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I would also expect resistance from devout Hindus, since the caste system is ingrained in their religion. Their opposition would be to the perceived dismantling of one of their defining institutions. The higher castes in particular would oppose this move.
There are some similarities to the U.S. civil rights movement. The lower castes have at times worked to improve their conditions and to remove barriers to economic and political mobility. Moreover, the sources of resistance are much the same. Those in power view the removal of barriers to mobility for lower classes as a threat to their well-being. Lastly, this has affected the pace of change. In both the U.S. And in India, such social change requires generations of effort, including education and improved economic mobility, in order to bring about the needed changes to the broader society.
No author. (2009). Country Profile: India. BBC. Retrieved September 14,…
No author. (2009). Country Profile: India. BBC. Retrieved September 14, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm
Ross, Kelley L. (2005). The Caste System and the Stages of Life in Hinduism. Friesian.com. Retrieved September 14, 2009 from http://www.friesian.com/caste.htm
Caste System in India
India's history is remarkable. It boasts one of the oldest continuous civilizations on Earth, and its earliest religion, Hinduism, has its roots 2500 years before the birth of Christ, evolving gradually over time. For much of that time, one of the cornerstones of the Hindu religion was the concept of "caste," or the place an individual held in relation to others. Each person's place within the caste system was determined at birth, with no chance of moving out of it during one's lifetime. he word "caste" is Portuguese and means race or family.
he concept of caste, or Varna, permeated all aspects of Hindu life. Caste decided not only one's position in the larger culture, but what jobs the person could and could not do, who the person could and could not socialize with, and of course, who the individual could and could not marry. here…
The beliefs of the Hindu religion combined with the practice of caste gave the Aryans excellent control over their conquered population. As many religions do, the Hindi believe that the soul never dies, but they believe further that the soul will be reborn into a new life, or reincarnation. They also believe that all living things have souls. The body one's soul receives for the next life depends on how one conducted oneself in the previous life. The religion also teaches the concept of Karma, meaning that everything one does for good or evil is taken into consideration when determining what the soul's next body will be. If a person lived a good life and performed its duties as required by its caste, its soul might be reincarnated into a higher caste. Living a good life, which including living within the rules of one's caste, was the only path for advancement. If a person did not live a good life, he could be reincarnated into a lower caste, or even into the body of an animal or insect.
Mohandas K. Gandhi is generally credited with weakening the hold the caste system had on India. While campaigning for Indian independence from the British Empire, he realized that the people of India emphasized their differences from each other and had a hard time working together for the goal of independence. He worked hard to bring Moslem and Hindi people together, and he also worked hard to encourage the Hindi to cross caste lines to work together for this goal. He disregarded the largest division, that between castes and outcastes (the Dalit), and would treat no human being as untouchable. To free the Indians from the economic tyranny of Great Britain, he taught people to make their own salt and to weave. He encouraged all Indians to weave their own cloth rather than buy fabric produced in England. This required another breakdown of the caste system, as the task of weaving was assigned to a specific subcaste.
When India wrote its constitution in 1950, the concept of untouchable people was outlawed, and in 1955 a law was passed forbidding discrimination against this group of people.
Slavery and Caste Systems
When epressive Policies Linger
Slavery in the United States, apartheid in South Africa, and the Indian caste system are now all illegal. However, this does not mean that the consequences of these systems of violence against people have vanished. This paper examines the ways in which these three systems continue to affect the lives of people today, even (as in the case of American slavery) the system itself has not been in existence for decades. Widespread institutions based on the power of one group over another group or other groups have significant staying power because even when the ideology that upholds such institutions end or become unpopular, the power structures remain. These power structures can welcome in new ideologies: The "new wine" in old bottles effect of such dynamics are one of the reasons that repressive institutions persist.
One of the key points of this essay…
Caste system in modern India. (2005). http://adaniel.tripod.com/modernindia.htm
Meredith, M. (1988). In the name of apartheid: South Africa in the postwar period. New York: Harper & Row.
Meredith, M. (2005). The State of Africa. New York: The Free Press.
Santana, M. (n.d.) One Way or the Other, the Black Family has Survived? http://www.blackpressusa.com/news/Article.asp?SID=3&Title=National+News&NewsID=12275
Some of this welfare is built in to the system itself, as it is expected that the lowest class Indian citizens will sustain themselves on handouts, which are also built into the system itself (Pruthi, 2004). But the caste system was developed and originally implemented at a time where political considerations and representative democracies were not something to be considered, or have not even been invented as a form of government.
he political structure in India is arguably not very different from other western democracies in that a few people, whether democratically elected or not, are making decisions and changing politics of a large number of people. he culture of power and influence that revolves around the interests of corporations and money that has been built in the U.S. politically is an excellent reflection of how Indian politics are built around the influences and desires of the wealthy and powerful,…
The political structure in India is arguably not very different from other western democracies in that a few people, whether democratically elected or not, are making decisions and changing politics of a large number of people. The culture of power and influence that revolves around the interests of corporations and money that has been built in the U.S. politically is an excellent reflection of how Indian politics are built around the influences and desires of the wealthy and powerful, and not those of the rest of the society.
The Indian power and political structure does not face much opposition from the lower classes, at least relative to how the caste system currently functions and is set up as a propagator of the status quo. Author Bailey (2009) argues that the political stratification of society extends and renews the cultural stratification. In this way, a symbiosis of politics and culture has developed to help reinforce each other, and propagate the caste system. This is convenient for those in power, but leaves much to be desired for those who are born into the lower levels of the system. In many ways, the governments of other nations work similarly, except perhaps in not such a visible or culturally direct way. It is apparent that the caste system divides the Indian society quite dramatically, but these divisions of society are not unique or exclusive to this nation.
Over time the political climate in India will likely change as the Western democracies continue to exact a strong political influence in the nations that are affected. However, India is coming into a new era of self-development and definition and the question of whether or not the caste system will be included in the new path forward for the country remain unanswered. The cultural climate and restrictions put upon the people of India will continue to dictate the political landscape, since the caste system forms the overarching social stratification structure for the society.
System of castas/Latin American History
Among many contributions of Mexico to the present American culture few are considered more significant than the concept of Mestizaje referring to the racial and cultural and synthesis. Mexico came out to be a fusion of the old and new world, particularly after the Spanish invasion during 16th century. Ever since the inception of the conquest the interracial sexual unions among Indians, Europeans, Africans and Asians appeared common, however, interracial marriage was allowed only during the later half of the 17th century. The frightened white elite treatened of the growing tide of Castas -- many racially mixed people- during 18th century formulated a caste system in order to institute status distinctions between the sub-groups so as to divide them and strengthen the Spaniards' sense of their own exclusivity. (An Unsettling acial Score Card)
The commissioned paintings of many groups of castas have remained to be…
Early Latin America. Retrieved from http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter25/objectives/deluxe-content.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Fulopp, Tomas J. Latin America and the Concept of Social Race. Retrieved from http://www.vacilando.org/index.php?x=810 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Montalvo, Frank. Danzon and Mexico's Caste System. Retrieved from http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/montalvo3.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Poverty alleviation program for minority communities in Latin America: Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America history, Population, Contributions and social attitudes social and economic conditions. Retrieved from http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=479869 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Systems of Oppression
Oppression is a systematic way of treating other human beings in dehumanizing ways by subjecting them to suffering and deprivation of such important amenities that would otherwise make them lead a bearable and a comfortable life. It may involve denying them access to education, language, and healthcare. Oppression is orchestrated by government systems such as the police, the military, laws and customs and other practices that lead to inequality in the distribution of resources in society. Oppression systems target specific groups with social identities (Young, 2004).
Principles of Systems of Oppression
obinson (2010) points out that there are some habits and cultural practices which perpetuate the oppression of individuals and groups. Although they occur in varying forms, the systems assume similar characteristics and principles.
Power: here, the dominant group exercises authority over the subjects through exploitation. Usually, the party on the receiving end has no capacity to…
Conway-Smith, E. (2015, October 19). 'Slaves by the will of God': Why Mauritania has the highest percentage of slaves in the world. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from: https://www.pri.org/stories/2015-10-19/
Robinson, M. L. (2010, June 3). Systems of Oppression. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from Creative Commons: http://www.creativeconflictresolution.org/jc/systems-of-oppression.html
Young, I. (2004). Five Faces of Oppression. In L. Heldke & P. O'Connor, Oppression, Privilege, & Resistance. Boston: McGraw Hill.
However, the Kolenda text is somewhat prescient in identifying some of the ways that Indian society has adjusted to change as modernization has become a matter of inevitability. Indeed, Kolenda denotes entering into the discussion that "the shape of India emerging will be different from the shape of modern estern societies. Caste in its new transformations will be an important contributing factor to determining that shape." (Kolenda, i) as Kolenda's is a text which was composed in 1985, this renders it a particularly insightful set of predictions on how the desire of traditionalists and the culturally elite to maintain ancient systems of class demarcation will find balance with the push of the global community to assume a more democratically driven strategy for socioeconomic organization.
Ultimately, one is left with the sense that a subject such as this would best be explored in a study with a more current context.…
Kolenda, P. (1985). Caste in Contemporary India. Waveland Press.
By looking at the world from an individual perspective, some people actually managed to acknowledge that they were not really as inferior as some groups were inclined to believe they were and managed to surprise a whole world. By concentrating on his goals and on strategies he could use in order to achieve them, Khade practically reinforced his position in the business world and succeeded in spite of the fact that odds were against him.
Khade's story is inspirational for anyone who considers him or herself to be underprivileged as a result of coming from an obscure background. This makes it possible for people to understand that it is up to themselves to improve their general condition, as only by getting actively involved in trying to achieve their goals would they be able to truly succeed in accomplishing their dreams.
Instead of being influenced by cultural values that were meant…
Polgreen, Lydia, "Scaling Caste Walls With Capitalism's Ladders in India"
Women Status Contemporary India
The Status and ole of Women in Contemporary India
The women in contemporary India have a very significant role as they fulfill crucial responsibilities in almost every sector including family life, agricultural development and industrial development. However, it is unfortunate that such contributions have remained mostly indistinguishable to the planners and policy makers due to which the Indian women have always experienced an unstable status in the country. Even in this modern era of science and technology, women in India are still considered a disadvantaged group as there has been no change in the conventional structure of society as well as cultural and moral standards (Chakrapani and Kumar, 1994).
In addition, a majority of women are still unaware of the social laws that have been designed to alleviate the problems women face in the society. As a consequence, distressed situations influence Indian women more than Indian…
Berman, B.J., Bhargava, R., & Laliberte?, A. (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. Vancouver: UBC Press. Print.
Chakrapani, C., & Kumar, S.V. (1994).Changing Status and Role of Women in Indian Society. New Delhi: MD Publications. Print.
Chowdhuri, J.P. (2012). Caste System, Social Inequalities and Reservation Policy in India: Class, Caste, Social Policy and Governance Through Social Justice. Saarbru-cken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. Print.
Jain, T.R., & Ohri, V.K. (2006). Indian Economy: Issues in Economic Development and Planning in India and Sectoral Aspects of Indian Economy. New Delhi: V.K. Publications. Print.
Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.
Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…
Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana
University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.
"Cuisine." Cuisine Tours of India, Culinary Tour India, Indian Cuisines information,
Hinduism and People
Unlike most religions which ask their practitioners to prescribe to a designated set of behaviors wherein they shall all behave uniformly, Hinduism bears the motto that "People are different." Most religions begin from a dogma which is a written interpretation of what the creators of that religion state their God or Gods want from the followers of that religion. Because of this, the religions are slow to evolve and more or less stagnant. According to J.N. Nanda, "Hinduism is not limited by the view of a single founder, a single holy man or a single holy book" (106). That is to say, those that practice Hinduism understand that there is no one type of person. Individuality, by its very definition states that people will have singular ideas and singular personalities. There is no one type of person living in the world, just as there is no one…
Keene, Michael. Religion in Life and Society. Dublin, Ireland: Folens. 2004. Print.
Ketkar, Shridhar. The History of Caste in India: Evidence of the Laws of Manu. Ithaca, NY:
Taylor & Carpenter. 1909. Print.
Lipner, Julius. Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Chatham. 1994. Print.
separation of the society into different segments by the use of castes or classes. Social stratification indicates a hierarchy of social groups and emphasizes social inequality. Social stratification refers to social groups, which are ranked one above another in terms of the power, prestige and wealth, which the members of the group possess. The members of the same group share common interests and have common identity and share a life style, which is similar to some extent, which ultimately distinguishes them from other members of the social strata. The Indian caste system is an example of the system of social stratification.
The system of caste has historically been an Indian concept and was designed to keep different castes of groups of individuals in their designed places in society. Similarly, the class system is a modern day device for use for the same purpose. Since the caste system is an Indian…
Srinivas, M.N. "Social change in modern India" California: University of California Press (1966)
Bougle, C., "The essence and Reality of the Caste System." In D. Gupta, ed., Social Stratification. Delhi: Oxford University Press (1992).
Kocher, Robert L
Political Economy 301: The American Class System; Prerequisite: Healthy Realistic Iconoclasm 300 Fundamental Issues, Part 2 The Laissez Faire City Times, Vol 3, No 13, March 29, 1999
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com /html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
National Geographic, 160 million of the Indian population is considered untouchables[footnoteRef:1]. The Untouchables are, according to the caste system in India, individuals that are deemed to be impure and, as a consequence, individuals against whom human rights violations are committed on a regular basis. These human rights abuses range from discrimination, to relegation to the lowest possible jobs and to outright violence. [1: Mayell, Hillary. 2003. India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination. National Geographic News. On the Internet at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html. Last retrieved on March 14, 2013]
IM hiring untouchables in India presents a complicated situation for the company, in many ways. The main dimensions that will need to be examined are the ethical and social responsibility component, as opposed to the cultural differences component. It is easier to start with the latter in order to better understand the potential dilemma in which IM is placed when recruiting untouchables in India.
1. Mayell, Hillary. 2003. India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination. National Geographic News. On the Internet at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
2. Associated Press. December 2007. About 1 in 5 IBM Employees Now in India. On the Internet at http://www.accessnorthga.com/detail.php?n=205230 . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
3. Sujit, John. August 2012. If Cognizant is Indian, so are IBM and Accenture. The Times of India. On the Internet at http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Tech-a-tete/entry/if-cognizant-is-indian-so-are-ibm-and-accenture . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
For these reasons, a mixture of management styles would be necessary in order to transition from an organizational culture that form strict hierarchies based on accidents of birth to one that allows for individual advancement and achievement based solely on merit. Neither a wholly "Indian" nor a wholly "American" style of management would be acceptable in the company at first, but starting with more of an "Indian" style while making it clear that certain changes will be implemented and then implementing those changes fairly and gradually over time would lead to an effective transition to more democratic management.
An international strategy involves the transferring of distinctive skills and/or products from one market to another, while a transnational strategy is much more complex and involves simultaneous actions in many different national markets to reduce costs through transfers of operations while retaining a great deal of local responsiveness. The most successful…
Human esources and Functional Illiteracy
Public Administration Human esources esearch Study Design
Public Sector Human esource Policy and Functional Illiteracy
Public Sector Human esource Policy and Functional Illiteracy
Anderson and icks (1993) examined the role of illiteracy in determining worker status within the public sector, in part because it had not been done before. They were interested in understanding how worker stratification was determined, after scholars had raised the possibility of a worker caste system within government agencies. This issue is still relevant today, given the increasingly diverse workforce both ethnically and linguistically. This report will analyze the research methods used by Anderson and icks (1993) and summarize their findings
The sample studied by Anderson and icks (1993) were human resource professionals currently engaged in managing employees in the public sector. A 41-item questionnaire was used to determine the 'functional literacy' that these managers were noticing on the job,…
Anderson, Claire J. And Ricks, Betty Roper. (1993). Illiteracy -- The neglected enemy in public service. Public Personnel Management, 22(1), 137-152.
History Channel. (2013). Great migration. History.com. Retrieved 13 Feb. 2013 from http://www.history.com/topics/great-migration .
elationships and Social Lives
This is the hierarchical way in which large social groups based on their control over basic resources. A key characteristic of stratification systems is the extent to which the structure is flexible. Slavery, a form of stratification in which people are owned by others, is an extreme type. In a caste system, people's status is determined at birth based on their parents' position in society
The class system, which exists in the United States, is a type of stratification based on ownership of resources and on the type of work people do. Functionalist perspectives on the U.S. class structure view classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilege based on their roles in the occupational structure. According to the Davis-Moore thesis, positions that are most important within society, requiring the most talent and training, must highly rewarded. Many people define classes as…
1. Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
2. Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
3. Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson.
4. Levine, Rhonda (1998). Social Class and Stratification. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Against the Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer
In the text, The Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer, the author argues that affirmative action is creating a 'tribal' America. Rather than a cohesive American identity, Glazer argues that Americans are becoming increasingly identified with their personal racial, religious and ethnic differences. Glazer states that this stands in defiance of the fact that "the United States has become the first great nation that defines itself not in terms of ethnic origin but in terms of adherence to common rules of citizenship." However, Glazer confuses this idealized view of American history with the realities of discrimination that have been perpetuated upon minorities, and which minorities continue to suffer in America. Glazer argues his case as if America were not a nation with a history marked by racial divisiveness, despite the goal of racial harmony advocated by…
Teacher Tenure Should Be Abolished
Making the case against teacher tenure
Virtually all employees within the job market today are employed 'at will' -- in other words, they can be fired at any time. This principle of the capitalist economy is supposed to increase the pressure upon employees to perform to a high standard. However, one profession is exempt from such pressures -- public school teachers. "Teacher tenure, which is sometimes called career status, provides job security for teachers who have successfully completed a probationary period. The purpose is to protect good teachers from being fired for non-educational issues including personal beliefs, personality conflicts with administrators or school board members, etc." (Meador 2012). However, critics of tenure frame the issue differently, asking: "if you were the C.E.O. Of a company" and wanted it to perform to a high standard, "would you offer anybody a contract with these terms: lifetime employment,…
Ayala, Eva-Marie & Mark Agee. "Prospective teachers may have difficulty finding jobs next year." Star Telegram. 8 Oct 2008. [13 Mar 2012]
Holland, Elizabethe. "Teacher tenure is under increased attack." STL Today. 20 Jan 2012.
[13 Mar 2012] http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/education/teacher-tenure-is-under-increased-attack/article_78f8e536-b2a4-5d78-aea7-77fd94c7c696.html
Thus, these castes being born twice in Hinduism, the principles behind Karma and Reincarnation applies to them. Karma refers to the corresponding reaction to an action or deed that an individual had done to another living thing/s. This means that if the deed was bad or considered evil, the corresponding reaction or karma will also be bad or evil. A similar analogy is applied to goodness/good deeds. Reincarnation is the return of some metaphysical part of the self into a new body -- a process of rebirth for the individual, characteristic of the concept of two births exclusively only to members of the three higher castes.
Jainism is an old religion prevalent in India and other nations in the Asian region. Originally a part of the Buddhist religion, Jainism believes not in the concept of a God, but the authority of the saints or prophets. Its religious principles are simple…
India is a diverse country in terms of religion. The Hindu population constitutes 828 million people (80%), the Muslim population constitutes million (13.5%), the Christian population constitutes 24 million (2.5%), the Sikh population constitutes 19 million (2%), while other religious groupings including Jains and Buddhists constitute 19.5 million. eligion is an important aspect of Indian political scene. Although India maintains that it is a secular nation, Indian politics has had a deep religious flavor at all times. This has resulted in religion being an important component of the identity of many Indians. There are many cases of religious identity being elicited in response to the communalism politics. Communalism connotes the functioning of organizations or religious communities, or the bodies which state they represent them, in a manner which is prejudices to the nation as a whole or interests of other groups. Historical evidence shows that communalism in the…
Avruch, K. (2001), "Constructing ethnicity: culture and ethnic conflict in the New World Disorder," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 71 No. 23, pp. 281-90.
Avruch, K. (2003), "Type I and II errors in culturally sensitive conflict resolution practice," Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 351-71.
Avruch, K. And Wang, Z. (2005), "Culture, apology, and international negotiation: the case of the Sino-U.S. 'spy plane' crisis," International Negotiation, Vol. 10, pp. 337-53.
Dalal, R. (2006), The Penguin Dictionary of Religion in India, Penguin Books, New Delhi.
Sowell also ignores the substantial difference between blacks and other ethnic groups. Other ethnic groups migrated willingly to America, and were able to form communities surrounded by people of other ethnic groups. Furthermore, other groups were not subjected to the system of slavery, which set up the racial caste system that exists today. In fact, Sowell himself is guilty of perpetuating the same type of racism that helped develop the caste system of racism. Blacks are not given the same type of ethnic identity as the Irish or Germans, for example. He does not refer to these groups as Europeans or as whites, but acknowledges their different ethnic identities. Likewise, slaves who were brought against their wills to America came from different countries in Africa and were, themselves, composed of different ethnic groups. hen brought here, they were mixed in with members of other groups, many times with traditional enemies.…
Sowell, Thomas. Ethnic America: A History. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1981.
Spheres of Influence
Politics is that one course of action by which the choices and decision that influences our lives directly are reached. In simple words, politics can be described as a tool that is responsible for the shaping up and changing peoples' lives. It is not an untold secret that it is the sole responsibility of the government to fulfill the needs of its people. Society changes due to politics. Thus, politics influence almost every aspect of our lives. Not only does it tell us how much tax we are obliged to pay, it also sets the price of gasoline. The political leaders are not the same. However, they all affect our mentalities in one way or another by their leadership styles and decisions they make for the betterment or nuisance for the people. Everything that a person loves about his/her country (apart from the scenic beauty)…
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Sociology of Gender: Studying the Relationship between Gender and Society. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Gender.htm
Hardegree, E. (n.d.). 5 Economic Factors that Influence People's Behavior. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_6951654_5-factors-influence-people_s-behavior.html
Hudson, C. (2007, March 02). How Politics Affects Our Lives. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://www.novanewsnow.com/News/Politics/2007-03-02/article-603796/How-Politics-Affects-Our-Lives/1
Triandis, H.C., & Suh, E.M. (2002). Cultural Influences on Personality. Annual Reviews Psychology, 53, 133-160. Retrieved July 19, 2012 from http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/suh/file/Cultural influences on personality.pdf
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
God of Small Things, Arundhati Roy shows a surprisingly profound understanding of human nature for such a new author. Her complex novel intertwines the past and present with the subtleties of Indian class and culture to create a rich tapestry of betrayal and spirituality. It is perhaps in her portrayal of the many facets of human betrayal that Roy is at her most proficient and convincing in the novel. Betrayal is a common theme throughout Roy's novel, The God of Small Things, and is seen as adults betray children, society betrays individuals, classes betray castes, and children betray parents, and history and tradition are betrayed.
The impact of betrayal is seen throughout the differing settings of the book; both when the twins are seven years of age in 1969 and when the twins have reached 31 years of age in 1993. Betrayal involves most of the characters in the novel:…
Roy, Arundhati. 1998. The God of Small Things. Perennial.
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
Home to the world's tenth largest economy and second largest population, India defies swift generalization. It includes a vast range of developmental situations, cultures, languages, and climates. The country remains largely rural, with just 26% of its people living in cities. Yet in 1995 it had over 30 cities of one million or more residents, including three of the world's 20 largest cities -- Bombay, Calcutta, and Delhi -- according to United Nations estimates (The Anguish of India, 1997).
Currently Indian labor laws, regulations, and workforce standards are very outdated. India is plagued with corruption. India has been ranked 9th in a list of 75 countries where dishonest practices are common, which is indeed an uncertain distinction. The corruptions, delays, bureaucratic red tape, and archaic labor laws are ingrained in India's business culture. These pitfalls have deterred foreign investors from investing in India (Stokes, 2003).
"Background Note: India," 2010, viewed 23 August 2010,
Chennai, Matrade, 2005, "Product Market Study: Consumer Behavior in India," viewed 23 August 2010,
Das Gupta, Aruna, 2007, "Social responsibility in India towards global compact approach." International Journal of Social Economic, 34(9), 637-663.
"Doing Business in India.," n.d., viewed 24 August 2010,
Impact of British ule in Sub-Continent 1857-1947 [Pick the date]
The era of British rule in Subcontinent comprise of centuries. Starting from a smart invasion in this land called. "The golden bird." Colonels slowly and gradually controlled the reins of this region. After gaining complete control over subcontinent, various reforms were introduced by British which were later on amalgamated with the existing structure of the political system of subcontinent. This later on, of course had its impact on the inhabitants of sub-continent, socially and economically. During this period, a system was established which was based on British ideology of governance and authority, quite similar to their owns. However, it was an impeccable implementation of this system was impossible. Mainly because of two reasons; firstly the culture variants were highly strong and secondly the main nations i.e. Hindus and Muslims, were not very cordial towards each other. Therefore,…
Maddison, A. 1971. Class Structure and Economic Growth: India & Pakistan since the Moghuls,
Retrieved from:Chapter 3: The Economic and Social Impact of Colonial Rule in India
Metcalf, Thomas R. 1994. Ideologies of the Raj, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
British Rule & the Sub-continent Page 2
Nevertheless, other psychic distance stimuli do still play a significant role.
Finally, Dow and Karunaratna (2006) also stressed Shenkar's (2001) 'the assumption of equivalence,' where it is inappropriate and unjustified to assume that all factors contribute equally to the overall psychic distance construct. Examples of this were Kogut and Singh's (1988) methodology for combining Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Barkema and Vermeulen's (1997) results. They showed that, for their sample population, the apparent relationship between a composite measure of Hofstede's cultural dimensions and international joint venture survival is driven entirely by only three of the five dimensions. The importance of various factors cannot be determined in isolation from appropriate dependent variables. The weighting of the various factors needs to be determined empirically, in concert with the dependent variable(s).
Conway and Swift (2000, p. 1391) looked at psychic distance from a different parameter based on this need for variables, specifically with relationship…
Barkema, H.G. And Vermeulen, F. 1997 'What differences in cultural backgrounds of partners are detrimental for International Joint ventures?' Journal of International Business Studies vol.28. no. 2. pp. 845-864.
Blois, K.J. 1996. Relationship marketing in organizationa markets. Journal of Strategic Marketing. vol.4. no. 3. pp. 181-191.
Boyacigiller, N. 1990 'The role of expatriates in the management of interdependence, complexity and risk in multinational corporations', Journal of International Business Studies vol. 21. no. 3. pp. 357-381
Brewer, Paul. 2007. 4 Psychic distance and Australian export market selection. Australian Journal of Management.
The American business model and the American capitalist ideal has infiltrated every aspect of Indonesian society, transforming the way people live and work. Not all of the changes taking place are negative. Before American culture influenced that of Indonesia, local elite controlled a vast amount of wealth and power and created what can correctly be called a caste system like the one in India or more accurately, feudalism. Without any possibility for a middle class to emerge, many individuals remained impoverished and beholden to the landowning class. The influence of American culture has allowed a middle class to emerge. Large corporations hire local managers and community liaisons.
The Dynamics of Capitalism
Ultimately capitalism caused the Great Depression, even though capitalism also enabled social mobility on a scale never before practiced in human history. Rampant speculation was the main culprit: buying on credit and borrowing prematurely. Moreover, unchecked capitalism…
Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, Milner provides a number of provocative statements that are worth contemplating and reacting to. Write a reaction essay to these two arguments. Illustrate knowledge of the Sociological Imagination by reflecting on the connection between the larger macro structure and youth behavior. Use arguments from the readings.
"My argument is that the structure of American secondary education - keeping teenagers in their own isolated world with little economic and political power of few non-school responsibilities - results in the status preoccupation of teenagers. The status concerns, in turn, play a significant contributing role in the development and maintenance of consumer capitalism." (pg. 156)
After reading this, I can't help but to ask the question, when wasn't status a preoccupation of teenagers and adults? I think as long as humans have been around "status" was an integral factor in determining the de facto hierarchy of society. Of…
Kozol states that these high school students: "...seem far less circumspect than their elders and far more open in their willingness to confront these issues." (2006) in fact, it is stated by a fifteen-year-old-girl named Isabel that Kozol reports having et in Harlem who attempted to give an explanation to the manner in which social segregation was understood by Isabel and her classmates: "It's as if you have been put in a garage where, if they don't have room for something but aren't sure if they should throw it out, they put it there where they don't need to think of it again." (2006) When Isabel was asked "if she thought America truly did not 'have room' for her or other children of her race..." (Kozol, 2006) Isabel's friend also being interviewed stated: "Think of it this way...If people in New York woke up one day and learned that we…
Winker, Margaret a. (2004) Measuring Race and Ethnicity: Why and How? Journal of American Medical Association Vol. 292. No. 13 Oct 6, 2004. Online available at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/292/13/1612
National Institutes of Health. Social and Demographic Studies of Race and Ethnicity in the United States January 16, 2003. Available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-03-057.html . Accessed August 18, 2004 as cited in Winker, Margaret a. (2004) Measuring Race and Ethnicity: Why and How? Journal of American Medical Association Vol. 292. No. 13 Oct 6, 2004. Online available at
Both Andrew and Abby had been killed in a similar manner -- crushing blows to their skills from a hatchet (Tetimony of Bridget Sullivan in the Trial of Lizzie Borden).
Just prior to the murder there was a great deal of conflict at the Borden house. The two living Borden sisters, Lizzie and Emma, occupied the front of the house, while Andrew and Abby the rear. Meals were rarely served as a family; Andrew was very tight and rejected many modern conviencences and the two daughters, well past marriage age for this time period, argued with their Father about his decision to dive the valuable properties among extended relatives before his death instad of the estate going to them. Lizzie did not hate her step-mother, but did not really enjoy her company and the combination of Andrew's monetary views, the new social mores of the time, and Andrew's insistence that…
However, an individual should be able to investigate their own roots, even if the science is questionable. hen such information is released into the public domain without the individual's permission though, a lot of harm can be done. Making invasions into a person's genetic history illegal is probably the best remedy.
Genetic testing has become an important tool for medical diagnosis and treatments (Norrgard) and therefore should be available to anyone needing or requesting such services. hat is done with this information, however, is another matter. Family members may suspect they have an increased risk for an early onset or even fatal disease, but would prefer not to know if effective treatments and cures are unavailable. Should one family member decide to get tested, then this may create friction between family members concerning their wishes and personal privacy because the results would have an impact on everyone in the family.…
Norrgard, K. "Ethics of Genetic Testing: Medical Insurance and Genetic Discrimination." Nature Education 1.1 (2008). Web. 3 May 2013.
Abbott, a. "Genome Test Slammed for Assessing Racial Purity." Nature 486 (2012):167.
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).
That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.
But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE
History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…
Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)
Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
cultures of India and China share some similarities, yet are vastly different when answering the question of how ideally a person should live their life. India, as a country, embraces the diversity of their people, and lives peacefully despite the different religions that coexist. The country supports a large population that is estimated at over 1 billion people. The people of India speak thousands of languages, practice nearly every religion imaginable, and oddly enough still incorporate the caste system. China similarly supports a 1-billion+ population, along with social classes, but more emphasis is placed on being male, and receiving higher education. Communism has been a very intrusive government system, which has dramatically influenced the everyday way of life in China.
India's people, despite their similar characteristics physically, celebrate their diversity by coming together on common ground in reference to a common ancestry. Religion is very important in India, and the…
"China," Microsoft ® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001 http://www.encarta.msn.com © 1997-2001 21 Feb 2002
Chinascape. http://www.chinascape.org 25 Feb 2002
Gajewski, Karen Ann. "Intolerance Took a Violent Turn." The Humanist. November -- December 2001. Vol. 61, No. 6
"India," Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia 2001 http://www.encarta.msn.com © 1997-2001 21 Feb 2002
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
As Minister of Law in India's first post-independence government, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar drafted the constitution of India that provided the legal framework for the abolition of many oppressive aspects in Indian society (Beshkin pp). Ambedkar is regarded as the father of the Indian Constitution and the country's leading champion of human rights.
The caste system in India is one of the world's longest surviving forms of social stratification (O'Neill pp). This fifteen hundred year old system follows the basic precept that "all men are created unequal" (O'Neill pp). The ranks in Hindu society come from a legend in which the main groupings, or varnas, emerge from a primordial being:
From the mouth come the Brahmans the priests and teachers.
From the arms come the Kshatriyas the rulers and soldiers.
From the thighs come the Vaisyas merchants and traders.
From the feet come the Sudras -- laborers
Lopez, David S. Jr. A Modern Buddhist Bible: Essential Readings from East and West. Beacon Press. 2002; pp 3.
Baucom, Ian. "Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity, and Belief."
Church History; 9/1/1999; pp.
Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind. "Theravada Buddhism and modernization:
Buddhist vs. Hindu Religious Ideals in Art and Architecture
Although Buddhist and Hindu art may appear to be the same to the eyes of an untrained observer, they are products of entirely different religious traditions. While Buddhism has its origins in India, it quickly spread outside of the birthplace of its founder, Siddhartha Gautama and gained greater traction elsewhere, including China and Japan. Buddhism also split into two distinct traditions, that of Theravada and Mahayana, the former of which emphasized the monastic tradition of strictly adhering to the teachings and life of the Buddha while the latter placed greater emphasis on the ability of laypersons as well as monks to obtain Enlightenment. In contrast, Hinduism is a distinctly Indian religion. Both religions embrace the concept of reincarnation, although it is Hinduism who uses this idea to justify a caste system, or the notion that the social class into which someone…
Voltaire and Story of a Good Brahmin
According to Merriam-ebster's Collegiate Dictionary, the word "Brahmin" is defined as "a Hindu state of the highest caste traditionally assigned to the priesthood" (Mish, 149). This means that a good Brahmin is at the highest level of enlightenment within the Hindu social system. One would think this state of being would be an accomplishment and would bring about happiness and peace. This paper explores on many levels Voltaire's Story of a Good Brahmin found in many of his collected works.
Upon reading the text, it appears that despite the good Brahmin's path to Nirvana, he also has a dilemma in life. It appears he has spent too many years pondering the big questions in life, with no one to listen to him and he feels this plight has made him miserable. This state of being brings up many questions for the reader. Should…
Mish, Frederick, ed. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary: Eleventh Edition.
Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2004.
Voltaire. The Portable Voltaire. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
Pilgrimages in India
A Quest for Finding Oneself in India: Introduction
Humans are born with an incredible amount of mental capacity to learn and grow, yet we are not born with a pre-determined set of rules guiding our thoughts. Religious practice around the world is thus the result of a collaboration of ideas between humans within a society in order to bring a framework of understanding into everyday life. Yet even with justifications of existence provided by religion, some individuals choose to pursue unanswered questions, in order to find a deeper meaning to life, and existence. Pilgrimage is such a quest, and is the pursuit of knowledge, as well as a journey of the mind and body, in search of answers to the unknowable questions of the universe. Pilgrimage also serves to prove one's own devotion to his or her faith, and can be qualified as a measure of…
"Essay on Bhakti Movement of India." PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
"Foot Pilgrimage to Murugan Shrines." Murugan Bhakti: Skanda-Kumara Website. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
Haberman, David L. Journey through the Twelve Forests: an Encounter with Krishna. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
"History of Pilgrimage." HOME. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
Women and water in India. In the villages of North Gujarat in India, so much groundwater has been removed that water supplies are now becoming scarce, according to hawana Upadhyay, writing in the journal Agriculture and Human Values. Women in North Gujarat are basically looked upon as "…domestic water users while men are seen as productive water users, despite the fact that women make significant use of water for productive purposes as well"
(Upadhyay, 2005, p. 411). Domestic water usage in India goes well beyond drinking and cooking, Upadhyay writes. Dalit women in Nepal for example grow commercial vegetable crops with the water they draw; they utilize a drip system, which costs just $12 to install, and it results in a profit of around $80 annually. Without a source of safe water, the livelihood of these women would disappear. Still, women's use of water tends to be classified as domestic,…
Buckingham, Susan, 2004, 'Ecofeminism in the Twenty-First Century', the Geographical Journal, Vol. 170, No. 2, 146-154.
Crow, Ben, and Sultana, Farhana, 2002, 'Gender, Class, and Access to Water: Three Cases in a Poor and Crowded Delta', Society and Natural Resources, Vol. 15, 709-724.
Dobscha, Susan, and Ozanne, Julie L. 2001. 'An Ecofeminist Analysis of Environmentally Sensitive Women Using Qualitative Methodology: The Emancipatory Potential of an Ecological Life', Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 2, 201-214.
Eaton, Heather, 'Ecofeminism and Globalization', Feminist Theology, Vol. 8, No. 41, 41-55.
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
Aryans came to dominate India.
How the Aryans Came to Dominate India
The general scholarly and historical view is that the first group of people to invade the indigenous people of India was the Aryans. The date given for this invasion is approximately 1500 BC.
The Aryans are described as "… semi-nomadic Nordic Whites, perhaps located originally on the steppes of southern ussia and Central Asia, who spoke the parent language of the various Indo-European languages" ( Aryans: Who Were the Aryans). It is also commonly accepted that they brought certain cultural, social and organizational traditions with them that had a profound impact on the continent which shaped its history. "The Aryans brought with them strong cultural traditions that… still remain in force today" ( India). This invasion resulted in the domination of the indigenous Dravidian people ( Boeree). Furthermore, the Aryans lived in and dominated the northern…
Aryans: Who Were the Aryans? Retrieved from http://www.indhistory.com/aryan.html
Boeree C. Early Chinese and Indian History. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/chinaindiahistory.html
Harris R. ( 2007). INDIA: ARYAN PATRIARCHY AND DRAVIDIAN MATRIARCHY.
Retrieved from http://www.integralworld.net/harris32.html
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM
Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference
Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism?
Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…
Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. (2012). difference between.net. Retrieved:
Eng, Tan Swee. (2006). Differences between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. A Basic
Buddhism Guide. Retrieved: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm
Bhagwati says, "But today's most dramatic change is in the degree to which governments have intervened to reduce obstacles to the flow of trade and investments worldwide (p. 11)." He emphasizes to make this next point, which is:
But this fact forces upon our attention a disturbing observation: governments that can accelerate globalization can also reverse it. Herein lies a vulnerability that cannot be dismissed complacently. The earlier globalization, in the end, was interrupted for almost a half century with rising trade barriers epitomized (p. 11)."
The warning is, of course, as a result of recent "discoveries" by those colonizing countries that unskilled labor is being "outsourced" to third world countries; and the citizens of countries like America, where the unskilled labor jobs have been the bread and butter of America's middle class almost since the birth of America, are becoming very nationalistic and loud about work being outsourced to…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=103179036' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Finally, Gandhi believed that Indian independence had to precede any agreements between the competing groups in the country: Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs. In contrast, Jinnah believed in the idea of two Indias, a Muslim India and a Hindu India. Furthermore, Jinnah believed that the Indian National Congress, composed of educated Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs, was the pathway to a free India, because through it they could extract more and more constitutional freedoms from Britain. Jinnah did not believe in direct confrontation, even the nonviolent confrontation espoused by Gandhi.
9. Vivekananda and Gandhi had a different definition of karma yoga than that found in the Bhagavad-Gita. In the Bhagavad-Gita, karma yoga is concerned with duty (dharma) regardless of earthly reward and dharma is linked to class or caste. The concept is that one may reach salvation by working for the pleasure of a supreme being.
In order to understand Gandhi's notion…
By concentrating on God's Name (or many titles), one conquers the ego and unites with God" (Islam in Sikhism, n.d.).
The compilation of the Sikh scriptures began in 1604 by the Fifth Guru. The last of the ten Gurus, Guru Gobind Singh, announced that he would be the last personal Guru and that after that Sikhs were to regard the Adi Granth as their teacher. This sacred book is thought to be the living embodiment of all ten Gurus and is therefore the focus of worship in all Sikh temples. The Adi Granth, though never claiming to be a revealed scripture, is made up of three main parts. A long poem by Nanak, that sums up the elements of Sikhism. A collection of Ragas, or songs that were written by the first five Gurus and a mixed collection of commentaries that elaborated on the Ragas together with hymns of many…
"7. Dalits -- on the Margins of Development" n.d. 4 October 2009,
Ali Nadwi, Syed Abul Hasan. 2008. "Islam and Civilization." 4 October 2009, <
ishi's loyalty to the Indian states exemplifies the nationalism that gripped the country at that time. oja explores the issues involved in terrorism and the wish for a free Kashmir state, set against the overwhelming love of a wife for her husband. The negative messages in the film serve a purpose and helped to define the issues that faced India at the time of the making of the film.
Shri 420 shows the underground world of the impoverished in Bombay and the swindlers who would take advantage of them. It shows the brothels and portions of the town that would rather remain hidden. However, the story is not about Bombay, or India for that matter. The story is about the corruption that western ideas invoke. It is about how materialism destroys and corrupts, destroying the possibility of achieving the Indian idealistic existence.
Shri 420 promotes family values by contrasting them…
Roja (1992) directed by Mani Ratnam
Shree 420 (1955) directed by Raj Kapoor
Compare and Contrast rural and urban women in India Today
According to umiller, "an estimated 95% of marriages are still arranged, including the majority of those among the educated middle class" (25-26) and while it may appear that there are great divides between the rurbal and urban women in India, when it comes to marriage, it is perhaps the one thing that makes them equal. umiller remarks in her book on a man who earned $800 a year, spending over $3,200 for a luncheon and dowry. Afterall, umiller says, "Marriage for love exists only among a very small slice of India's urban elite" (26) and "arranged marriages both reflect and reinforce the caste system which remains especially rigid among the rural poor" (29).
Women in India are probably accepted as being on the same social level regardless of their wealth or caste, although there are exceptions to the…
Bumiller, E. May You Be the Mother of 100 Sons: A Journey Among the Women of India
Random House, 1990
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…
Mannion, James. Essential Philosophy. Avon: F+W, 2006.
Rice, Hugh. "Fatalism." 2006, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 October 2008.
Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fatalism/
Sach, Jacky. Essential Buddhism. Avon: F+W, 2006.
They ones who feel guilty are the ones who are the most frightened of dying, but also some of the most resigned. General MacArthur is resigned to his death as punishment for his crime, while Vera becomes increasingly hysterical and fearful of dying. Each of the accused have different personalities, and Christie uses them to illustrate the many different forms of guilt that people can harbor. Each person had a hand in a person's dying. Some have been able to rationalize away their part in the death, while others have not been able to get over their own feelings of guilt and remorse. However, the most important aspect of this is that none of them took full responsibility for their actions, and volunteered themselves to pay for their crime. Thus, the judge takes it into his own hands to punish them, knowing in their own way, they are all guilty…
Christie, Agatha. And Then There Were None. New York: Bantam Books, 1967.
This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.
Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.
The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…
references taken from "India: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." (2011). Kwintesential. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
List provided by Shukla, M. (2011). "Guide to India." Executive Planet: Wiki. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India >.
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .
Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from . s
McKnight, D., Stokes, P., Vilmenay, J. (2003). "India - A Market Analysis: For Staples Incorporated." University of Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.sixsmart.com/SSPapers/subindia.htm >.
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
Gender Perspectives on Globalization
The social impact of globalization: case of Indian nurses migration
The globalization advent can be dated back to the post WWII era leading to the cold war period where countries increasingly chose the nations that they aligned their diplomatic, political and economic allegiances to. This trend was informed by the global economic trends that prevailed after the WWII and the need for economic allies in order for a country and to some extent a region to survive. The World Bank (2014a) advances globalization as the increased interdependence of countries on each other due to the ever increasing finance, trade, human resources and ideologies at the global level. It is characterized by the significant increase in the international trade patterns and the establishment of cross-border investments and these are noted to be the two major characteristics of globalization as sated by Mrak M. (2000:Pp3-6) and these cannot…
Costinot A. Donaldson D., (2012). Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Advantage: Old Idea, New Evidence. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://economics.mit.edu/files/7536
Gill R., (2011). Nursing Shortage in India with special reference to International Migration of Nurses. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CFUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsocialmedicine.info%2Findex.php%2Fsocialmedicine%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F517%2F1088&ei=GEF2VJeBA4Ldao7_grgG&usg=AFQjCNF2NHcvOH9zERhetMyAYZN1uKua2A&sig2=VzqxICFENaDFRwkKDJ8YeA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.bGQ
Nagarajan R., (2010). India tops with 56,000 migrant doctors in OECD countries. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-tops-with-56000-migrant-doctors-in-OECD-countries/articleshow/7154050.cms
Senior K., (2010). Wanted: 2.4 million nurses, and that's just in India. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/5/10-020510.pdf
Poverty in the U.S.
Poverty is a major variable in the lives of many people in the U.S. The median household income for families in the U.S. is $59,000 (Semega, Fontenot and Kollar)—yet 40.6 million people live in poverty in the U.S., or 12.7% of the population (Semega, Fontenot and Kollar). If poverty were a health issue it would be considered an epidemic. This paper will address the issue of poverty in the U.S. and explain how it is an injustice and how it affects higher education for young people.
Poverty is a socioeconomic issue that impacts everyone—not just the lives of families who directly suffer from it. When communities suffer from poverty, the rest of the world is impacted, too. Employers are impacted because the pool of educated individuals from which they will be able to select their talent shrinks, as most people who grow up in poverty suffer…