Carl Rogers Essays Examples

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Roger's Theory of the Development of Personality

Words: 803 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82734154

Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development

In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious ( focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed ( therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced ( core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization ( to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept is socially determined" ( important influences are conditional positive regard, conditions of worth, incongruence, unconditional positive regard, and congruence (

Alfred F. Carlozzi and Kay S. Ells Bull hypothesized in a 1995 study that empathy is positively related to creativity and expressiveness and inversely related to dogmatism (Carlozzi, Bull 1995).…… [Read More]

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Rogers Saw All People as Unique and

Words: 1368 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60922086

Rogers saw all people as unique and basically good individuals. Everyone is trying to be the best for the society as a whole. It was only when they were unhealthy or mentally ill that these people did terrible things, such as criminal acts. Rogers thus assumed that all mentally healthy human beings, like all living beings, are motivated to develop and to put their efforts toward optimal health. This mandates that people have to be strong and resilient when confronted with challenges. Yet, Rogers admitted, such a resiliency typically develops from the nurturance of others. Thus, if someone is mentally ill, it is more than important to treat this person with kindness. This will help the person get better.

Therapists, therefore, need to value their clients in a positive manner, regardless of their behaviors, or what is called self-actualization. This self-actualization is strengthened by three important factors: Empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. If all people have the same goals, then one needs to look at others just as they would at themselves. The therapists need to understand, or feel a sensitive empathy, for each of their clients' feelings. It is only with a deep understanding of others that one…… [Read More]

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Psychology -- Erikson and Rogers Chaim Is

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Psychology -- Erikson and Rogers

Chaim is a Hasidic Jew who hung out in the underground scene and became a very creative underground rock star. However, Chaim was internally conflicted: the underground lifestyle was the polar opposite of his Hasidic lifestyle and he tried to live Hasidic-by-day and underground rock-star-by-night. Chaim left it to God to determine whether he would get a Hasidic wife or a record contract first. Eventually, he chose a Hasidic married lifestyle, moved upstate and would not touch the underground lifestyle again because he cannot have it and would lose everything by trying to get it back. An Ego Psychologist like Erik Erikson and a Humanist Psychologist like Carl Rogers would view Chaim's dilemma differently.


Erik Erikson believed that a person's life has 8 stages and develops by the interplay of the body, mind and culture influences. Erikson would believe that Chaim was in Stage 5, "Identity vs. Role Confusion," which is "normally" from the ages of 13 to 18 years. Also, Erikson would believe that Chaim was successful in Stage 5. Stage 5 is a time of adolescence when a child is becoming more independent and starts to focus on relationships, careers, sexual roles…… [Read More]

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Beyond the Contributions of Sigmund

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93836076

Traveling worldwide, Rogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.

Carl Rogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While Rogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).

Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation requirements Jung published his doctoral dissertation which was entitled, "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena. "

During his career Jung enjoyed a long friendship and professional relationship with Sigmund Freud. Jung's relationship with Freud influenced greatly Jung's psychological theories and precipitated his interest in the subconscious mind.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Jung, C.G. (1968). Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell.

Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). Life and Work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
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Theoretical Orientation My Personal Orientation Lies in

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Theoretical Orientation

My personal orientation lies in Gestalt (Fritz Perls), Person Centered (Carl Rogers) and Reality Therapy (William Glasser) psychotherapy.

What do you see as the time frame of counseling? Are you more oriented to the past, present, or future?

I am oriented to present; however, I believe that many problems can come from the past. Therefore, the past must be discussed at some point.

To take this a step further, do you believe counseling is intended to work on current issues and feelings or to help people with issues and feelings from the past? Or, do you believe that people need to focus on their future feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

I believe people should focus on their current issues first. However, every individual are different. Therefore, therapy should be aim at individuals' need.


What is your view of people? Do you believe people are essentially good, bad, or neutral? I believe people can be essentially good

Do you believe clients are good people with issues to work out? Generally yes.

Conversely, are your clients bad people with an inherent defect that requires counseling? Are people somewhere in between, such as good people that do bad things?

Clients are…… [Read More]

Cortright, B. (2006, January 1). Psychosynthesis: A psychology of the spirit. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 38(1), 128-132.

Flagg, A. (2004, April). Dreams, nightmares, and nonviolence. ETC: A Review of General
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Non-Directive Communication Theories of Communication

Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38946940

The Rogerian Model

This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).

Motivational Interview

This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling imbalances (Lussier 2007). It is also perceived as a patient-focused approach, as Rogers intended, wherein the patient's perspective, interests, values and concerns are central. It is directive as opposed to Rogers' nondirective approach. As a method of communication, it is designed to enhance the natural change of a patient's motivation.…… [Read More]

Wagner, K. 2011, 'Theories of communication in counseling,' eHow [Online]

Available at

Zimring, F 1999, 'Carl Rogers,' Prospects [Online] Available at
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Frank Seems Like an Ideal

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16195102

Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process.

Q2: Integrationist point-of-view

No single personality theory can heal all individuals: every person presents the therapist with unique challenges. Some patients, for example, with personality disorders such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or schizoid personality disorder may benefit from having clear, concrete behavioral goals that they must perform, to help wean them from ineffective coping mechanisms (such as self-injury, obsessive rituals, or isolation). More searching types of 'talk' therapy alone may encourage patients to stall rather than to actively change their life in proactive ways and will not address some of the root, habitual causes of the patient's behavior.

Other patients who feel unfulfilled but have a more structured and healthy lifestyle might benefit from more exploratory types of therapy, including Rogers' self-actualization therapy. This therapy empowers the client through intense questioning, and requires the client to have a certain level of willingness, self-knowledge and stability to be effective. An integrationist will find an ideal balance between the types of approaches offered, as even someone with OCD might benefit from some discussion…… [Read More]

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Psychological Study of Personality Psychoanalytic

Words: 1813 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60715447

Bandura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, Bandura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. Bandura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).

From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.

The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person. The cognitive perspective, on the other hand, stresses the role of external environment, not internal traits, as the primary factor in influencing the personality development of an individual. The psychoanalytic tradition, meanwhile, centers on the personal history of the individual transgressing beyond the internal traits or external environment of a…… [Read More]

Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.

Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Psychological Theories It Uses 3 Sources and

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36035897

psychological theories. It uses 3 sources and is in MLA format.

Psychologists have researched personality disorders and have formulated different theories presenting their own reasoning established via comprehensive research over a lifetime. I have attempted to draw similarities and contrasts between the psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud and social cognition theory of Carl Rogers. They are both known figures in the field of psychoanalysis. Both the theories are logical and applicable in varied circumstances.

Personality disorders stem from the fact that personal satisfaction is not achieved due to the societal norms that humans have entrapped themselves in. Dissatisfaction creates conflicts and thus anxieties occur which cause personality disorders.


Sigmund Freud was a one of the most eminent psychologists of all times. Freud is termed as the father of psychoanalysis. His theory of psychoanalysis entails the conscious and the unconscious. The conscious is what we are aware of like one's present perceptions, memories, thoughts, feelings etc. The unconscious is the memory that can be easily recalled. However, these entail the smaller part of the mind, the larger part consists of the unconscious, which includes all the things that are not easily available to the conscious mind. These include our drives…… [Read More]

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Leader as Coach to Remain

Words: 3679 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25130575

For Ann to succeed as a leader in her department and proceed in her ascend to more demanding roles within the hospital, there is an existing need for her to understand herself and how her peers view her. In so doing, she will be better placed to get their support by modifying her behavior.

Yet another leadership complexity for Ann has to do with her visibility given her senior position as the head of the Nutrition and Dietetics Department. Traditionally, being promoted to head a department within the hospital has been seen as some sort of grooming for a bigger management role. In that regard, Ann needs to clearly distinguish between goals that could derail her and those that could pave her way to success. Further, it can also be noted that if indeed she is promoted to a more senior and demanding role, Ann would be required to develop the necessary skills required to enhance her communication with people from different backgrounds. This is more so the case given that Ann had not had the opportunity to interact with people from diverse cultures as a result of having grown in a predominantly white neighborhood. However, as Ann's supervisor, I…… [Read More]

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Psychology Is a Multifaceted Field

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Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer.

Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.

Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Newman, I., & Benz, C.R. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative Research Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of Rogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. Retrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database,… [Read More]


Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer.
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Axia College Material TV Character

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15734838

The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality. Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described. In today's world, Jungian types (with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging) are used much more often than Freudian models.

Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality. Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency. Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two ideals are, the more full functioning that person is, and the more independent and happy their personality will appear. The reverse is also true; if someone's self-concept is very far from their potential, they may become withdrawn, harsh, and bitter. These people also by definition submit to the desires of…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Psychology Comparison of Freud

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77576905

However, just like Maslow, Rogers is just as interested in describing the healthy person. Positive regard is self-esteem, self-worth, and a positive self-image which are achieved through experiencing the positive regard that others show us over our years of growing up; without this, we feel small and helpless. Under Roger's theory, this "small" and "helplessness" is exactly what John is feeling, most likely as a result of the manner in which he was treated growing up. He is feeling anxious and lacks self-discipline because he does not like himself personally, as he feels that he does not meet up to the standards set for him by others. Under Roger's theory, John's actions demonstrate that he does not have a positive image of himself, a result of low self-esteem inflicted on him over the years of receiving negative feedback while he was growing up.

Freud's theory is also a clinical theory, although it is much more complex than either Maslow's or Roger's theories. According to Freud, the unconscious is the source of our motivations, whether they be simple desires for food or sex, neurotic compulsions, or the motives of an artist or scientist. And yet, we are often driven to deny…… [Read More]

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Person-Centered Counseling Case Study This

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23387315

Those discussions eventually allowed the client to realize that, for her part, she would not necessarily have worried very much about marital status had the same situation occurred after she had lost her parents, or in the alternative, if her parents had never expressed such acute concern about it.

During that discussion, the therapist was careful to steer the client away from the conclusion that she caused Carlos to start taking drugs and to deal with the problem in the relationship by withdrawing entirely. On the other hand, the therapist assisted the client to understand that marriage "by ultimatum" is never conducive to happiness and that continual arguments in that regard often result in the breakup of a relationship or in the progression of a relationship to marriage despite the fact that at least one partner does not genuinely desire to be married or to be married yet. The outcome of that series of discussions was that the client came to understand that: (1) it is inappropriate for parents to control the lives or decisions of adult children by implying or by actually threatening to withdraw their emotional support and love; (2) the anxiety the client experienced as the result…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Cepeda, L.M. And Davenport, D.S. "Person-centered therapy and solution-focused brief therapy: An integration of present and future awareness. Psychotherapy: Theory,

Research, Practice, Training, Vol. 43, No. 1 (2006): 1-12.
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Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study Behavior

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28253040

Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study

behavior and mental processes.

behavioral disorders.

unconscious mental processes.

the meaning of dreams.

Cognitive psychology can best be described as

the study of higher mental processes.

the therapeutic applications of critical thinking.

the area of psychology which attempts to reduce judgmental thinking.

a subspecialty of psychology based exclusively on observation rather than experimentation.

Who was a leading proponent of behaviorism in the United States until his/her death in 1990?

Carl Rogers


Ivan Pavlov

Albert Bandura

Charles Darwin argued that ____ determines physical traits of survival.

A. cognition

B. genetics

C. environment

D. nurture

5. With what psychological approach is Sigmund Freud associated?

A. psychodynamic

B. humanistic

C. cognitive

D. sociocultural

6. Which of the following best describes a correlational study?

A. research that studies the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables

B. research that explains the effects of one variable on another

C. research in which people are observed in their natural environment

D. research in which a carefully selected group of people is asked a predetermined group of questions

7. A researcher predicted that talking to plants enhances their growth. She gave 24 plants the same amount of food, water,…… [Read More]

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Self the Concept of Self

Words: 3256 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26574282

The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.

Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The word "sensing" is used to indicate the apperceptive nature of the relationship between ego and self. In this connection nothing is knowable, since nothing can be said about the contents of the self. The ego is the only content of the self that is known by people. The individuated ego…… [Read More]

Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:

Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian
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Counselor Roles and Relationships

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Empathy Today

Empathy is increasingly viewed as more that an essential aspect of effective person-centered counseling. It is arguably the key humanizing aspect of the effective type of relationship through which a true and honest exchange of understanding can take place to facilitate healing or psychological improvement (Hakansson, 2003).

Carl Rogers, one of the recognized founders of this conceptualization, attached an increasing significance to this reality as he reconsidered the issue of the role of empathy over the course of his professional life. Initially, in his earlier writings (1959), he focused on the "state" of meaning wherein a therapist could "perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy" as if he or she were in alignment with what it was that the client experienced. Not losing this "as if" condition would allow the therapist to stay honest and genuine while still being objective and nonjudgmental about the conditions that the client perceived as his or her reality (Hakansson, 2003).

In his later years (post 1975), he would reconnect with his original conceptualization and try to clarify what experience has taught him. It would be at this point where he would seek to change his original definition of the…… [Read More]

Rogers, C. (1975) "Empathic -- an Unappreciated Way of Being." The Counseling Psychologist 5, no. 2 (1975): 2-10. Also viewable at

Stebnicki, M. (n.d.). Empathy fatigue in the counseling profession. Viewable at

Stueber, K. (2008). Empathy, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Viewable at
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Personality Development

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99876368

human personality is a complex process that has been tackled by a number of great psychologists, each with important contributions. Each theory outlined below offers something new to the study of personality, and as such, I feel that any "ultimate" theory of personality must try to incorporate the best parts of each theory.

Gordon Allport, along with Maslow and Rogers was one of the early humanists. He argued that the proprium, or sense of self was made up of seven different components that include sense of body, self-image, self-esteem, and rational coping. Carl Rogers was a humanistic theorist who felt that people have a basic "actualizing tendency" that drives all of their behaviors and thoughts. The personality, or "self" in Roger's terms is created by the sum of a person's conscious and unconscious experiences. Abraham Maslow's famed hierarchy of needs, in which he argues that all humans move toward self-actualization, has become one of the most important concepts in humanistic psychology today. Rollo May was an existential psychologist who felt that human personality was essentially self-determined.

Behaviorist psychology has been largely influential in the past decades. B.F. Skinner is one of the founders of the behaviorist approach, who based his…… [Read More]

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Client Centered Theory John S

Words: 2492 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11258539

But did she mean well sometimes? Or is she always so rude towards you?

Analysis: This example illustrates a long process in a short amount of space, but it helps to point out some aspects of Roger's theory. According to Rogers, such dialogue can be observed with nearly every client as generalizations are broken down to acute experiences (Rogers, 1951). Such breakthroughs in the origins of the problem rely on a patient's freedom to fully express the self while the therapist provides guidance and acceptance (Rogers, 1951). The therapist guides the client as the client comes to understand the reasons for his or her thoughts.

Example 3:

Client: I feel like I can't talk to you, that you have judged me guilty. This feeling sticks with me, I don't know what to do, but I don't like you.

Therapist: So you think I have put you up for trial and judged guilty?

Client: Yes, I can't tell you anything because you don't have any respect for me.

Therapist: Is it me that has no respect for you?

Client: Well maybe I have no respect for myself, or my actions, and I feel I have to be disrespected by you somehow.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bozarth, Jared D., & Brodley, Barbara Temaner. (1991). Actualization: A Functional Concept in Client-Centered Therapy. Handbook of Self-Actualization, Vol. 6, 45-60.

Bugental, J.F.T. (1964). The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 19-25.
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Comparison of Humanistic Theory With Other Similar Theories

Words: 2182 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1658723

Humanistic Theory and Its Position Among Other Counseling Theories

Humanistic Theory

The obvious limitations associated with the Psychodynamic theories led to the adoption of the humanistic approach as a response to these limitations, especially in Psychoanalysis. People like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers felt that the psychodynamic theories that were still in existence were unable to address certain important issues such as the nature of healthy growth and the meaning of behavior adequately. Nevertheless, the outcome was not just a new variation in the theory of psychodynamic, but rather, a new approach.

The Founders of the Accepted Theories

Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers wasn't just one of the several theorists who founded the Humanistic Approach, but possibly the most important therapist that lived in the 20th century. Several surveys, which include a number of surveys carried out after the death of Carl Rogers, discovered that several other therapists named Rogers as one of the most powerful therapists that influenced their way of thinking as well as their clinical practice more than any other human that has ever lived, including the famous Sigmund Freud. To have a good understanding of this, you must first understand something about Rogers as a person, and…… [Read More]

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Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Client Centered Therapy

Words: 2861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88201580

personality and psychotherapy theories, namely, client-centered therapy (CCT) and cognitive therapy. The first section of the paper takes up CCT (or Rogerian therapy), giving a brief overview of the theory's key points, including its founder and the views of the founder. Sub-sections under this section explore, in brief, the areas of personality structure under the theory, theory architecture, and an approach to intervention using the theory (or in other words, how the client is dealt with using the CCT model).

The second section of the paper follows a similar exploration of the theory of cognitive therapy (CT), developed by A.T. Beck. Sub-sections follow similar lines, concisely dealing withpersonality structure under CT, architecture of the theory, as well as interventions for helping out clients under this model, supported by literature in the field.

Finally, the paper takes up a comparative discussion, in the last section, highlighting the key elements that are similar to both theories, as well as elements of contrast between the two theories. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in practice are also covered under this comparative section.

1. Client-Centered Therapy (CCT)

Rogerian or client-centered psychotherapy was formulated during the 1940s-50s by American psychologist, Carl Rogers. This kind…… [Read More]

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Psychologists Who Influenced Me the

Words: 2326 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17244275

There were many rumors of an affair with Fromm during the period she was developing her theories on neurosis. "Horney is best known for her theory of neurosis, which she saw as much more continuous with normal life than previous theorists. Specifically, she saw neurosis as an attempt to make life bearable, as a way of "interpersonal control and coping." It might be argued that this is what we all try to do on a continuous basis, though only some of us are successful, whereas the neurotic are not." (Quinn, 2005)

She created the patterns of Neurotic Needs becauee she had a "... another way of looking at neurosis -- in terms of self-image. For Horney, the self is the core of your being, your potential. If you were healthy, you would have an accurate conception of who you are, and you would then be free to realize that potential (self-realization)." (Quinn, 2005) These entailed:

The neurotic need for affection and approval, the indiscriminate need to please others and be liked by them the neurotic need for a partner, for someone who will take over one's life. This includes the idea that love will solve all of one's problems. Again,…… [Read More]

Bumb, Jenn. (n.d.). Dorothea Dix. Retrieved on May 6, 2005, at

DITTMANN, M. (2002). 99 of the 100 most eminent psycholgists of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology, Vol. 6, No. 2,. Retrieved May 6, 2005, from MOnitor on Pschology Web Site:
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Psychopathology Understanding of Psychopathology Psychopathology Has Had

Words: 2785 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7904372


Understanding of psychopathology

Psychopathology has had differentiated opinions from variant psychologists. Warner's opinion of relabeling people's process and Prouty's therapy that offers a mentally unwell person are both discussed in depth for better understanding. Also, the effects of language barrier to collaborating psychologists and psychiatrists in dealing with person-centered therapies have been reviewed in this article. Communication enhancement is fundamental for the relaying of information between the different medical practitioners is what will help in the scientific research on matters dealing with brain functionality, and the enhancement of methods to counter the dysfunctional elements in human ability. This paper aims at examining closely the person-centered approach, and its efficiency in dealing with the brain disorders and other physical impairments.

Psychopathology is a study that deals with behaviors, human feelings and thoughts that either causes depression or anxiety (distress), forces one to indulge in dangerous activities, which can be against the individual or others, the individual can be rebellious, and work in mannerisms that are incoherent with the expected. Psychopathology also involves the study of dysfunctional traits of individuals, who have hard time in functioning, in real life situations; a combination of all these aspects is also possible. In the…… [Read More]

Allan, H.F., 2000. Where Have All The Abnormal People Gone? Humanist Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 2, p. 29.

Eldin, G. And Golanty, E., 2009. Health and Wellness. New York: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
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Comparison of Theories

Words: 1984 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66317121


It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered with the Viennese physician Josef Breuer who practiced a revolutionary "talking cure" to reduce patients' symptoms by talking with them about how they felt as well as using hypnosis to remove emotional barriers to their feelings. He eventually abandoned the use of hypnosis in favor of a process he termed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Barry, P. (2002). Mental health and mental illness. (7th ed.) New York: Lippincott.

Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G., & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of personality. New York: John
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Interpersonal Paradigms in the Emergency Department

Words: 3208 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23138996

Range Nursing Theories

As a profession, nursing presents many challenges. Indeed, it is one of the most stress inducing jobs in the world, not only in terms of the physical toll and long hours, but also because of the emotionally exhausting nature of the work. For this reason, personnel turnover tends to be high and there is a general shortage of nursing personnel at hospitals. Because of the vital nature of the profession to the healthcare field and to humanity in general, many researchers have addressed the problem of high personnel turnover in the nursing profession, as well as factors like leadership, work efficiency and interpersonal relationships.

Of all the work environments within the nursing profession, the Emergency Room is probably the most stressful, which also leads to high personnel turnover. One approach towards a resolution is to find ways of enhancing nursing staff satisfaction. Increased satisfaction at work would lead to greater commitment and a lower tendency to leave the workplace for greener pastures. As such, two middle range theories will be evaluated for their applicability to the quest of improving nursing staff satisfaction in the emergency department.

Description of Clinical Practice Problem

Burn-out is one of the most…… [Read More]

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Learning Process Through Several Adult

Words: 2117 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92705101

e. The adult learners are always encouraged to understand why they need to study or learn a certain aspect, what can be its various potential categories and how it can be applied with minor adjustments in different scenarios. Furthermore, the andragogic learning processes encourage that the adult learner is an independent and self-dependent thinker and is able to draw in the previous experiences whenever required. Andragogic learning also encourages the understanding of the importance of using both the human and material assets in an experience. Andragogic learning encourages the learner to invest his knowledge and abilities around his personal experiences and personal growth.

Hence, the andragogic learning model is mainly built around the self-direction of an individual but allows the individual to use a certain set of rules within a specific environment to put his self-directed learning to test in order to sharpen it under strict and proper guidance.

Transformative Adult learning:

Transformative learning is mainly built around the teaching of a fact or expansion of knowledge through the use of an incident, important or insignificant, in an individual's life. Transformative learning uses the incident and encourages the adult learner to look for alternatives to the activities or decisions that…… [Read More]

Knowles, M.S. (1975) Self-Directed Learning. A guide for learners and teachers, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall/Cambridge.

Knowles, M.S. et al. (1998) the Adult Learner, Butterworth-Heinemann
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings

An Abstract of a Dissertation

This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any other even faintly scientific endeavor. Its original purpose was not even to cure mental affliction.

Working hard behind this scene is the psychiatrist, dispensing everything from his pernicious "insanity defense" in the courts -- thereby helping dangerous criminals escape justice -- to his mind-numbing drugs within the prisons. Of course, with high rates of inmate illiteracy and drug abuse, it is reasonable to assume that…… [Read More]

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Teacher Observation Adolescence Is a Tumultuous Period

Words: 2081 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45396733

Teacher Observation

Adolescence is a tumultuous period characterized by significant physiological, social, psychological and cognitive changes that often cause considerable stress and anxiety, as the youth faces numerous demands from family, school and peers and fights negative ways to respond to these demands, such as truancy, drug abuse and isolation (Steinberg & Sheffield, 2001). Transitioning to high school requires the teens to communicate with a new and larger peer group and handle greater academic expectations. Counsellors clearly recognize that healthy relationships are the essence of mental, emotional, and psychological health. Many of the crises teens confront today are related to relationships -- with parents, teachers, siblings, and friends. Problems such as loneliness, low self-esteem, peer-pressure, rebellion, homosexuality, and underachievement have their foundation in unhealthy or broken relationships that can occur anytime during a youth's lifetime.

Increased stress occurs for adolescents across the board: Students who are in enrolled in rigorous academic programs, such as the International Baccalaureate (IB) High School Diploma Program, have greater stress compared to those in general education programs (Suldo, Shaunessy, & Hardesty, 2008). On the other hand, lower socioeconomic status (SES) is also associated with more stress and worse adolescent health. Given the pace of life…… [Read More]

Rogers, Carl (1980). A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Skinner, B.F. (1971). Beyond Freedom and Dignity. New York: Knopf.
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Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet Abraham

Words: 462 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72938416

Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet

Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.

According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.

The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.

The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.

Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.

Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.

Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.

May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.

10. The basic concepts of existential theory are freedom and responsibility.


Match the following theoretical components with their correct theorist or theorists.

Theoretical component


1. Unconditional positive regard

B. Carl Rogers

2. Eros

C. Rollo May

3. Love and belongingness needs

A. Abraham Maslow

4. The self-concept

B. Rogers

5. Guilt

C.…… [Read More]

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Christian Counseling Model Comparison

Words: 1951 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58929125

Crabb's Biblical Model Of Counseling Comparison And Discussion

Goal of Christian Counseling

The goal of Christian Counseling differs from private practice counseling in many regards. For example, a Christian community offers a counselor a unique set of resources, often comprised of loving and caring individuals for are members of the local congregation. In private practice the resources that a counselor may have to work with can be comparatively limited by contrast. Furthermore, each Christian is called to help others based on their faith. A private practice counselor can be motivated by a plethora of reasons -- some of them are surly genuine and altruistic however others may be for monetary gain or similar ambitions. Thus, the resources that are available and the motivations behind entering counseling represent two initial and fundamental differences.

Another difference is that the fundamentals of the counseling practices might be starkly different. Many Christian counselors believe strongly in the Bible as a source of guidance for all counseling methods. However, many also are incorporating all the modern benefits of academia and research into their practices.

"Although the Scriptures provide the only authoritative information on counseling, psychology and specialized discipline of psychotherapy offer some valid insights about…… [Read More]

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Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet Abraham

Words: 318 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45544846

Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet

Abraham Maslow proposed the _humanistic__ theory of personality.

According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of _self-actualization____ needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that _lower____ needs must be satisfied before ____higher____ needs will become motivators for behavior.

The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is formative tendency.

The _actualizing tendency, according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.

Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered _shattered self-concept__.

7. Rogers believed that ____empathy____, ____unconditional positive regard____, and ____congruence____ are necessary elements of psychotherapy.

8. ____Intentionality____ is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.

9. May proposed that __self-awareness____ is the freedom of action, whereas _essential freedom____ is the freedom of being.

10. The basic concepts of existential theory are ____freedom____ and ____responsibility

Theoretical component…… [Read More]

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Applying Servant Leadership Within a

Words: 30193 Length: 100 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1967978

Initially, I had to point out when people were saying things that would indicate a connection between group members. However, once those connections were established, the group members moved rather rapidly towards directly relating with one another.

Another result of the group meetings is that the group members initially appeared very focused on the past. Small groups tend to do postmortems of old failures, archaeologizing (digging in the past for explanations of present behavior), and pathologizing (focusing more on problems than potentials). It was important for group members to discuss the past, but, what was interesting was that the other members of the group did a good job of reminding each other that the past is in the past. However, while finding it easy to state that the past was in the past, it was oftentimes difficult for group members to take the next step and begin discussion of the present and future.

The development of confrontation skills over the life of the group was another very interesting area. Initially, most group members were absolutely unwilling to confront one another. Even when someone was engaging in behavior that seemed clearly self-destructive to most members of the group, few people were…… [Read More]

Aarvik, Egil. 1984. Presentation speech of 1984 Nobel Prize for Peace. Stockholm: The Nobel Foundation. Online. Available from Internet,, accessed 11 March 2010.

Adair, John. 1984. The skills of leadership. New York: Nichols Pub. Co.
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Psychology the Text Discusses Several

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75926438

Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. Rogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).

Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been met first (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).

I have learned that the humanistic theory is what helps to explain how people develop their own personalities and what makes them tick. Each person is seen as an individual that has their own potentials to meet in life. The way that each of us…… [Read More]

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,

from Colorado State Web site:
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Analyzing Yalom's if Rape Were Legal

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37312645

Yalom Analysis

The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to the world: 1) everyone has a heart and should be treated with respect and kindness; and, 2) I am not my shoes -- or one's work, clothing, and outward appearance are only partially indicative of our psychological makeup (Yalom, pp. 73-92). Using four systems of psychotherapy, we will use Carlos'…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.

Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper

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The Humanistic Theory and Relationship to Learning

Words: 1564 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63696321

Elucidating Abraham Maslow and His Theory

Learning theories influence today's instructional systems. Emerging studies point towards a dearth of efficiency in the educational systems. Apparently, humanistic psychology is a third force in most fields among them educational psychology (Gonzalez-DeHass & Willems, 2013). However, while the root of most pioneer and most recent approaches in education is humanistic psychology, there is a lack of a comprehensive humanistic learning theory. Therefore, numerous theorists have tried to explain how people learn, for instance, constructivists, humanists, cognitivists, and behavioralists. The following study focuses on Maslow's concept of humanism learning theory which holds that learning is intrinsic and its goal is to generate some aspect of self-actualization.

Humanistic learning theory is a concept popularized by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, which highlights the human capacity for growth and choice (Poetter et al. 2004). Here, the basic assumption is that human beings possess free will and cannot be fated to behave as zombies or in specific ways blindly reacting to the environment. This theory posits that the psychology or the object matter is the subjective human experience of the world (how we experience things) and why we experience these things. The humanistic perspective looks at human…… [Read More]

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Sigmund Freud's Theories

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17587217

The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.

Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.

Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief that you can succeed despite past failures. Criticisms for this theory include that it ignores the unconscious and emotional aspects of personality.

Biological Theory- believes that the brain and chemical activity contribute to a person's personality. Genetics studies particularly with twins and adopted children have shown that genetics have a…… [Read More]

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Experimental Understanding and Enganging Patient S Inelligence

Words: 3073 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75375065

self-therapy in the context of what needs to be done to elevate the healing process in life. The therapy that is often used to treat is that which people rely on to practice self-treatment. In this paper, Art Bohart's talk on self-healing is will be used to manifest what is best-used means of conducting self-therapy. In this paper, the general supportive treatment of stress and other psychological ailments will be covered. The aim is to reach out to the diverse sections of the therapy and how it may be of use to the people. The paper also discusses the relevance of this program in the treatment of emotional challenges that people face. Finally, the paper will discuss whether the lessons learned from Art Bohart's talk can be integrated into real life. The focus extends to include the texistential-humanistic therapeutic interventions and the benefits associated with their use on patients.

Part I


Therapy can be administered to self by a client patient. The move is best sponsored by the undying ability of those within the boundary of treatment always to check into self and learn how to offer what best suits their body. Self-therapy, as discusses by Art Bohart in…… [Read More]

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Therapeutic Relationship Core Conditions of

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67832678

The therapist does not attempt to change, control, or influence the client in any way (Tursi & Cochran, 2006).

A positive therapist-client relationship has been positively correlated to achievement of treatment outcomes (Cramer, 1990). A client who perceives their therapist as exhibiting unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy is more likely to regard the experience as positive and to be motivated to make change (Cramer, 1990). The fact that the therapist does not attempt to influence the client allows the client to learn to change their thought patterns and behaviors in a manner that is conducive to their needs and current situation (Tursi & Cochram, 2006). Clients are in charge of the therapeutic intervention and determine the direction that they want therapy to take. The core conditions make this possible by assisting clients in recognizing what issues they would like to focus on and making them feel comfortable enough to be successful in doing so (Tursi & Cochran, 2006).

In this approach the therapist does not take the stance that they know better than the client rather the client is viewed as the expert in the therapeutic process. This is particularly helpful to the client in that it allows them…… [Read More]

Cramer, D. (1990). Towards assessing the therapeutic value of Roger's core conditions.

Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 3(1), 57-61.
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Humanism Versus Existentialism Modern Psychological Theories

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86346949

Humanistic and Exestential Therapyies

Humanistic Existential Theories

Strengths and limitations of humanistic and existential theories

Over the course of the 1950s and 1960s, there was an increasing emphasis on new theories of the human personality and on ways of treating psychological disorders that offered alternatives to conventional psychodynamic, Freudian theory and the deterministic behaviorism of Skinner. Both humanistic and existential theories offered an alternative perspective. "They are united by an emphasis on understanding human experience and a focus on the client rather than the symptom. Psychological problems (including substance abuse disorders) are viewed as the result of inhibited ability to make authentic, meaningful, and self-directed choices about how to live" (Brief interventions, 1999). In humanistic and existentialist thought, there is a unity of philosophical speculation about how to enable the client to live a meaningful life.

Humanistic theories of psychology stress the fundamentally 'good' nature of all human beings. All human beings strive for a state of conscious self-actualization although sometimes this quest may be thwarted. It is the therapist's job to support this innate impulse. Developed in response to the very negative view of the human character espoused by psychodynamic and behaviorist theories, the founder of humanistic theory Carl…… [Read More]

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Person-Centered Theory & Cognitive-Behavioral Theory

Words: 1357 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81006346

A commitment to open-mindedness and humility in respect to theory and practice." (Brodley, 1986)


The work entitled: "An introduction to Cognitive Therapy & Cognitive Behavioral Approaches" states that: "The central insight of cognitive therapy as originally formulated over three decades ago is that thoughts mediate between stimuli, such as external events, and emotions." (Counselling Resource, nd) it is suggested within this theory that "psychological distress is caused by distorted thoughts about stimuli giving rise to distressed emotions." (Counselling Resource, nd) in part, the task of cognitive therapy is "to understand how the three main components of emotions, behaviors and thoughts interrelate, and how they may be influence by external stimuli - including events which may have occurred in the client's life." (Counselling Resource, nd) Cognitive behavioral therapy is characterized by the therapist being highly aware of the role that the behavior of the client plays in the client's life. The aim of cognitive therapy is assisting the client in gaining an understanding and awareness of distortions of thought, which are resulting in the psychological distress experienced by the client. This type of therapy is best used for individuals who are "comfortable with introspection, who readily adopt…… [Read More]

Person-Centered Therapy (nd) Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Online available at

An Introduction to Cognitive Therapy & Cognitive Behavioral Approaches (nd) Underlying Theory of Cognitive Therapy. Counselling Resource Online available at
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Sales Organization Evaluates Its Sales Team The

Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97007709

sales organization evaluates its sales team. The organization I am using is Carton Bros. Ireland it is a poultry distribution company. The question in more specific terms is intention to discover what are the different methods of performance appraisals this organization uses in order to evaluate how their sales team are performing?'

About the company

Carton Brothers is the name of the company that produce Manor Farm chicken. It dates back to 1775, when it was started in the Dublin market. It soon grew substantially as a company and gradually became one of the largest traders in the country diversifying and, in fact, one part of it becoming involved in the import, blending and selling of tea. The company also sold may other commodities such as rabbit, spirits & eggs amongst other things.

It was in 1956 that the company first turned to rearing the chickens and making them more accessible to the Irish people. The company moved in 1970 to a custom built factory in the heart of Cavan at a small village called Shercock on the shores of Lough Sillan. Carton Bros. has one of the most modern processing facilities in Europe producing up to 600,000 birds per…… [Read More]

The Angelo Celt ( 1 June, 2011) Case taken against Carton Bros, Shercock 

Carton Brothers About Us
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Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Psychodynamic

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20697898

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches

Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)

Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;

Psychodynamic Approach

Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy transforms into the behavior that various individuals portray at different situations. (Morris et al., 2013) This perspective focuses on how different internal processes such as, needs, desires, emotions and drives lead towards motivating individual behavior. This perspective evolved over time and its emphasis has shifted from innate or unconscious processes…… [Read More]

Morris, C. And Maisto, A. (2010). Understanding Psychology . Oxford: Orford University Press. pp.45-65. [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].

Unknown. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers. pp.53-65. [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
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Approaching Bowenian Family System Therapy

Words: 2235 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81484788

Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory Bateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors Becvar & Bevcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).

The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (Becvar & Becvar, 2006). However, the focus of the therapists concerning the unique self provides the idea that different models exist; the focus on unique responses and experiences gives an impression that many differences exist. Experiential psychotherapy or psychology arose as a reaction to behaviorism -- which sometimes overlooks the inner experience of a person and…… [Read More]

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Diagnosis of S Johnson Diagnosis

Words: 1526 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52374485

Therefore, she should be assessed for any possible medication that may help her depression or anxiety. But she also needs a therapeutic approach that addresses her isolation and her needs for healthy and appropriate attachment.

A excellent therapeutic for this need is a Rogerian approach that incorporates the positive regard of Carl Rogers. The following describes the approach that such a therapist would take:

Rogers' strong belief in the positive nature of human beings is based on his many years of clinical experience, working with a wide variety of individuals & #8230; the theory of person-centered therapy suggests any client, no matter what the problem, can improve without being taught anything specific by the therapist, once he/she accepts and respects themselves & #8230;.the resources all lie within the client. (Pescitelli, n.d.)

While critics argue that Rogerian therapy is not sufficiently rigorous, it remains extremely effective as a long-term approach for individuals who have had no previous opportunity to have their most basic emotional needs met (Pescitelli, n.d.)


Anorexia nervosa. Retrieved from

Pescitelli, D. Rogerian therapy. Retrieved from… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Anorexia nervosa. Retrieved from

Pescitelli, D. Rogerian therapy. Retrieved from
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Populations Span From the Egregiously

Words: 2801 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30553752

, 2006). Soliciting client's self-report may be another helpful practice (Landry et al., 2009).

To deal with both attrition and ethnicity factors in conjunction with an adolescent or school-aged client, the counselor may be well advised to consider the fact that the client may better benefit from a school counselor's intervention rather than from her own. Studies (for instance Cummings, 2009) have shown that "schools may be the best setting in which to provide mental health services if the objective is to reduce the unmet need for mental health care among adolescents living in disadvantaged and/or ethnically diverse communities." (Cummings, 2009, 1).

At times, the counselor may have to deal with trauma-related matters. Since trauma may traverse several generations and is comprised of complex issues, Goodman and West-Olatuni (2008) recommend a transgenerational trauma recognition and assessment approach as well as historical and contextual knowledge of the trauma.

Of particular interest and significance to counselor is the recent differentiation between traits and pathology (Clark, 2007). Until now, personality disorder was largely integrated with personality (according to the Big Five model). Clark (2007) sees future directions as preferring dimension (i.e. intensity and stretch of dysfunction) to categorization (i.e. trait, or labeling of…… [Read More]

Abe-Kim, J., Takeuchi, D., Hong, S., Zane, N., Sue, S., Spencer, M -- . & Algeria, M. (2007). Use of Mental Health Related Services Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(11), 91-8.

Barrett, M., Chua, W., Chistoph, P., Gibbons, M., Casiano, D. & Thompson, D. (2008). Early withdrawal from mental health treatment: Implications for psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy, 45(2), 247-67.
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Therapies Alternative Theoretical Approaches to

Words: 1120 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94944450

The benefits of including family in therapy sessions extend far beyond addressing the parents' concerns in this situation, however, and can help to identify underlying problems that led to Rosa's drug abuse and potentially provide more highly effective long-term solutions to these issues.

Adolescent females were the subject of one study that specifically examined the efficacy of family systems therapy interventions in cases of anorexia nervosa, and the efficacy of this approach compared quite favorable to other therapy techniques (Eisler et al. 2005). Especially noticeable in this study was an increased expression of emotion by all family members, leading to greater openness and a greater ability and willingness to share problems and support each other (Eisler et al. 2005). This effect would likely be highly beneficial to Rosa and her family as well, as there is almost certainly an underlying stressor that led to Rosa's drug abuse and overall decline that has not been discussed with her parents.

The management of diabetes in adolescents has also been shown to respond favorably to a family systems therapy-derived technique, further strengthening the likelihood that this technique will lead to effective and positive behavioral outcomes with Rosa (Wysocki et al. 2007). At the…… [Read More]

Cornelius-Whit, J. (2007). "Learner-Centered Teacher-Student Relationships Are Effective: A Meta-Analysis." Review of educational research 77(1), pp. 113-43.

Eisler, I.; Dare, C.; Hodes, M.; Russel, G.; Dodge, E. & LeGrange, D. (2005). "Family Therapy for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: The Results of a Controlled Comparison of Two Family Interventions." Focus 3, pp. 629-40.
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Secular Humanism the Rise and

Words: 20795 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12911050

This work provided an intensive discussion historical forces that were to lead to modern humanism but also succeeds in placing these aspects into the context of the larger social, historical and political milieu. .

Online sources and databases proved to be a valid and often insightful recourse area for this topic. Of particular note is a concise and well-written article by Stephen Weldon entitled Secular Humanism in the United States. This article provides a well-structured overview of the main issues in the development of secular humanism. It also provides insight into the influence of secular humanism in the United States.

An online article that is especially pertinent in terms of the consequences of the rise of secular rationality in an ideological sense is The Great Scandal (part 1) Christianity's Role in the Rise of the Nazis by Gregory Paul. This article also adds to the complexity of the debate about the positive or negative influence of the ideology of secularization in the last century.

Primary sources were also consulted, especially in terms of research on the philosophical view of secularization in the twentieth century. An example is the insightful lecture by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell entitled Why I Am…… [Read More]

Vycinas, Earth and Gods: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Martin Heidegger. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1961.

Mark Blitz. "Understanding Heidegger." Public Interest 106 (Fall 2001).

Martin Heidegger. Being and Time. Trans. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. San Francisco: Harper, 1962: 279.
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Humanistic Psychology Today People See

Words: 1806 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89370868

In addition to the above noted areas, there is also green politics, deep ecology, the feminist and gay rights movements, and the psycho-spiritual wing of the peace movement. This takes into account an integrated and balanced view of human nature and maintaining harmony in the grand scheme of existence. As noted by Maureen O'Hara, past president of the Association for Humanistic Psychologists: "As the world's people demand freedom and self-determination, it is urgent that we learn how diverse communities of empowered individuals, with freedom to construct their own stories and identities, might live together in mutual peace. Perhaps it is not a vain hope that is life in such communities might lead to the advance in human consciousness beyond anything we have yet experienced. "


Association for Humanistic Psychology. Website retrieved December 20, 2006.

Encyclopedia of Religion. Website retrieved December 20, 2006.

Green, E., & Green, A. (1974). Mind training, ESP, hypnosis, and voluntary control of internal states. In J. Regush and N. Regush (Eds.), Psi: The other world catalogue. NY G.P. Putnam's

Hayes, S.C, Strosahl, K.D., & Wilson, K.G. (1999) 1999 Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior

Change. NY: Guilford Press.

Kendler, H.H.(2005)…… [Read More]

Association for Humanistic Psychology. Website retrieved December 20, 2006.

Encyclopedia of Religion. Website retrieved December 20, 2006.