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Cesarean Section Essays (Examples)

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C-Sections in the United States While the
Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19410726
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C-Sections in the United States. While the article itself is not an empirical work, it draws extensively from the work of medical researchers and experts in the field. The phenomenon under consideration was the alarming increase in the rates of C-sections amongst all sectors of the American population. The writer used a bar chart to demonstrate that the numbers of C-sections have increased steadily from 1998 to 2007. The increase was from a low of 21 C-sections per 100 births in 1998, to 32 per 100 births in 2007. Overall, the numbers of C-sections has increased by more than 50% since 1996.

The main hypothesis tested examined the relationship between induction and C-sections. It was hypothesized that there was a direct relationship between the induction of labor in a woman and conducting a C-section. This hypothesis suggests that as the numbers of induced labors increase there will also be an…


Rubin, R. (2010). Why has the U.S.A.'s cesarean section rate climbed so high? USA Today.

Retrieved from

C-Sections Relative to Hospital Size a Cesarean
Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24338227
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C-Sections elative to Hospital Size

A cesarean section, more commonly known as a C-section, is a surgical procedure in which a fetus is delivered via a hysterotomy rather than a more typical vaginal delivery procedure. There are many medical reasons why a c-section is necessary, although the geographic and demographic distribution of c-sections shows many trends in the prevalence of the procedure, indicating medical necessity is not the only reason that the surgery is performed. Affluence and medical availability and infrastructure have clear impacts on the rate and outcome of c-sections.

In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that on average, 10-15% of live births were via c-section, and the rate of c-sections in the United States, despite a rising popularity of alternative birthing methods (midwifes, home births, doulas, etc.), the c-sections have increased by 48% since 1996. While the size of hospitals studied when studying c-section outcomes has been…


Chen, Chin-Shyan et al. (2008). "Urbanization and the likelihood of a cesarean section" European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ad Reproductive Biology

Volume 141, Issue 2, Pp 104-110

Chris Macourt, et al. (2007). "Elective Cesarean Section and Decision Making: A Critical Review of the Literature" Birth..Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 65 -- 79.

Kritchevsky, SB et al. (1996). "Decreasing the cesarean section rate in a private hospital: Success without mandated clinical changes." American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Volume 174, Issue 1. Pp 184-191.

Gum Chewing Following Cesarean in Their Research
Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24123860
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Gum Chewing Following Cesarean

In their research article entitled "Gum-Chewing Speeds Return of First Bowel Sounds but Not First Defecation after Cesarean Section," Harma et al. (2009) explore a two-fold research question. First, they looked into the duration of postoperative ileus if gum was chewed following a cesarean section. Secondly they looked at whether there was a difference in the results when comparing patients who chewed sugar-free gum with the results of those who chewed gum with sugar substitute in it. In the experiment, 76 women were divided into three categories, the control group, the sugar-free gum group, and the group who were given sugar-substituted gum. The patients who got to chew gum did so every fifteen minutes starting two hours after their surgery. hat the researchers found was that there was no marked difference between the three groups in comparing the time it took to their first episode of…

Works Cited

Harma, M.I., Barut, I., Arkian, I.I., & Harma, M. (2009). Gum-chewing speeds return of first bowel sounds but not first defecation after cesarean section. Anatolian Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1-3.

Lafon, C., & Lawson, L. (2012, April). Gum chewing as a strategy to reduce the duration of postoperative ileus. Gastrointestinal Nursing. Mark Allen. (10:3). 18-22.

Arnold Palmer Hospital Labor and Delivery Workflow
Words: 1468 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12095239
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Arnold Palmer Hospital Labor and Delivery Workflow Analysis

The Arnold Palmer Hospital (AHC) located in Orlando, Florida is considered one of the most efficient and patient-centric healthcare providers in the U.S. due to the customer satisfaction scores the facility receives and amount of patients the hospital sees on an annual basis. The AHC has been ranked fifth in patient satisfaction out of 5,000 hospitals and sees on average 1.5 million children and women annually. It is the fourth-busiest labor and delivery hospital in the U.S. And the largest neonatal intensive care unit in the entire Southeastern U.S. AHC has also put into place one of the most thorough and well-respected continuous improvement processes in the U.S. healthcare system. With the goal of 100% patient satisfaction, AHC has created an entire quality management and improvement organization which is now a critical part of its culture.

Of the myriad of processes that…


Ahsan, K., Shah, H., & Kingston, P. (2010). Location context for knowledge management in healthcare. International Journal of Healthcare Technology & Management, 11(1), 3.

Bertolini, M., Bevilacqua, M., Ciarapica, F.E., & Giacchetta, G. (2011). Business process re-engineering in healthcare management: A case study. Business Process Management Journal, 17(1), 42-66.

Hellstrom, A., Lifvergren, S., & Quist, J. (2010). Process management in healthcare: Investigating why it's easier said than done. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 21(4), 499-511.

Whiteman, A.S. (2004). Applying quality management in healthcare: A process for improvement. Hospital Topics, 82(1), 37-37.

Is Pitocin Induction a Factor in Postpartum Hemorrhage
Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 22038954
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Pitocin Induction and Postpartum Hemorrhage


Is Pitocin Induction a Factor in Postpartum Hemorrhage?

The induction of oxytocin injection has been a bane of contention in the medical community not only because it has been listed as a high-alert medication, which incurs serious risks to the patient, the fetus and the institution. It is also used frequently to manage postpartum hemorrhage. This quantitative correlational study analyzes and presents the findings of five updated and authoritative sources on the subject and answers the questions surrounding the induction of oxytocin in postpartum hemorrhage and its appropriateness, efficacy and safety.

Postpartum hemorrhage occurs when there is blood loss greater than 500 ml during spontaneous vaginal delivery or 1,000 ml during a cesarean section delivery (Yiadom, 2010). Fortunately, in most cases, healthy females can tolerate much blood loss of more than 500 ml without incurring adverse conditions. The two types are early…


Balci, O. et al. (2011). Comparison of induction of labor with vaginal misoprostol plus

Oxytocin vs. oxytocin alone in term primigravidae. Vol. 2 # 9, Journal of Maternal

and Neonatal Medicine: Informa Healthcare Publishing Technology. Retrieved on January 12, 2014 from

Clayworth, S. (2000). The nurse's role during Oxytocin administration. Vol. 25 # 2, The

Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in
Words: 4208 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81902786
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Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).

Dissetation Pat

Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.

The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…

Nursing Through Stages of Labor
Words: 2635 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31597689
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However, women also receive labor support even when its starts at a later stage in labor, in settings with companions of their choice, and settings with routine epidural. The supportive care provided to women during labor and birth through the one-to-one nursing includes various processes like provision of physical comfort and information and emotional support. The other processes include assisting women to communicate to caregivers and engaging members of their family as desired by the woman.

As an important part of one-to-one nursing during stages of labor and delivery, continuous support during childbirth enhances the normal labor processes while lessening the use of obstetric interventions. Therefore, this kind of support is an exceptional element of maternity care that provides well-established incentives and has no identified disadvantages.

Enhancement of Spontaneous Vaginal Birth:

Since continuous one-to-one nursing support during childbirth enables women to avoid analgesia or anesthesia and cesarean surgery, it's vital…


Barrett, S.J. & Stark, M.A. (2010). Factors Associated With Labor Support Behaviors of Nurses.

Journal of Perinatal Education, 19(1), 12-18. Retrieved from 

"Chapter 5 -- Care During Labour and Birth." (n.d.). Family-Centered Maternity and Newborn

Care: National Guidelines. Retrieved from Public Health Agency of Canada website:

Domestic Violence in Pregnancy and
Words: 6040 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3380201
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In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)

Literature Review

Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…


Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103

Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.

Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.

Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.

Microbiome Can Be Defined as the Sum
Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64994122
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Microbiome can be defined as the sum of microbes, their genetic genomes and their environmental interactions in a particular environment. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology (Predator, 2012).

However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten (10) times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body (Predators, 2012). Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty (150)…


NAS. Interplay of the Microbiome, Environmental Stressors, and Human Health [workshop], 27 -- 28 April 2011, Washington, DC. Washington, DC:National Academies of Sciences (2011). Available:  [accessed 19 Jul 2011]

Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Environment and disease risks. Science 330(6003):460 -- 461. 2010. 

The Human Microbiome Project is an NIH program intended to characterize microbial communities at several different sites on the human body (nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and urogenital tract) and to investigate their role in health and disease.

The European Commission's Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract consortium investigates associations between human intestinal microbiota, human health, and disease.

Program Development the Program That
Words: 1895 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7602836
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So, in those regards the curriculum is slowly catching up with the times. Personally, I would like to see additions such as a playing of the movie, "The Business of Being Born" at one of the sessions or as homework.

The second way that the curriculum should change within the next three years is to begin allowing more nurses to become certified teachers. Currently, it is easier for a parent to become a coach than it is for a nurse. The reason, according to Bradley, is that the parents have direct experience, whereas nurses only have book-related experience. In fact, Bradley does offer the option for nurses to become a teacher, but additional reading and exam requirements must be met.

Personally, I find it to be in the best interest of Bradley to offer their curriculum with open arms to nurses for one simple reason: the more nurses who know…

Works Cited

Halfon, Saul (2010). Encountering Birth: Negotiating Expertise, Networks, and My STS Self. Science as Culture, 19(1), 61-77.

Hathaway, Marjie; et al. (2007). The Bradley Method Student Workbook. American Academy of Husband Coached Childbirth.

Lake, Rikki (2008). The Business of Being Born. Barranca Productions.

Lieberman, Adrienne (1992). Easing Labor Pain: The Complete Guide to a More Comfortable and Rewarding Birth. The Harvard Common Press, Boston.

Beyond the Critical Incident Itself Which Will
Words: 2649 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82140661
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Beyond the critical incident itself, which will be described and looked at as part of this report, I will also bring in a number of major themes and analysis methods. The two major tools that will be used in this report are Carper's Fundamental Patterns of Knowing and Gibb's eflective Cycle. Each step and part of those two frameworks will be looked at in fairly strong detail. The essay will end with a conclusion that encapsulates and summarizes all the main points made throughout the report.

Coming back to the incident itself, the incident will not name the hospital or any of the people involved but the incident will be described with a strong level of detail. The details will include the problem that occurred, what led to the problem occurring, how the incident came about and climaxed and the resolution to the problem will be discussed at the end.…




pp. 115-141, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 22 October 2013.

Brady, M 2013, 'How to improve patient care by learning from mistakes', Emergency

Healthy Mothers and Babies Recent Research
Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20429830
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Maternal Risk Entity

Is there anything more important to a family -- and to the community of interest around that family -- than the safe and healthy delivery of the brand new baby and its mother? Modern medicine has provided technologies and training to alleviate many of the risks vis-a-vis mother and infant, however there is never going to be a situation absolutely free of potential risks surrounding pregnancy, childbirth, and the post-pregnancy period. Hence, nurses and physicians and other healthcare professionals must stay informed and be fully prepared to come up with solutions when risky situations occur. This paper presents the peer-reviewed literature on several maternal risks and there possible remedies.

Infants' Risks in Late Preterm Births

In the peer-reviewed journal Birth, the authors point out that the preterm birth rate has risen from 10.6 births in 1990 to 12.8% in 2006 -- a twenty percent increase (Kirby, et…

Works Cited

Hooker, L., Ward, B., and Verrinder, G. (2012). Domestic violence screening in maternal and child health nursing practice: A scoping review. Contemporary Nurse, 42(3), 198-215.

Kirby, R.S., and Wingate, M.S. (2010). Late Preterm Birth and Neonatal Outcome: Is 37 Weeks'

Gestation a Threshold Level or a Road Market on the Highway of Perinatal Risk? Birth, 37(2)


Ray Technology in Medicine How
Words: 1960 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94082880
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Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…


Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.

Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.

Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,

1993, p89).

How the CTE Structure Can be Used by Nursing Researchers
Words: 1141 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24784592
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Theoretical-Empirical Structure (CTE) Evaluation of the oy Adaptation Model

There are a number of valuable outcomes that can be achieved using conceptual models, theories, and empirical indicators for advanced nursing practice, including the application of models or theories to real-world nursing practice, research, and education. To develop some first-hand experience in this area, this paper examines how the Conceptual-Theoretical-Empirical (CTE) structure translates into nursing practice based on the oy Adaptation Model. A translation and application of this theory to nursing practice using actual examples is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the CTE structure and its implications for nursing practice in the conclusion.

Evaluation of the conceptual-theoretical-empirical linkages

There is an inextricable linkage between the conceptual, theoretical and empirical models that can help guide its application to nursing practice, research and education. For instance, according to Fawcett (2009), "It is impossible to conduct nursing research…


Alkrisat, M. & Dee, V. (2014, December 1). The validation of the coping and adaptation processing scale based on the Roy Adaptation Model. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 22(3), 368-370.

Cowling, R. W. & Taliaferro, D. (2004, Fall). Emergence of a healing-caring perspective: Contemporary conceptual and theoretical directions. Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, 8(2), 54-58.

Fawcett, J. (2009, September/December). Using the Roy Adaptation Model to guide research and/or practice: Construction of conceptual-theoretical-empirical systems of knowledge. Aquichan, 9(3), 16-21.

Smith, M. C. (2001, March/April). Analysis and evaluation of contemporary nursing knowledge: Nursing models and theories. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22(2), 92-95.

Safe Perioperative Practice it Is
Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88866179
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Although only one mother died in the current study, 85% of the fetuses from mothers with Type B dissections perished after the invasive procedures.

Conclusions: Type B aortic dissections require special attention and intervention. To influence safe perioperative practice, the medical team must work together to provide top quality of care to both mother and fetus. Mothers with Type A dissections are more likely to keep their babies and survive the invasive operations, and so are their fetuses. It is the mothers with Type B aortic dissections that are the at-risk population. Doctors and the rest of the healthcare team must pay close attention to the needs of mothers with Type B aortic dissections. Innovative technologies that can prevent bleeding and the other complications that arise with a Type B aortic dissection are discussed and recommended for future research.


Zeebregts, C.J., Schepens, M.A., Hameeteman, W.J., Morshuis, A.B. (1997). Acute…


Zeebregts, C.J., Schepens, M.A., Hameeteman, W.J., Morshuis, A.B. (1997). Acute aortic dissection complicating pregnancy.

Biology Giving Birth at Home
Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 93370633
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Moreover, according to neonatal physicians, at least one out of every three- hundred uncomplicated deliveries become complicated when a prolapsed umbilical cord precedes the infant through the birth canal. In such situations, midwives are trained to push the infant's head back into the birth canal to avoid cutting off oxygen to the infant, but in many cases, an emergency Cesarean section is required and the risks associated with the (now complicated) delivery increase substantially because the hand pressure on the infant's head must be maintained until arrival at the delivery room to prevent serious complications and lifelong consequences if the umbilical cord is not kept clear of the pressure being exerted by the contractions forcing the infant out. Physicians specializing in obstetrics relate that they have had to scramble to save the lives of both mother and child after home birthing attempts became complicated, unnecessarily risking the life and welfare…

Works Cited

Calhoun, a. (2008). Giving Birth at Home: Amid high-tech interventions, old- fashioned labor is gaining appeal. Time Magazine; August 18, 2008 (pp. 54-55).

Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in
Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90362301
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In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).

All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…


Akbas, Mert and Akcan, a Baris, "Epidural analgesia and lactation," Eurasian Journal of Medicine 43, (2010): 45-49.

Wilson, M. J, MacArthur, C, and Shennan, a. "Catheterization in labor with high dose vs. mobile Epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial." British Journal of Anesthesia 102, no. 2 (2009): 97-103.

Epstein, Nancy, "The risks of epidural and transforominal steroid injections in the spine: commentary and a comprehensive review of literature," Surgical Neurology International 4, (2013): 74-93.

Gwen Lewis, "Epidurals and child cancer," Journal of Childbirth and Medical Research, (2010): 30.

Perioperative Nurse's Role in Caring for Pregnant Patients With Aortic Dissections
Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 83299405
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Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)

The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…


Duranki. (n.d.). Type an aortic dissection - the silent killer. Retrieved from  -- You-Wont-See-It-Coming

Erbel, R., Alfonso, F., Boileau, C., & Dirsch, O. (2001). Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection*.European Heart Journal, 22(18), 1642-1681. Retrieved from 

Multum, C. (2012, Feburary 12). Morphine injection. Retrieved from 

Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter.(2010). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . India, Elsevier.

Monique and the Mango Rains
Words: 2594 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92614912
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The heat is oppressive and because of that heat Holloway had to endure "an overpowering stench" in the birthing room. alking into that room on a day that was probably over 100 degrees Holloway (p. 6) said the building "was like an oven, baking all the secretions [from pregnant and post-partum women] into a rank casserole" (p. 6). Holloway said she felt like she was "drowning in the smell of flesh, body fluids, and leftover food" -- all made more aromatically spicy by the torrid head in the dry season.

The fierce storms that arrive in rainy season have a huge impact on the village and on the story that Holloway is telling. In many countries, the rainy season would be a blessing after a long, hot dry spell. But the rains that arrive in Mali as the rainy season started are terrifying. "I was startled out of my thoughts…

Works Cited

Holloway, Kris. (2007). Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a midwife

In Mali. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Marketing Forces and Diversification
Words: 1062 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 83690271
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Marketing Forces and Diversification

As American society becomes increasingly ethnically diverse through immigration, relocation, birth rates and other factors, our hospitals must hone their sensitivity to resulting changes in community health needs. In addition, rigorous competition among hospitals requires sensitive, targeted marketing strategies attractive to diverse populations. An excellent example of responsive marketing and health care is given in Noonan's and Savolaine's article. The intelligence and success of the subject community hospital's approach shows that at least a hybrid of its approach should be followed in marketing to and serving a hospital's community.

Analysis with Noonan and Savolaine Article as the Focus

Thoughts about the Market Orientation of the Community Hospital

Focusing on Noonan and Savolaine article's examination of marketing obstetrical services in a diverse Midwestern market, the community hospital showed considerable wisdom in closely examining its prospective patient population by reviewing discharge data for obstetrical patients and asking doctors…

Works Cited

Anonymous. (2011, February 16). Nationwide, interactive community need maps guide community health planning. Retrieved on May 28, 2012 from Web site: 

Eastaugh, S.R. (2008, May 15). Diversification in the hospital industry. Retrieved on May 28, 2012 from Web site: 

Noonan, M.D., & Savolaine, R. (2001). A neighborhood of nations. Retrieved on May 28, 2012 from Web site:

Fault An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based
Words: 30263 Length: 110 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86754711
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Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales

The United Kingdom

statistics regarding claims
























Works Cited



At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…

Online Healthcare and Nursing Courses
Words: 839 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75739940
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Clicking on the links reveals that some of the topics provide more information and information in different formats than others. For example, the Aging Driver topic lists the following clickable PDF files:

Tips for Safe Driving, How to Help the Older Driver, Getting by Without Driving, Am I a Safe Driver?, and Successful Aging Tips.

Other topics, such as Health Disparities, do not provide information directly but only link the user to external resources and other databases. This might discourage many users, especially those unfamiliar with online research hoping to find printable information with a minimum of further searching online. Meanwhile, another topic, Breastfeeding, does provide easily accessible information that includes illustrative diagrams along with the text-based information, as depicted below.

How should I hold my baby while breastfeeding?

You can hold your baby in a number of ways. Your baby shouldn't have to turn his or her head or…

Kangaroo Care Skin Contact Reduces
Words: 2023 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 75691077
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Pain, 56(1), 95-101.

Andrews, K., & Fitzgerald, M. (1999). Cutaneous flexion reflex in human neonates: a quantitative study of threshold and stimulus-response characteristics after single and repeated stimuli. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41(10), 696-703.

Breau, L.M., McGrath, P.J., Stevens, B., Beyene, J., Camfield, C., Finley, G.A., Franck, K., Gibbins, S., Howlett, A., McKeever, P., O'Brien, K., & Ohlsson, A. (2006). Judgments of pain in the neonatal intensive care setting: a survey of direct care staffs' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. he Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(2), 122-129.

Bruce, E., & Franck, L. (2005). Using the worldwide web to improve children's pain care. International Nursing Review, 52(3), 204-209.

Carbajal, R., Gall, O., & Annequin, D. (2004). Pain management in neonates. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 4(3), 491-505.

Chow, S.C., & Liu, J.P. (1998). Design and analysis of clinical trials: concept and methodologies. New York: John Wiley…

Taddio, A., Katz, J., Ilersich, A.L., & Koren, G. (1997). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet, 349(9052), 599-603.

Taddio, A., Goldbach, M., Ipp, M., Stevens, B., & Koren, G. (1995). Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys. Lancet, 345(8945), 291-292.

Weaver, S.A., Diorio, J., & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Maternal separation leads to persistent reduction in pain sensitivity in female rats. The Journal of Pain, 8(12), 962-969.

ADHD Case Study Our Focus
Words: 1793 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 64009925
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There is however no cure. There is currently a lot of research dedicated to the development of more effective interventions as well as treatments for ADHD. These include the use of revolutionary tools such as brain scanners. The management and treatment of ADHD should be given a multidirectional approach.


Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With

ADD & Learning Disabilities

Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD

DSM-IV-T workgroup (1994 ). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,

Fourth Edition, Text evision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Gross-Tsur, V (1997) Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is methylphenidate safe and effective? - J Pediatr - Apr; 130(4): 670-4.

Hunt, D (2006). Functional oles of Norepinephrine and Dopamine in ADHD . Medscape

Psychiatry & Mental Health.

Lahey, B.B., & Carlson, C.L. (1991). "Validity of the diagnostic category attention deficit

disorder without hyperactivity: a review



Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With

ADD & Learning Disabilities 

Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD

Embryology What Could Be the
Words: 364 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10427540
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Thus, the presence of aromatase inhibitor in the patient's placenta was excluded" (Shozu, 1991). Because of the relative rarity of this disorder, and the multiple hormonal conditions that can affect the mother during pregnancy, the exact cause of this disorder has proven unfortunately difficult to pinpoint. Also, certain causes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, can be present before pregnancy, or develop during pregnancy, so noting the abnormal symptoms of the mother and tracing them to the pregnancy can likewise create a diagnostic challenge.

orks Cited

Bilowus M, V. Abbassi, & M.D. Gibbons MD. "Female pseudohermaphroditism in a neonate born to a mother with polycystic ovarian disease." Journal of Urology. 1986. Nov 136(5):1098-10. 18 Sept 2007.

Shozu, M., K. Akasofu, T. Harada, & Y. Kubota. "A new cause of female pseudohermaphroditism: placental aromatase deficiency." Journal of Clinical

Endocrinology & Metabolism. 72: 60-566

Works Cited

Bilowus M, V. Abbassi, & M.D. Gibbons MD. "Female pseudohermaphroditism in a neonate born to a mother with polycystic ovarian disease." Journal of Urology. 1986. Nov 136(5):1098-10. 18 Sept 2007. 

Shozu, M., K. Akasofu, T. Harada, & Y. Kubota. "A new cause of female pseudohermaphroditism: placental aromatase deficiency." Journal of Clinical

Endocrinology & Metabolism. 72: 60-566

Jack Is a 5-Year 4-Month-Old
Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11612807
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Jack used some elements of guilt surrounding his hospitalization in an attempt to persuade his mother to get him a treat at the cafeteria. This attempt to maintain control over his mother is appropriate to this developmental age according to Erickson's stages of development, and Donna easily managed his request by explaining that his diet was restricted prior to surgery. Jack was able to accept this answer, but continued to request assurances he would obtain the treat later in the day. Jack responded appropriately to all staff requests and his behavior appeared age appropriate and unremarkable. He maintained eye contact with staff and initiated conversation on several occasions.

The staff provided some coloring books and paper for Jack once he was confined to his bed in preparation for surgery. Jack appeared to be able to manage crayons without difficulty and easily wrote his name in block capital letters which were…


Siddiqui a. (1995) Object Size as a Determinant of Grasping in Infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 156 "http: Marcia, J.E., (1966), Development and validation of ego identity status, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3, pp. 551-558

Centers for Disease Control (2000), 2-20 years. Stature for age and weight for age percentiles. Accessed via the Internet at 23 June 2007

I. Personal. 3:551-8, 1966.

Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Effects on
Words: 1587 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33227949
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Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.

Macario, a., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J. Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68.

Marczin, N. (2004). Editorial I: Tiny wonders of tiny impurities of nitrous oxide during anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 93(5), 619-623.

Ng, a. (2005). Sevoflurane sedation in infants - a fine line between sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth, 15(1), 1-2.

Preckel, B., Mullenheim, J., Hoff, J., Obal, D., Heiderhoff, M., Thamer, V., et al. (2004). Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after…


Desalu, I., Kushimo, O.T., & Odelola, M.A. (2004). Cardiovascular changes during halothane induction in children. Niger Postgrad Med J, 11(3), 173-178.

Gungor, I., Bozkirli, F., Celebi, H., & Gunaydin, B. (2003). Comparison of the effects of neuroleptanesthesia and enflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. J Anesth, 17(2), 129-132.

Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.

Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84390460
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The two most common ways are sedated infants and those that are born by cesarean section. Some of the other things that might cause transient tachypnea in the newborn are asthma in the mother, macrosomia of the fetus, and labor intervals that are abnormally long (,2004).

The main symptoms of transient tachypnea of the newborn include a fast breathing rate, retractions, flaring of the nostrils, and making grunting sounds during breathing, although each baby may experience these symptoms differently, and have some symptoms but not all of them. Generally, this depends of the severity of the condition. Sometimes, however, the symptoms that come with the condition mimic those of other problems that may be more serious, and a proper diagnosis is essential. This is usually done with a chest x-ray, although there is still no real guarantee. The symptoms of transient tachypnea of the newborn, however, are generally always resolved…

Works Cited Transient tachypnea of the newborn. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at .

A (2004). Transient tachypnea of the newborn. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at .

Delivery Options
Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79820655
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United States, medical pain control through the use of regional anesthetics such as epidural blocks or spinal anesthesia is the most popular from of child delivery (Childbirth). Doctors favor the epidural block because medication does not enter the mother's circulatory system, thus it does not cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of the fetus. There are also many forms of non-medical pain control (Giving birth naturally: Techniques to use). For example, the Alexander Technique focuses on movement and breathing to increase the effectivness of pushing as the baby is delivered. The radley Method focuses on tuning into your body and positions to ease labor pains. Hypnosis attempts to induce relaxation while Lamaze uses distraction techniques during contractions to decrease the perception of pain. Water delivery involves giving birth in a warm tub of water to help a woman relax and to provide buoyancy to help illeviate discomfort and pressue.…


Childbirth. Wikipedia. Retrieved September 10, 2005 from Web site: 

Epidural facts. Retrieved September 10, 2005 from Web site: 

Giving birth naturally: Techniques to use. American Pregnancy Association. Retrieved September 10, 2005 from Web site:

Effects of Having Herpes
Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50596058
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herpes simplex viruses. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face and is often referred to as labial herpes. It is the most common herpes simplex virus and is usually acquired in childhood. y adulthood, up to ninety percent of individuals will have antibodies to HSV-1. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or genital herpes is sexually transmitted and is usually associated with genital ulcers or sores -- however individuals may harbor HSV-2 and not have developed any symptoms. Genital herpes can also be caused by HSV-1, but this is not as common. Up to twenty-thirty percent of U.S. adults have antibodies against HSV-2.

This paper discusses the effects of both labial and genital herpes in terms of typical consequences and more severe complications that are less likely to arise.

Labial Herpes

The first time a person is infected with HSV-1, he…


Cold Sores." WebMD Health. 08 Apr. 2003. {5FE84E90-BC77-4056-A91C-9531713CA348}

Herpes Infections: Symptoms and Treatment." The University of New Mexico Student

Health Center. 08 Apr. 2003. .

Herpes Simplex Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." 1UP Health. 08 Apr. 2003. .

Mary Breckinridge Eminent Nurse of the Past
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Mary Breckinridge

The history of maternity nursing in many ways echoes that of other types of nursing, although it is arguable that improvements in the quality of nursing care have had an even greater impact that improvements in other arenas of health-care. This paper examines one of the nurses who was instrumental in improving maternal health care through changes and improvements in maternity nursing, Mary Breckenridge, a nurse-midwife who helped to established a neonatal health-care that dramatically reduced the mortality rates of both mothers and infants.

Humans have nursed each other since the beginning of the species - indeed attempts to care for other individuals to help reduce their pain and increase their overall health are seen in a wide range of primates: Nursing is arguably something that is encoded in our very genes. However, modern nursing can realistically trace its roots only to the 19th century, which is where…


Encyclopedia Britannica .


Psychological Tests and Measurements
Words: 2465 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 65728271
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Psychological Assessment

Confidentiality Disclaimer

eason for eferral

Identifying information

Developmental History

Medical and Psychiatric History

Short Family and Social History

Short History of School Behavior

Tests Administered

Standardized Instruments

Information Assessment Techniques

Mental Status Examination and Behavioral Observations

esults Form Testing

The following results were obtained with respect to the different domain of functioning of Sebastian based on information from multiple sources.

Cognitive-Intellectual-Executive Functioning

Social-Emotional Functioning

Diagnostic Impression

Confidentiality Disclaimer:

There is a chance that the subject of the report or those who are closely associated with the subject of the report could get psychologically and/or emotionally hurt as the report contains sensitive information about the subject. This report is meant only for people trained enough to read such reports and should not be given to the subject named in the report. In order to ensure that the name of the person who is also the subject of the report…


Goldfinger, K. And Pomerantz, A. (2010). Psychological assessment and report writing. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Groth-Marnat, G. (2003). Handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

No authorship indicated, (2003). Psychological Assessment: Editors. Psychological Assessment, 15(1), pp.1-1.

8 | Page

Cns and Cnm Roles
Words: 1429 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60693272
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Nurse practitioners receive employment within the context of IP or interprofessional teams worldwide (Hurlock-Chorostecki, Forchuk, Orchard, van Soeren, & eeves, 2013). The 2013 article seeks to describe the role of the nurse practitioner within the IP team and how the NP augments care processes. The authors attempt to examine the NP role via utilization of a constructivist grounded theory approach. The authors created a two-part study with the larger phase of the study comparing and integrating collected data.

They examined seventeen HB NPs all over Ontario, Canada using individual interviews as a main source of qualitative data collection. The role of the NP has a strong emphasis on team working and patient care. In essence, NPs promote IP work and enable collaboration as well as teamwork levels. Furthermore, they promote cohesion within the IP team. This is the first study of its kind to use the IP framework to examine…


Board, T. (2014). Are Midwives Safer Than Doctors?. Retrieved 29 July 2016, from 

Cook, E., Avery, M., & Frisvold, M. (2014). Formulating Evidence-Based Guidelines for Certified Nurse-Midwives and Certified Midwives Attending Home Births. Journal Of Midwifery & Women's Health, 59(2), 153-159. 

Hurlock-Chorostecki, C., Forchuk, C., Orchard, C., van Soeren, M., & Reeves, S. (2013). Labour saver or building a cohesive interprofessional team? The role of the nurse practitioner within hospitals.Journal Of Interprofessional Care, 28(3), 260-266. 

Jauhar, S. (2014). Nurses Are Not Doctors. Retrieved 31 July 2016, from

Stopping of Female genital mutilation
Words: 1707 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37652443
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Female genital mutilation should be stopped
Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual…

Arnold Palmer Case Study the Arnold Palmer
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Arnold Palmer Case Study

The Arnold Palmer Hospital is 1 158-bed paediatric hospital located in Orlando, Florida; part of the Arnold Palmer Medical Foundation and rated as one of the nation's Top paediatric hospitals by U.S. News and World Report. It is the only hospital in all of central Florida with an emergency/trauma center dedicated specifically to paediatric patients. It opened in 1989, and in 2006 became a children's hospital focused solely on speciality and subspecialty healthcare for children


Check In

Baby Born in route or birth immanent

Taken directly to bed, registered there, move to 8th for to labor and delivery, if no complications move to step 6.

Baby not yet born

Mother is either pregistered or goes to office on Floor


Mother taken to 8th floor (Labor and Delivery Triage); may move to L&D on floor 2 or go to step

Not ready to deliver


2005 Study by Mohala Tucker Besser Et
Words: 1432 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 38383830
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2005 study by Mohala Tucker Besser et al., conducted upon HIV-positive pregnant women who are about to undergo voluntary caesarian section to give birth. Mohala Tucker Besser et al. used a sample population to study whether or not HIV was present within the amniotic fluid of these pregnant women, and discovered that -- contrary to a previous study published in 1987 -- it was not. Additional relevant studies -- including the original 1987 Lancet publication by Mundy Schinazi Gerber et al., and further studies involving viral transmission between mothers and newborns and specific risk factors for HIV transmission in prenatal and perinatal situations -- are examined in conjunction with Mohala Tucker Besser's 2005 study. The finding has implications for preventing HIV transmission between mothers and newborn infants, and confirms the growing clinical consensus that elective caesarian section remains one of the most reliable ways to reduce viral transmission from an…


Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY, Mizokami M, Hirano K, Chen DS. (1996). Least microtransfusion from mother to fetus in elective cesarean delivery. Obstetric Gynecology 87: 244-248.

Magder LS, Mofenson L, Paul ME, Zorrilla CD, Blattner WA, Tuomala RE, LaRussa P, Landesman S, Rich KC. (2005). Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficicency Syndrome 38: 87-95.

Mofenson LM 1997. Mother-child HIV-1 transmission: timing and determinants. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 24: 759-784.

Mohlala BK, Tucker TJ, Besser MJ, Williamson C, Yeats J, Smit L, Anthony J, Puren A. (2005). Investigation of HIV in amniotic fluid from HIV-infected pregnant women at full term. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192: 488-491.

Maternity Nursing Labor and Delivery and Newborn
Words: 3389 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35692201
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Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn

Labor and Delivery Terms

Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).

Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).

Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).

Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).

Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…

Works Cited

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from .

Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,

Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.

Cobol Overview of a Third
Words: 4692 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81579343
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This is unlikely to change short of an amazing new technological innovation that takes "natural" language capability and programming to a new level. Let us now compare how COOL meets the needs of organizations working in various industries. The next section will help clarify why COOL is in such demand among commercial enterprises worldwide.

Chapter 3 - COOL and Organizational Goals

This section analyses how COOL supports organizational goals. COOL supports organizational goals in many ways. It is an adept and multi-faceted programming language that provides organizations the ability to manage data in many departments. It is useful for financial analysis, for shipping and inventory maintenance, for the creation of reports and data management systems and for linking various units within the organization. Each of these key features is described in more detail below.

Decision support systems such as that COOL can help facilitate are critical for supporting all levels…


ANSI. (2007). COBOL, Standards. American National Standards Institute. Accessed 29, 

Columbia Encyclopedia. (2004). "Programming Language." The Columbia

Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press.

Market Orientation and Healthcare Case
Words: 841 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 26572052
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3. How the quality of service changed and why?

The quality of service increased significantly as all practices areas of the hospital better aligned to the cultural norms, values and needs of each ethnic population represented by the segments served. The quality also increased because the staff also began to better understand the unique needs of the patients being served, with more emphasis on interpersonal communication than had been the case in the past. This personalization aspect of leadership works both ways; the hospital staff had a much better appreciation and understanding of the unique needs of the population they were serving, and the potential patients and customers developed familiarity and trust with the providers. The next step for the hospital is to create a means to continually evaluate the level of satisfaction they are delivering to patients. The hospital could use the SEVQUAL metrics to evaluate the level of…


Barrett, H., Balloun, J., & Weinstein, a.. (2009). How variation in management perceptions affects organizational performance. Quality and Quantity, 43(3), 451-461.

Paul Hughes-Cromwick, Sarah Root, & Charles Roehrig. (2007). Consumer-Driven Healthcare: Information, Incentives, Enrollment, and Implications for National Health Expenditures. Business Economics, 42(2), 43-57.

Ravichandran, K., S. Prabhakaran, and S. Kumar. 2010. Application of Servqual Model on Measuring Service Quality: A Bayesian Approach. Enterprise Risk Management 2, no. 1, (January 1): 145-169.

Wrenn, B.. (2006). Marketing Orientation in Hospitals: Findings from a Multi-Phased Research Study. Health Marketing Quarterly, 24(1/2), 15.

Hospital Administration
Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14165473
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Multicultural Patient Care

The Market Orientation of the Family Birthing Center is no doubt, diverse. It is also an excellent avenue for health care reforms as the community hospital is forced to cater to the needs of people that speak 40 different languages, to do it well, and to serve as an example for other hospitals that multicultural patient care is possible and could be done in the best possible way (Noonan & Savolaine).

As the demographics of the United States continue to change to include more foreign nationals, health care professionals need to become increasingly aware of multicultural issues. Developing a greater cultural awareness of a particular client population can aid health care providers in improved care giving. ith the steady increase of people from other countries coming to the United States, health care professionals have been asked to assess and respond to the needs of a more diverse…

Works Cited

Noonan, M.D., and Savolaine, R. (2001. Winter). A neighborhood of nations. Marketing Health Services.

Peterson, R. (1996. April 1). A patient care team approach to multicultural patient care issues. Journal of Nursing Care Quality.

Post Staff Writer. (2002. May 12). International Deliveries; Maternity Wards Adapt to Special Needs of Region's Rush of Immigrants. The Washington Post.