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Carl Rogers is among the small group of enlightened, visionary individuals that stand as giants in the field of psychology. Due to the theories that Rogers developed not only in psychology but in theories of education, he is considered, as Constance Holden
writes, "…one of the grand old men of American psychology and a leading figure in the postwar development of humanistic psychology" (Holden, 1997, p. 31). This paper reviews his theory of personality, his approach to therapy and the contributions he made to the field of psychology as a whole.
Rogers' Theory of Personality
Rogers' theory of personality was actually a theory that embraces providing the client with a "…roadway toward self-actualization… as an unfolding process of self-discovery and self-awareness," according to Jeffrey S. Nevid (Nevid, 2011, p. 403). Rogers believed that personality is expressed through "…conscious experience of directing ourselves toward fulfilling our unique potentials" as humans (Nevid,…
Dryden, Windy, and Mytton, Jill. 1999. Four Approaches to Counseling and Psychotherapy.
East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.
Goodman, Geoff. 1991. Feeling Our Way into Empathy: Carl Rogers, Heinz Kohut, and Jesus.
Journal of Religion and Health, 30(3), 191-204.
After all, Rogers believed that every individual has within himself "vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes and self-directed behavior" (Moon quoting Rogers). But these resources need to be tapped if a facilitator (like the client-centered therapist) can bring out conditions such as "congruence, empathic understanding, and unconditional positive regard" (Moon).
In order to properly provide therapy for the client, a therapist should be able to experience what that client is experiencing, Moon explains, paraphrasing Rogers. He quotes Rogers as saying that a therapist must "sense the hurt or pleasure of another as he senses it, and to perceive the causes thereof as he perceives them… [and to] lay aside your own values in order to enter another's world without prejudice" (Moon quoting Rogers). Moon sums up the Rogers approach to clients by saying that Rogers first views the conditions vis-a-vis the client and Rogers does…
Cochran, Tracy. (2004). Mindful Writing: Jon Kabat-Zinn Asks Us to Come to Our Senses.
Publishers Weekly, 251(49), 23-26.
Elias, Marilyn. (2009). "Mindfulness" Meditation Being Used in Hospitals and Schools.
USA Today. Retrieved January 13, 2010, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2009-06-07-meditate_N.htm .
This can help to provide individuals with the capacity to retain some control over their emotional, personal and professional lives as the loss turns into a state of normalcy.
Here, we differentiate between the imposition of undue ego orientation and the achievement of meaningful self-actualization. For the woman suffering from the loss of her husband, for instance, the ability to achieve this can be tantamount to finding ways of living independently and maintaining perspective in the absence of a key part of one's emotional support system. As the text by Cherry (2008) indicates, "humanistic psychology was instead focused on each individual's potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization. The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology was that people are innately good, with mental and social problems resulting from deviations from this natural tendency." (p. 1)
Certainly, the traumatic experience of losing a loved one qualifies as just such a…
Cherry, K. (2008). Humanistic Psychology. About Psychology.
Fuller, R.C. (1982). Carl Rogers, Religion, and the Role of Psychology in American Culture. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(4), 21-32.
Genuineness, empathy, and respect are at the heart of Rogers' process of mirroring. Instead of directing or challenging the client, a Rogerian therapist validates the client's feelings and expressions. For example, if the client says 'I am worthless,' unlike a cognitive behaviorist who might ask why, or probe the false and extreme nature of the statement, a Rogerian might simply say, 'you feel as if you have no worth at all?' To encourage the client to explore the statement. Rogerian therapy has been criticized for being overly circular, for taking longer than most people can afford to spend upon therapy, and not being directive enough. However, Rogerians contend that "If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you, the therapist. They need to try their insights on their own, in real life…
Boeree, C. George. (2006). Carl Rogers. Personality Theories. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
He "believed that in order for a client/therapist relationship to develop the therapist must embody these characteristics unconditional positive regard, empathy, and congruence" (Rothmans, from Kirschenbaum, 2004). These elements are characteristic nowadays of therapeutic relationship in all therapeutic approaches, and their efficiency in therapy was proved by research. Rogers' theories are best known today as "humanistic psychology." Humanism appears as 'Third Force' of therapy views, along with the psychoanalytic and behavioral views. This perspective is focused on helping the individual help himself rather than on diagnosis. Rogers was more interested in helping the client achieve his full potential in life, process termed "self-actualization." Amy Demorest suggested concisely that in Carl Rogers' psychological theory "it is the individual's own actualizing tendency that brings order and meaning into a life, and thus understanding will only be found if we focus on the individual's subjective experience" (Demorest, 2005) and therefore Rogers' approach can…
Rothman, Morgan. "Psyography: Carl Rogers," Last retreived from site, December 7, 2006 on faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/carlrogers.html
Kirschenbaum, H. "Carl Rogers's Life and Works: An Assessment on the 100th Anniversary of His Birth" [Electronic version]. Journal of Counseling and Development, 2004, 82, 116-124.
Demorest Amy. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, NJ. 2005. p. 172
Boeree, George. Carl Rogers: "Biography." Last retrieved from site December 7, 2006 http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/345/203_rogers/rogers_bio.pdf
Carl ogers Theory of Personality
Introduction to the Personality Theory of Carl ogers
Twentieth Century psychologists Carl ogers (1902-1987) was a founder of the Humanistic approach to human psychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). His theories were derivative of earlier phenomenological theorists and were predicated largely on the proposition that the natural state of every individual is to seek continual, life-long psychological development. However, whereas other schools of psychology defined the process of psychological growth in terms of chronological stages of development, ogers suggested principles of self-actualization that were not linked directly to chronological age in the manner of some of his contemporaries in other schools of psychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; McWilliams, 2004).
Two of the most important elements of ogers' contribution to the field of client-centered psychology are his nineteen fundamental propositions through which he defined the progressive psychological development of the individuals and his list of seven behavioral…
Branden, N. (2007). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Hockenbury, DH and Hockenbury, S.E. (2007) Discovering Psychology. New York:
The forces of socialization, according to Rogers, is what creates a discrepancy between the self and the drive towards actualization. At the core of the discrepancy is conditional positive self-regard. The conditions created for positive self-regard is often what creates the lack of adjustment and misbehavior so often found in the world today. According to Rogers, therapy can remove these conditions and move humanity closer towards the self-actualization that is the basic drive in all living organisms.
I agree with the reading that Rogers' theories incorporates some fundamental weaknesses, one of which is the fact that he distinguishes only between two extremes. In studying humanity, nothing can be viewed in such simple terms. However, I also agree with the point that Rogers has made an important contribution to psychology, especially during these times, when the social consciousness is moving towards a more positive view of the world and the selves…
Person-Centered Therapy Today
A sign on the restaurant wall where I lunched today reads, "What you call psychotic behavior ... we call company policy." A joke, obviously, but it set me thinking about differences in the world today compared to the 1950s when Carl ogers was developing person-centered therapy. Take a small thing like "multi-tasking," for example. In the 1950s a person who drove down an expressway at 70+ miles per hour while listening to a recorded book and talking on the telephone at the same time might well be judged in need of psychological evaluation. Today we think it's "normal." Even therapists are expected to "multi-task" (Erskine, 2003). The point is, we live in a different, more complex world from the one Carl ogers inhabited. Can a therapeutic system he designed to meet the needs of his time (before the Age of Information) be adequate to meet the needs…
Carl Ransom Rogers web site: About Carl R. Rogers. The Carl Rogers Reader. http://www.saybrook.edu/crr/valhow.html .
Carlozzi, A.F., Stein, K.S., Ray, K., and Barnes, L. (2002). Empathy theory and practice: A survey of psychologists and counselors. Journal of Psychology, 136 (2), Mar., 161-170.
Erskine, R.G. (2003). Beyond empathy: A therapy of contact-in-relationship. http://integrativetherapy.com/article-empathy.html .
Erskine, R.G. et al. (1999). Beyond empathy: A therapy of contact in relationship. New York: Routledge.
Person cantered therapy (Carl ogers) and stages of change, and Adlerian Therapy Birth order
Person cantered therapy (Carl ogers) and stages of change
Carl ogers is the founder of the person-centered therapy. This therapy concerns how people or children adapt to change as they grow and develop in their tender ages. According to Carl ogers, therapy was supposed to be warmer, tender, and more optimistic than as proposed by the psychodynamic theory and psychologists. Carl ogers is for the notion that a therapist is supposed to take positives of nature in which a child grows and develops gradually. It does not make sense to have therapy that will tend to alter the personalized growth and developed phases of the child. Carl ogers strongly believes that therapists should be warm, understanding, and genuine in order to have any impact in their client's behavioral growth and development. Within the notion…
Adler, A., Stein, H., & Alfred Adler Institute of Northwestern Washington. (2006). The
general system of individual psychology: Overview and summary of classical
Adlerian theory & current practice. Bellingham WA: Classical Adlerian Translation
When addressing positive emotions, Freud might have assumed that individuals who were raised in ideal environments and who did not develop sexual hang-ups were more likely to experience positive emotions than anxiety. Freud might also claim that positive emotions were the result of working through neuroses in psychotherapy, but his overall view of the human condition remained bleak.
4. The DSM-IV-TR is the latest version of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The tome outlines categories of mental illnesses, offering criteria that practitioners can use to diagnose clients such as symptoms. The DMS-IV-TR is useful but has many limitations. First, it creates a standard of labeling individuals and can lead to stigma or pigeonholing. Second, it does not acknowledge differences that might exist between different cultures that could affect the way mental illnesses are viewed.
5. A large number of prison inmates are clinically diagnosed…
The person-centered or humanistic perspective of Carl ogers
The humanistic or person-centered perspective of Carl ogers offers a positive and empowering concept of the human psyche and a client's prospects for growth and development. ather than placing the therapist in the role of an all-knowing expert, ogers viewed the psychologist as a kind of co-facilitator, who would help lead the client on a journey of personal empowerment by giving the client unconditional positive regard. "The therapist was not to be an expert who understood the problem and decided how it should be solved. ather, the therapist should free the client's power to solve personal problems" (Zimring, 1999, p.1). ogers viewed neuroses as having their roots in a loss of self-esteem and a critical role of the therapist is to give the client the support to feel better about him or herself. People are always viewed as the ultimate…
Rogers, C. (1956). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change.
Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95-103. Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/rogerse.PDF
Zimring, F. (1999). Carl Rogers. (1902-1987). (1994). Originally published in Prospects: The quarterly review of comparative education. XXIV, (3/4): 411-22. Retrieved from:
Carl ogers was probably the most important psychologist and psychotherapist of the 20th Century apart from Sigmund Freud, and his humanistic, person-centered approach has been applied to many fields outside of psychology, such as education, business, nursing, medicine and social work. Many of the basic textbooks in all of these fields reflect his influence, including the concept of learner-centered education and the use of the term 'clients' instead of 'patients'. He wrote over 100 academic books and articles, the most famous one being On Becoming a Person (1961) which clearly describes his main ideas and is summarized below. Originally trained for the ministry and then in Freudian psychoanalysis, ogers gradually broke with this school of psychology as a result of his work with abused children and his study of phenomenology and existentialist psychology. Central to his theory was the development of a healthy self-concept that was open, expressive and spontaneous…
Cornelius-White, J.H.D. (2007). "Learner-centered Teacher-Student Relationships are Effective: A Meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77 (1), pp. 113-143.
Demanchick, S., & Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). "Carl Rogers and the CIA." Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48(1), 6-31.
Kramer, R. (1995) "The Birth of Client-Centered Therapy: Carl Rogers, Otto Rank, and 'The Beyond." Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 35.4, pp. 54-110.
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable.
However, after several internal conflicts with the Wisconsin psychology department, Rogers became disillusioned with academia and left the field.
In 1964, after being selected "Humanist of the Year" by the American Humanist Association, Rogers moved to La Jolla, California where he joined the Western ehavioral Sciences Institute as a researcher. In 1968 Rogers went on to found the Center for Studies of the Person. Rogers devoted the later part of his life to applying his theories in the areas of international and national social conflict, focusing on the Northern Ireland and South African conflicts. Along with his daughter, Rogers also conducted a series of residential programs on the Person-Centered Approach throughout the United States, Europe, and Japan. These workshops focused on such things as cross-cultural communications, personal growth, self-empowerment and social change.
Carl Rogers' primary contribution to society was his development of the person-centered approach to psychotherapy. Rogers and his…
Hjelle, L.A., and D.J. Ziegler. (1981). Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pitts, Carl E., Rogers, Carl. (1973): "Twelve Years Later: A Reply to Carl Rogers." Journal of Humanistic Psychology. Vol. 13(1), p.p. 75-84.
Rogers, Car. (1939): Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child. London: Constable.
Rogers, Carl. (1942): Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice. London: Constable.
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development
In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).Therapy focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization (http://oldsci.eiu.edu/psychology/Spencer/Rogers.html).According to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept…
Carlozzi, Alfred F.; Bull, Kay S. Ells. " Empathy as related to creativity, dogmatism, and expressiveness." The Journal of Psychology. July 01, 1995
Pescitelli, Dagmar. "Rogerian Therapy." http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html .(accessed 12-04-2003).
Rowan, John. "The Person-Centered Approach." Association for Humanistic
As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.
In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…
Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rogers saw all people as unique and basically good individuals. Everyone is trying to be the best for the society as a whole. It was only when they were unhealthy or mentally ill that these people did terrible things, such as criminal acts. Rogers thus assumed that all mentally healthy human beings, like all living beings, are motivated to develop and to put their efforts toward optimal health. This mandates that people have to be strong and resilient when confronted with challenges. Yet, Rogers admitted, such a resiliency typically develops from the nurturance of others. Thus, if someone is mentally ill, it is more than important to treat this person with kindness. This will help the person get better.
Therapists, therefore, need to value their clients in a positive manner, regardless of their behaviors, or what is called self-actualization. This self-actualization is strengthened by three important factors: Empathy, congruence and…
This means that other aspects which could be affecting the mood of the individual (such as: a chemical imbalance) are overlooked. This is when the chances rise of some kind of misdiagnosis taking place. As a result, the strengths of this theory will provide everyone with a basic background. However, it cannot be applied to every situation involving patients. Instead, only select elements will offer a better understanding of human behavior. (ider, 2012, pp. 39 -- 40) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)
The biggest strength of oger's theory is that it is providing specific aspects of human behavior that will influence everyone's thoughts (i.e. The desire to move away from pain and into pleasure). This is occurring by feeling positive emotions such as love and companionship. During a clinical setting, this can help to explain human emotion and behavior from a certain basic point-of-view. This is when therapists can…
Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Freud, S. (2007). The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis. Sioux Falls, SD: Nu Vision Publications.
Greene, R. (2009). Human Behavior Theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.
Rider, E. (2012). Lifespan Human Development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Learning.
revos (2005) further states,
"…A person's identity is formed through a series of personal experiences, which reflect how the individual is perceived by both him or herself and the outside world -- the phenomeno-logical field. Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. The concept of the self is, according to Rogers, however, primarily conscious. The most important determinants of behavior are the one's that are conscious or are capable of becoming conscious. Roger argues that a definition of the self that includes a reference to the unconscious (as with Freud) can not be studied objectively as it can not be directly known."
This perfect description given by revos (2005) is precisely what Rogers would have envisioned of his theory. His aims, unlike Freud, were to allow humanity to return, instead of alienating individuals by placing them in categories…
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Ansbacher, Corey, Phillips and Schultz. (2005). Freud's Strengths and Weaknesses. Retrieved September 30, .
Psychology -- Erikson and Rogers
Chaim is a Hasidic Jew who hung out in the underground scene and became a very creative underground rock star. However, Chaim was internally conflicted: the underground lifestyle was the polar opposite of his Hasidic lifestyle and he tried to live Hasidic-by-day and underground rock-star-by-night. Chaim left it to God to determine whether he would get a Hasidic wife or a record contract first. Eventually, he chose a Hasidic married lifestyle, moved upstate and would not touch the underground lifestyle again because he cannot have it and would lose everything by trying to get it back. An Ego Psychologist like Erik Erikson and a Humanist Psychologist like Carl Rogers would view Chaim's dilemma differently.
Erik Erikson believed that a person's life has 8 stages and develops by the interplay of the body, mind and culture influences. Erikson would believe that Chaim was in Stage…
Freud vs. Rogers:
Theories and Impact
Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two of the 20th century's most renowned figures. Both psychologists developed countless advancements in their field, and both are greatly revered by psychologists and society as a whole today, for their efforts and their genius. Another similarity between the two men is that both proposed theories of personality and psychotherapy, and both men's theories are still viewed as controversial by some segments of the field. This paper will thus discuss the contributions of the two men in the respective issues, and their impact upon society.
The first psychologist's theories to be examined here are those of Sigmund Freud, which center around three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. Freud believed that the key to a healthy personality is true balance between these three elements, all of which work together to create complex individuals,…
Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.
Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).
Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…
Jung, C.G. (1968). Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell.
Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). Life and Work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Rogers, C. (1979). The Foundations of the Person-Centered Approach. La Jolla, CA: Centrre for Studies of the Person.
Wehr, G. (2001). Jung: A Biography. Boston: Shambhala.
The Rogerian Model
This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).
This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…
Bozarth, G.O. 2011, 'How to use person-centered therapy for mental health,' eHow:
[Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_2092776_use-person-centred-therapy-mental.html
Lee, L.W. 2011, 'What is the Rogerian model?, ' eHow [Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/facts_7264316_rogerian-model.html
Lussier, Marie Therese 2007, 'The motivational interview in practice,' 53 (12) Canadian
Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process.
Q2: Integrationist point-of-view
No single personality theory can heal all individuals: every person presents the therapist with unique challenges. Some patients, for example, with personality disorders such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or schizoid personality disorder may benefit from having clear, concrete behavioral goals that they must perform, to help wean them from ineffective coping mechanisms (such as self-injury, obsessive rituals, or isolation). More searching types of 'talk' therapy alone may encourage patients to stall rather than to actively change their life in proactive ways and will not address some of the root, habitual causes of the patient's behavior.
Other patients who feel unfulfilled but have a more structured and healthy lifestyle might benefit from more exploratory types of therapy, including Rogers'…
andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).
From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.
The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…
Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.
Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.
For Ann to succeed as a leader in her department and proceed in her ascend to more demanding roles within the hospital, there is an existing need for her to understand herself and how her peers view her. In so doing, she will be better placed to get their support by modifying her behavior.
Yet another leadership complexity for Ann has to do with her visibility given her senior position as the head of the Nutrition and Dietetics Department. Traditionally, being promoted to head a department within the hospital has been seen as some sort of grooming for a bigger management role. In that regard, Ann needs to clearly distinguish between goals that could derail her and those that could pave her way to success. Further, it can also be noted that if indeed she is promoted to a more senior and demanding role, Ann would be required to develop…
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
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Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality. Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described. In today's world, Jungian types (with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging) are used much more often than Freudian models.
Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality. Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency. Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two…
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…
Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:
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Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
Empathy is increasingly viewed as more that an essential aspect of effective person-centered counseling. It is arguably the key humanizing aspect of the effective type of relationship through which a true and honest exchange of understanding can take place to facilitate healing or psychological improvement (Hakansson, 2003).
Carl ogers, one of the recognized founders of this conceptualization, attached an increasing significance to this reality as he reconsidered the issue of the role of empathy over the course of his professional life. Initially, in his earlier writings (1959), he focused on the "state" of meaning wherein a therapist could "perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy" as if he or she were in alignment with what it was that the client experienced. Not losing this "as if" condition would allow the therapist to stay honest and genuine while still being objective and nonjudgmental about the conditions…
Counseling Psychology Model (2009). Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity. The Counseling Psychologist. Vol. 37. No. 5. DOI: 10.1177/0011000009331930.
Hakansson, J. (2003). Exploring the phenomenon of empathy. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Stockholm. Viewable at http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/papers/empathydissertation.pdf .
Mulhouser, G. (2011). An introduction to person-centered counseling. Counseling Resources. Viewable at http://counsellingresource.com/lib/therapy/types/person-centred/ .
Patterson, C.H. (1985). Empathic understanding. The Therapeutic Relationship. Viewable at http://www.sageofasheville.com/pub_downloads/EMPATHIC_UNDERSTANDING.pdf .
But did she mean well sometimes? Or is she always so rude towards you?
Analysis: This example illustrates a long process in a short amount of space, but it helps to point out some aspects of oger's theory. According to ogers, such dialogue can be observed with nearly every client as generalizations are broken down to acute experiences (ogers, 1951). Such breakthroughs in the origins of the problem rely on a patient's freedom to fully express the self while the therapist provides guidance and acceptance (ogers, 1951). The therapist guides the client as the client comes to understand the reasons for his or her thoughts.
Client: I feel like I can't talk to you, that you have judged me guilty. This feeling sticks with me, I don't know what to do, but I don't like you.
Therapist: So you think I have put you up for trial and…
Bozarth, Jared D., & Brodley, Barbara Temaner. (1991). Actualization: A Functional Concept in Client-Centered Therapy. Handbook of Self-Actualization, Vol. 6, 45-60.
Bugental, J.F.T. (1964). The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 19-25.
Pollack, N. (1993). Client Centered Assessment. Pub Med, 47, 298-301.
Rogers, Carl R. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
The individual’s experience and the personal construction of meaning are central to humanistic psychology. Theorists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow initially promoted this humanistic view of psychology, which was contrary to the prevailing tenets of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Instead of focusing on past experiences and environmental variables, Rogers and Maslow focused on the person’s perceptions and intrinsic motivations (“What is Humanistic Psychology?” n.d.). Moreover, early theorists also negated the importance of experimental studies and other applications of the scientific method to psychological inquiry because these methods have a way of dehumanizing and devaluing personal experience (McLeod, 2015). Theorists like Rogers and Maslow found was more useful to apply qualitative methods that would allow the person to open up and share their thoughts, beliefs, experiences, and perceptions. Thus, the therapist and the client work together to discover ways of finding meaning in life experiences.
Carl Rogers promoted the…
It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered…
Barry, P. (2002). Mental health and mental illness. (7th ed.) New York: Lippincott.
Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G., & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of personality. New York: John
Mcleod, S. (2007). Psychology perspectives. In Simply psychology. Retrieved December 2,
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.
The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.
Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…
Crabb's Biblical Model Of Counseling Comparison And Discussion
Goal of Christian Counseling
The goal of Christian Counseling differs from private practice counseling in many regards. For example, a Christian community offers a counselor a unique set of resources, often comprised of loving and caring individuals for are members of the local congregation. In private practice the resources that a counselor may have to work with can be comparatively limited by contrast. Furthermore, each Christian is called to help others based on their faith. A private practice counselor can be motivated by a plethora of reasons -- some of them are surly genuine and altruistic however others may be for monetary gain or similar ambitions. Thus, the resources that are available and the motivations behind entering counseling represent two initial and fundamental differences.
Another difference is that the fundamentals of the counseling practices might be starkly different. Many Christian counselors believe…
Crabb, L., & Crabb, L. (1977). Effective Biblical Counseling. Zondervan.
Johnson, W., Ridley, C., & Nielsen, S. (2000). Religiously Sensitive Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Elegant Solutions and Ethical Risks. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14-20.
Mann, N. (2008). An introduction to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Professional Skills, 24-27.
Rogers . (2006). Carl Rogers Info. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.carlrogers.info/
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the _humanistic__ theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of _self-actualization____ needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that _lower____ needs must be satisfied before ____higher____ needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is formative tendency.
The _actualizing tendency, according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered _shattered self-concept__.
7. Rogers believed that ____empathy____, ____unconditional positive regard____, and ____congruence____ are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
8. ____Intentionality____ is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
9. May proposed that __self-awareness____ is the freedom of action, whereas _essential freedom____ is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,
from Colorado State Web site:
Anxiety Attacks and Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from Helpguide.org Web site:
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…
self-therapy in the context of what needs to be done to elevate the healing process in life. The therapy that is often used to treat is that which people rely on to practice self-treatment. In this paper, Art Bohart's talk on self-healing is will be used to manifest what is best-used means of conducting self-therapy. In this paper, the general supportive treatment of stress and other psychological ailments will be covered. The aim is to reach out to the diverse sections of the therapy and how it may be of use to the people. The paper also discusses the relevance of this program in the treatment of emotional challenges that people face. Finally, the paper will discuss whether the lessons learned from Art Bohart's talk can be integrated into real life. The focus extends to include the texistential-humanistic therapeutic interventions and the benefits associated with their use on patients.
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). What Do We Mean By The Client As Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 3-23). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-001
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Research Results That May Surprise You -- How Do We Know the Client is an Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (pp. 25-55). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-002
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing Without a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 57-84). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-003
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing With a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process Of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 87-104). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-004
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…
sales organization evaluates its sales team. The organization I am using is Carton Bros. Ireland it is a poultry distribution company. The question in more specific terms is intention to discover what are the different methods of performance appraisals this organization uses in order to evaluate how their sales team are performing?'
About the company
Carton Brothers is the name of the company that produce Manor Farm chicken. It dates back to 1775, when it was started in the Dublin market. It soon grew substantially as a company and gradually became one of the largest traders in the country diversifying and, in fact, one part of it becoming involved in the import, blending and selling of tea. The company also sold may other commodities such as rabbit, spirits & eggs amongst other things.
It was in 1956 that the company first turned to rearing the chickens and making them more…
The Angelo Celt ( 1 June, 2011) Case taken against Carton Bros, Shercock http://www.anglocelt.ie/news/courtreports/articles/2011/06/01/4004726-case-taken-against-carton-bros-shercock/
Carton Brothers About Us
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…
Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson
Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/
Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford
Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
, 2006). Soliciting client's self-report may be another helpful practice (Landry et al., 2009).
To deal with both attrition and ethnicity factors in conjunction with an adolescent or school-aged client, the counselor may be well advised to consider the fact that the client may better benefit from a school counselor's intervention rather than from her own. Studies (for instance Cummings, 2009) have shown that "schools may be the best setting in which to provide mental health services if the objective is to reduce the unmet need for mental health care among adolescents living in disadvantaged and/or ethnically diverse communities." (Cummings, 2009, 1).
At times, the counselor may have to deal with trauma-related matters. Since trauma may traverse several generations and is comprised of complex issues, Goodman and West-Olatuni (2008) recommend a transgenerational trauma recognition and assessment approach as well as historical and contextual knowledge of the trauma.
Of particular interest…
Abe-Kim, J., Takeuchi, D., Hong, S., Zane, N., Sue, S., Spencer, M -- . & Algeria, M. (2007). Use of Mental Health Related Services Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(11), 91-8.
Barrett, M., Chua, W., Chistoph, P., Gibbons, M., Casiano, D. & Thompson, D. (2008). Early withdrawal from mental health treatment: Implications for psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy, 45(2), 247-67.
Bird, T. (2010). Approaches to patients with neuropathic disease. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 30(4), 785-93.
Brach, C., Falik, M., Law, C., Robinson, G., Trent-Adams, S., Ulmer, C. & Wirght, a. (2005). Mental Health Services: Critical Component of Integrated Primary Care and Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 6(3), 322-41.
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
maturation, and why is Piaget's theory a good example of a maturational theory of children's cognitive development?"
Maturation is the way an infant gets to learn to become a proper individual by various maneuvers all through the early stages in life. The term maturation has different connotations in the theory of development if viewed from different angles. There are many theories of development that have links or are a part of the theory of maturation. The theories that try to explain the cognitive development are the behavioral theory propounded by Skinner which says that learning is a result of the environment. By creating a better environment, learning can be directed and shaped. Children introduced to a better environment learn to give better responses and the behavior theory seem to work where special education is required. Freud and Eriksson believed that children came with drives that had to be channeled in…
Alexander, Patricia A; Winne, Philip H. (2006) "Handbook of educational psychology"
Anderson, Norman H. (1996) "A Functional Theory of Cognition." Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
PERSONALITY VS SITUATION
Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).
Existentialism vs. Humanism
Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…
AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media
Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://allpsyc.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic.html
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,
2001 from http://webspac.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
The relevance of counseling as a helping profession cannot be overstated. This is more so the case taking into consideration the role counseling plays towards the facilitation of the development of not only an individual but also a family or even a group.
Counseling as a Distinct Profession: The History and Philosophy of the Profession
Marini and Stebnicki (2008) point out that although counseling as a term made its first appearance (in print) sometimes in the year 1931, the practice of the same had started earlier on. It is important to note that although the roots of counseling as a helping relationship can be traced to the early omanian and Greek times, the actual development of the counseling profession as we know it today largely started taking place in the late 1800s. In the words of Marini and Stebnicki (2008), "the origins of the counseling profession in the…
AMHCA (n.d). American Mental Health Counselors Association: The Only Organization Working Exclusively for the Mental Health Counseling Profession. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the American Mental Health Counselors Association website: http://www.amhca.org/default.aspx
ASCA (2012). American School Counselor Association. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the American School Counselor Association website: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/index.asp
Blonna, R., Loschiavo, J. & Watter, D. (2011). Health Counseling: A Microskills Approach for Counselors, Educators, and School Nurses (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Marini, I. & Stebnicki, M.A. (Eds.). (2008). The Professional Counselor's Desk Reference. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
psychology, theories of personality abound. Two of the most significant theories of personality include psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories. Although these two theories share some features in common, they are based on widely different assumptions about human nature and human behavior. Each describes the way personality impacts human behavior under certain situations. However, psychodynamic theory presumes that human personality is static and less likely to change. Humanistic and existential theories are built on the assumption that human personality is dynamic. The differences between psychodynamic and humanistic theories of personality also have an impact on their approaches to treatment interventions and therapy.
Psychodynamic theories of personality are based on the theories of Sigmund Freud, who believed that human personality is determined by subconscious factors and the person's psycho-sexual nature. The personality is divided into three main and immutable components according to the psychodynamic worldview. Those three components include the id, ego, and…
"A Comparison of Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapy," (2015). Retrieved online: http://sulcatamandy.hubpages.com/hub/psychodynamic-therapy-vs.-humanistic-therapy
"Humanistic Theories of Personality," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://home2.fvcc.edu/~rhalvers/psych/Personality3.htm
McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory
Psychodynamic & Humanistic Theory
A seminal study on the personality trait differences of therapists practicing with different theoretical orientations is an interesting place to begin this compare and contrast discussion. Tremblay, et al. (1986) administered the Personality Orientation Inventory to 90 male and 90 female psychotherapists who self-designated and were equally distributed in groups designated as behavioral (BEH), psychodynamic (PSY), and humanistic (HUM). Interestingly, the study suggested that a core therapist personality exists and that further distinction can be achieved through consideration of the patterns of personality that were associated with theoretical orientation. The caveat was that the patterns associated with theoretical orientations were characterized more by overlapping traits than unique traits. Of the three theoretical categories, the HUM group exhibited the most unique traits: they were more flexible, more accepting of personal aggression and expressing feelings in action, and differed in their development of intimate…
Boreman, D. (2010, November). The Science of Psychology. Chapter 10 Personality. Retreived from http://www.mesacc.edu/~edmny04781/psy101_oc/Chapter_10.pdf
Leichsenring, F. & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(7), 1223-1232. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.7.1223
Shedler, J. (2010, February-March). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98-109. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-65-2-98.pdf
Tremblay, J.M., Herron, W.G. & Schultz, C.L. (1986). Relation between therapeutic orientation and personality in psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17(2), 106-110. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.17.2.106
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
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Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
This is an important consideration that each clinical practitioner must contemplate sooner or later -- and perhaps it is best done sooner rather than later. It is not something I have considered lightly, but at the end of the day I am confident that I can find that balance in my life. I am person of many different interests: music, art, philosophy, writing, research; and I am a spiritual person. For me, these have always been key elements in keeping my life balanced. It has not evolved me in a perfect way, but these things in my life serve to bring me back to earth during those moments when my ego becomes to inflated, too deflated, bruised, or battered; and take comfort in, and I am grateful for all the things that keep me balanced.
I will continue to pursue my interests and develop myself socially as I work in…
Micucci, Joseph a. (2009). The Adolescent in Family Therapy,
Reyhner, Jon Allan, Rosier, Paul, and Echo-Hawk, Walter (2005). Education and Language Restoration: Assimilation vs. Cultural Survival (Contemporary Native American Issues), Chelsea House Publications.
Taibbi, Robert (2007). Doing Family Therapy, Second Edition: Craft and Creativity in Clinical Practice, New York the Guilford Press.
Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).
Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.
Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth…
Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm
Warren & Carmichael, (1930). Elements of human psychology (Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin, 1930), p. 333. Cited in Allport, Pattern & growth in personality (1937/1961, p.36). retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://www.thepersonalitysystem.org/PFA%20What%20Is%20Personality/How%20Is%20Personality%20Defined.htm
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…
American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231 .
Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Advise management concerning personnel, managerial, and marketing policies and practices and their potential effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Analyze data, using statistical methods and applications, to evaluate the outcomes and effectiveness of workplace programs.
Assess employee performance.
Observe and interview workers to obtain information about the physical, mental, and educational requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects such as job satisfaction.
Write reports on research findings and implications to contribute to general knowledge and to suggest potential changes in organizational functioning.
Facilitate organizational development and change.
Identify training and development needs.
Normal work activities for an Industrial Organizational psychologist might include: getting information, providing consultation and advice to others, interpreting the meaning of information to others, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, making decisions and solving problems.
In addition to those, an I/O psychologist would analyze data, organize, plan and prioritize work, interact with computers, judge…
Industrial psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from a2zpsychology.com: http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ARTICLES/industrial.htm
McCarthy, P. (2002). Brief outline of the history of I/O psychology. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Middle Tennessee State University: http://frank.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm
Morris, L. (2000). Careers in industrial organizational psychology. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Westchester university department of education: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Industrial/Career06.htm
O-net. (2008). Summary report for industrial organizational psychologists. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from o-net online: http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/19-3032.00