (Ibid, 11). The energy supplies have to come from somewhere, the Clavey-ards Ferry project is the most energy for the least cost in terms of finances and environmental impact, in particular air pollution which is a major problem in California. By 1983, the 150-megawatt power station at the new Don Pedro Dam met only half of the electricity demand in the two irrigation districts.…
Kincaid, Linda. "Saving the Tuolumne." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management. Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2011. .
California's costal ocean region is characterized with both positive and negative attributes. The California Coastal egion is along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. This area is a beautiful, desirable area to live in, causing real estate to be among the highest in the United States. In fact, this area was one of the fastest to recover after the great recession of 2008, due primarily to its natural beauty. In addition, the per capita income for families in the area is also usually higher than the general population in the country. This fact is intuitive as higher income families are those best able to afford the beauty and natural elements in which the California costal region offers. There are many rivers and streams that lead out to the ocean. The popular edwood Forest is also within the vicinity of the costal region. There are beautiful mountains and sand…
1) Beckey, Fred W. (2000). Cascade Alpine Guide: Columbia River to Stevens Pass. Mountaineers Press. p. 11
2) Harris, S.L. (2005). Fire Mountains of the West: The Cascade and Mono Lake Volcanoes. Mountain Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-87842-511-2.
3) Smith, Genny; Putnam, Jeff (1976). Deepest Valley: a Guide to Owens Valley, its roadsides and mountain trails (2nd ed.). Genny Smith books. ISBN 0-931378-14-1.
4) Sawyer, John O. (2006). Northwest California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
The drought in California is a maddening study in contradictions. The state is an epicenter for drought even as other parts of the United States are awash in rain. At the same time, many of the people of California are subject to strict very strict conditions on the use of water. However, not only are the restrictions rather harsh, they are not being applied in many cases to the people that use up to four fifths of the water in the state. This does not make much sense to many people on a number of levels but yet the problems and uneven enforcement persist. While there must be better ways to address the drought in California, the application of these better methods seems to be uneven at best according to the work of Vice and its reporters.
The clips at the very beginning of the video lay bare the…
Cancellation of debt in this instance may not be taxed in this manner but might be taxed another way.
Certain farm debts: This exemptions only applies to debt incurred directly from an operation of a farm. If more than half your income from the past three years came from farming, and the loan was owed to a person or agency regularly engaged in lending, your cancelled debt is generally not considered taxable income.
Since 2007 and 2008, California conformed, with modifications to IC section 108 (a)(1) (E) that allows a limited amount of COD income resulting from the foreclosure or short sale of a qualified principal residence to be excluded. This exclusion does not currently apply for any foreclosure or short sale that occurs on or after January 1, 2009. Danny made his short sale in 2012. "The Mortgage Forgiveness Debt elief Act of 2007 was enacted on December…
Foreclosure and Short Sales | California Franchise Tax Board, (2012) [ONLINE] Available at:https://www.ftb.ca.gov/professionals/taxnews/2009/July/Article_9.shtml. [Accessed 16 June 2012].
New California short-sale law can help homeowners -- North Bay Business Journal - North San Francisco Bay Area, Sonoma, Marin, Napa counties - Archive, (2012) [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.northbaybusinessjournal.com/39868/new-california-short-sale-lay-can-help-homeowners/ . [Accessed 16 June 2012].
The Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act and Debt Cancellation, (2012). [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.irs.gov/individuals/article/0,,id=179414,00.html . [Accessed 16 June 2012].
population of California underwent dramatic changes in the last 60 years. In the 1940s, the Latinos were a minority of only 6% of the state or roughly 374,000 (autista 1991). ut by 1980, the Latino population grew to 4 million, almost doubling the figure and increased to more than 7 million in the 90s. In the 2000s, Latinos accounted for a third of California's total population, creating huge political, economic and social impact upon its entire society (autista). esides sheer volume, the continuously increasing Latino population has developed the distinct feature. efore the 60s, immigrants were rare and less than 20% of these Latinos were foreign born, most of them from Northern Mexico. Immigration, however began to fill the ranks since the 80s so that, today, the majority of adult Latinos in California are immigrants. These developments are among the most important criteria to social and demographic policy makers in…
California Labor and Workforce Development Agency. (2004). 1975 Agricultural Labor Relations Act. Agricultural Labor Relations Board. http://www.alrb.ca.gov
Democrats Assembly. (2004). Measure to Prohibit Employers from Locking In Their Workers Passes Assembly. California State Assembly. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/template/ademmain.sp?articleid=122&zoneid=2
Full Assembly Approves Proposed Increase in the State's Minimum Wage. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/templates/ademmain.asp?articleid=106&zoneid=2
House of Representatives. ((1998). Hearing on the Failures and Promises of the California Garment Industry. 105th Congress, Subcommittee on Oversight Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, serial 105-110. http://commdocs.gov/committee/edu/hedo&i5-110.html
According to the California Department of Education, the CASHEE "is aligned to the California academic content standards in English-language arts and mathematics adopted by the State Board of Education" ("California," 2011).
Aptitude or Achievement?
The CASHEE is an achievement test because it measures what students have learned, as opposed to what their potential for learning is. Although it is designed to help prepare high school students to do well in college in the sense that it ensures that they have the basic skills they need before they graduate high school, it does not test or attempt to predict how well they will do in college.
Is it a Standardized Test?
It is a standardized test because it is designed to meet state content standards, and also because it is graded electronically and objectively. In other words, there is no subjective assessment involved such as how well the student writes an…
"California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) Apportionment," (2011) California Department of Education, Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/fg/fo/profile.asp?id=939
Cooper, B.S., Fusarelli, L.D., & Randall, E.V. (2004). Better policies, better schools: theories and application. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Heneg, J.R. (2001) the color of school reform: race, politics, and the challenge of urban education, Princeton University Press
California Health Insurance Exchange Website, Covered CA
Covered California (2015) describes itself as a user friendly market place that implements the federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in California. Its website provides useful information to current and prospective clients - such as its history, the health insurance options it offers, how an individual can match an insurance option with their needs, and its financial reports. In 2014, approximately 1.3 million Californians used Covered California to choose health insurance, while millions others used Medi-Cal to check the health coverage they qualified for (Covered California, 2015).
The Covered California website is appropriate for a person at the eighth grade level. First it is divided to four major sections, namely; explore, apply, preview and get help, which allows the users to locate the particular section they may be interested in, in order to explore them further. The explore section clearly articulates the…
Covered California (2015). About Covered California. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.coveredca.com/about/
Covered California (2015). The 2015 Covered California Shop and Compare Tool. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.coveredca.com/shopandcompare/2015/#calculator
Evidence of this can be corroborated with a study conducted by the California Nurses Association, which found similar positive effects. At the same time, researchers found that reducing these ratios in various specialty environments inside the hospital (such as the ICU), improves the underlying amounts of care being provided dramatically. This is important, because it is verifying the positive effects that nurse to patient ratios are having on the industry. ("Does Mandating Nurse Patient Ratios Improve Care," 2010)
Clearly, the study that was conducted by article titled, Nursing Staff and Patient Mortality, highlights how various nurse to patient ratios, improves the quality of care being provided. The study is useful, because it examines the underlying affects of having various nurse to patient ratios at a facility or the lack of these regulations. As a result, the information that was collected and analyzed helps to highlight how hospitals can avoid the…
Does Mandating Nurse Patient Ratios Improve Care. (2010). Health Leaders Media. Retrieved from:http://www.healthleadersmedia.com/content/NRS-245408/Does-Mandating-NursePatient-Ratios-Improve-Care
Aiken, L. (2002).Hospital Nursing Staff and Patient Mortality. Journal of American Medial Association, 288 (16), 240 -- 247.
Clarke, S. (2003). Failure to Rescue. American Journal of Nursing, 103 (1), 42 -- 47.
Land Conservation or Development
Dear Sirs and Madams,
There is a significant amount of statistical data that supports my notion for the resolution of the problem of land development in California. Again, that situation merely involves governmental entities purchasing land and appropriating it for the sake of conservation. However, the statistical data that I previously mentioned certainly makes this solution all the more viable. One of the most notable statistics about the governmental purchasing of land in California is that such a practice has been employed for the past couple of centuries in this state. At present, approximately 25% of the total land in this state is dedicated exclusively to the purpose of conservation (Santos et al., 2014, p. 1). However, there is statistical data dating from 1800 that indicates that the governmental figures have dedicated land for conservation purposes. Although there was little purposing of land for conservation purposes…
" This is money that should be spent on (a) preventing and healing drug addiction and related issues; (b) more effective, and smarter, law enforcement. Legalizing marijuana would also generate much-needed tax revenues that can be spent on precisely those two things. From an economic or financial perspective, the legalization of marijuana will also help grow small businesses and thus can alleviate the problems associated with the current economic crisis. Low start-up costs for a marijuana grow operation also mean that low-income families and entrepreneurs can earn extra income in a legitimate way. Marijuana should be made legal because Americans value personal freedoms, too. It makes no sense for alcohol and Xanax to be legal but not marijuana. Marijuana, when made legal, can be regulated in the same way that alcohol and prescription drugs are. Police will not be wasting their time busting people for possessing a plant. Instead, pharmacists…
Armentano, Paul. "DEA Moves to Ban 'Fake Marijuana' Products." NORML. 24 Nov 2010. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://norml.org/
Cooper, Charles and McCullagh, Declan. "America's Love-Hate History with Pot." CBS News. 13 July 2009. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/13/national/main5154550.shtml
Drug Policy Alliance. Economic consequences of the war on drugs. Retrieved 25 Nov, 2010: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/economiccons/fact_economic.cfm
"Legalization of Marijuana." LegalizationOfMarijuana.com. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/
California's Educational Funding:
Tragedy or Equity?
When attempting to determine whether the method and amount of public fund distribution is equitable within any school system, several factors are always considered. In the case of California, which boasts more than 1,000 individual school districts, 8,000 schools, and over six million students, many assert than in ex-ante analysis, the state's school finance system demonstrates sufficient levels of equitability. However, many do not agree.
The foundation system in California specifically guarantees that each individual district will receive funding known as a revenue limit based on a tax rate of one percent of its assessed value. Further, the state is charged with paying each district the difference between its determined entitlement amount and the actual amount raised through property taxes. Although this arrangement does seem good "on paper," there remain significant questions as to whether serious examples and possibilities of inequity exist among certain…
Bell, Tom. (2004). "Fort Bragg Schools Feel Sting of Proposition 13." Maine Today. Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://news.mainetoday.com/indepth/taxreform/040516taxschools.shtml
Ed Source. (2004). "California School Finance News." Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://www.edsource.org/edu_fin_cal.cfm#budget
RPPI. Reason Public Policy Institute. (2004). "Restructuring California's School Finance System." Web site. Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://www.rppi.org/schoolfinance.shtml
Sacramento Bee. Staff Reporters. "Unfathomable: School Funding Mess Needs Simplifying." Sacramento Bee Online. Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://www.sacbee.com/content/news/projects/paying_for_schools/story/7896515p-8834875c.html
California's Proposition 34 calls for the end of the death penalty and replaces death sentences with a sentence of life without parole. The proposition would: (1) repeal the death penalty and replace it with life imprisonment without the possibility of parole; (2) retroactively remove all current death penalty sentences and replace them with life without parole; (3) require all people convicted of murder to work while in prison and apply their wages to victim restitution and/or fines; and (4) create a $100,000,000 for law enforcement agencies specifically to solve murder and rape cases (Ballotpedia). Currently, there are 725 people on death row in California, though current challenges to California's lethal injection procedure means that none of them are currently facing execution. In fact, in 2006, a federal court judge halted all executions in California due to concerns over administration of the penalty in the state (Ballotpedia).
Ballotpedia.org. "California Proposition 34, the End of the Death Penalty Initiative (2012)."
Ballotpedia, 21 Oct. 2012. Web. 25 Oct. 20120.
California Secretary of State. "California Prop 34: Death Penalty. Initiate Statute." California
General Election Official Voter Information Guide. California Secretary of State. 2012. Web.
Given the influence of California upon setting national environmental policy because of the dominance of car travel and its sheer size and population density, if Proposition 23 passes, the effect could be seismic. "Opponents say that [Proposition 23] could hurt the creation of jobs in San Diego and throughout the state, but the Yes on 23 campaign says the measure would save existing jobs" (Joyce 2010).
The war over Proposition 23 has been waged by two of California's major industries. Technology companies promoting environmentally-friendly technology echo the sentiment of the chairman of CleanTECH San Diego. "I was talking to someone from Massachusetts last week and that's probably our biggest U.S.…he tongue-in-cheek laughed and said 'Well, if Proposition 23 passes let everyone know we'll take the jobs in the clean and green technology that California will lose'" (Joyce 2010). Two large Texas oil companies, Valero and Tesoro have funded the public…
California. (2010). Enchanted learning. Retrieved September 25, 2010.
Hay, Andrew. (2010). Another hard year for California. Reuters. Retrieved September 24, 2010
The first tactic the groups used was to intimidate the local inhabitants with a show of military force and then introduce domesticated animals that often used up a disproportionate amount of the local food resources for their needs.
Since the Californian Indians lived in highly fragmented tribes it was difficult for the missionaries to bring the religion to them; rather they attracted to Indians to the "faith." The Californian Indians were hurdled into guarded Mission compounds which completely disrupted any of the local tribe's daily activities (Mcilliams, 1973, p. 29). Once the natives were converted they basically became slaves and as such were separated from their former affiliations by force. After being baptized, California Indians were no longer allowed to make contact with any of their tribes unless those members became slaves as well. This was strictly adhered to as the missionaries wanted the natives to adopt the new culture…
Castillo, E. (1998). California Indian History. Retrieved from California Native Americans: http://www.nahc.ca.gov/califindian.html
Daritt-Newton, D., & Erlandson, I. (2006). Little Choice for the Chumash. American Indian Quarterly, 416-432.
McWilliams. (1973). Southern California: An Island on the Land.
Wilson. (1999). The Earth Shall Weep: A History of Native America.
The first is the actors in the setting. The researcher will collect variables such as age and gender so as not to interfere with the natural setting of the revelers. The second category is the behaviors being carried out by these actors. These will be recorded as acts which are small units of behavior, activities which are a set of related acts and events which are a set of related acts in a sequence. The third category is the space that is occupied by these actors. This will essentially be an understanding of the setting of the underground rave. Information on ventilation, lighting, cleanliness, and setting of the underground rave will be collected. The fourth category is the arrangement of objects in the space. This will seek to collect information regarding the arrangement of tables, chairs, bars, and other items in the underground rave. The next category is the time…
Anderson, Tammy L. "Understanding the Alteration and Decline of a Music Scene: Observations from Rave Culture." Sociological Forum 24.2 (2009): 307-36. Print.
Aronson, E., T.D. Wilson, and M. Brewer. "Experimental Methods." The Handbook of Social Psychology. Eds. Gilbert, D., S. Fiske and G. Lindzey. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Random House, 1998. 99-142. Print.
Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, 2002. Print.
Demers, Joanna. "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste." Popular Music 25.3 (2006): 401-14. Print.
This also means that consumption and price will be completely and directly linked, incentivizing reductions in water uses more so than they are under current pricing structures (though consumption is still charged per-unit, the lack of marginalization distributes prices less equitably in terms of actual expenditure to supply water). This will also give clear signals as to the extent that alternative water supplies should be investigated as a means of augmenting the water supply.
The marginal costs of water will make large urban consumers (i.e. municipalities) more likely to consume and agricultural consumers somewhat less so, possibly damaging the agricultural industry in California. Pricing structures that are not attached to volume of consumption in a linear fashion might also meet with more opposition from the public. Finally, estimating long run marginal costs can be quite complex and runs the risk of underestimation, which could lead to underfunding.
Pesticides that have widespread use in California also have the same effect.
California as a state has been is water crises for decades, particularly in Southern California. The closest, most convenient resource is Northern California. The geography of Northern California is a water haven for the southern part of the state. With lakes, rivers and reservoirs, there are abundant water sources. Unfortunately these resources are not sufficient for the entire state. They are perfect for the surrounding area, but not for the southern, dry part of the state.
Although one state, the North and the South have set up trade agreements over water. The South is given a set amount each year and the remaining water is kept by the North. This is not a problem if the water resources are at a secure level for the year.
Ironically, Fountain Valley, California, is responsible for managing the groundwater basin under…
Brosman, D.R. (1999) The Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant and its role in El Paso's water supply, Microsoft Powerpoint Presnetation, 12 slides.
Brown, L.R. (2000) "Population growth sentencing millions to hydrological poverty," San Diego Earth Times.
Orance County Water District (1997) "Groudwater Replenishment System being explored to meet water supply needs," Groundwater Replensihing System, 17 Dec.
Orange County Water District (2000) Overview of Water Factory 21, OCWD Online, 19 September. http://www.ocwd.com
(estructuring California's School Finance System) The requirement of funds that the schools necessitate is also a matter of controversy attracting the attention of courts in California. The ACLU filed a writ petition of Williams et al. Vs. State of California et al. emphasizing that the state fails to meet the obligations in providing all students with basic educational necessities.
The local school districts appearing the law suit of ACLU were charged in the Gov. Davis and the state law suit blaming that the accountability goes to the school authorities rather than the state with regard to adequate provisions. These law suits are seen to have profound impact on the ways the schools are financed in California and the authorities and the ways by which the decisions are affected to. (School Finance Overview) It is left for consideration of the problems by a newly appointed state commission. The commission among others…
Guide to California's School Finance System" (March 2004) Retrieved at http://www.ed-data.k12.ca.us/articles/article.asp?title=Guide%20to%20California%20School%20Finance%20SystemAccessed on 26 September, 2004 report from California: Proposition 13" New Tax Revolt Digest. Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ii781213.html . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
Bell, Tom. (2004) "Fort Bragg schools feel sting of Proposition 13" Blethen Maine Newspapers. Retrieved at http://news.mainetoday.com/indepth/taxreform/040516taxschools.shtml. Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California's Proposition 13 Debacle: Could this lie in Wisconsin's future?" (March 4, 1997) Retrieved at http://www.weac.org/capitol/march97/prop13.htm . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California School Finance" Retrieved at http://delmarschools.com/district/business/ca_school_finance.asp . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.
One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says
Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…
Fehrenbacher, Don F. And Norman E. Tutorow. California: An Illustrated History. London: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.
Lavender, David. California: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.
Quiett, Glenn Chesney. "The Fight for a Free Port" from Los Angeles: Biography of a City by John and LaRee Caughey. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" from The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.
The fair / unfair distribution of school resources. In 2000, the ACLU filed suit (Williams et al. v. State of California et al.), claiming that the obligation of the state to provide all students with "basic educational necessities" was not fulfilled. One million of California's students are deprived of educational basics, such as qualified teachers, decent school facilities, and appropriate textbooks.
An important part of these problems are caused by the inadequacy of the school system funding in the state. Others are problems to be solved by individual school districts, since they are seen as a local management problem.
The new concept behind the reform of school finance of California is the "weighted student formula" or "student-based budgeting," which is believed to be a way to a more equitable and effective school funding system. Still, skeptics doubt that it the concept is applicable to California's 9,000 schools serving 6 million…
1. Californians rank low in education, highway spending
Larry Barrett. The Business Journal. San Jose: Jun 17, 1996. pg. 1
2. Tiebout and tax revolts: Did Serrano really cause Proposition 13?
Kirk Stark, Jonathan Zasloff. UCLA Law Review. Los Angeles: Feb 2003.Vol.50, Iss. 3; pg. 801
Negative Effects of California's Proposition 13 on Infrastructure
California's Proposition 13, officially known as the People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation, was enacted in June 1978 in response to soaring property taxes (Chapman 1998). As a result of this act, real property tax in California is capped at 1% its assessed value. Furthermore, this assessed value cannot increase by anymore than 2% annually while under the same ownership. Once a property is sold to a new owner, the property value is reassessed at current market value and taxed at 1% of this value.
Three other changes became law when Proposition 13 passed ("hat is Proposition 13?" n.d.). First, the responsibility for allocating property tax revenue among local jurisdictions transferred to the state. Second, it became mandatory to receive a two-thirds majority vote in both legislative houses on any measures enacted to increase state revenue. Third, local governments were now required…
Chapman, Jeffrey. "Proposition 13: Some Unintended Consequences." Public Policy Institute
of California. Sept. 1998. Public Policy Institute of California. 1 Feb. 2010.
Foldvary, Fred. "Circumventing California's Proposition 13 for the Public Collection of Rent."
Northern and Southern California -- Cultural and Geological Differences
Unintentionally, the recent death of President Reagan combined with the growing media fixation on the celebrity culture of the Hollywood entertainment industry creates a juxtaposition between the two cultures present in California -- that of the conservative and wealthy enclaves of Southern California's Seamy Valley and Orange County, and the liberal and open attitudes typified by the Northern Californian Los Angeles movie moguls that gave Reagan the Democratic Party leanings he ultimately reacted to as a politician. Thus California is a paradox -- a huge state that is extremely wealthy, a magnet for illegal immigration, a cite of cultural ferment for the entire nation and the home base of Proposition 13 and the Reagan conservative social and economic revolution that took control of the nation during the 1980's. "California, in fact," seems "to be evolving culturally into a federation of regional…
"California's Beaches." (2004) California Coastal Resource Guide. Retrieved on June 9, 2004 at http://ceres.ca.gov/ceres/calweb/coastal/beaches.html
Sailer, Steve. (April 18, 2004) "The Limits of Libertarianism: Southern California's Catastrophe." VDARE.Com Website. Retrieved on June 9, 2004 at http://www.vdare.com/sailer/ca_history.htm
Starr, Kevin. (2001) "California: The Dream, the Challenge." California State Informational Website. Retrieved on June 9, 2004 at http://www.ca.gov/state/portal/[email protected]@@@[email protected]@@@& BV_EngineID=ccchadcljheijlicfngcfkmdffidfog.0& sFilePath=%2fportal%2flinks%2fthe_dream.html& sCatTitle=California+-+The+Dream,+The+Challenge
Many parts of the United States have had droughts at one time or another. However, they generally go away and they generally do not last all that long. That being, California has been a different story in more than one way. The high agricultural use of water in the state combined with the lack of rainwater coming into the water table has led to a situation that is already dire and is getting worse by the day. This issue is important because the long-term viability of the water in California is a major concern for everyone that works and lives there or that will do either in the future years and generations. This report shall cover the totality of the problem and then offer solutions. While desalinization and shifting of agricultural priorities are seemingly on the horizon, the current prospects of the water resources and status in California…
Moreover, the research also showed that the vast majority of all of the immigrants from Vietnam have managed to overcome the hardships and obstacles facing them upon their arrival to become assimilated into the larger American society and create new lives for themselves and their families.
Do, Hien Duc, The Vietnamese Americans (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press).
Menjivar, Cecilia, "Immigrant Kinship Networks: Vietnamese, Salvadoreans and Mexicans in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Comparative Family Studies 28(1, 1997): 1-2.
Profile of General Demographic Characteristics -- California: 2000 Census. (2009). U.S. Census
Bureau. [Online]. Available: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-
Wood, Joseph, "Vietnamese American Place Making," The Geographical eview 87(1, 1997):
Yang, Philip Q. Post-1965 Immigration to the United States: Structural Determinants (Westport,
CT: Praeger, 1995).
Profile of General Demographic Characteristics -- California, U.S. Census Bureau.
Philip Q. Yang, Post-1965 Immigration to the United States: Structural Determinants (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995), p. 23.
Do, Hien Duc, The Vietnamese Americans (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press).
Menjivar, Cecilia, "Immigrant Kinship Networks: Vietnamese, Salvadoreans and Mexicans in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Comparative Family Studies 28(1, 1997): 1-2.
Profile of General Demographic Characteristics -- California: 2000 Census. (2009). U.S. Census
Bureau. [Online]. Available: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y& ;-
ildfires in California
In the United States in the states of California, there have been many wildfires. A wildfire is defined as uncontrolled fire in an area where vegetation such as trees and grasses made the fire even more dangerous. These yearly occurrences have led to the deaths of many people and also thousands of homes which have been lost to fire and the aftermath. The situation has only gotten worse in the last decade with global warming and climate change making fires all the more dangerous and more easily spread. ildfires in California have also increased pollution and left devastation for animal wildlife. Unless the wildfires of California are somehow put into control, then the situation will continue to worsen and many more people will die and find themselves without homes. There are many reasons which cause California wildfires and they must each be dealt with to solve the…
Bonnicksen, T. (2009). Impacts of California wildfires on climates and forests: a study of seven years of wildfires (2001-2007). The Forest Foundation: Auburn, CA.
CNN Wire Staff (2012). Residents evacuate as hundreds of firefighters battle California wildfires. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/13/us/california-wildfire/index.html
CNN Wire Staff (2012). Wildfires challenge firefighters in northern California. CNN. Retrieved
Soda Tax in California
The issue of soda tax, or the implementation of rules that guide the soft drinks industry in terms of guiding the consumer on the content of the soda which often is at the expense of the manufacturer, is not new to California. New York City had a similar bill that was passed but later on shelved due to a court ruling that favored the soft drinks manufacturers who pressed for a ruling out of the directive as unconstitutional. There were three consecutive appeals that failed hence the hopes for that regulation that banned sale of big size bottles of soda among other regulations seem to fizzle out flat (Matias C., 2014).
It is the same spirit as that of Bloomberg in New York that state senator Bill Monning has put forth a proposal that would require the sugary drinks for instance the sports drinks that are…
Calefati J., (2014). Health warning labels proposed for sodas, other sugary drinks sold in California. San Francisco Mercury News. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.mercurynews.com/california/ci_25137374/health-warning-labels-proposed-sodas-other-sugary-drinks
Bernstein S, (2014). California lawmaker proposes warning labels for sugary drinks. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.businessinsider.com/r-california-lawmaker-proposes-warning-labels-for-sugary-drinks-2014-13
Esterl M., (2014). Berkeley Voters Approve Tax on Sugary Drinks. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://online.wsj.com/articles/berkeley-voters-approve-tax-on-sugary-drinks-san-francisco-ban-falls-short-1415189224
Matias C., (2014). New York City's Soda Ban Fizzles Out For Good. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/26/soda-ban-new-york-struck-down-bloomberg_n_5533197.html