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Ceremonies of King Louis the 14th
Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90486093
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Ceremonies of King Louis XIV

Marriage Ceremonies and King Louis XIV

Marriage to Marguerite of Savoy

Marguerite was the princess of Savoy; she was stunningly beautiful, with her big shimmering eyes, dark face and fairy like attire. She walked so gracefully that she barely touched the ground. Her reception was the most desired thing of all times, the king, queen and all the others at the court were dying to see her reception. Even before going into sound sleep at night the duchess along with her daughter thought of Marguerite, who according to them would become the future queen of France. To attend the morrow at the princess apartment, the king ordered a suit to be made ready for him.

Next day everything happened against the expectations. Before the court, the king appeared and the manner in which he started to make the announcement seemed to be a reserved and…


Cowart, Georgia J. The Triumph of Pleasure: Louis XIV and the Politics of Spectacle (U of Chicago Press, 2008)

Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006

Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XIV to Napoleon (1715 -- 1799) (2002)

Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World 1492-1640
Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 51709417
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Ceremonies of Possession/Differences in How America as Settled

Patricia Seed in her book, Ceremonies of Possession, assumes a novel position in regard to the settlement of the New orld by the various European powers. Seed's theory is that each of the five main nations involved in the settlement of the New orld: England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, did so in their own unique way and that these unique ways were more closely related to the individual country's rituals and practices as opposed to their inherited traditions. Reducing Seed's theory to its least common denominator: "Englishman held that they acquired rights to the New orld by physical objects, Frenchmen by gestures, Spaniards by speech, Portuguese by numbers, Dutch by description

The demonstration of the English dependence on physical objects can be seen in their heavy reliance on building, erecting, and planting as part of their cultural development when they…

Works Cited

Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995).

Ceremonies of Possessions

Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995). p. 179.

Ceremonies in Samoa Coming of Age
Words: 2294 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32785578
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Margaret Mead and Coming of Age in Samoa

Different aspects of culture define people over a period of time. It is only human nature that we see differences in culture and ourselves when thrown into a melting pot, a mix of multi-cultures in which we live today. One can only imagine what it must have been like for Margaret Mead as she traveled half way around the world in search of understanding aspects of other cultures, very foreign from our own. In this respect, she was a trail blazer, breaking with convention and expectation of her own role in society by becoming an anthropologist. It is the quest of the anthropologist to observe, discover culture and document aspects of that culture that are unique. ith this mind, it is important for one to have a working definition of culture, in order for one to explore rituals embedded within society that…

Works Cited

Coming of Age. 9 Nov. 2005

Dillon, W.S. "Margaret Mead (1901-1978)." The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education

31 (2001): 447-61.

Freeman, Derek. "Evolving Margaret Mead." New York Times Review of Books 32 (1985):

Pacific Northwest Coastal Region Indian Ceremonies
Words: 2477 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99263030
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Ceremonies of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Indigenous Peoples

People have been living along the Pacific Northwest Coast for more than 11,000 years, and while the tribes and nations that developed differed in their customs and cultures, they shared some common ceremonial practices including most especially those involving their most important beliefs and natural resources such as salmon and the white deer. This paper provides a description of the different types of ceremonies used by the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coastal regions, including the Potlatch, Salmon Ceremony, the White Deerskin Dance and the Jumping Dance, followed by an analysis concerning how the scholarly or ethnographic records can be engaged in ways that contribute to building solidarities with and among indigenous people and what the ethnography of North American indigenous people can contribute to a critique of non-indigenous culture. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the…


Bredin, Marian (1993), "Ethnography and Communication: Approaches to Aboriginal Media," Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 37-39.

Finkbeiner, Ann (2015, September 14), "The Great Quake and the Great Drowning,' Hakai Magazine. [online] available: .

Gingrich, Jennifer (2003, Winter), "The Power Source of a Tribe Seeking to Achieve World Renewal and the Protection of Its Natural and Cultural Resources," Environmental Law, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 215-221.

Lightfoot, Kent G. and Otis Parrish, California Indians and Their Environment: An Introduction. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009.

Degradation Ceremonies
Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30392974
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Degradation Ceremonies: How degradation ceremonies are used as a means of social control

Degradation ceremonies are a not-so subtle means of formal and informal social controls in a variety of institutional as well as informal contexts. The ceremonies suggest to the initiates involved that they must behave in such a fashion or else they will be socially ostracized. Degradation ceremonies need not be formal social or religious rituals -- for example, the House Un-American Activities anti-communist witch hunts could be seen as a form of degradation ceremony, even for those who were not legally charged with a crime or imprisoned. The mere threat of tainting of the supposedly offending individual with the label of communist, if he or she did not 'name names' could condemn the accused person in the eyes of the public, and degrade the accused person's name and reputation in the formalized context of the ceremony or…

Hindu Marriage Ceremonies
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12679691
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Hindu Marriages

What does it mean to be married? Traditions around the globe

It is important to note, from the onset, that marriage remains one of the world's most practiced traditions. Despite its widespread practice, marriage is conducted differently across different cultures. This discussion concerns itself with Hindu wedding ceremonies. In the words of Prinja (2009), "the precise details and rituals performed in a wedding ceremony vary from region to region and often take several hours to complete." Some of the key phases of Hindu weddings, as highlighted by Prinja (2009), are: jayamaala, madhu-parka, gau daan and kanya pratigrahan, vivaha-homa, paanigrahan, shilarohan and laaja homa, sapta-padi, surya darshan and dhruva darshan, and ashirvada (blessings). Because of space constraints, I will address these in brief.

To mark the start of the wedding, the bridegroom and his family are welcomed by the bride's parents at the designated location of the wedding. After…


Chand, M.S. (2008). Exploring the Stable and Changing Beliefs of Middle Class [Urban] Hindu Couples in New Delhi about Marriage. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC

Droesch, K. (2013). Wedding Traditions from Around the World. Retrieved from 

Prinja, N.K. (2009). Weddings: Hindu Weddings. Retrieved from

Coast Salish Culture
Words: 3450 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17909114
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Ceremonies and Celebrations

The Coast Salish people are people from Nations and Tribes whose traditional roots are found along the west coast of British Columbia and ashington State. Actually, the Coast Salish region expands from the northern Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland regions to western part of the ashington State. Most of the Coast Salish First Nations Groups are found in British Columbia and ashington State ("Coast Salish Fast Facts," p.1). The Coast Salish people seemingly have some similarities with other cultures in the Pacific Northwest Coast. An analysis of their traditions and customs and ceremonies and celebrations demonstrates that they are different from the other cultures, which make them distinct people. The process of proving this thesis will entail examining a brief history of Coast Salish people and thorough evaluation of their traditions and customs as well as ceremonies and celebrations.

The Coast Salish People of British Columbia


Works Cited

"COAST SALISH FAST FACTS." S'abadeb -- The Gifts: Pacific Coast Salish Art and Artists. Royal BC Museum, 17 Nov. 2009. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish." First Nations - Land Rights and Environmentalism in British Columbia. First Nations, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish Peoples." The Seattle Times. Newspapers in Education and Hibulb Cultural Center, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish Spinning and Weaving." Coast Salish Wool Dog Poster. Coast Salish Fashion, 2007. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

Indians of North America
Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21552393
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ceremonies of the Hopi tribe of the American Southwest, and the Assiniboine of the Northern Plains. The Assiniboine engage in the Sun Dance as one of their major ceremonies, while the Hopi engage in the Snake Dance as one of theirs. These dance ceremonies share many commonalities, but they contain major differences, as well. The Hopi were largely agricultural, living on mesas devoid of much moisture, while the Assiniboine were hunters, subsisting off the buffalo of the plains. These differences make up the disparity in their ceremonies, and they are important clues to their identity and way of life.

The Hopi Nation is one of the oldest Native American tribes in North America. They can trace their history in Northern Arizona, where their reservation is located, back to the 12th century, but they believe their history goes back much further than that. They are believed to have migrated to the…

Vision Newspaper Extract Kim Gavin
Words: 2196 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31853362
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ather than functioning solely as a sporting event, the '84 Summer Games delivered a broader scope of entertainment never before seen or attempted. The event encompassed entertainment not only in the form of sporting competition, but also in music and arts (Masterman, 2004). It is now understood that special events possess a powerful role in the society.

2012 Olympic closing ceremony will be a mega event as it will have a large effect on the entire economy of the UK. The event is going to get huge media coverage that is why it is important to adopt right marketing strategy for this event.

Issues of human resource management

Human resource management is vey important aspect of this grand event. The better evetn mangers and event management organizations understand the labor force and employs hired for the event the better resources can be allocated to effective recruitment and retaining strategies.



Hoy, W., & Miskel, C.1982. Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice. NEw York: Random House.

Masterman, G.2004. In Lashley C.(Ed), Strategic sports event management: An international approach. Great Britian: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.

McDonnell, I., Allen, J., & O'Toole, W.1999. Festivals and special event management. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Australia

National Survey on Giving, Volunteering and Participating. 2004. Ottawa: Stastics Canada

Hindu Marriage Which Is Considered
Words: 1288 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23317769
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Fried rice or popcorn is offered into the sacred fire (

The marriage ceremony itself takes place at the Vedi, where banana tree trunks are decorated against the open sky. The boy and girl sit together on a wooden seat. Parents of the bride, groom, and two priests surround the couple. Vedic mantras are said throughout the ceremony (Mypurohith).

The sacred fire is a crucial part of the marriage ceremony, and begins the rites and ceremonies that make up the ceremony. The sacred fire provides a pure and spiritual atmosphere for the marriage ( The boy and girl, tied together by the symbolic marriage knot, walk around the sacred fire seven times. Traditionally, the new marriage is not considered to be complete until the seventh round around the consecrated fire. Before this time, the marriage can be revoked (Mypurohith).

Samagree, a mixture of herbs, sandalwood, clarified butter, rice, twigs, and…

References Ideals of a Hindu Marriage. Shri Gyan Rajhans. Accessed O. 3 October 2005. Marriage. Accessed O. 3 October 2005.

Mypurohith. Hindu Marriage Ceremony. Accessed O. 3 October 2005. Hindu Marriage Ceremony. Accessed O. 3 October 2005.

Results Driven Principle and Task Force
Words: 1129 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77683425
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Driven (Principi & Task Force)

pplication Essay: Results Driven

In the Department of Veterans ffairs where I work, getting results is highly valued. There are various examples that could be used to point out how important results are in this organization and how I go about ensuring that I get results when I am asked to do something. There are two examples that are important to discuss here. The first of these is the Farewell Ceremony that I took part in. In late 2004, I was directly asked by those high-up in my organization to plan and execute a Farewell Ceremony for the Honorable nthony J. Principi, the 4th Secretary of Veterans ffairs. This particular event took place at the Veterans conference center at the V headquarters located in Washington D.C. Many members of the President's Cabinet were leaving the administration at this time. The ceremony had a strong impact…

A second example of this results driven issue was my participation in the Secretary's task force for the employment and advancement of women in 2002. This was designed to develop a comprehensive plan that would help to correct some of the imbalances that were seen between men and women in their employment opportunities and the advancements that they were able to make. In December 2002 the task force met in Washington D.C. In order to begin work and identified that there were several major categories that the comprehensive plan would need in order to address the current situation. These included data collection and analysis, business case, and an implementation plan that was related to the Department's strategic plan. A great deal of data and feedback was collected and analyzed by the task force from many different sources regarding the task force efforts.

The task force met again in January 2003 to help develop a draft report and refine the efforts for data collection in order to ensure not only accuracy and validity but relevance to the VA as well. Focus groups were conducted in March 2003 in Los Angeles, New York, Washington D.C., and Little Rock. These cities were selected to ensure representation of both men and women from as many departmental organizational elements as was possible. These focus groups helped to validate the concerns that were raised during the first meeting that took place in 2002 with the Secretary and helped to assist the task force further in developing strategies that would succeed.

Personally, I led the subcommittee on researching best practices for the report that was ultimately created by the task force. I led focus groups, researched relevant information, and developed the best practices section that went in the final report. At that time, the committee had been in existence for one year. The report was accepted as a blueprint throughout the Department and this indicated that the task force report provided meaningful and effective strategies for success that were not only feasible but were cost-effective and cross-functional to other minority groups as well. The report also helped to link this information to the VA's organizational goals and objectives. By implementing these strategies, measurable improvements and results will be seen which will help individuals assess their behaviors and identify different and better approaches that they might take in the future.

Cultural Weddings a Wedding Can
Words: 2831 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28632912
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Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.

Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…

References (2011). Africa people & culture, accessed on November 25, 2011 from 

Euroevents & Travel (2004). Wedding Traditions and Customs around the World Bridal

Customs in different Countries accessed on November 25, 2011 from 

Gardner, H. (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.

Business Acumen There Are Many Different Things
Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2829932
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Business Acumen

here are many different things that I have done in my career that relate to business acumen. One of these came fairly recently, in July of 2004, when I was asked to plan and execute a dedication ceremony that involved the opening of a Veterans Conference Room in Washington, DC. he auditorium at the VA Headquarters was renovated for this purpose. I was given three months to pull this together and create a program and ceremony that was worthy of this event. In addition to planning this ceremony, the day-to-day activities of myself and my staff had to go on, and there were other notable events that were going on at the same time, such as awards ceremonies, the observance of Veteran's Day, and VA holiday activities. hese were all coordinated and planned during the same time that I was working to create the ceremony for the conference…

The goal for the ceremony was to be able to accommodate 300 guests. Invitations through various forms were sent out to 2000 total guests who were all stakeholders of the event and the guest of honor. Five areas of the guest of honor's life were also focused on by the video team, including his work in the business community, his military service, his White House service, his work with the Montgomery GI Bill, and the impact that he had on making the VA a cabinet level agency.

In order to foster good relations with the guest of honor, I personally flew to Jackson, Mississippi and met with him and his associates. The project was discussed at that time and the goals and possible needs were also addressed so that everyone involved with the project was prepared for what was going to happen and was ready for any issues that might come up. The meeting was very successful, and also fostered a relationship with Mississippi State University (MSU) which allowed them to provide me with some virtually priceless documents that were displayed by the department at the ceremony and which will also remain in display cases in the conference room forever.

I held team meetings three times per week, conducted visits to the site, and had walk-throughs with my team, as well as the Chief of Staff and others that were involved in the ceremony. The event was planned and executed successfully, and their were over 350 guests that attended the ceremony. This was a significant event for the guest of honor, for myself, and for all that were involved in the planning and the ceremony itself. The guest of honor was extremely pleased with the event, and favorable comments are still being received by my staff and myself. Because I was able to raise the bar and gain strong support for this event, the impact of these efforts ensured that the VA and a grateful nation paid respect for the seemingly tireless efforts of a soldier, citizen, patriot, congressman, and public servant.

Navajo Indians Navejo Indians the Navajo Indians
Words: 2577 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78957892
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Navajo Indians

Navejo Indians

The Navajo Indians also referred to as Dine are semi-nomadic people. It is interesting to note that Navajo people are at times known as 'Holy Earth People (Iverson, 2002). This comes from their beliefs in supernatural beings as well as traditional practices of ritual songs and dance. Navajo people are found in north-eastern areas of Arizona and north-western region of New Mexico (Iverson, 2002) .the regions where the Navajo people live in arid and desert areas that have minimal rainfall. The Navajo people are highly family oriented people, and have a rich culture that is full of ceremonies and other traditions. This paper looks at the history of pastoralists of the Navajo people, their beliefs and religious practices and kinship, sickness and healing, which are important elements with the culture of Navajo people.

Pastoral ways

The traditions and practices of a society, which are to some…


Haile, B (1993). Origin Legend of the Navaho Enemy Way: Text and Translation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Iverson, P. (2002). Dine: A History of the Navajo. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Kluckhohn, C and Leighton, D (1960). The Navaho. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sander, D (1979). Navaho Symbols of Healing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Idolatry How Some Object or Text Discovered
Words: 2628 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39807332
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idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus


dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective

Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.

Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…

In Exodus 15:11, the song sung by the Israelites, asking who of "our Lord" is better" among the Gods" suggests a sense that there are other gods present in the world, albeit not superior to their own, liberating force. (Anderson, 273) "Although it does not rule out the theoretical possibility that other gods might exist, it asserts as a practical orientation the fact that only one god can be worshipped," (Anderson 276) and that god is to be worshipped in a special fashion. In stories of Baal, a storm-like God of the Canaanites who defeats the chaos of that eventually gives birth to humanity, some scholars believe that Psalm 29 was originally a hymn to that God that was later adapted by Israelites, changing the name of the god to their own. (Anderson, 274). This sense of closeness of other faiths and possible competition intensified the need to reject other religions of 'idolatry.'

At all times, "the study of Israelite religion should be distinguished from Biblical theology." (Anderson, 1993, 272). In other words, the history of Biblical Israel differs from the study of the Bible as a canonical text today. The intensity of the rejection of other religions should not be read as a condemnation of Israeli temple Judaism. Rather, it is an acknowledgement of the creative religious dynamic that existed at the time. The Israeli religion was to replace the sacred space of the idolized body with the body of the temple, and the ritual rhythms of investing the material substance of idols with the sacred space and temporal, seasonal rituals of sacrifice and the replacement of sacrifice with animal, rather than human offerings, is often taken to be the essential narrative of the Abraham myth.

Sacrifice has also provided, in a highly public manner, the ability to dramatize the service of a people to God. Perhaps, in contrast to such mouth-opening ceremonies, where the act of accessing the divine was willed, the sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews eventually adopted was a way of dramatizing subservience rather than dominance.

Bar Mitzvah Experience the Bar
Words: 2423 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67763394
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As girls were not allowed to lead religious services -- and still aren't in Orthodox congregations -- the concept of the bat mitzvah is less rotted in religious tradition and ceremony. There were often parties held to celebrate a girls entrance into Jewish womanhood, often held in their twelfth year as it was believed (and still is by many people, both religious and secular) that girls mature faster than boys. But these had no real religious significance, and were instead cultural and familial ways to celebrate a girl's coming of age. Today, bar and bat mitzvah's are conducted in much the same way in many reform and conservative congregations.

Another change that has occurred in the modern concept of the bar mitzvah beyond the addition of a major ceremony to commemorate this event, according to Judaism 101 (, is the level of involvement in the service that many bar and…

Building Coalitions
Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86195980
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Building Coalitions

Early on in my career I recognized that building coalitions was a highly regarded quality within the federal government, and it became my goal to be respected by both civilian and military leaders. Throughout the course of my career, I have been able to build strong relationships with many outstanding colleagues and have been involved with successful actions at high levels of government which have allowed me ample opportunities to build strong networks and support systems. There are four important examples of coalition building that I would like to discuss here.

The first example was my colleague's recommendation that I be chosen to represent women in the military on a commemorative stamp issued for that purpose. I was surprised and delighted that I had built a strong enough relationship with this colleague to be recommended for this honor. Even though there were hundreds of applicants interviewed, I was…

Another important example of building coalitions comes from my work at the Office of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. There are many high-level interconnected government relationships that I must deal with daily, and have been working in this job since 1998 at the cabinet level. I hold the title of Senior Civilian Protocol Officer and must communicate both policy and guidance to VA employees throughout the world. In addition to working with these individuals, I also work with Congressional committee staff, White House staff, and those in other governmental organizations, which allows me to learn about and communicate with many different kinds of people on many different levels.

The fourth and final example of building coalitions comes from 2000, when I led a team of 50 individuals to establish and create the USO Exhibit located in the Pentagon. Now in it's fifth year, the exhibit is viewed by over 100,000 tourists per year, and cost $50,000 to create. During the creation of the exhibit, I coordinated staff policy, maintained focus, and met goals and objectives for the Secretary of Defense. For our performance, my team and I received honor awards; I also received the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service Award.

The performance that I have continued to give to each organization that I have been involved with throughout my career has helped me to win support for many of my ideas and has created important relationships with many colleagues. Leadership roles are valuable to me, and I ensure that customer complaints are handled properly and new procedures are implemented, as well as ensuring that there is a consensus developed among all of those that are participating in a particular project so that it can run smoothly and be completed on time. By building coalitions I have the opportunity to share my experience and to help others with their skills.

Sikhism Is a Progressive Religion That Was
Words: 1136 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65454497
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Sikhism is a progressive religion that was well earlier than its time when it was established over five hundred years ago. The Sikh religion today has over twenty million followers worldwide and is ranked as the worlds 5th largest religion. Sikhism advocates a message of Devotion and commemoration of God at all times, honest living, equality of mankind and condemns superstitions and blind ceremonies. "Sikhism is open to all by way of the teachings of its 10 Gurus preserved in the Sikh Holy Book and Living Guru, Sri Guru Granth Sahib" (Sikhism, 2011).

"The word Sikh in the Punjabi language means disciple, Sikhs are the disciples of God who follow the writings and teachings of the Ten Sikh Gurus. The knowledge of these teachings in Sri Guru Granth Sahib is sensible and worldwide in their petition to all mankind. The creator of the Sikh religion was Guru Nanak who was…


Frequently Asked Questions about Sikhism. (2010). Retrieved from 

Singh, N.G.K. (2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. LTD.

Sikh Beliefs. (2009). Retrieved from 

Sikhism. (2011). Retrieved from

American Literature Which Can Be
Words: 1789 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57038731
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Also, the experiences he underwent in prison offered him the chance to survive in a cruel world, both inside and outside the walls of prison. Inside, as he states "language gave me a way to keep the chaos of prison at bay and prevent it from devouring me; it was a resource that allowed me to confront and understand my past" (Baca, 2001, p4). From this point-of-view, the time spent in prison represented a moment of reflections and of understanding.

The author placed his energy and belief in poetry and writing for a single reason which was that of transforming himself in the messenger of the ones who cannot express themselves. As a comparison with the person he was in his early teen years when he was unable to express himself, his needs, his creeds, or his culture, the prison time helped him understand that a connection with the others…


Baca, Jimmy. A place to stand. New York: Grove Press, 2001.

National Endowment for the Arts. Bless me, Ultima. Interview with the author. 2010. Available at 

Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Viking, 1977.

Great Gatsby by F Scott
Words: 2096 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 995973
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That is a lot of responsibility for ocky to bear, because the family is pinning all their hopes on him, and he has to deliver. The author makes ocky sympathetic - he is not a bully even though he wields power, but there is something about him that seems like she disapproves of him somehow, too. She kills him in a nasty way, and she makes him seem cold and unemotional when he quickly takes on the white man's ways in order to get ahead in school. Tayo is incredibly guilty about ocky's death, it is almost as if he thinks that it should have been him, instead, because ocky had so much promise, and that is another disturbing thing about ocky. He inspires guilt and anguish in the family, and they do not attempt to do anything about their own dreams, they seem to have died with ocky.



Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: The Viking Press, 1977.

Apache Farrer Profusely Described in
Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63206332
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It is a divine and blessed land. Also, it explains the different forces at work in the world. The forces of the weather impact the lives of ordinary people with great significance. The people who told this first story wanted to find a reason for why weather was so powerful, thus the forces of the weather were the king's administrators, like administrators of a nation. The entire early society in this myth of origins is seen as a kind of kingdom, with officials administering the different elements that affect people's daily lives, like good and evil and sickness and death. People cannot control these forces but they can appeal to these benevolent ministers to help them.

Human beings are created through an act of great patience, namely the patience of the bear. The fierce tiger and the bear are given a great challenge, to live on a miserable substance in…

Works Cited

Farrer, Claire R. (1996). Thunder Rides a Black Horse: Mescalero Apaches and the Mythic Present. Waveland Press.

Korean Creation Myth." 23 Feb 2007.

Project Management of the Wedding
Words: 1815 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7778574
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It is essential to determine the critical path and shortest and long paths based on the allocated time.

The network diagram for the wedding planning project also provides an understanding about the activities in the sequence they are required to be performed. It is observed that family task is preceded with invitations Lists and on the basis of this activity invitations are posted. The booking of the ceremony is also completed after this activity. On the other hand the wedding activity has two preceding activities including place finalizations and dress selection and rings, which is followed by the floral and decor as well as honeymoon. The finalization of place leads to appointment for ceremony and venue selection, leading towards the final weeding as finish of the activities.



nvitations List



Venue Selection


for Ceremony

Finalization of Place

Invitations Postage

Dresses and Rings


Honey Moon


Works Cited:

Rosenau, Milton D., and Gregory D. Githens. Successful project management: a step-by-step approach with practical examples. Wiley, 2011. Print.

Schwalbe, Kathy. Information Technology: Project Management. Course Technology Ptr, 2010. Print.

Tie Us Together Ethnic Literature
Words: 3110 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 10083942
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Both Tayo and Crowe begin their journeys wandering between two worlds. Both are aware of their wandering and are constantly searching for an identity that will allow them to find the world and identity in which they are most suitable for inclusion. Similarly, both Crowe and Tayo experience a traumatic event that leaves them haunted not only by their pasts, but also guilty about their own actions in the past and sure that these actions have caused others pain. Additionally, these hauntings result in both Tayo and Crowe pushing away the ones they love. For Crowe it is his wife and for Tayo, his family. The similarities between the characters of Tayo and Crowe, therefore, suggest the truth of Saez and insbro's claims. Ethnic writers Shyamalan and Silko certainly employ a common theme of exclusion and inclusion, a theme that is encompassed by the larger theme of the presence of…

Works Cited

The Sixth Sense. Dir. M.Night Shyamalan. Perf. Bruce Willis, Haley Joel Osment. 1999.

Vidocassette, 2000.

Santiago, Esmeralda. America's Dream. New York, Harper: 1997.

Saez, Barbara J. "Varieties of the Ethnic Experience: A Review" the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States. 27.4 (2002): 204-207.

Three Pronged Symbolic System of the Totem Pole Potlatch and Tamawanas Dance
Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15361784
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Native American Symbolic Rituals

Three Pronged Symbolic System of the Totem Pole, Potlatch and Tamanawas Dance

The people who originally migrated to the North American continent came here tens of thousands of years ago. They brought with them many different customs such as the ability to move quickly from one place to another, a love of the Earth that they inhabited, and a reverence for life. These people became what are now termed Native Americans. Native because they were settled here thousands of years before people from any other location came here. The different groups that crossed the land bridge from Siberia moved down the coast and spread out to different inland locations as they moved. Some settled along the estern coast of Canada and the United States and developed traditions that have remained through the millennia. Among those traditions are the construction of totems, the ceremony of the potlatch,…

Works Cited

Legends of America. "Native American Legends: Native American Totems and the Meanings." Legends of America, 2010. Web.

Syzgvastro. "The Potlatch Ceremony (To Give Away)." (2008). Web.

U'Mista Cultural Center. "The Potlatch Collection History." U'Mista Cultural Society, 2006. Web.

Zuni Solstice
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8139781
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solstice ceremonies of are a vital and traditional part of Zuni culture. The ceremonies occur in both summer and winter solstices, but the most important ceremony occurs during the winter solstice. The ancestors of the Zuni people lived in what is now the southwestern U.S. over 5,000 years ago, and today their decedents continue to celebrate the winter solstice.

The roots of the Zuni culture, and thus the solstice, lie within the Anasazi culture that existed millennia ago in what is today the southwest United States. The Anasazi people, believed to be the ancestors of the Zuni and other Pueblo people simply disappeared 600 years ago, leaving behind their homes and belongings after inhabiting the area for close to 5,000 years (Roberts).

The Zuni New Year begins at the winter solstice. The ceremony called Yatakya-ittiwanna-quin-techikya ("sun middle-at place arrives"), or Tetsina-wittiwa ("winter middle") marks the beginning of these celebrations. The…

Works Cited

Database Article

Keith, Katherine Drouin. Zuni murals connect two cultures. (Zuni kachinas in Catholic mission). National Catholic Reporter, March 26, 1999. LookSmart Database. 21 March 2004. 

Internet Resource

The Curtis Collection. Zuni Solstice and Harvest Ceremonies. The North American Indian, Volume 17. 21 March 2004.

Divine Referred to as Lwa
Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47883163
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The overall theme that such rituals convey is the elemental nature of the Vodou religion. Specifically, within Vodou it is believed -- much like in Hinduism -- that there is one, ultimate spiritual being, known as God. However, this overarching spiritual force cannot be comprehended or experienced directly be human beings. This is the reason why the lwa is essential to the ritual life of people practicing Vodou. The lwa is the connection between the perfectly divine realm of God and the lesser realm occupied by humanity. Obviously, the in-between realm of the lwa acts upon the human realm continually; yet the rituals themselves are designed to strengthen this connection. Accordingly, possession by the lwa is of ultimate importance to be able to cross the line -- however briefly -- between the human and the divine. This interpretation of possession contrasts strongly with Christian interpretations, which almost universally view it…

Works Cited

American Museum of Natural History. "Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou." American Museum of Natural History, 2007. Available: .

Bellegarde-Smith, Patrick and Claudine Michel. Haitian Vodou. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

McAlister, Elizabeth a. "Vodou." Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Black History, 2007. Available: .

Shaman as a Spiritual Specialist
Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85190069
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( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.

The world…

Works Cited

Achterberg J. Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine. London:

Shambala Press. 1985.

Berlo J. And Phillips R. Native North American Art. New York: Oxfors University

Press. 1998.

Male and Female -- Both a Part
Words: 466 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66166151
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Male and Female -- Both a Part of Leslie Marmon Silko's book Ceremony

Indian society defines what is positive about the male essence to be what is active in the world. However, the male protagonist Tayo of Leslie Marmon Silko's novel Ceremony, feels as if he has been denied his ability to demonstrate his manhood to the world, as an Indian brave ought to. Because of his perceived failure fighting in a white-driven war, Tayo experiences a sense of alienation from his current society, although he has finally returned to Indian life. He feels cast out of the white world for his inability to kill Japanese people, and feels cast out of the Indian world because of his sense of passivity. One of the reader's first images of Tayo is as he sites by the window at his Auntie's house. Recently released from a mental hospital after his mental breakdown…

Work Cited

Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin, 1977.

Leading Change
Words: 1052 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66389143
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Leading Change

he Department of Veterans Affairs did not have an effort that was focused on protocol services despite the fact that they were a cabinet level organization. Because of this, the organization needed an effort that directly advised, assisted, and supported developmental activities for the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and the Chief of Staff on not only official matters of national and international protocol, but also in planning, hosting, and officiating related events and activities for members of Congress, senior Veteran Service Organizations, diplomats, and visiting heads of state. During the first year of the 2001-2004 administration the lack of protocol was a definite challenge for the Department as it received visits from senior U.S. And foreign dignitaries to include the U.S. Vice President, and the Minister of Veterans Affairs for the Republic of Korea.

Since there were problems and challenges with some of the events that were put on…

The Office of Protocol is on the cutting edge when it comes to activities throughout the department and I created a vision "to provide premier protocol throughout the department," and a mission "to provide world class protocol via special events, read aheads, gift programs, foreign visits, and meeting management." Goals were set high and performance measurements were positioned so that the office would be the focal point for moving toward excellence throughout the entire organization. I recognized that there were individual strengths in all of the key players and that these must be maximized in order to create a synergy for both personal and office accomplishments. By performance coaching and counseling, concrete learning experiences, and involving individuals and the ideas that they have in the decision-making process that I used, I helped to strengthen the skills of my staff and subordinates. I am often asked to take on tasks that are seen as impossible and I am constantly called on by others for work that needs to be done. My office is also recognized for its agility and its character and has been singled out by many of the senior leaders.

Another example of leading change that I have been involved in came in August of 2004 when I was selected to participate in the organization's senior executive service candidate development program. To maintain the performance of my job and meet the criteria for the program I currently attend Saturday courses at Georgetown University Center for Professional Development. This particular program is designed to prepare executives and managers to motivate and lead individuals and to be results driven. They also learn how to achieve favorable outcomes through partnerships, teamwork, and building coalitions. In February of 2005, I began a course entitled leadership as vision and strategy. This course is very innovative and through it I learned the skills to develop and execute the vision and mission of my organization as well as to align the organizational objectives that I have with my own personal goals.

I also learned how to improve my skills and maintain my forward approach as a visionary leader that moves beyond thinking out-of-the-box to defining what the box is. While I was participating in this course in February of 2005 I also worked on the swearing-in ceremony in honor of the fifth Secretary of Veterans Affairs. Upon an analysis of this individual's life I recommended the U.S. Chamber of Commerce as being the venue to conduct his ceremony. This program that I am in currently will be completed on June 17th of 2005 and I will receive at that time to Georgetown University Center for Professional Development Senior Executive Leadership Certificate. Not only has this course taught me a great deal but it will help me in my future endeavors in my career.

Culture Refers to the Accumulated
Words: 4685 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87152746
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In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.

The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…

references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x

Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526

Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.

Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978

Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.

Sociology of Youth
Words: 2246 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35341616
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Sociology of Youth

The Structural Arrangements

The class view using the Social-Psychological perspective precipitates a point-of-view in the context of society as the dictator to the actor, the environment perpetuating the role that young individuals play in contemporary society. The social interaction is engaged through the environmental variables that lead to the psychological parameters to which the youth operate within. This approach is ostensibly akin to Ethnomethodology that views humans as a rule ridden species predicated on acting within a given societal or moral framework.

The identity formation of bonded child laborers in India is an example of youth that have no control over their environment and to where their environment or social paradigm shapes their individual thought process. These youth become a function of their environment. Essentially, a product of their environment that is based on exploitation and abuse of the children of the society. The structural arrangements for…


Erikson, Erick H. "Adolescence and the life cycle stage. Identity, youth & crisis,(pp. 128-135). New York W.W. Norton & Co. 1968.

Hostetler, J. "A sectarian society. Amish society (pp. 6-17). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1980.

Kovasevic, Natasa. "Child Slavery." Harvard International Review 29.2 (2007): 36,36-39. ABI/INFORM Global.Web. 16 June 2011.

Milner Murray. "Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption." (2004) Routledge

Art in Non-Western Society the
Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57114131
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Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.

The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.

In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…

American Indian Education. (Accessed April 30, 2005)

THE IROUK CHARACTER.  / (Accessed May 1, 2005)

Frank G. Speck, and Alexander General, Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 70.

Abrahamic Religion Comparing and Contrasting
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3840482
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Before the Torah is replaced near the end of the service, it is carried throughout the assembled congregation. Worshippers may reach out and touch the Torah with prayer books (hands are not supposed to be used), then kiss the object that touched the Torah, a gesture of affection, respect, and loyalty to God. This ritual is (arguably) symbolically equivalent to Catholic Communion, where believers symbolically ingest the blood and the body of Christ (a sip of wine and a Communion wafer) thereby taking the Lord into themselves. Both practices reaffirm personal relationships to God. Such contemporary (and past) ceremonies and liturgical practices may or may not actually aid worshippers in understanding God (or on the other hand, provide roadblocks for interpretation of the sacred). However, both are powerful signs of a personal relationship between congregants and God.

Many sections of the Old Testament reaffirm monotheism. In Exodus 31-33, Moses leaves…

Collective Intelligence and the Blogosphere
Words: 1878 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38377951
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Collective Intelligence and Plural Voices

One Internet platform which largely represents a hybrid of collective intelligence and mass amateurization is the blogosphere which makes predictions on the yearly results of the Academy Awards. Just as Jenkins makes the point that Survivor is a show which just begs the viewer to speculate about what happened, the Oscar Ceremony is an award show that is big enough and important enough that it begs for the prediction of the ultimate outcomes. ith these film buffs, there is a similar gathering of information and historical patterns which do create a knowledge community, comparable to the Survivor fans. These movie buffs are also similar to the Survivor fans in that making these predictions has become a game or tournament of accuracy; unlike Survivor, the results of the Oscars aren't determined months in advance. However, the results are tallied before the envelopes are open onstage, creating…

Works Cited

Hindman, M. (2009). The Myth of Digital Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.

Shirky, C. (2008). Here Comes Everybody. New York: Penguin Books.

Zittrain, J. (2008). The Future of the Internet and How to Stop it. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Second Coming Things Fall Apart
Words: 325 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20186806
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Thus, the "ceremony of innocence" by which the boy was received into the tribe is now replaced with violence. Okonkwo, even though he loves the boy, kills him to avoid seeming weak.

Yeats' slow-moving rough beast with a lion's body but the head of a man may seem to represent Okonkwo, at first, in Achebe's novel, given Okonkwo's violence towards other people in the novel. But while Okonkwo is certainly rough, and unable to appreciate feminine and humane values, as embodied, for example, in his wife's tribe or in the missionaries his son turns to for guidance, the coming colonial influence to Africa could also be characterized as a beast. The beast moves slowly, and is at first imperceptible to the tribesmen who are concerned with their own internal disputes, but gradually the political and religious worldview of outsiders subsume the home-grown tribal ideology of the past.

orks Cited


Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Heinemann, 1996.

constitutional law and the rowan county v lund case
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22814645
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Rowan County, North Carolina had a prayer policy that was aligned with Christian norms as well as the prevailing values of freedom and liberty in the United States. The policy pertained to the opening ceremonies before public meetings, which include the Pledge of Allegiance. During these meetings in Rowan County, individual commissioners were offered the opportunity to pray in whatever manner they preferred, have a moment of silence instead, or abstain from either. No commissioner or member of the public was required to pray; it was a voluntary provision. Yet federal courts recently ruled that Rowan County’s practices violated the First Amendment of the Constitution, particularly the Establishment Clause. The Establishment Clause states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” (“Introduction to the Establishment Clause,” (n.d.). Even a cursory reading of the Establishment Clause shows that prohibiting commissioners from praying during…

Shinto Is a Japanese Religion
Words: 341 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35890559
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The ritual is the most important aspect of Shinto; thus performing the ritual the right way is the most important part of worship in Shinto. The rituals serve to bind Japanese to their past as well; since the rituals themselves are sacred they do not change.

The other key element of Shinto is purification. iping clean restores the natural process, which is clean and beautiful, and free from pollution. For the Japanese, purity and religion are one and the same (Boyd & illiams, 1999).

Festivals are also important in Shinto. Adherents use festivals as a means to bring the community together. Festivals also become celebrations of ritual, or are held to ask the spirits for prosperity in a profession, or for a harvest.

orks Cited:

No author. (2009). Shinto at a glance. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2009 from

Boyd, J. & illiams, J. (1999). Artful means: An…

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Shinto at a glance. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2009 from 

Boyd, J. & Williams, J. (1999). Artful means: An aesthetic view of Shinto purification rituals. Journal of Ritual Studies. Vol. 13, 1, 37-52.

Ghosts of the Past the
Words: 2705 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39789562
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Although the events and characters' reactions to them have their differences in the interest of plot variety, similarities between the cases far outweigh the differences.

Not only are the events that Nel and Crowe experience and their reactions to them similar, but also both characters have striking revelations at the end of their stories that suggest the importance of the events. In Nel's case, the remembering "the death of chicken little" allows her to "[reconfigure] a number of long-held memories" (Matus, 69). One of those memories, and probably the most poignant is that of Sula. After coming back to the Bottom, Nel is less than friendly with her former confidant. In fact, she joins the rest of the town in labeling Sula and her wild ways as evil, a predicament that helps unite the town. Although Nel and manage a brief reconciliation before Sula's death, the force of the reconciliation…

Works Cited

Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison: Contemporary World Writers. New York: Manchester

University Press, 1998.

Wesselman, Debbie Lee. "Sula." Mostly Fiction. 2006. June 30, 2008.

Winsbro, Bonnie. Forces: Belief, Deliverance, and Power in Contemporary Works by Ethnic Women. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.

NFL Retirement Benefits Issues and
Words: 2086 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16664641
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Furthermore, EISA issues aside, according to Linda Sanchez (D-California), "It concerns me when those who work hazardous jobs don't get the care they deserve, whether a coal miner, tire factory worker or football player... " referring to the questionnaire distributed to the NFLPA requesting medical data pertaining to their retirees, she said, "I look forward to timely responses to our questions so we can determine what steps might be necessary that those who made football great aren't neglected."13

AP, 2007

Carpenter, 2007


Professional football is, by all accounts, a violent sport whose participants frequently suffer significant physical injuries on the playing field. Because of the nature, frequency, and intensity of the collisions inherent to the game, especially at the professional level, the effects of football injuries often persist long after retirement. Most insidious are the cumulative effects of repeated cerebral concussions, only recently identified as a specific injury…


Associated Press. 10/24/07 NFL Adds $10 Million to Medical Fund, Latest Step in Dispute Concerning Retirees and Pensions. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from CBSonline at 

Associated Press. 5/31/07-35 NFL Players Qualify for Dementia-Alzheimer's Assistance Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from FoxNews Web site, at,2933,276617,00.html 

Carpenter, L. 10/13/07 Congress Presses NFL, Union on Benefits. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from at 

Conrad, M. (1999) Sportslaw History: The John Mackey case. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, at

Female Circumcision Why Are Female
Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92481007
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What is the role of the family in the continuing process of female circumcisions?

One of the difficulties in trying to stop the practice of female circumcisions is the central role of the family, particularly women, in perpetuating the practice. Because the girls' mothers have had the procedure performed upon themselves, they assume it is normal, and feel that their girls should have to endure what they endured. Also, even if a family might not want their daughters to suffer a circumcision, the family may go along with it, for fear of damaging her marriage prospects or the reputation of the family. They use the excuse that for the girl to function in her society, 'normally' they must obey this societal convention, regardless of its morality. This is compounded by a fear of unchecked, young female sexuality in general.

Food Ritual Observance - A
Words: 2321 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74443737
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Take trail mix... It is an energetic, "idealized" snack food. This comes primarily from the target populations the manufacturer focuses it is marketing. Other channels for influence include consumers looking for "quick" fixes, such as families looking for fast and fun food. It would be interesting to explore the link marketing of "fast" snack products such as this have on families with young children, and compare this with the influence the product had on the political and behavioral habits and beliefs of the college students consuming it.

Lastly, symbolic systems help us better understand how products are systematically introduced and marketed to consumers. This helps shapes attitudes and beliefs. Also important to note however, as learned in class, is whether societies tend to accept or reject certain items even if marketed well. For example, oark (2007) noted that in many cultures certain foods or animals are taboo. Consider for a…


Chex Mix Peanut Lovers" Taquitos.Net (2007), Reviewed 7, June, 2007: .

Coen Flynn, Karen. Food, Culture, and Survival in an African City, New York,

NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.

Sun Was High but the
Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 98905495
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I think that was the point. She was pretty and I liked that, but that white girl could never understand me. She loved it when I told her about eagles and mountain lions and things like that. She wanted me to do a rain dance. I told her it rained last week. I did not stay in the city long. I never did.

I understand the sky

When it is blue, it is happy

When it is not blue, I like that too

When the white is on the mountains

The wind is cold

And the sky turns grey

We burn wood for the fire

And wrap ourselves in blankets

and All the stray dogs gather

I left that girl. I went back home, to the land under the sky, where every day I could walk in the arroyo, and up into the hills. I just liked to be in…

Religion in Human Transformation of the African-American
Words: 3249 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1149656
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eligion in Human Transformation of the African-American topic with a focus on the African-American Christianity experience. The writer explores the transformation to Black Christianity and uncovers some of the underlying features of its existence. The writer examines the patterns and experiences of spirituality for the Black Christian experience in North America as well as the ways that the particular historical experiences of Blacks in the United States assisted in creating distinct forms of spirituality in the communities. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

The Christian movement in North America is a large one. Millions of Christians worship in churches across the continent each week and the numbers continue to climb. African-American Christians have a faith and spiritual path that is somewhat different than white Christians follow. The terms "black church" and "black Christian" can be heard periodically in theological discussions. From the music to the underlying beliefs,…


Fulop, Timothy. African-American Religion: Interpretive Essays in History and Culture

Routledge (February 1, 1997)

Rabateau, Albert. J. Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South (Galaxy Books).Oxford University Press; New Ed edition (March 1, 1980)

Murphy, Joseph. Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora

History of the Sri Venkateswara Temple in New Jersey
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ri Venkateswara Temple (NJ)

The issue of religion and tolerance, like racism, has always been a contentious one in the United tates. This is particularly true of the non-Western, non-mainstream religions, such as Hinduism and other Indian religious directions. Part of the reason for this is that Hindu immigration to the country began only in small amounts, while other immigrants deluged U.. borders (Wikipedia, 2006). This resulted in a fair degree of distrust and misconception towards Hindu adherents. Nevertheless, when the Immigration and Nationality ervices (IN) Act was passed in 1965, the Hindu population began to increase in number, enjoyed greater equality, and also attracted scholarly attention. From the Hindu point-of-view, the concern is to remain attached to traditional and religious values while living in and integrating with a Western society (Prentiss, 2006). This, together with their fairly new status of legally validated equality, has resulted in an increasing amount…


Hindu American Temple and Cultural Center. 2005-2006.

India News. Temples in the United States. Sept. 13, 2006. 

Linderman, Michael. Profile, Sri Venkateswara Temple. 2002. 

Nirmalani, Rashmi. Religious Movements: Hinduism. 2001.

U S History During the Dedication
Words: 2228 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17321341
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It would construct a credible, but false, situation to deceive or lead the target to act in a manner, which would accomplish the commander's goal. When the target accepted the deception, the commander determined the means or methods needed to present the events. The manual demonstrated the mechanism of "Conditioning an Adversary" through the case of the Egyptian crossing the Suez in 1973. It consisted that deceptive measures and a broad range of centrally-directed and controlled deception events, involving political and military activities. Whether the objective was to control the public and elite view of a conflict or for purposes of military deception, the U.S. military had keen interest in media's perception of events in the battlefield. If the media was present and undermined the political strategy, it needed to be controlled. ut if it were non-neutral, there was greater need to control it. Whether it behaved impartially or not,…


Breuer, William. Uncover Tales of World War II. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999

Bush, Georg W. Remarks at the Decication of the National World War II Memorial. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Government Printing Office, May 29, 2004

Conant, Jennet. Tuxedo Park: a Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science that Changed the Course of World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002

Friedman, Max Paul. Nazis and Good Neighbors. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003

Emotional Expression
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55365212
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American culture of interest and select another culture of interest to you (Japanese). Think about the emotional expressions that you might observe in the two cultures during rites of passage, such as births, wedding ceremonies, and funerals. n addition, consider the similarities and differences of the expressions of the emotions that you might observe.

With these thoughts in mind:

Write a brief description of the two cultures you selected. Then describe how each culture typically expresses two emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, fear, and anger). Finally explain how these cultures influence the expression of these emotions.

Confucianism has been the most powerful influence shaping Japanese conception for the past thousands of years, and it has had an impact too on influencing emotion. Contrary to Western ideology that perceives each person's life as being distinct and unique and therefore each person responsible for him or herself, Confucianism sees interconnectedness with each individual…

In comparison Western values accord significance to only one category: that of hard work and frugality (although this is more in theory than in practice). The Western person is told to think for himself and to be 'his own individual'. He is told to question norms and adopt his own values -- the more deviant the better. He may be told to practice self-control -- as means to accumulate wealth and Western success -- but is certainly not required to acquire humility or austerity. Western culture, in other words, is the precise opposite of Confucian values, and, accordingly, Western conception of happiness differs too.

Western happiness as we well know comes through 'independence, 'success', the ability to stand alone, be unique, obtain a sense of self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-reliance (note the reiterate term' self') and, an accordingly, accumulation of money and power in order to achieve survival in a world where each is attempting to torpedoes the other. Families are splintered in the Western world. Many are unaware of their ancestors; others seek to serrate themselves form them. Attention is on the self and on augmenting this self, whilst success - erroneously as positive psychology has shown -- is equated with happiness. And success in Western terms means: Wealth.

That cultural values influence emotion is evident in at least one qualitative study conducted by sociologists that found that in Japan the internalization of Eastern values that included harmony of interpersonal relationships, achievement at work, and contentment with life presented happiness (Lu & Shih, 1997). Meanwhile, as Diener and colleagues (1995) discovered obtainment of individuality gave

Architecture Manifesto
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ole of Architecture in the Progress of Society

Architecture can be defined as "the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses seen in light" (Conway and oenisch 9). In other words, it is an experience that is emotional and artistic. Some people agree that architecture is the amalgamation of building and art. However, many do not agree with this opinion (Conway and oenisch 9). According to Britannica Encyclopedia, architecture is "the art and technique of designing and building" ("architecture") whose practice "is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends" ("architecture"). Therefore, every society has a spatial connection to the natural world. The sort of architecture and the produced structures reflects history, culture, environment, traditions, ceremonies, customs and artistic sensibility of a society ("architecture").

Buildings keep people warm and dry and are directly involved in the reasonableness and feasibility of living.…


"architecture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .

"architecture." Questia. Columbia University Press, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .

Ballantyne, A. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Web. 1 August 2012. .

Conway, H., & Roenisch, R. Understanding Architecture: An Introduction to Architecture and Architectural History. New York: Routledge, 1994. Web. 1 August 2012. .

Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century
Words: 24240 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 17194104
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Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)


The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1


ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…


Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: 

Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: 

Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: 

Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:

Plea to the Hearts and Minds of
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plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…


Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.

Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007

Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.

Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980

Temple Beth Am Site Visit Jonathan Zaun
Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16043960
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Temple Beth Am Site Visit

Jonathan Zaun

For people living in prior generations, the practice of one's religious beliefs was a private expression of faith to be shared only with fellow adherents. Christians worshipped alongside fellow Christians and seldom found either the opportunity or the desire to explore the religious beliefs of neighbors and friends who happened to be Jewish, Muslim, Hindu or any of the hundreds of creeds which are followed freely in the United States. Fortunately, this exclusionary attitude towards religion has been cast aside by today's youth, and people are now encouraged to visit places of worship with which they may not be familiar. As a practicing Roman Catholic, I have always been curious about Judaism, a faith which shares many of its influences with Christianity but has evolved throughout the ages to become the distinctly unique belief system we know today. In order to fully immerse…

Adventures in Fugawiland Types of Sites in
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Adventures in Fugawiland

Types of sites in Fugawiland.

There were four sites in Fugawiland. These sites were the shore site, inland site, burial and ceremony site, and the hunting site. Of these, the shore site and inland site were the location of the population based on the weather and the seasons of the year. These seasons were delineated into summer and winter and weather and warmth would determine the location of the population more than the assumed date.

The shore site (located on map areas F, Y, and R) is where the people of Fugawiland would spend their summers. Archaeologists have been able to ascertain that the shore was the location of the fishing and living during the warm months. This has been determined by the fact that remains of trout, as well as fish hooks, small hearths, and lightweight huts have been discovered in the area. Since more pots…

Works Cited:

Adventures in Fugawiland. Price & Gebawer, 2002. Print.

Social Business and Retailer
Words: 12746 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 58098465
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Using contemporary illustrative examples from academic literature and reputable business publications, discuss the concept of "Social Business" and the resultant opportunity and challenges that are currently being faced by the retail industry globally.

Concept of Social Business

Concept of Social Business with etailers

Social Media and etailing

Best Practices in Administering Social Media

There is a growing body of research that confirms that companies of all sizes and types can realize a wide array of benefits from the use of social media networks. While the types and applications of social media experience constant change, social media content such as blogs and microblogs have become some of the more popular social media tools that have emerged in recent years. Although there a number of benefits and advantages that can be achieved through the use of social media resources, there is a concomitant danger that inappropriate or misguided content can backfire…


'About MySpace,' 2013, MySpace. [online] available: .

'About YouTube,' 2013, YouTube. [online] available: .

Anderson, DJ 2011, Winter, 'The Foray into Social Media: A Clinician, and Skeptic,

Sold,' Frontiers of Health Services Management, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 23-29.

Moche Paleoindians the First Human
Words: 4658 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20490999
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It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.

Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."

In a number of instances, the finds are linked…


Bawden, Garth. 1996 the Moche. Blackwell, Oxford.

Berezkin, Juri 1983. Moche Nauka, Leningrad.

Chapdelaine, Claude nd the Moche Occupation of the Lower Santa Valley and the nature of the Southern Moche State Anthropology Department. University of Montreal.

____The Growing Power of the Moche Urban Class. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru. pp. 69-85 National Gallery of Art: Washington, D.C.

Kinaalda and Quinceanera the Kinaalda
Words: 1173 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19614108
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" (Duck, 1).

The young girl turning 15 is accompanied by seven young women (her damas) and seven young men (her chambelanes). "The number of damas and chambelanes can vary," explains Msgr. Patrick Brankin, pastor of St. Therese in Tulsa, Oklahoma, speaking of a ceremony he is watching, "but in this case, the total number of damas and chamberlanes was 14, which plus the quinceanera equals 15, the 'magic number' for the celebration."

Quinceanos is a commonly celebrated holiday in Latin American cultures. The girl renews her baptismal vows and receives gifts symbolic of her baptism from her padrinos: a crown to remind her one day she will be crowned with glory in heaven; a ring to remind her of the love by which she became a child of God; a medal, a Bible and a rosary to remind her of prayer, and a bracelet, called an esclava, to remind…

Works Cited

Amrani, Estelle Nora Harwit. "The Kinaalda Ceremony: A Dance Into Womanhood." Thesis in partial requirement for a degree. 2002. .

Duck, Marilyn. "Quinceanos: A Hispanic Catholic family tradition that celebrates a girl's 15th birthday." Eastern Oklahoma Catholic: Diocese of Tulsa News. 5 Jul 2006.

Mills, Priscilla. Quinceanera Connection. New York: American Treasures Library. 2007.

Ancient Jewish Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom
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Ancient Jewish Weddings

Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom

There is an example of a wedding feast from the gospel of Luke that is not of the famous Cana Wedding Feast that takes place at the beginning of Jesus' ministry, but a gathering in the house of a Pharisee. The Pharisees and scribes invited Jesus there because, as always they were trying to test Him. It was on the Sabbath, and there had already been some discussion of this seminal event in the Jewish week, but the discussion had changed because Christ had been asked to heal a man who walked up to him who had dropsy (an abnormal swelling due to excessive water retention). He asked them if they thought it was lawful to heal a man on the Sabbath, and as they were testing Him, they did not answer. So, he told them that they would definitely take their…


Celine. (2010). Difference between Talmud and Torah. Retrieved from miscellaneous/difference-between-talmud-and-torah/

Orthodox Judaism. (2010). A guide to Jewish wedding tradition. Retrieved from 

Rich, T.R. (2011). Marriage. Retrieved from 

West, J. (2003). Ancient Israelite marriage customs. Quartz Hill School of Theology. Retrieved from