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If Japan and other countries are more sufficient in their acts of globalization, they can help with the greenhouse effect from KYOTO protocol.
The Kyoto protocal was signed in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. In this protocol, industrialised countries commited themselves to reduceing their greenhouse gas emissions by a few percent in 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 base year. The exact percentage for each country is noted in the Annex 1 of the Protocol. The reduction is partly to be done domestically, but can also be reached by investing in other countries or trading emission allowances. These possibilities for countries with a Kyoto commitment are called the Kyoto mechanisms (KYOTO protocol).
It is easy to gather that Americans want a future that has economic prosperity and clean air that will be more abundant. This is because the American life consists of material prosperity as much as in civil liberties or political…… [Read More]
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
The Greenhouse Effect or Global arming is a major concern for environmentalists and should be cause for concern to all other people as well. According to this theory, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are being trapped in the Earth's atmosphere contributing to the degradation of breathable air as well as increasing temperatures which can have dire effects on the polar icecaps and the world's oceans. It is absolutely necessary to understand this issue and also to gauge whether or not attempts to decrease carbon dioxide emissions have improved the situation during the last few decades.
The purpose of this research is to examine the level of carbon dioxide emissions as they are today and how this compares to carbon dioxide emissions over a period of the last four decades. It is hoped that the results will show a decrease in these emissions. If this is not…… [Read More]
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Economic analysis environmental issues Carbon Dioxide Emissions Please address. Cost Benefits isks Limitations Problems
Economic analysis: CO2 emissions
While there is a growing consensus regarding the need to reduce CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, there are also concerns about the potential economic costs of environmentally-friendly policies. In the long run, according to the EPA, the benefits which can be accrued in the long-term regarding "reduced risk to human health and welfare that results from lower emissions of greenhouse gases and less global warming and climate change" vastly outweigh the costs (Evaluating climate policy options, costs and benefits, 2013, EPA). In the long-term, lost productivity due to respiratory conditions from air pollution like asthma as well as the threat a number of industries are experiencing due to the effects of global warming should not be minimized (Evaluating climate policy options, costs and benefits, 2013, EPA). Extreme heat, more…… [Read More]
Therefore, each hemoglobin molecule can bind four oxygen molecules. In a healthy adult, the concentration of hemoglobin in blood is 150 g/L. Importantly, 1.34 ml of O2 can bind 1 g of hemoglobin. Each liter of blood can therefore carry 3 ml of dissolved CO2 and 201 ml hemoglobin-bound O2. The hemoglobin bound O2 does not contribute to arterial PO2.
By contrast, CO2 is transported by the blood in three different forms. Since CO2 is very soluble in water, about 10% is transported as a dissolved gas. Another 60% is transported in the form of bicarbonate. Carbonic acid will also form, but at a ratio of 1:20 with bicarbonate. This represents the primary pH buffering system in the human body. Another 30% of CO2 will be carried by amine residues on hemoglobin and plasma proteins, with hemoglobin carrying the most CO2 by far.
Oxygen therefore requires a special mechanism to…… [Read More]
Carbon Dioxide Snow on Mars
The research and mission reported by this article regards unique weather patterns occurring on Mars. According to data gathered by the Phoenix Mars lander and the Mars econnaissance Orbiter data, there are clouds of water vapor on Mars and there is the only known stance of carbon dioxide snow falling in this solar system. The research on this phenomenon was first published in the Journal of Geophysical esearch. The CO2 snowfalls occur in the southern hemisphere, around the pole during the winters on Mars. The data shows that carbon dioxide stays frozen on the Martian surface year round on the south pole. Most of the data analysis is performed at the California Institute Technology of Pasadena.
Part of the significance of the research is the singularity of the weather. There is no other place in this local system where carbon dioxide falls. Part of…… [Read More]
Global Warming Due to Increased Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions
Concerns over the continual heating up of the atmosphere on Earth are one of the most important environmental issues in the world today. The unpredictable climate and heat changes in the atmosphere are often associated with an increase of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is often discussed that the primary reason why the global warming situation is increasing is due to the increase of the amount of greenhouse gases present in the Earth's atmosphere, primarily the amount of carbon dioxide emissions. The increased carbon dioxide amount in the atmosphere that causes global warming is a cause of concern for many people because of its potential dangerous effects to the Earth's atmosphere and the environment (including all living things). However, there are opposing arguments against this claim, and they refute that it is not accurate to mainly attribute…… [Read More]
"The EPA…declared that carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases sent off by cars and many industrialized plants "endanger public health and welfare," setting the stage for regulating them under federal clean air laws," (Writer, 2009). An EPA analysis confirmed that emissions of greenhouse gases are a serious problem. Science points to man-made pollution as a cause of global warming and emissions contribute to climate change.
Renewable energy comes from natural resources like sun, rain, wind, tides, and geothermal heat that renew themselves (Renewable Energy Cost). Solar power is expensive, requires regular maintenance, may work for 25-30 years, if properly maintained, and can be harmful, depending on the geographic location. It works depending on the geographic location and the light of the sun. Wind energy is less expensive than solar, can lessen electric bills by 50-90%, and don't require much maintenance. There would be problems when there is…… [Read More]
People have been unmotivated to offset the cabon dioxide emissions of automobiles due to a pesonal attachment to thei cas. Howeve, they have also been moe willing to implement pocedues and poducts in thei home that ae moe enegy efficient. One notable example of this concens electicity and light fixtues. In ecent yeas, lighting that is moe enegy efficient has become incedibly popula, and it has been shown that people ae even willing to pay geate sums of money to puchase lighting systems that ae moe enegy efficient (Stall-Meadows, Hebet, 2001). Such behavio stands in stak contast with consume habits with egad to automobiles, and this is pehaps attibutable to the fact that electicity is viewed as being moe utilitaian and less of a status symbol. It may also be a esult of the fact that cas ae moe public while electicity is featued in the pivacy of one's own…… [Read More]
Warmer temperatures mean more energy in the climate system
1. Warmer oceans and air current mean more violent and frequent hurricanes
2. More frequent and harsher rainstorms may cause flooding
B. Overall changes to weather patterns could be devastating
1. Ocean and air temperatures and current create weather
2. Disrupting these temperatures/currents would lead to major weather changes in many regions of the world, destroying ecosystems
VII. Effects of Global Warming: Melting Ice and ising Oceans
A. In addition to warming, ocean levels will rise
1. Melting ice sheets will cause higher oceans and flooding on continents
2. ising oceans destroy many coastal lands
B. ising oceans and water levels will have severe regional effects on weather
VIII. Effects of global Warming: Animals
A. Many animals are already changing the regions they inhabit
1. As temperatures change, so do ecosystems, and shifting animal populations reflect this
2. Global warming trends…… [Read More]
Carbon emissions during recent decades have generated much controversy and some communities have taken harsh measures in order to combat effects associated with the process. The Australian Federal Government introduced a carbon tax of $23AUD per ton of emitted carbon dioxide on a series of fossil fuels in order to effectively deal with pollution. Finances gained from the process have been used to reduce income tax and provide Australian citizens with several benefits. hile the legislation has been welcomed by many local and international bodies, some have frowned upon it and have called for its repeal on account of how it produced much damage both on a small level by increasing cost of living and on a larger level by preventing businesses from being able to experience progress.
Tony Abbott's article "THE COALITION'S PLAN TO ABOLISH THE CARBON TAX" is among the most recognized criticisms regarding the carbon tax in…… [Read More]
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…… [Read More]
Carbon tax in the Australian legislation
The threat of global warming is no longer to be neglected and international action is coming to be taken, and even supported by federal institutions. In Australia, the government has focused on the development and implementation of a legislation to tax carbon emissions. The measure has been welcomed with both praises as well as criticism, but its implementation is underway and the benefits would be felt on the long-term.
Global warming has generically been a highly debated subjected, with activities on the one hand arguing that the threat is irreversible and that the safety of the planet is in great danger, whereas corporations arguing that global warming is a make belief phenomenon. ExxonMobil for instance invested millions of dollars each year in campaigns which denied the existence of global warming (Mandia, 2011).
This year however, global warming became a verified fact and it is…… [Read More]
In this author's opinion, a greater than ninety percent probability that humans are involved in global climate change, with the additional concern that irreversible detrimental consequences may result, is sufficient to warrant immediate action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. ithin the scientific field an absolute certainty that humans have fueled global warming will never be obtained, no matter how much time is provided for study. It is paramount that action, such as the Cap and Trade Policy, is taken immediately to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Failure to take these steps will only exacerbate the deleterious effects of global warming as time progresses.
Many opponents to implementation of emissions restrictions, such as that of the Cap and Trade Policy, have also suggested that alternative energy sources are not sufficiently advanced or effective to meet the energy demands currently provided by fossil fuels. Presently, alternative energies…… [Read More]
Figure 3. Central England Temperature
Note: Blue bars indicates changes in CET annual values during the period 1877 to 2006 relative to the average over the 1961-90 baseline period (about 9.5 "C). Error bars enclose the 95% confidence range and the red line highlights decadal variations.
Source: UK Climate Projections 2011 at http://ukclimateprojections.defra.gov.uk / content/view/751/500/
As shown in Figure 3 above, the Central England temperature (CET) has increased by approximately one degree Celsius since 1980; in fact, the year 2006 was the warmest on record (Central England temperature 2010). Some salient trends represented by these historic weather patterns include:
1. Following a period of relative long-term stability for most of the 20th century, CET has increased by about a degree Celsius since the 1980s. This is a more rapid rise than that of the global average land-surface temperature over the same period, and considerably faster than that of the global…… [Read More]
10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.
11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed
12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.
5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…… [Read More]
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
15,355…… [Read More]
AUSTALIA It's CABON TAX IN AUSTALIA
Australian Carbon Tax
The term that took the scientific world by storm in 1987 was "sustainable development," a terminology that redefined the perception on economic growth, human development and environmental conservation. Scientists, engineers, policy makers, and a practically all communities need to get involved in meeting human development needs. However, this brings on a series of problems related to sustainability, especially considering that the contemporary society is experiencing a process of regression when taking into account pollution. People presently need to come up with ingenious methods of improving society without damaging the environment. This pursuit for having economic growth without damaging the ecosystem has lead to the design of new means of creating energy, better lifestyle, change in the human behavior, overall a fresh and innovative attitude towards nature and life. But there are challenges to be faced, and most of them come from…… [Read More]
The former had been neglected. This was a very serious kind of neglect, she said. She concluded that unless the nitrogen problem was confronted and adequately contained, climate change would not be solved (ohan).
EPA established that exposure to indoor NO below the 53 ppb outdoor standard could lead to respiratory symptoms among children with asthma, especially in a multi-family setting (elanger 2006). This effect continues to be a public health issue because of the number of people exposed to the gas. According to the U.S. Census, more than half of all U.S. households use gas. Their primary source of residential NO is a gas-fueled cooking appliance. This was the summary finding of a study conducted with 1,002 participating families in Connecticut and southwestern Massachusetts from 1997 to 1999. It associated indoor NO with increased respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children. At present, there are no U.S. standards for indoor…… [Read More]
Australian Carbon Tax
The introduction of a carbon tax in Australia would have clear implications for economic and environmental sustainability. While in the long-term, the aim of such a tax seeks to promote environmental sustainability for Australia as a whole, in looking at the short-term, there appear clear implications for economic sustainability for a wide variety of businesses and households. One such area of business that seeks to be affected in both the short-term and the long-term in terms of the introduction of a carbon tax is the tourism and hospitality sector of the Australian economic market, which will likely take a major hit in terms of profitability and finance with the passing of the tax at hand.
Australian Carbon Tax
Australia's proposed carbon tax seeks to have many distinct implications for the long-term economic and environmental sustainability of the country as a whole. However, in looking at many…… [Read More]
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…… [Read More]
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…… [Read More]
Global Warming and Its Effects
For many years, people have been talking about how the weather has changed over the past ten years. In fact, you may have witnessed these changes first hand. The earth's climate has been continuously changing for millions of years. Currently, studies indicate that the Earth is undergoing global warming. The first time I ever heard about global warming was a television commercial. I remember that the commercial featured two children and an adult. In the commercial, the adult started to explain global warming, however his explanation was beyond the scope of the children's understanding. The little girl in the commercial was too confused by the explanation that then prompted the adult to flash-forward into the future to show the children the effects of the climatological concept he was talking about. While the trio are seen in a luscious park at the beginning of the commercial,…… [Read More]
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…… [Read More]
Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)
In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:
1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;
2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)
The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.
Change in yield (%)
Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)
There are…… [Read More]
Increased agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining also contribute a significant share of emissions. In 1997, the United States emitted about one-fifth of total global greenhouse gases.
Global average surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century. Of these, 1998 was the warmest year on record. Snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Globally, sea level has risen 4-8 inches over the past century. Worldwide precipitation over land has increased by about one percent. The frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased throughout much of the United States. Scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise 1-4.5°F (0.6-2.5°C) in the next fifty years, and 2.2-10°F (1.4-5.8°C) in the next century. Evaporation will increase as the climate warms, which will…… [Read More]
Nursing elated Case Study
Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.
Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.
Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…… [Read More]
This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.
7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…… [Read More]
Global warming occurs due to the rise in temperature. The trapping of light and heat from the sun causes this rising of temperature. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are the green house gases, these gases trap the light and heat from the sun, and as a result, the temperature rises. This global warming hurts a large number of people, plants and animals living in the earth. There are many reasons due to which global arming is increasing day by day. Human beings also cause global warming but many other things are also responsible for it (Maslin, 2006).
The main activity that human beings perform due to which global warming occurs is to flaming the fossil fuels. Whiled riving a car, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect. In addition to this, jet fuel in the airplane also contributes in releasing the carbon…… [Read More]
Hypoventilation and hyperventilation are respiratory conditions related to differential intakes of air. Hypoventilation refers to the inadequate (hypo) intake of air, causing decreased levels of oxygen and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the body. The necessary gas exchanges for maintaining equilibrium become upset. Hypoventilation is caused and characterized by shallow and/or excessively slow breathing. As a result of inadequate gas exchange, carbon dioxide cannot be properly removed and levels of CO2 in the blood become elevated, a condition called hypercapnia. When levels of CO2 in the blood change, the body's pH changes too. Hyperapnia causes the blood to become more acidic, a condition called espiratory Acidosis. A person who has lost control over his or her respiratory system may not be able to self-regulate by breathing deeper or faster (Agrawal, n.d.).
Hyperventilation is the opposite of hypoventilation. Too much (hyper) air is being taken in and cannot be…… [Read More]
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…… [Read More]
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…… [Read More]
Through research on the risks that come with uranium and coal for energy plants, there can be determination of which among the two is better for human sustainability.
Green house gases
Electricity plants that use coal for electricity production release large amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants that are harmful to the environment, bearing that coal is packed with high levels of hydrocarbons. Among these gases is sulfur dioxide that results in acid rain formation and consequent depletion of environment and even property that is reactive to sulfuric acid. Nitrogen oxides are also produced and together with VOCS result to smog formation. Mercury is also produced alongside Carbon dioxide which are direct contributors to negative climate change (Matthews, 2012).
On the other hand, in the nuclear power plants there is no production of gases such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide, mercury or such other toxic gases. If…… [Read More]
Global Warming Reduction
Global warming is caused by human activities of burning solid waste, wood, and fossil fuels, release of hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) from industrial processes, and deforestation (Rey, 2011). urning fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal puts greenhouses gases that affect the atmosphere. The industrial processes increase heat more than normal and when released into the air, it gets trapped into the atmosphere. And, deforestation allows carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere that also causes the global warming.
As the human population grows, so does the demand for housing that uses more trees, the number of vehicles that are operated that release more greenhouse gasses, and more demand for industrial processes that also release more gasses into the atmosphere and increase the demands that are needed to meet human needs. All these gasses going into the air and land…… [Read More]
Not everyone is of a like mind when it comes to the potential benefits of magnetic levitation technologies, though. While research into maglev train technologies has been underway in the United States since the mid-1960s following the passage of the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965, but much of the interest was limited to paper studies based on the perceived constraints involved in deploying maglev technologies (Uher, 1999). Based on the successes enjoyed by other countries, most notably Germany and China, maglev technologies for the nation's train system received some new support during the late 1990s. For example, Macdonald points out that, "In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, a $218 billion blueprint for America's transit systems, highways and bridges. It included $60 million from the Highway Trust Fund for the Magnetic Levitation Transportation Technology Deployment Program, and the possibility of…… [Read More]
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…… [Read More]
Climate change is also described as global warming, the unnatural or manmade cause of the planet’s increase in temperature. Climate change is physically caused by the release of greenhouse gases which get trapped in the atmosphere, in turn trapping heat from the sun on the planet (Meyer & Roser, 2006). Other pollutants can cause problems for the environment as well, such as toxins released into the water from chemical plants, or nuclear meltdowns that result in oceans being poisoned. These are also lumped in with climate change, since they also alter the environment. One of the biggest producers This paper will describe how climate change is occurring, how corporations are involved, and what some companies are doing to address it.
A Poore, Williams and Tracey (2000) note, sea levels are rising as a result of climate change. This occurs because the heat trapped on the planet by greenhouse gases leads…… [Read More]
Moreover, the mean temperature of the planet earth shall only change once there is an inequality between the rates of energy added and energy lost. What this implies is that any substance which can alter the rates of flow of energy may cause the warming of the earth or the cooling of the world.
As far as man-made global warming is concerned, the additional carbon dioxide in the air is known to decrease the rate as which planet earth cools to the exterior space. This readily happens in nature during the greenhouse effect of the atmospheric system. The greenhouse effect is a natural process in which water vapor, clouds, carbon dioxide and methane serve as a radiative blanket. Therefore, the lower atmosphere of the earth and the surface are lagged. Consequently, the earths mean surface temperature is escalated by approximately thirty three degrees celsius. Likewise, the globe's natural greenhouse effect…… [Read More]
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…… [Read More]
2. Scientists avoid using the terms "true" and "the truth" because they are too absolute. Science does not aim to give absolute knowledge. Instead, the scientific method relies on the senses and on experiments by creating hypotheses and testing them. Also, science is based on the five senses. The terms "true" and "truth" do not acknowledge the limitations of the five senses. Scientists understand that the body of knowledge created by science has changed over the years because of the development of better instruments to measure and gather data. The human senses might not change much, but the reliability of the senses change as instruments become more sophisticated. Scientists are constantly striving to improve the reliability of their observations and so can never claim to know the "truth." The five senses can point to what seems to be true, but scientists work with objectivity. Truth is a subjective issue, which…… [Read More]
It is therefore quite important to evaluate each experience on its own merits, as well as to how well each experience is integrated into the overall picture. An evaluation form has been developed for each participant as well as the parents of that participant. The evaluation form will be handed out at the end of each of the camps (whether the attendee stayed for a one-week or the full three-week course will be noted) for completion and return to the directors of the camp.
After the evaluation forms have been returned, the responses contained therein will be analyzed and broken down into categories pertaining to each camp experience and how it (they) were perceived by the campers. Follow-up questionnaires can be sent to each participant on a bi-yearly basis in order to gauge what type of long-term effects the camps continue to have on the participants.
The project is proposed…… [Read More]
This presents challenges because neither high-pressure compressed hydrogen gas nor cryogenic liquefied hydrogen can easily be handled at home." (Panasonic, p. 1)
This underscores the reality noted by this proposal and cast to further examination in the research justified by this proposal that any real implementation of an energy source transformation would be a considerable commercial, political, economic and practical endeavor.
All of that noted, it still remains that case that hydrogen has the potential to light the way for a better fuel economy, a more efficient society and a more pristine environment in Singapore. This is because at its root, hydrogen carries not just the potential for clean-burning but also for greater energy-storing capacity. According to the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) "hydrogen is the lightest gas and also the most energy-dense fuel per mass. One pound of hydrogen holds 52,000 Btu, three times the energy of…… [Read More]
Most of the motorcycle manufacturers want to convert their production towards eco-friendly technology powered by new wave of fuel alternates.
Swagster will capture the motorcycle market due to enhanced features including powerful engine, higher acceleration and the advanced technology of power-pack. With these added features, Swagster will promote the Hybrid motorcycle market to the next level of technology. Swagster will definitely wipe-off the recently launched oad Glide Ultra model of Harley-Davidson due to environment friendly feature. Additionally, the price of Harley-Davidson is $22,500 while the price of Swagster will be $15,000. This price difference with eco-friendly aspect will definitely attract most of the Harley-Davidson customers towards Swagster. The competitive set of Swagster also provides power pack technology and the first time improvement of color graphics. With the Swagster, the motorcycle will get the first and the foremost eco-friendly and environment friendly motorcycles around the world. (Proctor 2000)
In addition to…… [Read More]
Discuss the long-range effects of a stimulus plan as it affects the banking sector, on the one hand, and increases aggregate demand, on the other hand.
A stimulus plan by the federal government is designed to increase aggregate demand and boost economic production, lifting the nation out of a recession. By infusing money into the economy through public works projects and other government investments, newly hired workers have more income, and can thus contribute to the expansion of the economy as a whole through their spending. However, a long-range stimulus plan can occasionally make the banking sector nervous, because of fears of rising inflation. Inflation is feared by the banking sector because this reduces the value of their current holdings, and also means that current loans will yield a less profitable dividend, as prices increase and the purchasing power of the dollar goes down. Additionally, most stimulus plans couple…… [Read More]
In other industrialized countries, however, like Germany, Italy and Japan, the main concern of governments today is that not enough children are being born to even reach the level of the replacement rate. This is almost certainly a mistake since reduction of population should be the main goal in order to save the planet, and additional middle-class consumers in Western nations are the greatest burden on the environment.
Encouragement of voluntary euthanasia will be another method of reducing the excess population. Today many billions of dollars are spent on the last thirty days of life and 65% of physicians and nurses in one survey admitted that had provided unnecessary treatments for the terminally ill. That statistic was mentioned frequently in the debates over health care reform, with the implication that those dollars would be better spent on medical care for younger and healthier people at the start of their productive…… [Read More]
Climate Change -- Cause and Mitigation
There are several ways to look at climate change because there are natural causes and there are also human-influenced causes for the global climate to change. This paper defines anthropogenic climate change and it defines natural climate change and the historic record of the earth's changing climate over the millennia. This paper also provides strategies for mitigating global climate change and speculates as to the possible stabilization of climate change vis-a-vis the business and economic fields.
hat is Anthropogenic Climate Change?
The Merriam-ebster Dictionary defines anthropogenic as "…relating to, or resulting from, the influence of human beings on nature"; the first use of this team was in 1923.
Meanwhile, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research lists three ways in which the evidence points toward humans having influence over the rising temperatures on earth. The "…concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is rising," which is…… [Read More]
Socially Innovative and Socially Responsible Commerce: Examination of Carbon Tax in Australia
In a November 8th 2011 report in the Australian Times it is reported that as the final hurdle to carbon emission tax was cleared by the Federal Government of Australia, "Prime Minister Julia Gillard avoided saying the passage of the controversial impost would mark a turning point in Labor's fortunes." It is related that a new polled demonstrated "a modest uptick in its primary support." (Australian Times, 2011) The new tax is geared toward a reduction in carbon emissions in theory however; it is likely that the carbon tax is in reality more focused on government receipts in terms of its revenue. This issue will be examined through the lens of theorists Senge (2000) and the Dynamics of Systems, Jenkins (2008) and value and identities, and einhocker (2006) theories and global commerce.
Carbon Tax in Australia: An Overview…… [Read More]
Price is Right? (Adam Morton, 2012)
Adam Morton's work entitled "The Price Is Right?" published online the 'Environment' website examines whether Australia's carbon price is too high compared with other major countries in the world. Morton states that the idea that the carbon tax in Australia is too high began with an assumption among those in a political debate and then at some point 'became an assumed wisdom." (Morton, 2012)
Morton states that when one actually surveys the carbon market on an international and local basis that the idea of whether the carbon tax in Australia is really higher than in other major countries is not as clear. The original price of $23 per ton of carbon dioxide placed by the multiparty climate committee of Labor, Greens, and independent MPs was based in part on the European price which was at the time approximately $20 per ton of…… [Read More]
If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.
Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).
They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.
The advantage of swales is that…… [Read More]
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…… [Read More]
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…… [Read More]
The waste group contains 3 items:
AS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household aste and Non-recyclable aste
AS2 -- Building Location aste Management
AS3 -- Composting
Household Recycling facilities
here the following recycling
services are given:
• 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr
-- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people
here full recycling facilities
• 3 internal storage bins with -- min total capacity of 30 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller
than 7 ltr
-- all bins in a dedicated position that is accessible to disabled people
• a Local Authority collection scheme for recyclable materials covering at least three streams of waste with sufficient space for…… [Read More]
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…… [Read More]
How global warming induced natural resource shortages will cause violent conflict in the Middle East
Background on Climate Change
Implications for the Middle East
Global warming, or climate change, is no longer begging the question of when the effects of this phenomenon will begin to unfold; rather the changes in the climate are already being witnessed. There are many at risk populations all over the world. Many of these populations already are dealing with food and/or water shortages which will only become more problematic in the near future. Once resources become scarcer and exceed the carrying capacity of the local or regional population then this will introduce a new level of conflict that has the potential to easily become violent. There are few mitigation strategies that can help this point. Migration is always an option, but regional areas will be affected in similar ways. This analysis…… [Read More]
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…… [Read More]
Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.
Aims and Objectives
This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…… [Read More]
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…… [Read More]
Global warming is the trend with which temperatures across the globe are increasing beyond the range of normal fluctuations. The effects of global climate change are real and will result in serious consequences for the generations to come if nothing is done to solve this problem. The problem of global warming has mainly been caused by the emission of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere. These greenhouse gases that are being emitted into the Earth's atmosphere and result in global warming include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Some of the serious effects of the global warming problem include hotter and dry summers, increased flooding as well as lessened snowfall and soil moisture. This problem also results in serious consequences on the agricultural and tourism industries of many countries across the globe. Therefore, there is a need for rapid changes and actions that will help in the reduction of greenhouse…… [Read More]
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…… [Read More]
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.
The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…… [Read More]
iPad -- a Greener Option?
There is much debate on whether the iPad is a greener option than printed books. Where some believe that iPad is the greener option, some still believe print books are still the better option, especially when borrowed from a public library that spreads the carbon footprint over an entire community. Print books use 8.85 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions per book, but only when being produced. The iPad uses much less at production, but carbon dioxide emissions are spread over the lifecycle of the product and are not as easy to calculate due to how consumers use the device, electronic power sources, and the toxins involved in the materials used to produce the device.
Print book waste stems from large print overproduction in manufacturing, editorial error, and how consumers dispose of unwanted print books. Manufacturers print large quantities of books that may are not all…… [Read More]