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The company has grown substantially over the past several years in terms of revenues, profits and share price. In 2008, however, the company's share price has declined 45.3% from the beginning of the year. As the economic crisis spread overseas, Caterpillar's policy of geographic diversification is at risk of being insufficient to insulate the firm from global economic catastrophe. Maintaining the current path, however, recognizes the long-term strength of their strategy. Moreover, it allows the company to continue to strengthen some its existing new initiatives, such as its logistics business, railroad subsidiary and its solar turbine business. Caterpillar typically takes a cautious approach to building and integrating new businesses so drastic moves right now may not fit with the company's overall strategy.
Another alternative is to continue to expand into different product lines. Caterpillar has a strong, recognizable brand name. They have successful moved into financial services and apparel using…
Corporate and financial information from Reuters. Retrieved December 3, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=CAT.N
Corporate information from Caterpillar Inc. Retrieved December 3, 2008 at http://www.cat.com/ cda/layout?m=37400&x=7
2007 Caterpillar Inc. Annual Report. Caterpillar Inc. Retrieved December 3, 2008 at
Global Financial Prospectus, 2010
A financial and qualitative leader in product and services in the heavy equipment industry, Caterpillar has been an expert in construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines and industrial gas turbines for over 80 years. Outperformance of stated goals is consistent to Caterpillar's brand identity and expert financial outcomes in its manufacturer industry class. Subsidiaries Cat Financial, Caterpillar Logistics Services Inc., and Caterpillar emanufacturing Services and Progress ail Services Corporation contribute to the conglomerates total financial picture. Caterpillar's long-term global operations strategy, Vision 2020 articulates priorities in acquisition and investment in new wholly owned subsidiaries abroad.
Public notice of reported annual sales and revenues totaled $51.324 billion. Caterpillar is also a global leader in exports in its competitive manufactured categories. Analysis of the Company's strategic market prospectus for the forthcoming three years in direct sales will be increasingly reliant upon its international…
Caterpillar (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.cat.com/
Caterpillar, Inc. (2008). Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Washington: D.C.: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
Caterpillar, Inc. (2010). Hoovers. Retrieved from: http://www.hoovers.com
Caterpillar Ramps Up Production (2010). Lexis Nexis,. Retrieved from http://www.forconstructionpros.com/publication/printer.jsp?id=15932
ith respect to short-term solvency, Caterpillar is in no danger. hile the firm's inventory and receivables turn have been reduced as a result of the downturn, the current ratio has actually improved. In 2007, Cat's current ratio was 1.14, while at the end of 2008 it was 1.22, both of these being healthy figures. As further evidence of Caterpillar's financial strength, its accounts payable turnover improved during the period. Accounts payable increased just 2.2% while sales increased 14.1%. Caterpillar maintained its payments to suppliers even when its customers were delaying payments and its inventories were building up.
ith respect to long-term solvency, long-term debt increased 28.07% and total liabilities increased 30.5%, both rates much faster than the growth in sales. Neither the 2007 nor 2008 income statement highlighted the firm's interest expense. However, it is worth noting that the company is highly levered. Total liabilities to total assets increased from…
Caterpillar 2008 Annual Report. Retrieved October 22, 2009 from http://www.cat.com/ cda/files/1401923/7/Caterpillar%202008%20Annual%20Report%20-%20electronic%20only.pdf
Caterpillar 2007 Annual Report. Retrieved October 22. 2009 from
Caterpillar, Inc. is the world's largest manufacturer of heavy equipment machinery, earthmoving machinery, and construction, mining, and agricultural equipment. It also manufactures diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbines, and logging and oil industry equipment. It has over $7 billion in assets, and ranked number one in its industry and number 44 overall in the 2009 Fortune 500 companies. The company itself originated in 1925 with the merger of two companies, and reorganized in 1986 as Caterpillar Inc., with its corporate headquarters in Peoria, Illinois. 2010 revenue was almost $43 billion with almost $3 billion in net income. The company has over 130,000 employees and eight viable subsidiaries (Caterpillar.com, 2011).
Strategy - Caterpillar believes itself to be poised for 21st century growth in a marketplace in which it is recognized as the leader in every country that it does business; that its products, services, and solutions will…
Orlemann, E. (2000). Caterpillar Chronicle, The History of the World's Greatest Earthmovers.
Minneapolis, MN: MBI Publishing.
Tanner, A. (September 17, 2007). Court Dismisses Suit Over Israeli Bulldozing. Reuters.
Our cash position is not great, and was better in each of the past two years. his partially explains the growth in the accounts payable. here has not been any substantial growth in receivables but our cash conversion cycle has been affected by excess inventory. Inventory as a percentage of total assets was 17.8% in 2011, compared with 12.8% five years ago. We are simply not selling our inventory as quickly as we need to, and this has led to a situation where we have to stretch our payables.
he company has also taken on more long-term debt last year, adding $4.5 billion in long-term debt. his takes the long-term debt to the highest level it has ever been. Part of this could be related to the cash conversion cycle, but it also hints at spending that is out of control. Yet, our margins are better than they have in…
The company has been profitable for the past five years, so there is little excuse for this type of financial underperformance. The company's liquidity has actually improved, compared with where we were five years ago, when we had a current ratio of 1.14. The past year, however, saw a spike in accounts payable, which is something over which we have control. Our cash position is not great, and was better in each of the past two years. This partially explains the growth in the accounts payable. There has not been any substantial growth in receivables but our cash conversion cycle has been affected by excess inventory. Inventory as a percentage of total assets was 17.8% in 2011, compared with 12.8% five years ago. We are simply not selling our inventory as quickly as we need to, and this has led to a situation where we have to stretch our payables.
The company has also taken on more long-term debt last year, adding $4.5 billion in long-term debt. This takes the long-term debt to the highest level it has ever been. Part of this could be related to the cash conversion cycle, but it also hints at spending that is out of control. Yet, our margins are better than they have in the past few years and there has been no specific escalation in our operating costs. Our ratio of selling, general and administration expense to revenue has remained largely unchanged in the past five years.
It seems that in absence of a specific internal factor, we simply do not perform as efficiently as our competitors do. We need to find ways to improve our products and our marketing, so that we can not only sell more but sell at higher margins. At some point, the escalation of debt needs to stop, so the company should position its cash flow in a way that will allow for this. After two years of retiring debt, we added to it this past year, and that approach is only making it more difficult to improve our financial condition in other areas.
hile Caterpillar has its own financing arm, firms are not only dependent on Caterpillar to provide financing. Moreover, with interest rates at historic lows and capital investment low, the financing arm cannot be counted on to deliver strong top or bottom line growth.
The present economic situation is a perfect storm for Caterpillar. Commodities prices have dropped dramatically over the past nine months. Credit is unavailable and when Caterpillar offers credit the rates are low. Economic activity is down, suppressing capital investment. The housing market is still stagnant. The economic malaise has spread to the four corners of the globe. Only countries with distorted, artificial economies and freedom from the constraints of democracy can justify a level of infrastructure spending that would make Caterpillar happy. In a nutshell, there are no real bright spots for Caterpillar right now. The company still expects to make money this year, but their estimates…
Caterpillar website. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://www.cat.com/ cda/layout?m=8703&x=7
Caterpillar financial information from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statemnt.aspx?Symbol=CAT&lstStatement=Income&stmtView=Qtr
Caterpillar Inc. 2008 Annual Report. Retrieved April 23, 2009 from
The 1990s and 2000s saw tremendous growth in the CAT brand as its new line of compact construction equipment receives tremendous support in the market place (CAT, history, 2011). Caterpillar is currently one of the most recognized brand names in the global construction market with contracts across the world in both public and private industry applications.
Company future performance
Caterpillar's future performance is a function of understanding that the global environment has changed considerably. Construction and development has been considerable in the Middle East, which has been one of Caterpillars stronger markets. Global demand for construction equipment will likely remain strong after the current global economic crisis wanes. That said there is strong demand in the Asian markets, including China and Indonesia.
Additionally, the future for CAT appears to be in India as well. "Caterpillar is committed to achieve market leadership in India for which we will continue to explore…
Aeppel, T., Tuna, C., & Lahart, J. (2009, Oct 21). Business spending looks up - caterpillar, parker hannifin are latest to predict rising sales; investment uptick seen. Wall Street Journal, pp. A.1-A.1. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/399120467?accountid=13044
Annual Report. (2011). Caterpillar Company. http://www.caterpillar.com/cda/files/2801521/7/CAT-2010AR_pdfversion_English.pdf
Caterpillar. (2011). The History of Caterpillar. http://middleeast-africa.cat.com/cda/layout?m=403597&x=7
Caterpillar is committed to lead indian market. (2011, May 01). NBM & CW, n/a. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/865547460?accountid=13044
The world of investing is full of choices. Selecting those areas which can provide above average returns requires focusing on corporations with: strong management, balance sheets and business models. These elements allow firms to increase its earnings, dividends and shareholder value. This is what some of the most successful corporations do to achieve these objectives.
Since 1926, Caterpillar has been focused on providing tractors, construction equipment and other machinery to a variety of industries. The most notable include: oil / gas, construction and locomotives. Over the years, its business model has been continuing to evolve to meet the changing needs of customers. The result is that the firm is selling a variety of products in numerous countries around the world to include: the U.S., Canada, Brazil, China, the EU and ussia. (Standards and Poor's, 2014)
Caterpillar is organized into a number of different segments (i.e. Construction, esources, Power Systems…
2013 Annual Report. (2013). Caterpillar. Retrieved from: http://s7d2.scene7.com/is/content/Caterpillar/C10133618
Caterpillar. (2014). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/echarts?s=CAT+Basic+Chart#%7B%22range%22%3A%2210y %22%2C%22scale%22%3A%22linear%22%7D
Caterpillar Form 10K. (2014). Caterpillar. Retrieved from: http://finance.cat.com/cda/files/2449901/7/CFSC-12312013-10K%20PDF%20ALL.pdf
Caterpillar Reports Full Year 2013 Earnings. (2014). Caterpillar. Retrieved from: http://www.caterpillar.com/en/news/corporate-press-releases/h/caterpillar-reports-full - year-2013-results-including-record-operating-cash-flow.html
Technology advances will continually create a demand for advances in efficiency and fuel consumption enhancements. Other trends include a migration towards leasing and rentals as a middleman industry gains momentum as opposed to purchasing decisions being made by individual construction operations.
The company must get a better understanding of the global trends and become better acclimated in the new world economy. The company has been slow to accept partnering as a base for product distribution. CAT uses the 'run the entire operation from Peoria' line of reasoning and that approach can not take advantage of regional or local experience, governmental tax and cost relief and other locally generated perks. CAT's customers are and will continue to change so CAT should make a more intensive effort to recognize this fact. For example, the company currently distributes its products through dealerships even though that way of doing business is outdated…
Financial Performance: Caterpillar
Caterpillar, the preeminent leader in the manufacture and supplier of earth moving equipment is the quintessential growth success story in the rapid economic globalization of the past three decades. Caterpillar's growth engine relies not just on the stable and dependability of the developed G-8 economies, but also in the inchoate opportunities presented by rapidly increasing developing economies such as Brazil, China, and South Africa. The Caterpillar narrative is one of competitive drive and dedication in providing superior manufacturing and industrial equipment to customers from small business to corporate giants to governmental entities. As global economic demand has increased tremendously over the past decades (notwithstanding the last years of the Great ecession), Caterpillar had delivered exceptional results for its customers, employees, and shareholders.
The Caterpillar name is synonymous with heavy-duty, rugged, and dependable earth-moving and industrial equipment. The company which has a presence on every continent…
Caterpillar.com (2010). Caterpillar 2010-Year in Review. Caterpillar.com. Retrieved May
16, 2011 from http://www.caterpillar.com/cda/files/2674611/7/FullReport_FINAL.pdf
Caterpillar.com. (2011). Home Page. Caterpillar.com. Retrieved May 16, 2011 from http://www.caterpillar.com/home
CNBC.com. (May 16, 2011). Caterpillar Stock Quote and Financial Information.
Cycle of Change Model to the Caterpillar Case Study
The process by which Caterpillar determined the nature and scope of the change needed began with understanding a very simple principle: the building blocks of an organization have to be aligned with “the overall strategy and performance objectives of the company” and its decision-making (Neilson & Pasternack, 2005). After nearly going bankrupt in the 1980s, Caterpillar reshaped its decision making process, its pathway to information, its approach to motivating, and its organizational structure. To complete this transformation it engaged in a cycle of change, which this paper will describe.
Direct the Change
To effect a change, certain ingredients are needed. These include: trustworthy leadership, systems thinking, capable champions (supporters and facilitators), followers who trust their leaders, and involved and engaged middle management (Judge, n.d.). One of the biggest of these factors is systems thinking, as it is what allows for…
Caterpillar Company Profile
The company had had a tremendous evolution throughout a period of highest sales and profits, however, in 1982, it hit rock bottom and entered its most serious crisis in history. A strong dollar, a long- term strike and several internal problems meant that Caterpillar endured three years of continuous decreasing sales and heavy losses.
Things became to turn around as George Schaefer became CEO in February 1985. A long career with the company helped him use his huge experience to revive the company's activities.
George Schaefer became CEO in February 1985 and led the company through a period of serious restructuring and organizational change. He had started out in accounting, but then moved in several positions throughout the company, including Vice President for Finance and Data Processing, EVP and board member.
Pierre Guerindon had played an essential role as the Belgian plant's manager…
Caterpillar Capital Budgeting
There are a number of qualitative factor that go into a capital budgeting decision. The first is that the company needs to think about how the purchase fits with its overall strategy. Caterpillar has an overall strategy, and its resources should be directed towards that. It has to think if a new computer network system -- which will have more costs than just 10% of last year's profits because there is a learning curve with new computer systems -- is going to be a good use of resources. Opportunity costs are a major issue in capital budgeting decisions because that money could be deployed elsewhere (CFA Institute, 2014).
There are other qualitative factors as well. For example, activities must be within the ethical framework of the company. They must also have a positive effect on some element of the company's objectives, like customer service. Ideally,…
CFA Institute. (2014). Capital budgeting. CFA Institute. Retrieved November 13, 2014 from http://www.cfainstitute.org/learning/products/publications/inv/Documents/corporate_finance_chapter2.pptx
Ingram, D. (2014). Qualitative factors in capital investment decisions. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 13, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/qualitative-factors-capital-investment-decisions-73769.html
MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Caterpillar, Inc. Retrieved November 13, 2014 from http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails/financials/fi-CAT?ocid=qbeb
In the 1990s, America was undergoing a major transformation. What was happening, is globalization (i.e. free trade agreements) made is possible to have access to numerous markets around the world without having to worry about tariffs. This created a transformation in the way many firms are operating by giving them the ability to: increase their profits and lower their labor costs. (Watcher, 2007, pp. 23 -- 29)
In the case of Caterpillar (i.e. Cat), they were dealing with similar challenges during this time. This is because, the firm was trying to lower its labor costs and increase their profit margins. However, a major challenge existed with the contract that the firm had in place with the United Auto Workers (UAW). In this situation, Cat wanted to move away from its traditional business structure to one that is more focused on: specific products lines and geographic locations. This created…
Caterpillar. (2001). Funding Universe. Retrieved from: http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Caterpillar-Inc.-Company-History.html
Brenner, A. (2009). Encyclopedia of Strikes. Armonk, NY: ME Sharp.
Cimini, M. (1998). Caterpillars Prolonged Dispute Ends. Compensation and Working Conditions, 4 -- 11
Gordon, D. (1996). Fat and Mean. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Business Ethics and Law
Over the last several years, the issue of ethics and legal challenges has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because globalization has created a change in the way firms are interacting with employees. Over the course of time, this has resulted in firms outsourcing jobs to key locations (which have lower labor costs). This has given executives greater amounts of flexibility in determining: what is asked of employees, the kind of benefits that are received and the impact on labor relations. (Franklin, 2001, pp. 7 -- 16)
In the case of Caterpillar, they have been using this kind of strategy to reduce their costs and to begin selling their products in developing markets. This has resulted in the company realizing increasing profit margins and it has helped the firm to aggressively market to consumers in these areas. However, a problem has emerged inside many…
Franklin, S. (2001). Three Strikes. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Miller, P. (2002). Rethinking the Factory. Cultural Values, 6 (2), 91 -- 117.
Orelman, E. (2006). Caterpillar. St. Paul, MN: Motor Books.
Torres, J. (1996). The Corporate Campaign at Caterpillar. Journal of Labor Research, 17 (3), 377 -- 394.
Allard, Harry and James Marshall. Miss Nelson Is Missing. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1977. Print.
Miss Nelson is a non-threatening instructor whose students take advantage of her gentle personality by misbehaving. One day Miss Nelson disappears and is replaced by an ill-tempered substitute, Miss Viola Swamp, who makes the children appreciate their good-natured teacher. The book is designed for primary and early elementary readers.
Beaumont, Karen. I Ain't Gonna Paint No More! Florida: Harcourt, Inc. 2005. Print.
A little boy has been caught and chastised for decorating his home with a box of paints. His mother takes the paint set away from him and tells him, "Ya ain't gonna paint no more!" He soon reacquires the box of paints and becomes busily engaged in painting himself from head to toe. Preschool children will enjoy this book.
Carle, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. New York: Collins Publishers.…
Dave, a fifth-grader, is astonished to learn in a report about India that Mahatma Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence to give his mind a rest. Dave attempts to give it a try, but being a constant talker, he finds it difficult to remain silent. He and a friend convince the entire fifth grade class to try the experiment. Despite a long-standing animosity, the boys and girls in the classroom form a bond during their periods of silence by trying to find other ways to communicate.
DiCamillo, Kate. Because of Winn-Dixie. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Candlewick Press. 2000. Print.
India Opal Buloni moves to Naomi, Florida when her father obtains a position as a preacher in a local church. Opal's mother left the family when she was only three years old and she has no friends in Naomi. One day she finds a big, ugly dog wandering around in a
Personnel records are data pertaining to employees which consist of factual and comprehensive information of employee. All employee information is kept in systematic order which assists human resources manager to make an effective decision about employee. Typically, personnel records consist of employee past records, medical report and employee progress. Personnel record also consist of payroll records, leave records, and benefit record and turnover record. Training and development record contains training schedule, transfer cases, and appraisal reports. Health and safety record contains medical history, safety provisions, sickness reports, and insurance reports. The service record contains essential records that consist of bio-data, family information, residential information, and marital status, academic qualifications, past address and employment records. While some critics argue that personnel records is a waste of time and money, however, Yoder (1942) provides several benefits that organization could derive from personnel record:
Personnel record assists managers to identify crucial…
Ahmed, S. (2005).Analysis of Workplace Surveillance in a Quest for Ethical Stance. Journal of Business Systems Governance and Ethics .2(4).
American Bar Association.(2001).Employment: Proof of Discrimination. Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter. 25( 5): 826-831.
Aswathapp, K. (2005).Human Resource and Personnel Management. (4th Edition) Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Aswathapp, K (2010). Employment Law for Human Resource Practice. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Financial esearch eport
This is a review of Caterpillar, Inc.. The report is broken down into three sections -- company overview, ratio analysis (which includes a trend analysis), stock price analysis -- that are designed to give a thorough overview of the complete company.
Caterpillar is one of the best known name brands, around the world for its manufacture of heavy machinery made, primarily, for the construction industry. The company began operations in 1925 under the name Caterpillar after a merger was formed between Holt Manufacturing and C.L. Best Tractor (USSEC, 2011). The company has set the standard in its industry becoming the largest manufacturer of hauling machines in the world.
Caterpillar operates primarily as a manufacturer of heavy equipment, but, with the realization that they needed to be able to finance purchases of their products and help maintain them, the company has also diverged into financial services…
Caterpillar. (2011a). About us. Retrieved from http://www.caterpillar.com/company/strategy
Caterpillar. (2011b). Stock chart. Retrieved from http://www.caterpillar.com/investors/stock-information/stock-quote/stock-chart
Caterpillar. (2009). Sales and Revenue. Retrieved from http://producttour.cat.com/Microsites/U.S./ARSR2009/AR2009/sales-profit.html
USSEC. (2011). Caterpillar for 10K. United States Securities and Exchange Comission.
Beauty and Life of the Monarch Butterfly
This is a paper about the Monarch Butterfly. What animal kingdom is it from? Listed is the life cycle of the butterfly. What are the adaptations of the Monarch Butterfly?
THE BEAUTY OF THE MONACH BUTTEFLY
Many people think butterflies live in a carefree environment, but they are wrong. They seem so peaceful visiting flowers, but they are bound by social conventions and instincts of their own. Although their lives appear to be so simple, yet their lives are quite demanding (Farrand 1990). The beauty of the Monarch is found delighting in most butterfly lovers. The life of a Monarch Butterfly is quite complicated as it meets the instincts that it is bound with. A butterfly's life depends on finding enough food, where to lay its eggs safely, the intricate demands of courtships, and on finding the right spot of transformation from a…
Butterflies and Moths" Encarta Encyclopedia Article. http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761578331&cid=2
Butterflies The World of Nature" 1990. New York: Gallery Books
Carson, Shawn. "Unraveling the Secrets of Monarchs" Scientific American Sep. 1997 Vol. 277 Issue 3 p. 90
Darrach, Brad. "Millions of Monarchs" Life. Aug 93. Vol. 16. Issue 9. p. 50
Competing for the Future: Komatsu and Home Depot
Komatsu is now one of the leading earth moving equipment manufacturers in the world, however, it wasn't always so. Komatsu began in 1921, as a specialized manufacturer of mining equipment. Yet, even in those early years, before information technology began to eliminate geographical and cultural borders, Mr. Takeuchi, Komatsu's founder, had a globalized and customer-centric vision. He knew it was important for his management team to have "an 'overseas orientation' and a 'user orientation'" (Hamal & Prahalad 3) if they were to compete against much larger corporations.
Komatsu has managed to grow from these very modest beginnings to a multi-billion dollar industry-leading competitor, in only two generations.
It this success has been fraught with challenges. From intensified local competition when American companies were allowed to partner with Japanese companies for joint ventures in Japan, to technological weaknesses in their product line, to…
Hamal & Prahalad. Competing for the Future. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
MacAyeal, J. "The Home Depot, Inc." Hoover's Online 2004. Hoover's Online database. Hoover's. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. September 22, 2004 http://premium.hoovers.com.
JOHN DEEE & COMPANY
This analysis of John Deere presents the external and internal analysis of the company including a SWOT analysis of the company. This analysis is then used to discuss informed strategic options and recommendations for John Deere.
The external analysis of John Deere includes the history of the agricultural industry, sources of competitive rivalry in the industry, and a PESTEL analysis of the agricultural and construction equipment industry. This section also presents the external factors (opportunities and threats) for John Deere.
The internal analysis of John Deere is based on the company's internal factors (strengths and weaknesses). It presents a brief overview of recent issues that are facing the company and how the company has reacted to them. It is a functional analysis of the internal activities of John Deere - operation, administration, finance, and marketing.
Strategic options and recommendations
This section is informed by…
Agarwal, V., & Taffler, R. (2008). Does Financial Distress Risk Drive the Momentum Anomaly? Financial Management, 37(3), 461-484. doi: 10.2307/20486664
Bloomsberg Businessweek. (2014). Deere & co (DE:New York Consolidated). Retrieved October 2nd, 2014, from http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/financials/financials.asp?ticker=DE
Caballero, R.J., & Krishnamurthy, A. (2009). Global Imbalances and Financial Fragility. The American Economic Review, 99(2), 584-588. doi: 10.2307/25592462
Financial Innovation: Too Much or Too Little? (2012). The MIT Press.
Insect Mimicry and Camouflage
The insect world is perhaps one of the most diverse on the planet. When one considers the very scope of the plethora of insect species, one cannot help but be staggered by the vast variety in type, appearance, and behavior. Of course, one of the most interesting aspects of the insect world involves the ability of some species to use camouflage or mimicry in order to avoid detection or consumption by predators.
One of the most effective ways in which some insects can avoid becoming prey is by using camouflage. Although the exact method by which each species achieves or represents camouflage behavior, the object is always to "blend in" to their surroundings. To do this, they may either have the ability to change their color to blend in with the background, or possess a static characteristic that allows them to…
Brewer, Jerry. 2000. Insect Mimicry. Web site. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/entomology/topics/mimicry.htm
Castner, James L. (1998). Please Don't Eat the Katydids. International Wildlife. May 15, 1998. Retrieved on August 17, 2004, at http://www.bugbios.com/entophiles/phasmida/index.html
Hilda Simon, (1968). Insect Masquerades. New York, Viking Press.
Jongbloed, Marijcke. (1999). Disappearing Acts: natures camouflage artists. Arabian Wildlife Journal. Vol. 2. Issue 1. Retrieved on August 17, 2004, from, http://www.arabianwildlife.com/archive/vol2.1/cama.htm
Integrated Curriculum Analysis
A teacher's main objective usually centers in arousing the curiosity of the student enough to engage them in the process of learning. Engagement can often lead to enthusiasm, and enthusiasm leads to learning. One of the most effective methods of engagement is through the use of real-world tasks. Francom & Gardner (2014) determined that many of the recent models of learning provided instruction center learning that incorporated real-world tasks and problems that support the transfer and application of knowledge. The writer Howard Hendricks said "What is important is not what you do as a teacher, but what your students learn as a result of what you do." Students in today's educational environment follow the teacher's lead but collaborate much more with other students than in previous generations. A teacher must understand that collaboration and use it as well as the available technology to ensure that the students…
Francom, G. & Gardner, J.; (2014) What is task-centered learning? TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice Learning, 58(5) p. 27-35
Howard Hendricks Quotes." Quotes.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2014. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. Retrieved from http://www.quotes.net/authors/Howard%20Hendricks
Hutchison, A., & Reinking, D. (2011) Teachers' perceptions of integrating information and communication technologies into literacy instruction: A national survey in the U.S. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 308 -- 329.
Nielsen, C.; DeFranco, J.F. & Malm, E.; (2015) Math, science and sustainability-enhanced career and technical education, Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 90(3) pp. 50-55
Summer Bucket List
Concept/topic: This lesson plan will focus on allowing students to design their wish list or "Summer Bucket list." It will allow for sharing by students reading aloud their Summer Bucket lists. It also promotes writing and reading as students will be asked to proofread what they wrote as well as think of fun ideas to add for their Summer Bucket list.
Objectives are to ask questions of how they would want the activities on their Summer Bucket lists to be performed, the reasons behind them, who they may want with them.
Practicing oral delivery of information from reading aloud in class.
Participation with their peers as they may ask and share with other students their own experiences and ideas when selected students read aloud.
d. Arizona State Standards (CCSS) (Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding…
Azed.gov,. (2015). English Language Arts Standards. Retrieved 14 July 2015, from http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/englishlanguageartsstandards/
Bauer, J. (2007). Butterfly life cycle. New York: Scholastic.
Price, D. (2012). Second grade lesson plans. [S.l.]: Price World Publishing.
These insects run through the markets of Thailand, South Africa and South Korea offered separately as crunchy snacks to locals and bold travelers. They are highly rich in protein and may be considered as a good food supplement to boost energy. In case you can't make up your mind, a "bug-pack" may be suggested consisting of all edible insects you can munch on while appreciating great views and nature tripping. Larvae and Caterpillars of these insects were also considered as a rare delicacy, either as soup or added flavor to paste.
Farmed by an old Japanese lady in Kyushu Island, the Giant Japanese Hornet is used to make honey. This is a completely incredible honey - literally! The Giant Japanese Hornet is the largest species of wasp in the world, and it contains special enzymes in its body which are reputed to increase strength and energy levels. Giant…
Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia (1989). Insects. New York: Lexicon Publications, Inc.
M. Burton (1971). Nature, the Realm of Animals and Plants. London: The Grolier Society Limited.
2000 Nation Multimedia Group. A Beetle a Day, July 6, 1999, the Nation. Retrieved April 19, 2008, at http://www.thaibugs.com/Articles/beetleaday.htm
Edible. Insectivores. Retrieved April 19, 2008, at http://www.edible.com/shop/browse.php?cmd=showdepartment§ionId=23
Theodore Levitt, the world and consumers in particular are moving towards having similar likes, preferences, and tastes and these have caused people to prefer the same products the world over. These products that are given preference are those that are liked by everyone else. "Everyone in the increasingly homogenized world market wants products and features that everybody else wants." Levitt, 1984.
This statement is true in the world that we currently see, and this should be the focus of all marketing campaigns whether they are aimed at building brand awareness, changing the attitudes of consumers, or just trying to increase sales of a product. By simply creating a product that will become the preference of many, it is remarkably easy to capture and penetrate the market and thus boost sales by a large margin.
Levitt also argues that "different cultural preferences, national tastes and standards, and business institutions are the…
BELK, R.W., GER, G. & ASKEGAARD, S. 2003. The Fire of Desire: A Multisited Inquiry into Consumer Passion. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 326-351.
BELK, R.W., GER, G. & ASKEGAARD, S.R. 1997. Consumer desire in three cultures: Results from Projective Research. Advances in Consumer Research Volume, 24, 24-28.
HOLLIS, N. 2009. Global Brands, Local Cultures. Research World, July/August.
KOSTERA, M. 2006. The Narrative Collage As Research Method. Storytelling, Self, Society, 2, 5-27.
The latter was skeptical, referring to the device as "a pretty mechanical toy" (Harris 31) but everybody else was favorably impressed and the ar Office continued enthusiastically to support tank development. "Mother" became the basis for the Mark I tank, the first mass-produced tracked armored fighting vehicle in history. The Mark I, powered by two diesel engines, was built in two versions, "male" which mounted four machine guns and two 6-pounder naval guns in protruding barbettes, and "female" which carried machine guns only. The male version was intended as an assault weapon; the female tanks were designed to protect their male counterparts and each other by using machine guns to mow down attacking infantry who might otherwise swamp and overcome the tanks (Harris 31-2). This huge, heavy, lozenge-shaped monster became the pattern for the classic First orld ar tank, through to the Mark VIII of 1918.
The tanks were ready…
Bourne, J.M. Britain and the Great War 1914-1918. London: Edward Arnold, 1989.
Duffy, Michael. "Weapons of War - Tanks." First World War.com: A Multimedia History of World War One. 2002. 20 Nov. 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/tanks.htm .
Harris, J.P. Men, Ideas and Tanks. British Military Thought and Armoured Forces, 1903-1939. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
Reid, Brian Holden. "The Tank: Visions of Future War." History Today Dec. 1987: 36-41.
Picture Book Is Worth More Than a Thousand Words: Teaching ESL Students
The use of picture books to teach English as a second language has been demonstrated to be quite successful. Experts in literacy attribute this to the way that pictures in the books help to fill in gaps in meaning. A fundamental consideration is that if the picture books are to be used as an aide to teaching English, cultural differences must not be too great, or else the cultural differences must be a primary topic of the story. Indeed, some experts consider texts that are highly culturally specific, and are "intertextually and intervisuablly rich," are not translatable since they are too rooted in a specific locale.
Intervisuality refers to the ease with which a concept can be viewed from a variety of different media. Intertextuality refers to the interrelationship between works of literature with regard to the way…
Colomer, T., Kummerling-Meibauer, B., and Silva-Diaz, C. (2010). Directions in picture book research. London, UK: Routledge Publishing.
Desmet, M.K.T., (2001). Intertextuality / Intervisuality in Translation: The Jolly Postman's Intercultural Journey from Britain to the Netherlands
Children's Literature in Education, 32(1), 31. Retreived from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1005214004763#
Jalongo, M.R., Dragich, D., Conrad, N.K., and Zhang, A. (2002). Using wordless picture books to support emergent literacy. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(3), 167-177.
Ethics of Bioethics
To the prudent thinker and scholar, there is little doubt that right or wrong is certainly relative. Categorical imperatives and absolutes help people to understand theories and ideas. However, they have little pragmatic value in life as it exists. Erudition in the areas of moral relativism, moral absolutism, and moral objectivism certainly confirm the preceding thesis. Additionally, there are numerous examples found in different areas of life that confirm the conviction propagated in this paper as well.
The tenet of moral relativism certainly helps to buttress this conviction that right or wrong is simply relative. Some of the best examples of this fact are readily supplied by nature. In fact, basic bioethical thought into the food chain supports this viewpoint as well. The reality of life on this planet and as found within nature is that most organisms need to consume other organisms to survive. This fact…
Beauchamp, Tom L., LeRoy Walters, Jeffrey P. Kahn, and Anna C. Mastroianni, eds. (2014). Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, pp. 1-12.
The Kennedy Institute of Ethics. (2014). Introduction to bioethics: bioethics at the bedside. www.youtube.com Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3I0SxI2grM
1997). The basis of all plants' alternating generations and complex life cycles could be found in a common ancestor shared with fern species, even though ferns are no better reproducing sexually than moss are fully dependent on a saturated enough environment to perform a task that flowers have developed innumerable methods of getting done (Munster et al. 1997; Mehltreter et al. 2010).
The life cycles of moss and ferns are highly similar, with both developing from haploid cells and gametophytes that sexually reproduce to create sporophytes, which in turn asexually reproduce by producing haploid spores that start the cycle all over again. Mosses, however, are more typically found in their haploid gametophyte stage, which the sporophytes are dependent on, whereas ferns are most often seen in the sporophyte stage, in which they can survive for hundreds of years. Both types of organisms are still being studied today to provide…
Capon, B, (2005). Botany for gardeners. Portland, or: Timbers.
Cavendish, M. (2000). Exploring life science Vol. 7. Tarrytown, NY: Cavendish Corp.
During, H. (1979). "Life strategies of Bryophytes." Lindbergia 5, pp. 2-18.
Evans, a. (1964). "Ameiotic Alternation of Generations: A New Life Cycle in the Ferns." Science 17(143), pp. 261-3.
Information about ongoing legal actions is typically disclosed in the annual report. An examination of Cummins' Form 10-K from 2008 reveals that while the company is subject to a wide range of legal risks, there are no major legal actions pending. Referring to environment-related legal actions, the company states that "we do not believe that these lawsuits are material individually or in the aggregate."
At present, there is little indication that Cummins is faced with any significant negative publicity. The company faces some minor environmental lawsuits, which may not be financial material but could generate some negative publicity should the company be found culpable for any impropriety.
Cummins' track record with regards to negative publicity -- or the lack thereof -- is enviable for a multinational country, in particular one with manufacturing operations overseas. Cummins' approach has been proactive. There are hints of the company's…
Cummins website. Various pages. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from http://www.cummins.com
Marx, M. (2005). Cummins Inc. Six Sigma Companies. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from http://www.sixsigmacompanies.com/archive/cummins_inc_six_sigma.html
Cummins 2008 Form 10-K.
By the time of the Flood, human beings have so thoroughly and inextricably interfered with the natural process of evolution that hybrid animals and plants are commonplace. The names of the genetically modified organisms are part of the common vernacular, uttered in the same sentence as their counterparts that had evolved slowly over the course of the past several million years. Most times, Atwood's descriptions of the life forms on Earth during the Flood are sardonic to underscore the sinister nature of the genetic intervention. For example, in Chapter 6, Toby reflects on her childhood in the "semi-country, before the sprawl had rolled over that stretch of landscape." Within that sprawl comingle the creatures of natural and forced evolution: "there were squirrels, and the first green rabbits. No rakunks, those hadn't been put together yet," (Chapter 6). The reader can easily assume that a rakunk is a raccoon-skunk, but…
The stories of traditional Japanese literature contributed to the creation of Japan's cultural identity, just as all national literature contributes to the country of their origin. There are specific characteristics of a nation which influence and are influence by the psychological and sociological setting in which they were created. In the Japanese culture, there is a high emphasis placed both on nature and the natural world. hat is granted to humanity by a higher power must be protected, preserved, and appreciated. This love and care for the natural world is evident in many pieces of Japanese literature, particularly in the short stories "The Lady who Admired Vermin" and "The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter."
In the story "The Lady ho Admired Vermin," the main character is interested in vermin, rather than butterflies or flowers as other young women care about. The reason for this is that she finds…
Abe, Hajime. "The View of Nature in Japanese Literature." Nagareyama, Chiba, Japan: Toyo
Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory: a Very Short Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford
University. 1997. Print.
"The Lady Who Admired Vermin." Classical Japanese Prose: an Anthology. Ed. Helen
Supply Chain Management: Transshipment and Inventory Pooling
Transshipment and Inventory Pooling
Transshipment and inventory pooling are among the most commonly-used inventory distribution strategies. Simply stated, inventory pooling (also referred to as lateral transshipment) is the storage of a single stock of inventory at a common point, with the aim of shipping the same to different retailers in multiple markets, each with its own demand patterns (Swinney, 2011). In other words, it is the pooling together of demands from multiple geographic markets (Swinney, 2011). A perfect example of an inventory pooling arrangement is illustrated when 5,000 Cadillacs are parked at the GM regional distribution office in Ohio, awaiting shipment to different parts of the state.
Transshipment, unlike inventory pooling, takes place at the retail level. It simply can be defined as the "shipment of items between different facilities at the same level in the supply chain to meet some immediate need"…
Simchi-Levi, D., Kaminsky, P. & Simchi-Levi, E. (2008). Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies, and Case Studies (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill
Swinney, R. (2011). Inventory Pooling with Strategic Consumers: Operational and Behavioral Benefits. Graduate School of Business, Stamford University. Retrieved 5 January 2015 from http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Lists/Events/Attachments/163/Pooling.pdf
Zhao, X. & Atkins, D. (2008). Transshipment between Competitive Retailers. Wilfrid Laurier University. Retrieved 5 January 2015 from http://legacy.wlu.ca/documents/35238/zhao&atkins_transshipment_between_competitive_retailers.pdf
Gitig, D. (2017). A farewell to kings? New ideas on the vanishing monarch butterflies. Ars Technica. April 30, 2017. etrieved online: https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/04/a-migrating-butterfly-a-poisonous-plant-and-their-remarkable-coevolution/
In this article, Gitig (2017) provides an overview of recent research on monarch butterflies, focusing on the causes of their diminishing populations. Monarch butterflies feed almost exclusively on a plant called milkweed. Milkweed is disappearing rapidly due to urban development and other human activities. Therefore, the monarch butterflies have less to eat and this may be the direct cause for their dwindling numbers. In fact, adult monarch butterflies do not just feed on milkweed but also lay the next generation of eggs on the plant. The milkweed plant actually perceives the monarch as a parasite and emits latex to trap and kill the monarch caterpillars. Only about 10% of monarch eggs make it to become fully formed butterflies, according to the author. The most remarkable aspect of the…
Doyle, A. (2017). Milkweed plantings lure monarch butterflies to county. Ventura County Star, April 30, 2017. Retrieved online: http://www.vcstar.com/story/news/local/communities/ventura/2017/04/30/milkweed-plantings-lure-monarch-butterflies-county/100673724/
Gitig, D. (2017). A farewell to kings? New ideas on the vanishing monarch butterflies. Ars Technica. April 30, 2017. Retrieved online: https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/04/a-migrating-butterfly-a-poisonous-plant-and-their-remarkable-coevolution/
Joint costing systems should bear in mind the legal constraints on the use of such systems, and should provide accurate information to managers in order to be most useful in the managerial accounting context.
Firms need to remain competitive, which indicates that the market will set prices to some degree. This implies that firms can make better decisions with respect to what projects/products they wish to pursue by understanding the cost structure of the product. If the product is not viable at the cost at which it can be produced, then the firm can improve profitability by dumping the product.
Banham, R. (2000). Off target? CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/2990860/c_3046531?f=magazine_alsoinside
Frederick, S. (2011).
The persuasive power of opportunity costs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://hbr.org/2011/01/column-the-persuasive-power-of-opportunity-costs/ar/1
Katz, D. (2002). Activity-based costing (ABC). CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3007694
McKinsey & Co.…
Banham, R. (2000). Off target? CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/2990860/c_3046531?f=magazine_alsoinside
Frederick, S. (2011).
The persuasive power of opportunity costs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://hbr.org/2011/01/column-the-persuasive-power-of-opportunity-costs/ar/1
Katz, D. (2002). Activity-based costing (ABC). CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3007694
The effects of liquids are not a factor in regional metamorphism as fluids cannot circulate due to the effects of pressure upon the rocks, which seal in the circulation of moisture. egional metamorphism occurs in areas of heavy tectonic activity, near the places where the earth's plates rub up against one another. "egional metamorphism can be subdivided into different pressure-temperature conditions based on observed sequences of mineral assemblages. It may include an extreme condition, where partial melting occurs" (Jessey & Tarman 2010). egional metamorphism is commonly found in mountain regions (hence the name regional metamorphism), consisting of foliated rocks developed under medium to high temperatures. "The accompanying pressures vary from low to high. Geothermal gradients, which are likewise moderate to high, produce Buchan and Barrovian Facies series. Because the pressures of Buchan and Barrovian Facies series are commonly higher than are those of Contact Facies Series, they may contain different…
Contact metamorphism. (2010). Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
Jessey, Dave. Metamorphism. (2010). Geology 101. Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
Starbucks succeeded in Asia specifically because it did not market the same way that it did in North America. Cultural differences made it difficult to market their primary product (coffee), so they shifted focus to their secondary product (the casual "third place"), something that is in high demand in Asia's densely populated cities and Asia's communal culture (Chang, 2010). Had Starbucks stuck with its focus on coffee, the message would have been lost on tea-drinking Asian consumers.
The notion that products can be marketed the same all the world over is a fanciful one. Even the world's most ubiquitous companies tailor their products, their distribution and their promotional strategies to the local conditions. The brand may be the same, but the marketing behind the brand is often very different.
4. There are a number of costs beyond the domestic price that must be considered when marketing abroad, including product-related costs,…
Johnson, J. & Arunthanes, W. (1995). Ideal and actual product adaptation in U.S. exporting firms: market-related determinants and impacts on performance. International Marketing Review. Vol. 12, 3, 31-46.
Chang, D (2010). In Asia, marketing 101 doesn't work. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/02/in_asia_marketing-101-doesnt-work.html
No author. (1999). Pricing, quotations and terms. UNZCO. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c11.html
Rong, C. (2004). Feeding a behemoth. Far East Economic Review. ISSN: 0014-7591
The other is corruption. hile Transparency International has France listed as one of the more corrupt estern European nations (at #23 worldwide), Bolivia is ranked #102. The lack of effective rule of law in Bolivia is a significant impediment to business development.
In terms of business operating resources, France is superior. As one of the largest markets for construction equipment, not only is there an ample customer base, but the institutions are well-developed. Transportation networks and financial institutions are relatively strong. It is easy to do business in France, as there are few restrictions on capital flows, financing, and few impediments to business development. In contrast, Bolivia has many issues. The financial sector is poorly developed. hile it appears to function for resource exploitation firms, it is safer to conduct transaction in other jurisdictions. The infrastructure is poor. Bolivia is a landlocked country so it is difficult to get equipment…
CIA World Factbook: France. (2009). Retrieved May 3, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html
CIA World Factbook: Bolivia. (2009). Retrieved May 3, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bl.html
No author. (2009). Market Research Briefs -- Construction Best Prospect 2008. BuyUSA.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://www.buyusa.gov/france/en/70.html
g., maggots in rotting matter.
Pasteur believed that germs, just as those that caused fermentation, could also be causing disease. With the support of other scientists and collaborators, he was able to isolate several disease causing bacteria, cholera (with Robert Koch) and small pox (work originally done by Edward Jenner), among several others. While working with cholera in chicken, Pasteur helped set the foundation for the idea of vaccinations; this had been proposed by others earlier. That a mild form of the virus or bacteria induces the creation of antibodies in the host. When infected by a virulent form of the virus or bacteria, the antibodies created in the system can destroy the infecting agents thereby protecting the host. Pasteur's work influenced the creation of vaccinations.
After successfully using it in the cure of cholera, small pox and several other diseases, Pasteur used this idea in identifying a cure for…
Cohn, David V. (1996, February 11). The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur. Retrieved. March 17, 2009 at http://louisville.edu/library/ekstrom/special/pasteur/cohn.html
Debre, P.; E. Forster (1998). Louis Pasteur. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hart, Michael H. (1992). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel Press. pp. pp.60-61.
Morris, D.; Abel, E. (2002). Stereochemistry. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
"It will be the death of both of you, I can see that coming. hen one has to work as hard as we do, all of us, one can't stand this continual torment at home on top of it. At least I can't stand it any longer.' "
Kafka 80) There is a clear sense that the family letting go of the idea that the beast that is living in their son's room is the son they once knew releases them from the burden, as it is only moments later that Gregor finally succumbs to self starvation and dies. (Kafka 82) After Gregor's death the true nature of each transformation is expressed through the explanations of the family as they take their first time off in a very long time.
Leaning comfortably back in their seats they canvassed their prospects for the future, and it appeared on closer inspection that…
Bloom, Harold, ed. Franz Kafka's the Metamorphosis. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.
Bouson, J. Brooks. A Study of the Narcissistic Character and the Drama of the Self. Amherst University of Massachusetts Press, 1989.
Greenberg, Martin. The Terror of Art: Kafka and Modern Literature. New York: Basic Books, 1968.
Kafka, Franz. Selected Short Stories of Franz Kafka. Trans. Willa Muir and Edwin Muir. New York: Modern Library, 1952.
The natural environment provides students with a calm and quiet place to unwind from the noises of the classroom. It nurtures and supports animal-life all year round. This is critical for areas where commercial and residential development is reducing most natural areas. Wildlife especially needs help during the cold and snowy months. Students can also see how it benefits the environment. It also helps connect students to the world of nature. Increasingly, because children are spending more and more times indoors, they are losing touch with nature.
Humans, because they spent their first 14,000 years in nature, have a special bond with the outdoor world. When they are taken away from this environment, through cities, lack of parks, no outdoor play, there can be psychological affects. When taking time to enjoy nature, children will feel better about themselves and the world at large.
We are also going to put a…
Besecker, I. (June 11, 2000). Greensoboro News and Record. Insanity of Testing Mania.
Bredderman, T. (1985). Laboratory programs for elementary school science: A meta- analysis of effects on learning. Science Education, 69(4), 577-591.
Carpenter, R. (1963). A Reading Method and an Activity Method in Elementary Science Instruction. Science Education, April.
Hake, R. (1992). Socratic Pedagogy in the Introductory Physics Laboratory. The Physics Teacher 30(9), 546-552
Other things being equal, higher sap sugar content translates to lower costs of production and greater profits (World ook Encyclopedia 1992).
lack and sugar maples start their growth later in the spring than red or silver maple. As maples begin their growth, chemical changes take place in the sap which makes it inappropriate for syrup production. The term "buddy sap" is often employed to late season sap which produces syrup with a very disagreeable flavor and odor. ecause sugar and black maple resume growth later than red or silver maple, sap may be collected later in the spring.
Japanese maple, a. palmatum, is also a well-liked ornamental tree. It has about 80 strains varying from shrubs to trees. They rarely grow more than 6 meters high. Japanese maples have leaves that are deeply divided into five to nine narrow, toothed lobes. They have light leaves which are delicate shades of…
Acer Saccharum. http://www.wildwnc.org/trees/Acer_saccharum.html
Gabriel WJ. 1975. Phenotypic selection of sugar maples for superior sap volume production. In Proceedings, Twenty-first Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p.91-96.
Godman RM. 1965. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United States H.A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271: Washington (DC). p 6-73
Gould NE. 1979. Reforestation and timber stand improvement report for Fiscal Year 1978 and 1979. WO-2490 Records and Report. USDA Forest Service: Washington (DC). p 57
pag). Some business will continue as usual, of course: Abbott's nutrition division, based in Columbus, Ohio and employing approximately 2,000 people, announced that the nutrition unit will "fall under the umbrella of a new medical products company that will retain the Abbott name in a split announced ednesday" (Rouan n.pag). In addition, the announcement has apparently met with international investor approval: "At the news, Abbott's shares went up 7.3% in premarket trading on ednesday" (M2 Pharma n.pag).
The split is expected to occur in 2012 and will result in the currently-unnamed pharmaceutical company and the diversified medical products company, retaining the name "Abbott" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag).
(a). Pharmaceutical Company:
The pharmaceutical company is projected to have annual sales of approximately $18 Billion, a portfolio including Abbott's high-profile drugs such as Humira and Lupron, and a pipeline of "promising new specialty medicines and formulations" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag). According to Abbott's press…
Abbott Laboratories. A Tradition of Innovation. n.d. Web. 22 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Reports Strong Ongoing Third Quarter Results; Confirms Double-Digit Ongoing Earnings Growth Outlook for 2011. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott to Separate into Two Leading Companies in Diversified Medical Products and Research-Based Pharmaceuticals. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Worldwide. n.d. 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
Darwinists Must Be Crazy
Imagine the possibilities of learning about Charles Darwin, and studying many forms that exist, such as social, economic and political. However, does this apply to every situation based off his theory? Is survival of the fittest applicable in statistics? How about natural selection? One will investigate further the theory of evolution by discussing probability and many other factors involved.
Every person who believes in evolution thinks that the earth is four billion years old sometimes more or less depending on his or her viewpoint. In order for anything to appear true, species and the origin of everything has to go from simple to complex organisms. Charles Darwin mentions that all life came out of former existence (Darwin, 2003). Is this really true, though?
Instead of using five billion years, let us use 13 billion instead. One can assume that all of these days were good. Furthermore,…
Darwin, C. (2003). Origin of species: 150th anniversary. New York: Signet Classics.
Hoyle, S.F. (1997). The origin of the universe and the origin of religion. Kingston: Moyer Bell.
Nielsen, R. (2005). Statistica methods in molecular evolution. New York: Springer.
Lost Mountain' and look at what the writer say about coal mining and its overall effects to the overall environment and the entire human race. It will first analyze the problem at hand both from the political side and other actors involved in the coal mining on mountain tops. In addition to that the study will go ahead to see the varying criticism and proponents views on the issue and particularly on what the author of the book takes on the issue. According to Reece, the author of the book, the problem of coal miming on mountaintops has a political twist which makes it difficult to solve or work on its solution.
Lost mountain is a book by Reece Erik that has been eloquently been written and quite moving with the main agenda concentrating on the issue of cold mining at the mountain tops. Reece is mainly against the practice…
Reece E. (2006) Lost Mountain: A year in the Vanishing Wilderness: Radical Strip Mining and the Devastation of Appalachia, Riverhead Books Publishers
Lasswell H. (2007) American Political Scientist
The disadvantages of employing brand extension strategy
This work compeers and contrasts the merits and demerits of implementing brand extension a s a growth strategy by various firms. This is done by means of practical examples. In the end of the debate, the paper indicates why it is better to adopt the extension strategy as opposed to shunning it due to its numerous demerits. A discussion of the key points is presented and then a final conclusion to hammer out the reason for the need to implement the strategy
Brand extension, which entails the use of a given brand name which is established in a given product class in entering another product class is noted to be hugely beneficial to several organizations (Tauber,1988).Keller (2003) pointed out that the concept of brand extension is clearly defined whenever a given firm employs an established brand name in the introduction of…
Aaker, D.A. (2004). Brand Portfolio Strategy. New York: Free Press.
Aaker, D.A.; Keller, K.L. (1990) Consumer Evaluations of Brand Extensions, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 27-41.
Bhat, S., & Reddy, S.K. (2001). The impact of parent brand attribute associations and affect on brand extension evaluation. Journal of Business Research, 53, 111-22
Chen, K.F., & Lue, C.M. (2004). Positive Brand extension trial and choice of parent brand. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 13(1), 25-36.
Biomechanics is the study of mechanical and physics principles in relation to motion in sports. Every sport has its biomechanical theories and each one is specialized to that particular skill with equations derived from Newtonian physics and knowledge of the human body and its capabilities. When combined and properly practiced, biomechanics can improve an athletes overall performance, making the athlete superior to their competitors.
The freestyle arm-pull in swimming is a precise study in the art of biomechanics introduced for an efficient result. It is an established fact that water is 773 times as dense as air and 55 times as viscous (Miller, 1975). What this means is that planning an efficient stroke in water is going to require greater strategy than planning an efficient stroke in air. The primary factors that go into creating the ideal stroke in swimming are vectors, motion, force, work, and…
Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr.
Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/basic-mechanical-principles
Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248.
Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13.
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
The use of the Los Angeles filmmaker, who in a sense represents much of mainstream American society, is such a strong contrast against the real eccentricities of the characters in the story. The filmmaker's search for El Gato, the witty attorney who is helping him buy land, gave me a really good look into the world of Tecate. It was especially interesting when Tecate is viewed though the eyes of the filmmaker who is baffled when the locals won't lead him to El Gato.
Reveles: That's an interesting take, on the work. I have to say that you seem to understand a good deal of what I was trying to get across. After all, it is the juxtaposition of American ideals, values, and beliefs that is the subtext for so many of the stories. I do warn the readers that Mexico is a land where water seems to move uphill,…
Little, Karen Blessing. Daddy-O-Dan: An Early Los Angeles Radio Personality.
02 November 2004. http://unihi61.com/daddyo.htm
Reveles, Daniel. Enchiladas, Rice, and Beans (One World). Ballantine Books, 1994.
Kung of the Kalahar Desert
The Nyae !Kung tribes are nomadic groups that have lived in the Kalahari Desert in northwest Namibia, the Cuando-Cubanga province in southeast Angola and in northeast Namibia (Jenkins 2001). These nomadic hunter-gatherers have had minimal contact with the outside world but through several hundred years, they developed a survival strategy and has enabled them to life adequately as a separate though primitive society (erberich 2003). The !Kung people have evolved their own culture, industry, government, language, social norms and housing system.
Oldest historical records bear out evidence of the existence and habitation of hunter-gatherers in southern Africa for thousands of years (Shostak 1981). These antu-speaking aborigines were assumed to have begun migrating into the !Kung territory approximately 2,000 years ago and introduced their own vastly different culture into it. They coexisted through centuries, while largely retaining their individual cultures. Drought, the consequences of overgrazing, years…
1. Berberich, Christina. The !Kung San. Minnesota State University, 2003. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/africa/kun_san.html
2. Gajdos, Gina. Survival of the !Kung San People in the Kalahari Desert. Pagewise, Inc., 2002. http://kyky.essortment.com/kungsanpeople_rftw.htm
3. Jenkins, Orville Boyd. Profile of the !Kung Bushmen People of Northern Africa. People Profile, 2001. http://endor.hsutx.edu/~obiwan/profiles/kung.html
4. Shosta, M. Nisa: the Life and Words of a !Kung Woman. New York: Random House, 1981
However, not all biologists agree that building or preserving corridors is the best way to proceed, because it still allows much of the animal's habitat to be diverted for human use (Thwaites, PAGE). They suggest that corridors are an expensive solution, but often those biologists prefer to see less land diversion.
Another solution is voluntary conservation efforts, called "Habitat Conservation Plans" (HCPs). Since these are voluntary, however, they vary greatly in quality and effectiveness. In addition, they allow considerable habitat destruction, and they do not always fully address the long-term survival needs of the endangered animals (Kostyack, PAGE). aturalists have noted that the number of HCPs established in areas of development often do not reflect the level of threat faced by endangered species in the area (Kostyack, PAGE). Critics of how HCPs are currently used believe the government should work harder to require landowners to protect endangered species living on…
Nickens, Eddie. "Woodpecker wars (red-cockaded woodpecker as an endangered specie)." American Forests. January 1, 1998.
Pyper, Wendy. "Changing habitat: the revival of the Richmond birdwing butterfly offers hope that through research, education, dedication and teamwork, local communities can secure a future for threatened species." Ecos. January 1, 2001.
Thwaites, Tim. " Safe passage.(wildlife conservation aided by strips of conserved habitat)(Wildlife Corridors)." International Wildlife. July 17, 1998.
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
The Heliconius is one of few species of butterfly with a relatively long life (estimated at six months) that tends to take flight during the day in hunt of food but return to a "fixed site communal roost" during the evenings (Capaldi & Fahrbach, 651). During this time most Heliconius engage in social activity including sex (Millius, 1998). To return to the communal roost and food sources the Heliconius must learn the "spatial location of food items and of the central communal roost" (Capaldi & Fahrbach, 651). Because of this and other factors many believe the Heliconius to be more intelligent than other butterflies.
The heliconius butterfly also spends less time developing or existing in immature stages, bulking up and "storing resources for eggs" (Millius, 1). These butterflies almost seem social in nature, spending much of their day engaging in reproduction and "sipping nectar" a lifestyle some have described as…
Capaldi, E.A., Fahrbach, G.E. "Neuroethology of spatial learning: The birds and the bees." Annual Review of Psychology, 1: 651.
Eldredge, N. (1987). "The natural history reader in evolution." New York: Columbia
Millius, S. (1998- Apr). "How bright is a butterfly." Science News. 15, October 2005:
Both sides continued to develop experimental larger size tanks but for the most part the behemoths never entered into service.
Had any of these countries been willing to commit to the development of armored power, using dedicated designers and planning of strategies that included tanks it is very likely the wars may have gone to the loser. This is not to say military leaders have not used the lessons of the past and applied them to current warfare. One only has to look at the seamless integration of armored vehicles, both light and heavy with the addition of close air support and an essentially dismounted cavalry in HMVEE as scouts in Desert Storm to see how well technological applications can be used to commit and achieve military goals. The current conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan have again presented us with a war on terrain and in a manner with which…
Ogorkiewicz, R.M. Technology of Tanks. Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Information Group, 1991.
Macksey, K.M. And Batchelor, J.M, Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970
This way, he can support, protect, compel, correct, and discipline them. He needs to defend his followers, his herd against healthy people and their envy. He must be the original and natural opponent and critic of all hard, violent and predatory element and forces. The ascetic priest is the more refined animal, who despises more capably as it hates. He isolates the image of the ascetic priest as one who brings or pretends to bring ointments and balm for the sick and suffering. ut in so doing, he must first inflict wounds, then eases that wound while poisoning it. He knows well how to do it as the seasoned magician and animal trainer, in whose company everything sound and healthy necessarily becomes sick and foul. He even defends his sick herd in a strange way against wickedness, scheming and malicious among the herd itself. He fights shrewdly, hard and deceptively…
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Walter Kaufmann, editor. On the Genealogy of Morals (Vintage). Random House, Inc., 1967
Some also wonder where the six sigma term that is used so often in lean manufacturing came from. The sigma is a Greek letter which is used to represent the standard deviation of a targeted population (Gupta, 2003). The six sigma term therefore comes from the idea that, if one has six standard deviations that come between the mean result of any process and the nearest limit for specification, than one will create virtually no items that actually exceed those specifications (Gupta, 2003). This idea is the main basis for what is called the process capability study, which is generally used by quality professionals, and the six sigma term has roots within that particular tool.
In summary, all management theories are very important when it comes to what is appropriate for businesses (Achanga, et al., 2006). The theory of constraints is discussed first because it is the theory that goes…
Achanga, Pius, Shehab, Esam, Roy, Rajkumar, & Nelder, Geoff. (2006). Critical success factors for lean implementation within SMEs. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 17(4).
Cusumano, Michael a. (1998). Thinking beyond lean: How multi-project management is transforming product development at Toyota and other companies. London: Free Press.
Emiliani, M.L. (2000). Supporting small businesses in their transition to lean production. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 5(2).
Gupta, Praveen. (2003). Six Sigma Business Scorecard. McGraw-Hill Professional.
When fully loaded the weight distribution is 40% on the front axle and 60% on the rear axle. Given the likely adhesion conditions, the powertrain will drive all axles.
Suspension geometry design and assessment
When the vehicle is cornering, each wheel must go through a turning circle. The outer turning circle, is to our main subject of interest. This calculation is never precise because when a vehicle is cornering the perpendiculars via the centres of all wheels never intersect at the curve centre point (Ackermann condition). Additionally, while the vehicle is moving, certain dynamic forces will always arise that will eventually affect the cornering manoeuvre (MAN,2000).
The formula used.
Vehicle Model T31, 19.314 FC
Wheelbase lkt = 5000 mm
Front axle Model V9-82L
Tyres 315/80 . 22.5
Wheel 22.5 x 9.00
Track width s = 2058 mm
Scrub radius r0 = 58 mm
Inner steer angle…
Catapillar (2001). 769D-Off-Highway Truck. http://xml.catmms.com/servlet/ImageServlet?imageId=C199012
Ivanov V, Shyrokau B, Augsburg K, Vantsevich V (2010)System Fusion in Off-Road Vehicle Dynamics Control09/2010; in proceeding of: Joint 9th Asia-Pacific ISTVS Conference, at Sapporo, Japan
MAN (2009).vehicle calculations
Rafael, M, a. Lozano, J. Cervantes, V. Mucino, C.S. Lopez-Cajun (2009).A method for powertrain selection of heavy-duty vehicles with fuel savings. International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems
Describe where you would locate your urban forest and explain why you would locate it there. emember to take into account major features, waterways, elevations, roads, etc. As well as climate and soils of the location. You can describe the area by noting bordering roads and features.
The devastation created by Hurricane Katrina was at least partially due to the decision to build homes in areas highly prone to flooding during frequent storms. Given the likelihood of another catastrophic hurricane, 'locating' an urban forest as inland as possible on elevated ground would be essential. "New Orleans offers an opportunity to study an urban forest in a subtropical environment…The city has been built on the natural levees of the Mississippi iver, backswamps, marshes, and reclaimed land along Lake Pontchartrain. Little of the natural vegetative cover of the site remains; today's urban forest is anthropogenic" (Talarchek 1987: 217). This means…
Gill, Dan. (2012). Fruit trees provide sweet harvest for your landscape. Times Picayune.
New Orleans' urban forests survived Katrina. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved: