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WHAT, WHEN, HOW and WHY
Change happens everywhere and all the time (Jeritt, 2013). Everybody knows and sees this and must cope with it. It is evident in one's private world and beyond it, in the large physical environment and elsewhere. Elsewhere includes structured environments like organizations where business is conducted and problems develop and seek solutions. Problems and change appear either at random or from cause, frequently or seldom. Organizations have adapted themselves to see where and how problems develop, their causes and prepare for these. Many have adopted a proactive posture towards problems in anticipating them (Jeritt). The one response that business organizations know they must make in problem situation is change. It may be a sudden one during rough and unexpected economic situation or a threatening competition. It may also be a graduate one, which comes from a build-up of an understanding of…
Baker, S.L. (1989). Managing resistance to change. Vol. 38 # 1, Library Trends: The
Board of Trustees: University of Illinois. Retrieved on April 29, 2013 from http://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/7649/librarytrendsv38i1h_opt.pdf
Consador, K. (2013). Organization change theory. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved
on April 29, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_5389727_organizational-change-theory.html
Change Process and Models:
Organizational change is not a process that is likely to take place organically because it is usually caused by an external event or change that stimulates internal shifts in one or more organizational levels. The change may come about for several reasons including the need for growth, need for improvement, and need to be more successful. In attempts to understand organizational change, various change process theories, approaches, and practices have been developed. Organizational leaders can use these theories, approaches, and practices to promote change and realize the desired outcomes. However, the leaders need to determine the most appropriate theory, framework, or practice to successfully facilitate the change.
An example of an organization that has experienced change through the use of change theories, approaches, and frameworks is The Human ights Campaign. Basically, The Human ights Campaign is the largest civil rights organization in the United States that…
"About Our Logo." (n.d.). The HRC Story. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://www.hrc.org/the-hrc-story/about-our-logo
"About Us." (n.d.). The HRC Story. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://www.hrc.org/the-hrc-story/about-us
Austin, J.R. & Bartunek, J.M. (n.d.). Chapter 13 -- Theories and Practices of Organizational
Development. Retrieved from Boston College website: https://www2.bc.edu/~bartunek/representative%20publications_files/Austin%20%26%20Bartunek.pdf
These are designed to prevent any kind of burn out issues. Some of the most common techniques that can be utilized by the leadership during this process include: rethinking goals / objectives, looking at the speed of the changes that are taking place, making things fun and altering the team structure / format. Rethinking goals / objectives is when you are looking at if they are challenging enough for everyone. While at the same time ensuring; that they are giving the staff some kind of realistic standards to reach for. Looking at the speed of the changes, is when you are making certain that they are not taking place to fast or to slow. Making the work environment fun is when you want to ensure that everyone enjoys their employment at: the facility and has a passion for their career. Altering the team structure / format is when you are…
Kent Bottles. (2010). ICSI Health Care Blog. Retrieved from: http://icsihealthcareblog.wordpress.com/2010/06/09/kent-bottles-the-top-10-health-care-leadership-challenges-of-today-ok-i-listed-12/
Stress Health Care Workers Battle. (2010). I Village. Retrieved from: http://www.ivillage.com/stressed-health-care-workers-battle-compassion-fatigue/4-a-111429
Beaudan, E. (2006). Making Change Last. Ivey Business Journal Online, 1 -7.
Organization Development and Change Process
Merger and acquisitions refer to the combinations of two or more companies forming a new company. In other words, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are the strategic move of corporate organizations dealing with an aspect of dividing, buying and selling of different companies of similar entities to assist the enterprises to grow. One of the examples of the major merger was the merging of Uniphase Corp. And JDS Fitel Inc. In 1999 where the two companies formed JDS Uniphase. A major example of acquisition is an acquisition of John Hancock Financial Services Inc. By Manulife Financial Corporation's in 2004. Typically, merger and acquisitions make a big news in the business world because millions or billions of dollars are generally involved. In the United States, Wall Street bankers and analysts arrange M&A transactions daily bringing separate companies forming single larger companies. Major goals of embarking in M&A…
American Management Association (2014). HR Best Practices During Organizational Change. AMA.
Armour, S. (2000). Merging Companies Act to keep valuable employees. USA Today, November 24, section B.
Branson, C.M. (2008). Achieving organisational change through values alignment. Journal of Educational Administration, and Sustainability, Governance and Organizational Change. 46 ( 3).
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., and Boon, C. (2005). Commonalities and contradictions. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(3), 67-94.
Engaging Employees in The Change Process
There are numerous ways that an organization's management can employ to ensure that its change process is successful and there is buy-in by the employees. Convincing employees requires extra effort in order to increase the organization's odds of success. It is vital to solicit buy-in before the launch of the change initiative. This will ensure that the employees are aware of what is going to happen. Management of the organization should hold focus groups and solicit for employee opinion, which allows employees to contribute and share ideas in regards to the change initiative. According to Sharif and Scandura (2014) constant communication is another tactic that can be used. With constant communication, the employees will not be disoriented and they would be more comfortable with the initiative. Communication reassures the employees that the organization is heading in the right direction and the change is aimed…
Hammer, M. (2015). What is business process management? Handbook on Business Process Management 1 (pp. 3-16): Springer.
Sharif, M. M., & Scandura, T. A. (2014). Do perceptions of ethical conduct matter during organizational change? Ethical leadership and employee involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2), 185-196.
Personal Side of Leading Change
There are two questions that the personal side of leading change asks namely how does one motivate others in an environment of constant change and how does one motivate themself in order to keep going (odd, 2015). As a leader, one has to create a compelling change story, communicate it effectively to the employees, and follow up on the story with continuous communications. Change is inevitable, and leaders need to ensure that they can motivate their employees in order to achieve the organization's change objectives. Motivation comes in different forms, and not all employees would be motivated with the same ways. Most employees are afraid of change because it creates a new way of doing things, and they are uncertain of what lies ahead. Been able to demonstrate and communicate to them the benefits that the organization would gain from the new changes would be…
Jick, T., & Peiperl, M. . (2003). Managing Change: Cases and Concepts. Boston: McGraw Hill/Irwin.
Johnson, C., Clum, G., Lassiter, W.L., Phillips, R., Sportelli, L., & Hunter, J.C. (2014). Learning From a Lifetime of Leading Effective Change. Journal of chiropractic humanities, 21(1), 65-75.
Quinn, R.E. (2011). Building the bridge as you walk on it: A guide for leading change (Vol. 204). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Rodd, J. (2015). Leading Change in the Early Years. NEW YORK NY: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Organizational Change Behavior: Using Cloud
Convincing people to use cloud
Perhaps one of the recent developments in the world of technology is the use of cloud computing as opposed to the older traditional approaches to storage and maintenance of data and information. One individual organization I have once worked for is the Brandon Organization Inc. Brandon Organization is a global mover in trading and financing most of the business organizations regarding financial facilitation, saving, credit, and other services that occur between different groups of such kind. In the past, Brandon Organization has had challenges with how it manages its large pieces of information that must be put together, integrated, and safely stored for further references. Brandon braces itself for acting as in intermediary in the delivery of services between different financial organizations, preferably enabling a smooth integration and workmanship between the various commercial groups.
One significant aspect that…
Franklin, Melanie. Agile Change Management: A Practical Framework for Successful Change Planning and Implementation., 2014. Internet resource.
Organizational change takes place when an organization makes a transition into its wanted future state from the current state. Organizational change is managed through planning and execution of that transition, while aiming at minimum expense and minimum staff resistance, and at the same time achieving maximum success of the transition process (Anderson and King, 2002).
The modern-day organizational environment needs organizations to go through nearly constant transitions for them to maintain competitiveness. Such aspects as rapid technological evolution and market globalization make it difficult for companies to survive without being responsive. These kinds of transition are probably minor, such as installation of new software or major, such as coming up with new strategies for marketing, disputing hostile takeovers or changing the organization due to stubborn foreign competition (Anderson and King, 2002).
A critique of several tactics that can be used to engage employees in the change process.
You should consider…
A variety of technical and management issues arise during the implementation and operation of any change process. Change management in technology projects is essential to implement and monitor mechanisms to support and control users, business, and technology (Yarberry, 2007). There are different change project modules used at any stage of a project development. These include the change curve, Lewin's change management model, and Beckhard and Harris change model used in the understanding phase. The project-planning phase uses the impact analysis, Burke-Litwin, McKinsey 7s framework, Leavitt's diamond, organization design, and SIPOC diagrams. The implementation stage uses Kotter's 8-step change model, training needs assessment, while the communication change uses stakeholder analysis, stakeholder management, mission statement, and vision statements. In this analysis, the Leavitt's Diamond, the Kotter's 8-step change model, and Leavitt's model for organizational change is concerned with the interdependence of four main factors, including structure, people, technology, and task.…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, 266.
Bruckman, J.C. (2008) Overcoming Resistance to change: Casual Factors, Interventions, and Critical Values. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Psychology Press 11, 211-219.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Davison, R. (2002) Cultural Complications of ERP. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 45, 109.
There are a few instances were a company tried to institute a large-scale organizational change effort and failed. One recent one was with the FedEx purchase of Kinko's. FedEx had decided that Kinko's would complement its business since they had many mutual customers. The shipping company also felt that if it could professionalize the information Kinko's it would improve the company's profitability. That was not to be. Kinko's had a strong organizational culture that was a bad fit with the FedEx culture. Kinko's culture was informal in nature, while FedEx has a formal culture based on a high level of professionalism. After years of failing to integrate Kinko's into the FedEx culture, FedEx ended up taking a massive writedown on the transaction and rebranding the subsidiary as FedEx Office in an attempt to kill off any remaining Kinko's culture within the organization.
The change was radical, not incremental. FedEx…
Morris, B., Neering, P. (2006). The new rules. Fortune International In possession of the author
Goldgeier, D. (2007). A ream of culture clashes at FedEx Kinko's. AdPulp. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.adpulp.com/a_ream_of_cultu/
Deutsch, C. (2007). Paper jam at FedEx Kinko's. New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/05/business/05kinkos.html?_r=2&oref=slogin& ;
Ford, Ford and d'Amelio note that most change literature takes the view that resistance to change is irrational and dysfunctional. If this is the view that is taken by the actual change agents, it is not hard to see that the change agents themselves could be contributing to resistance to change. Resistance cannot always be interpreted as self-serving or irrational (two things that are contradictory, it should be noted). The first step is a change agent not becoming part of the problem is to recognize that there may be other, more logical motivations for resistance. This is not to say that resistance is never irrational or self-serving, but just that change agents cannot assume this to be the case. If they do make such an assumption, then their response to the resistance may only make matters worse. They may invalidate the opinions of those resistance the change, something that…
Ford, J., Ford, L, & D'Amelio, A. (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 33 (2) 352-377.
Kotter, J. (1995). Leading change: Why transformational efforts fail. Power Projects Inc.. In possession of the author.
Change Plan for SBA Implementation
Change Proposal - Healthcare
The benefits of the SBA are apparent to the nursing staff in the Labor, Deliver, ecovery, and Postpartum Unit of St. Johns Hospital Birth Center. All nursing staff receives training in SBA and it has been implemented -- successfully -- for a few months at a time. However, nursing staff soon return to the historical ways of communicating about patient care, which has predominantly been by giving a verbal report.
Benefits of SBA. SBA stands for Situation-Background-Assessment-ecommendation and it is a framework for communication about patients' conditions that is used by members of a healthcare team. The following discussion is from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (2011) website. The benefits to using SBA by hospital staff are: (a) It is an easy-to-use, easy-to-remember mechanism; (b) it is a concrete way to frame conversations that fosters effective and…
Ambrose, D. (1987). Managing Complex Change. Pittsburgh, PA: The Enterprise Group Ltd. Retrieved
Ducker, P.F. (1993). The New Realities. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?id=WmAsWS9-fFsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=drucker+the+new+realities&hl=en&src=bmrr&ei=ASoRTvqyIZDUtQPs4pWADg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Golden, B. (2006). Transforming healthcare organizations, Healthcare Quarterly, 10(Spring), 10-19. Retrieved http://www.longwoods.com/content/18490 .
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books/about/Leading_Change.html?id=ib9Xzb5eFGQC
There are many things that could have been done better in order to avoid the problems that the store (and the new manager) ran into and implement the necessary change more effectively and efficiently. The need for "critical mass" to make change successful is a key feature described by Osland et al. (pp. 637) that was ignored by the manager; discussions with employees, perhaps at an open meeting, might have made it more apparent where change was needed, in order to make the organization run more smoothly and easier for everybody. The lack of shared vision from the earliest stages of the change process onward was hugely detrimental to the attempt at organizational change, and was received by the employees as an unnecessary imposition rather than a true and valid attempt to improve organization performance. Simply speaking with employees to better understand where change was needed and how it could…
Existence value of resistance
Organization change involves introducing new conversations and shifting existing conversations and patterns of discourse. However, new conversations have a hard time competing with existing conversation and so the challenge for change agents is getting new conversation heard. This is where resistance can be of value. esistance helps to keep the conversations in existence. Although talking negatively or complaining and criticizing have been viewed as resistance, it can be beneficial because it keeps the topic alive, giving other the opportunity to participate in the conversation.
Engagement value of resistance
esistance is one possible form of engagement with change acceptance and ambivalence being others and might, in some cases, reflect a higher level of commitment than acceptance, because some resistance is thoughtful. Change recipients who are highly committed to the success of the organization but who disagree with proposed change because it threatens something of value to them…
Issham Ismail, 5th. (2010). Proceeding of the 5th International Conference on ELearning: Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, 12-13 July 2010. Academic Conferences Limited.
Yuxia Qian, Ohio University. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. ProQuest.
Paul Parkin. (2009). Managing Change in Healthcare: Using Action Research. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ford, J.D., Ford L.W. & DaAmelio (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33, 362-377.
Because of the degree of entrenchment, cultural change is often a slow process but it can also make the change process easier if the culture and the desired change are aligned. At Wal-Mart, the culture is strong, and supports the company's change initiatives. This makes it easy for Wal-Mart to implement new strategies that improve its business.
Another throughput that facilitates or resists change is financial capital. Rarely does money spur change, but the lack of it can make change difficult and a surplus of it can make change easy. Wal-Mart is a well-financed company. This has made many of their change initiatives, from the introduction of Supercenters and Sam's Club to overseas expansion much easier. These types of change initiatives can be difficult, since it involves introducing new ways of doing business and new national cultures to the organization. But for Wal-Mart, their financial clout has allowed them to…
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…
Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.
Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.
Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.
Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
If the need for change is accepted, rationally, then emotionally, then gradually workers will become more willing and open to learn, and to incorporate the change into the organization's standard operating procedures. Individuals are more apt to accept change if, for example, they are convinced that it will improve patient care in the long run, than if the directive is merely dispensed as required because 'management says so.'
The critical aspect of fifth phase of the change process of "learning" is how changes are introduced. Communicating is an essential aspect of 'buy-in' but so is fostering a positive sense within the organization about the proposed changes by 'creating early wins' (Campbell 2008). This will lead to an increase in people's perceived own competence in their new roles. Unfortunately, starting with easier projects is not always feasible, but even if it is not, a Clinical Nurse Leader must be particularly sensitive…
Campbell, Robert James. (2008, January/March). Change management in healthcare.
The Health Care Manager. 27 (1): 23-39
Recklies, Oliver. (2010). Managing change. The Manager. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.themanager.org/strategy/change_phases.htm
Schuler, a.J. (2003). Overcoming resistance to change. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html
Change management is one of the most important components in the successful operations of a company or business organization. The modern business environment is characterized by numerous changes that are attributable to various factors including technological developments and globalization. In this regard, business organizations or companies increasingly face the need to adopt changes in their operations in order to align their businesses with the industry they operate it. However, the process of instituting organizational change in complex and can hurt a company’s operations if not conducted appropriately. As a result, there are various change management models that have been developed to help the management in instituting and managing organizational change. These models help in management of planned and unplanned change in the organization in order to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness in the industry or market it operates in. Some of these change management models include Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Change…
Kotter's sequence: establishing a sense urgency creating a guiding coalition.
Change management: Best Buy's successful adoption of change
Change management: Best Buy's successful adoption of change
It is said that change is constant and the one constant in economic life is change. But despite the 'predictability' of change, the phenomenon of change resistance is another 'constant' in organizations. John Kotter in his book Leading Change offers an eight-step prescription to fight against change resistance, to create a positive environment that fosters change. The efficacy of Kotter's eight steps can be seen in Best Buy and its shift a results-only system of valuing employee's contributions, which stands in stark contrast to its previous attempts to institute change.
Establish a sense of urgency
At Best Buy, before adopting a results-only work environment, the organization was a "ferociously face-time place" (Smashing the Clock, 2006, Business Week). Burnout and attrition of high-quality…
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Smashing the Clock. (2006) Business Week. Retrieved January 10, 2011 at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_50/b4013001.htm
Change in the words of Wong (2007, p.195) "may consist of policy changes, new requirements, reorganizations, new management, budget cuts, or a change in business plans." As the author further points out, these changes could either be systematic or sudden. Changes are largely inevitable. In projects, changes according to Meredith and Mantel (2009, P.167) could be caused by three things; errors in initial assessments, receipt of new info regarding the ongoing project, and project environment changes. In some instances, a manager could encounter some behavioral alterations on the part of team members as they encounter change. The said alterations in this case could be as a result of the different responses people have to change. For instance, as Wong (2007) notes, while there are those who may be curious to learn more or view the possibility of change as an opportunity, others could either be suspicious or skeptical…
Adair, J.E. ed., 2004. The Concise Adair on Team Building and Motivation. London: Thorogood Publishing.
Meredith, J.R. & Mantel, S.J. 2009. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Tomczyk, C.A. 2010. Project Manager's Spotlight on Planning. Alameda, CA: SYBEX Inc.
Wong, Z. 2007. Human Factors in Project Management: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques for Inspiring Teamwork and Motivation. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
The change leader should feel confident about the change if decision criteria are driven by impartial and objective considerations and his position is based on organizational, mission, vision and strategies. Then leader should try to convince all employees on objective and factual grounds while also taking care of their emotional issues. If leaders do not behave well and control their own emotions then employee morale gets affected. "Most executives do a good job of communicating a strong sense of urgency to effect change and move people out of their comfort zones. This often launches a flurry of activities in the right direction to start with. However, sustaining the quality and level of activities is a different ball game. For the abstraction that is called business, it requires more than organizational structure, incentives and job descriptions to have a multitude of people work in a concerted manner towards a common objective…
Lawler III, E. & Mohrman, S.2003,'HR as a Strategic Partner: What Does it Take to Make it Happen?', Human Resource Planning, Vol.26, No.3, p.15+.
Thite, M. 2004, Managing People in the New Economy, Sage Publication, New Delhi.
David, F. (1991). Strategic Management. 3rd Ed. McMillan
Jansen, K. (2000). The Emerging Dynamics of Change: Resistance, Readiness, and Momentum. Human Resource Planning. Vol: 23. Issue: 2.
" Change must therefore be accomplished by the institution of a strong leadership of just a single individual (Kotter,1996,p.25) .In this case, the person was Ghosn. Change however requires a special team of leaders as well as managers who have a common goal that is communicated succinctly by the team leader. Ghosn therefore "walked the talk" since his leadership style which was transformational, brought real change to the organization.
It is important to note that for any organization to succeed, a balance must be struck between leadership and the management. This is because there can never be any form of transformation without a true leader. All successful organizational transformations are only achieved via the right mix of leadership and management.
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, C (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community…
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, RC (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community Colleges; Spring2010, Issue 149, p73-79,
Elving, W, JL (2005) "The role of communication in organisational change," Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 10 Iss: 2, pp.129-13
Kotter, J.P. (1995), "Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail," Harvard Business Review, March-April, 59-67
Change Strategy Worksheet and Simple SWOT Analysis
Would the strategy best facilitate change for the short or long-term and why?
Education and communication
The strategy would enhance both long-term and short-term change. It prevents the presence of resistance especially where there is inadequate information about The New Hire Orientation Project. The step is essential because people will start to adjust to the new system even before the project is established. More so, the strategy allows employees and other stakeholders to understand the primary reasons for establishing the change (Zeng, 2014). Education will also play a significant role because it will enable the employees to connect the practicum change with the institution's short- and long-term objectives. For this reason, they will help with the implementation of the change.
Participation and involvement
I would facilitate change for the short-term. In this case, it is effective in situations where the initiators do not…
Campbell, R. J. (2008). Change Management in Health Care. The Health Care Manager. Volume 27, Number 1, pp. 23-39
Eacott, S. (2011). Leadership Strategies: Re-Conceptualising Strategy for Educational Leadership. School Leadership & Management, 31(1), 35-46
Goksoy, A. (2015). Organizational Change Management Strategies in Modern Business. IGI Global
Karlsson, C., & Tavassoli, S. (2015). Innovation strategies of firms: What strategies and why? J Technol Transf The Journal of Technology Transfer. doi:10.1007/s10961-015-9453-4
Human beings are by nature change-resistant and particularly within an organizational context there is anxiety about change, given fears of job losses or simply being unable to adapt. It is essential to convince change agents of the need and urgency for change and also of the congruency of the change with the evolving vision for the company.
A "vision statement should have four elements: a customer orientation, employee focus, organizational competencies, and standards of excellence" ("Changing the game," 2015:3). The change should be demonstrated to enhance all of the organization's capacities, not simply improve its bottom line in the short-term. Having an effective vision statement is necessary for effective change. The Lewin Model of organizational change stresses the need for a three-part adaptation process called unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. In other words, the organization must be temporarily destabilized or unfrozen before it returns to a new…
DiMaggio, M. (2009). The top 10 best (and worst) corporate mergers of all time... or, the good, the bad, and the ugly. Rasmussen. Retrieved from:
McClure, B. (2015). Mergers and acquisitions: Why they can fail. Investopedia. Retrieved from:
Changing Environment of Human Resources Management
Describe the business case for having HR report to the CEO/President in large organizations.
The Human Resources (HR) function in many firms, particularly in large firms with functional specialties, has traditionally been perceived as an administrative function that plays a support role in recruiting, training, paying, and retaining (or firing) members of the workforce. HR has also been seen as supporting other managers in providing a safe workplace and dealing with labor-relations issues. Over the past decade, as down-sizing has occurred throughout much of the corporate world, business cases have been made to reduce the size of the overall HR function, to outsource elements of the HR function such as pay or training, and to offload HR duties to other managers. This paper posits that a business case exists for retaining a strategic HR function in organizations, and for having the senior HR person…
Barney, Jay and Patrick Wright. On Becoming A Strategic Partner: The Role of Human Resources In Gaining Competitive Advantage. Human Resource Management, Spring, 1998, Vol. 37, No. 1, pages 31-46.
Beatty, Richard, Jeffrey Ewing and Charles Tharp. HR's Role in Corporate Governance: Present and Prospective. Human Resource Management, Fall, 2003, Vol. 42, No. 3,-page 257-269.
Enns, Harvey and Dean McFarlin. When Executives Influence Peers: Does Function Matter? Human Resource Management, Summer, 2003, Vol. 42, No. 2, pages 125-142.
Fischer, Heinz and Klaus Mittorp. How HR Measures Support Risk Management: The Deutsche Bank Example. Human Resource Management, Winter, 2002, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 477-490.
In that sense, Wilkoff (1995, as cited by Weick & Quinn, 1999) reports on her attempts to intervene between two companies that had fused together in an unsuccessful mergence. The actors of the various companies persistently disagreed due to cultural differences in mindset, whereupon the consultant, recognizing this, changed her strategy. he began meeting with each actor separately and explaining the other's performance from his or her particular cultural assumptions. In this way, once each had understood the other, could both meet together and the mergence actually become effective. In a similar way, says chein, can change be best implemented when the leader is willing and able to looking into, work with, and attempt to understand other cultural patterns. History is change. Change necessitates working with and understanding the heterogeneity of cultures that constitute the world. A leader who does this becomes flexible to the change dynamic and can best…
Bartunek JM. 1993. The multiple cognitions and conflicts associated with second order organizational change. In Social Psychology in Organizations: Advances in Theory and Research, ed. JK Murnighan, pp. 322. 49. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Beer M, Eisenstat RA, Spector B. 1990. The Critical Path to Corporate Renewal. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. Sch.
Brand, a. (1990). The Force of Reason: An Introduction to Habermas, London: Allen & Unwin.
Crawford, Amy. "The Swamp Fox." Smithsonian.com. (http://www. smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/biography/fox.html)
change management, more than 60% of the efforts for organizational change fail. Organizational changes usually fail because they do not approach it in a holistic manner needed to come up with and achieve change. esearch methods for engaging employees in the process of change and for benchmarking the progress of change initiatives include:
Establishing a Vision
Establishing a mode of making people appreciate the purpose of the change is beneficial in the entire change process. When people are aware and informed of the goals and objectives together with the changes that they need to effect, they usually seem to make more sense in their work, reducing resistance. The moment a coalition is established and trained to implement the change, experience of experimental learning and participation at times usually equips others with the full with the knowledge of the required changes that need to take place and how to witness its…
Schlachter, T., & Hildebrant, T. (2012). Leading business change for dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Patton, Q. (2011). Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York: Guilford Press.
Baker, T. (2009). The eight values of highly productive companies: Creating wealth from a new employment relationship. Bowen Hills, Qld: Australian Academic Press.
Slatter, S.S.P., & Lovett, D. (2009). Corporate recovery: Managing companies in distress. Washington, D.C: Beard Books.
Army change process is quite a complex and involving one which is quite engaging and has to be carried out quite keenly. This paper will look at how the army change process can assist the SGM/CSM in preparation of next combat operation as well as training in garrison. The army change process takes place in order to meet the evolutionary requirements in the field. This process embraces flexibility, adaptability, depth and responsiveness along with the experience of operating among populations in a wide range of missions and activities that the army is involve in. any future operational environment for the army requires that the army prepares ready forces for a wide variety of activities and military operations that are broader compared to the current counters urgency focus the army has.
The army change process entails various processes first of all the definition of the army change process rules. The SCG/CSM…
Oracle and/or its affiliates, (2013). Setting Up Military Rank Change Notification and Documentation. Retrieved March 17, 2014 from http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E39904_01/hcm92pbr0/eng/hcm/hhaw/task_SettingUpMilitaryRankChangeNotificationandDocumentation-407f6c.html
changing role of human resource management in the global competitive environment. The paper begins with evaluation of the global competitive environment, particularly with its contributing factors. The influences of information technology, corporate communication, and very strong marketing on HM function in this environment. This is followed by a discussion on the changing role of human resource managers in this competitive environment that has also been impacted by harsh economic conditions. The other parts discuss the recession challenge, impact of recession on HM function, and how to overcome the challenges.
HM in the Global Competitive Environment:
Human esource Management basically involves conducting several activities and functions that are directed towards attaining, retaining, engaging, and motivating employees. In order to achieve these goals, the most significant roles and responsibilities HM include performing routine tasks like recruitment, interview schedules, retention, performance evaluation, negotiation, training, employee development, and compensation and benefits. Notably, in the…
Al jerjawi, K. (n.d.). HR Managers' Roles & Contributions in Merger Processes. Retrieved October 12, 2012, from http://www.wbiconpro.com/441-Khalil.pdf
Bhagria, A. (2010, July 29). Challenges Faced by Human Resource Managers in Era of Globalization. Retrieved October 12, 2012, from http://www.younghrmanager.com/challenges-faced-by-human-resource-managers-in-the-era-of-gloablization
"Impact of Recession on Human Resource Management and Working Conditions." (2011, April
29). European Working Conditions Observatory. Retrieved October 12, 2012, from http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2011/04/IE1104029I.htm
change is inevitable over the course of any individual's life. The most basic change is physical and physiological as each person develops from infancy, to adolescence, to adulthood. In the wake of these changes, individuals interact with each other gaining social knowledge, and nurture their beliefs and behaviors. Throughout the lifespan we are constantly changing whether we are aware of it or not. There are times in one's life where change is necessary, and one must create their own change to reap the emotional and mental benefits. I believe that individuals are responsible for generating their change, and have the capacity to instill change at any point in life as long as the individual is willing to be an active participant. In my own life, I decided to make a change I called "making time for time." I needed to reevaluate what was important to me, and make time for…
The first is structural resistance. This resistance may lie in the organization's rigidities as demonstrated by their current structure.
Closed mind-sets of organizational members offer another form of resistance to change. This is often found in a dedication to obsolete business strategies. Organizational members may simply not see the value in the change to occur, when compared to existing processes and procedures. Dan Sweeney, a vice president at IBM's retail consulting practice, found IBM in exactly this situation.
The corporation was stuck in their mechanistic command and control model, a business strategy that had lost its effectiveness (Engdahl, 2005).
The organization may also be entrenched in organizational culture that simply isn't conducive to change. In some instances the organizational values can be a powerful motivator of change, however, in others, it may be a strong resistor. This is especially true in the instances where organizational members don't have the skills…
Engdahl, R. (Summer 2005). Organization evolution: The natural change model for organizational structure in changing times. Organization Development Journal, 23(2). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Gray, S.N. (Summer 2005). Tipping points: Building momentum for lasting change. Organization Development Journal, 23(2). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Schaafsma, H. (1997). A networking model of change for middle managers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 18(1). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Weymes, E. (May 2003). Relationships not leadership sustain successful organizations. Journal of Change Management, 3(4). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Chaos theory states that change represents a contemporary corporate model which is best suited to the advanced corporations of the current era. The theory understands the fact that change is unavoidable, but that forecasting its trajectory and time is hard (Taneja, 2013). Mergers, acquisitions, governmental takeovers and liquidations, which are ever more frequently observed, all support chaos theory premises. Akin to chemistry, organizational change may be classified as organic (flowing from an existing process) or inorganic (entirely different) (Wong, 2016).
A Discussion That Assesses the Factors That Contribute to The Organic Evolution of Change
Just like in the case of living beings, an effective institution realizes the important aspect that the totality is always greater than its individual components' sum, that diverse areas must undergo organic growth and change, and that diverse groups must develop and adjust at their own pace (Oner, Benson, & Beser, 2014). As organic evolution necessitates…
According to Dowdle, Stevens, & Daly (2007), process-based interventions reflect a particular organizational philosophy, namely that organizations exist as a series of processes which are designed to deliver value to the customer. The presumption is that by setting benchmarks for specific process improvements, the organization will be able to improve in efficiency, cost savings, and ultimately profitability. Processes are not separate from strategy but rather are an integral part of strategy (Rosam & Peddle 2008). Organizational change, however, is often a slow, incremental struggle and there is sobering evidence that attempts at organizational change often result in partial failures and an inability to meet established goals. The problem is often “change management consists of a (limited) set of interventions, which are regarded as objective, measurable and linearly manageable programs that can be realised in a relatively short time,” contrary to the substantial human as well as logistical challenges of making…
There is no acknowledgement that leaders may indeed be flexible according to the situation and followers that they are dealing with. Even though women, for example, may favor a more laissez-faire type of leadership style than men (Eagly, Johannesen-chmidt & Van Engen), this does not mean that they will do so in all circumstances, or indeed that all female leaders will have this tendency.
The Path-Goal Theory
The path-goal theory is one of the most flexible and popular models used in the changing business world today. It allows for an integration of various styles, personalities and situations. The components inherent in this theory is the particular path that employees are expected to follow in order to reach a certain desired goal. The position of the leader in this model is to provide followers with desirability in terms of goals and the removal of obstacles along the way towards obtaining the…
Eagly, A.H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., & van Engen, M.L. (2003, July). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591.
Hughes, Richard L., Ginnett, Robert C. & Curphy, Gordon J. (2002). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (4th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Kuriger, Craig C. (2006, July/August) Workplace change and worker fears: when new technology enters the workplace. Army Logistician
Parker, Dennis R. (2002, January/February). Create opportunities, not fear, through change. Leadership.
Kotter's and Lewin's models and discusses their roles as diagnostic tools and as implementation agents. It is the nature of organizations to face constant change, whether the source comes from competitive pressures, new opportunities, technological advances or new initiatives and so forth. Both models offer a methodology for effectively managing change.
Kotter's 8-Step Change Model
Change management models help organizations to effect change in a systematic manner while avoiding some of the pitfalls associated with organizational change development. According to John Kotter, organizations frequently make the same mistakes when they try to bring about change; they allow too much complacency or they fail to communicate and so forth (Reynolds, 2009).
Kotter's 8-step change model has been shown to be a powerful and successful method for implementing change. The purpose of Kotter's model is to efficiently and effectively achieve change management. People respond better to change when they are actively involved…
21st Century Leader. (n.d.). Kotter's eight step model of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.21stcenturyleader.co.uk/kotter/
Chapman, A. (2010). Change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
DealTime. (2000). Leading change, or changing leaders? [Review of the book Leading Change]. Retrieved from http://www.dealtime.com/Leading_Change_by_John_P_Kotter/leading-change-or-changing-leaders/RD-990772/reviews
Faucheux, M. (2009). Negotiating the advantages and disadvantages of change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/18477.aspx
Managing Change in the Workplace
The author of the article talks about change in the workplace. She states tat change is exhirating and terrifying. She also states that change is badly needed around any workplace. Whatever an individual's attitude to change is, it has to be the most reliable companion that anyone is likely to ever have. Change will always be with us so it mans that it's better off making friends. The author gives several tips on how to manage change within a workplace.
The first thing that needs to be understood is that growth requires change. If one doubles the number of customers they serve, then how will the current system s in place hold up? Therefore there is need to review the current processes and see how they work if there is an increase in workflow. It is important to ensure that the processes in place can…
Holland, J.(2005). Managing Change in the Workplace. Retrieved June 14, 2014 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Managing-Change-in-the-Workplace&id=35783
We shall, for the purposes of this paper, accept the proposition that we are moving from a culture that can be categorized as "you get what I give" to one where the customer is always right. In the real world, there are companies that do either, depending on their business model. But for the sake of argument we will assume the position of a company that is seeking to shift from the former to a more customer-centric vision of customer service. There are two elements to such a shift -- operational and cultural. Operations can be laid out in such a way that barriers to customer service that may have existed in the past are now removed, for example. Yet, because service is inherently customer-oriented, based on interactions, it is critical that the organization shifts to a customer-service-based culture. This is a massive cultural shift from an organizational…
Brady, M. & Cronin, J. (2001). Customer orientation: Effects on customer service perceptions and outcome behaviors. Journal of Service Research. Vol. 3 (3) 241-251.
Homburg, C., Muller, M. & Klarmann, M. (2011). When does salespeople's customer orientation lead to customer loyalty? The differential aspects of relational and functional customer orientation. Journal of the Acad. Mark. Sci. Vol. 39 (2011) 795-812.
Leggett, K. (2014). Forrester's top trends for customer service in 2014. Forrester. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://blogs.forrester.com/kate_leggett/14-01-13-forresters_top_trends_for_customer_service_in_2014
Linnenluecke, M. & Griffiths, A. (2010). Corporate sustainability and organizational culture. Journal of World Business. Vol. 45 (2010) 357-366.
Change Management Plan
The role of change
"Change is so pervasive in our lives that it almost defeats description and analysis" -- (Mortensen, 2008)
Change at any level, individual or collective (communal/familial, societal, or organizational), is a complex and challenging process that requires time, energy, commitment, and often some level of distinct intention and sacrifice, on both the front and back ends of the process. Change describes both the action(s) and the result(s) of any type of alteration, modification, transformation, or exchange of one behavior/idea for another from smaller-scale individual changes to large-scale organizational (or social systems) changes.
At any level, the process of change needs to be managed to some degree. Generally, individuals can manage their own processes of change and in many individual cases, change may happen more spontaneously. Change that occurs in systems, like organizational change, requires a more strategic (or structured) approach…
Mortensen, Chris, 2008, Change, In Zalta, Edward (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy found at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/change/ >.
Stace, D & Dunphy, D 1994, Beyond the Boundaries, Leading and Re-Creating the Successful Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, Roseville, NSW.
change agent -- internal or external -- has to evaluate the organization as a whole. The problems and difficulties experienced by any company may be unique to the company or to the type of business. Change implementation generally requires a change in the behavioral strategies -- either of the organization, the process used or the individual.
Attempts at changing the motivation of the organization have to be tackled by changing the motivation of the employees at all levels of the organization. Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas M. McGregor both believed that in order for people to work to their full potential, they're basic needs have to be satisfied. There are various factors that affect motivation: achievement in a specific field, recognition of the value of the work, pride in the work, responsibility, advancement and growth in the workplace act as a stimulant and motivator.
In recent times, the manager has…
Harvey, Donald F. And Brown, Donald R., 1976. An Experimental Approach to Organization
Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentiss-Hall Inc.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; extracted from "Motivation and Personality"; A.H. Maslow. New York: Harper and Row, 1954
Theory X: extracted from "The Human side of Enterprise"; address delivered to the MIT School of Industrial Management.
QUINN's MODEL OF CHANGE
Changes in nursing procedures:
Applying Quinn's theory of change
Change resistance can often be extremely difficult to overcome in a healthcare environment. Given that nurses operate with a great deal of autonomy, they are often suspicious when new initiatives interfere with standard operating procedures that have worked in the past. To change the locality of shift to shift reporting from the break room to the bedroom, a nurse manager must generate staff buy-in so that employees genuinely believe that the change is needed and will make substantive improvements for patients, enough so that any of the inconveniences generated by the change seem warranted. ather than demanding immediate and radical changes, James Brien Quinn "suggests that the most effective strategies of major enterprises tend to emerge step-by-step from an iterative process in which the organization probes the future, experiments, and learns from a series of partial (incremental)…
Barnat, R. (2014). Quinn's incremental model. Strategic Management. Retrieved from:
Pochron, R.S. (2008). Advance Change Theory Revisited: An article critique. Integral Review.
4(2): 125-132. Retrieved from: http://integral-review.org/documents/Pochron,%20Article%20Review,%20Vol.%204%20No.%202.pdf
Hospital X has decided to change its documentation from one system of computerized charting to another. There are obviously good reasons for this change which include solving problems of the system that was used before, this change will make work procedures more efficient and it will also reduce any unnecessary workload. My critical care unit is the one that has been selected to try out this new computerized documentation as well as making recommendations about its use.as a nurse manager I would be very careful on how I go about this change process
First of all I will only accept to proceed with the change process if its implementation is for a good reason. There would be no need of initiating a change which would not bring any benefits to the organization. Therefore I will first scrutinize the new system that has been proposed and weigh its pros and cons…
Kotter Change Management Model
Many companies around the world have used the emergent change approaches, but many have not been able to stand the test of time. From their experiences, Kotter's model has a long-standing high reputation with flexibility in dealing with the vast issues and problems experienced by companies during the change. Toyota is a lean manufacturing company, and their processes involve change and improvements. The changes that occur in the company require them to have the commitment of both the management and leadership; good channels of communication; team development; cultural readiness and the autonomy of employees. In our case, we are going to apply Kotter's model in dealing with their H situation where employees wish to be given freedom (Cameron & Green, 2012). They argue that must execute duties but lack that freedom and this has hindered them from giving their best. Additionally, they want the training they…
Appelbaum, S. H., Habashy, S., Malo, J. & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the Future: Revisitingkotter's 1996 Change Model. Journal of Management Development, 31(8): 764-782
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to The Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change (3r Ed.). USA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R. & Akin, G. (2009). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach (2nd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill
Self, D. R. & Schraeder, M. (2009). Enhancing The Success of Organizational Change. Matching Readiness Strategies with Sources of Resistance. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 30(2): 167-182
The concept of change is a very tricky path to head organization for most leaders in as much as change is inevitable and every management would like to see the organization change towards the good. The change often needs more than the introduction of the expected change and initiation of the change process. There can be challenges in bringing transformation and change if the process is not well handled, it is hard to get from the comfort zones people are in but unfortunately inevitable.
Change therefore needs to be inspired and be made part of the organizational culture. It needs to be fostered and cultured as opposed to structural and forced as Jason Clarke (210) puts it. The employees need to be inspired to own the change and not just informed about the change. They need to be the drivers of the change, they need to formulate the…
Jason Clarke (210). choices, and opportunities, presented to us through change. Retrieved April 2, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPhM8lxibSU
Mark Mueller-Eberstein (2012). Emotional states that people and organizations experience when confronted with change and transformation. Retrieved April 2, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yv-QiSvuLLM
The theory outlines three stages including the unfreeze, make changes and refreeze stages (Levasseur, 2001). In the unfreezing stage, the current processes are unearthed to examine how matters are undertaken. This implies examining each phase and human interrelation for prospective improvements. The second phase encompasses the deployment of the changes and providing guidance to the team as they adapt. In this stage, aspects such as constant communication, training and support are pivotal in order to restrict any for, of challenges in the transition. It also includes a change in the organization’s policies, norms, and policies. The final phase of refreezing is aimed to stabilize the new change to safeguard it from regressing. Frequent reviews need to be undertaken to ascertain that the new approaches are being adhered to (Hossan, 2015). In the first phase, the staff becomes cognizant of and acknowledges the need for a change. The…
The Leadership Style
The Change Process
Change Leadership in emember the Titans
The film is set in the 1970s in April of 1971, during a period in which the United States Supreme Court passed a historic judgment about the issue of state imposed segregation in public schools. Following the judgment in the same year T.C. Williams High School located in Alexander Virginia were racially integrated which serves as the setting on which the film is portrayed. The context of the film is critical to understanding the plot because during these events there was social discord between blacks and whites in America (Titans et al., 2015).
The story begins with the integration of the schools. As a result of the integration, the football teams of the two schools were merged and a new team was formed. Herman Boone was appointed head coach who was chosen by a wining…
Hu, J., & Liden, R. (2011). Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: An examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 851-862. doi:10.1037/a0022465
Rus, D., van Knippenberg, D., & Wisse, B. (2010). Leader power and leader self-serving behavior: The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information. Journal Of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 922-933. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.06.007
Titans, R., Yakin, B., Howard, G., Washington, D., Patton, W., & Harris, W. (2015). Remember the Titans (2000). IMDb. Retrieved 19 March 2015, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0210945/
Leadership and Organizational Change Potential in the NFL
Organizational Problem or Opportunity
Description of the Problem or Opportunity
Purpose of the Investigation
Summary of Section Highlights
Problem or Opportunity Background
• Current State of the Target Organization
• elevant Organizational Processes or Systems or Functions
• elevant Theory
Lewin's Change Management Model
McKinsey 7-S Model
Kotter's 8 Step Change Model
Corporate Social esponsibility
Investigative Approach and Design Strategies
• Investigative Approach
• Theory Thread Strategies
• Data Collection and Preparation Strategies
Investigation Parameters or Limitations
Findings of the Investigation
Overall Findings: A Synthesis
Interpretation and ecommendations 34
Organizational Implications 34
• Implications for Decision Makers 35
• Future esearch 35
The National Football League (NFL) is currently the most popular sport with American adults, however this position is…
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Benta, D. (2011). On Best Practices for Risk Management in Complex Projects. Informatica Economica, 142-152.
Business Dictionary. (N.d.). Change Management. Retrieved from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/change-management.html
Sea Treasures is facing a dilemma not unlike the same dilemma faced by many other businesses. Times change, technologies change and the markets change. Sea Treasures is facing going out of business due to their business model not being current with the demands, ebbs and flow of the market. To remedy this problem, Sea Treasures has decided to start off with a website from the ground up. This is their short-term solution. Over the long haul, Sea Treasures will flesh out their online business to include the sale of live animals. The short-term items will be aquarium decor items. One footnote given about the short-term plan is that the items being sold via the website are collecting dust in a warehouse that is rather costly for Sea Treasures to rent and maintain. While the overall plan for Sea Treasures is pretty basic, the execution will be complex and it is…
Anderson, D., & Ackerman, L. (2016). Leader to Leader Journal - Article Print Page. Leadertoleaderjournal.com. Retrieved 8 February 2016, from http://www.leadertoleaderjournal.com/article-print-page/conscious-change-leadership-achieving-breakthrough-results.aspx
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2016). Best website on HRM - Excellent HR Tools and HR Presentation Slides - HR ppt - Human Resource Management. Explorehr.org. Retrieved 8 February 2016, from http://www.explorehr.org/articles/Organization_Analysis/Five_Steps_for_Effective_Change_Process.html
Lu, C. (2016). Zara's secret to retail success - its supply chain. Tradegecko.com. Retrieved 8 February 2016, from https://www.tradegecko.com/blog/zara-supply-chain-its-secret-to-retail-success
Change management initiatives of HP, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's
Although it is said that the only constant in business is change, the need for change has thwarted many potential corporate superstars of the recent past, including Hewlett Packard, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's. Although these companies were able to deal with the changes demanded by exterior economic circumstances and internal corporate pressures with varying degrees of success, all met with roadblocks on their way to pursuing change. Kotter's model for successful change suggests that all change entails a certain amount of urgency; a period of coalition building during the pre-change process; the need to create a vision for the change; communicating that vision; removing obstacles; creating short-term wins; building on the change; and permanently anchoring that change in the corporation's culture (Kotter's 8-step change model, 2013, Mind Tools).
HP: Three significant errors
However, in the case of HP, critical…
Adamy, J. (2007). For McDonald's, it's a wrap. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:
Kotter's 8-step change model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
Change management: Starbucks case study
Kotter & Cohen (2002) outline an 8-phase change process to explain why some organizations succeed and others do not at change management. These stages of change include increasing the sense of urgency for change; building a guiding team for the change; getting the change vision right; communicating to stakeholders to generate enthusiasm or 'buy-in'; empowering action; creating short-term wins; not letting up; and making the change 'stick' (Kotter & Cohen 2002: 6). All of these principles can be seen in the case of Starbucks, a popular coffee retailer that saw its fortunes flagging until it decided to drastically improve the quality of its coffee and focus on international rather than domestic expansion.
In 2008, Starbucks was in a state of crisis. The Seattle-based coffee chain had become wildly profitable and popular and spread across America, often opening stores very close to…
Allison, M. (2008). Starbucks stores to shut 3 hours on Feb. 26 for retraining baristas. Seattle Times. Retrieved from: http://seattletimes.com/html/businesstechnology/2004177542_baristas12.html
Arora, A. (2013). In Starbucks, taste trumps price. Reuters. Retrieved from:
Dana, D. (2001). Conflict resolution. San Francisco, CA: McGraw-Hill.
Change Control Software Tool
Change control softwares are important tool that help in managing and regulating changes of information, making companies achieve updated records and databases. In many companies, control changing is a significant issue that brings challenges to the timely and up-to-date data used by the different areas in the company. An effective change control software provides solution to a company and protects them from error on the delivery of information or on the utilization of computer applications.
One important element that facilitates the success of utilizing a change control software tool is the process of providing effective management procedures. Similarly, to do this, a change management team is usually established. For instance, a change control board could help in the evaluation and analysis of how the employment of change control software effectively affects the operation of a company. The question however is whether the presence or absence of…
Change Control Software for Change Management Tracking.
White Paper on Operational Change Control.
Overcoming esistance to Change
Change management can be most difficult in companies that are entrenched in their company culture. In the case of the company in the study, the company has a high number of employees that have been with the company for a long period of time. These employees present the greatest challenge to overcome in terms of change management. They are more likely to continue to do their jobs as they have done them in the past. For employees that have been with the company the longest, the proposed changes in customer service would mean changes in long-established daily habits and routines. outines are comfortable and changing these routines can be stressful for employees, particularly those who have been there for long time. This study will examine the limits and obstacles that make changes in organizational structure difficult for companies with an entrenched corporate culture.
Beer, M., Eisenstat, R.A., & Spector, B. (1990). "Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change." Harvard Business Review. 68(6). 158- 66.
Cascio. W.F. (1993). " Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned?" Academy of Management Executive 7(1), 92-104.
Oxman, J. & Smith, B. (2003). "The Limits of Structural Change," Sloan Management Review. 77-82.
Simons, R., Mintzberg. H., & Basu. K. (2002). "Memo to: CEOs:." Fast Company. 59, 117-121.
Change Management Plan
Change Management Approach
Definitions of Change
Change Control Board
Roles and Responsibilities
Change Control Process
Change Management is an important part of any project. Changes must be vetted and managed to ensure that they are within the scope of the project and are communicated to all stakeholders if they are approved. The process for submitting, reviewing, and approving changes must also be communicated to all stakeholders in order to properly set expectations. If changes are allowed to be submitted or are implemented in and unorganized way, any project is sure to fail. All projects must include a Change Management Plan as part of the overall Project Plan.
The Change Management Plan was created for the Inventory Services (IS) Project in order to set expectations on how the approach to changes will be managed, what defines a change, the purpose and role of the change control…
Change Management Implementation Plan in the Workplace
This Change Management Plan documents and tacks the necessary information required to effectively manage project change from project inception to delivery for the Neuropsychological department in Australia. The Change Management Plan will be created throughout the Planning Phase of the project for developing a change initiative & implementation plan for Neuropsychological department. Its envisioned audience is the project manager, project team, project sponsor and any senior leaders whose support is required in order to perform the plan.
Describe different theories, constructs and models of leadership
One theory that will involve this process is the Trait Theory -- this theory assumes that the leader is dissimilar from the average person in terms of personality traits for example intelligence, perseverance, and determination. When it comes to the model of leadership, a transactional type of leader will be best for this type of transition. This type…
Acemoglu, D., 2007. Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor Market. Journal of Economic Literature, 40(1), pp. 7-72.
Addison, T. a. W. C., 2007. 'The Impact of Immigration on the Earnings of Natives: Evidence from Australian Micro Data. Economic Record, 23(9), pp. 68-78.
Anon., 2008. Rosenberg S, Hickie I and Mendoza J. National mental health reform: less talk, more action, 190(4), pp. 193-195.
Barger, N. J. a. L. K. K., 2006. The Challenge of Change in Organizations.. Palo Alto: Davies-Black Publishing.
Change Proposal Imagine a midlevel manager organization supervises -level managers. Prepare an 800-word report boss propose a needed change department. You permission boss implement change management program.
Change proposal: esults-oriented labor
etention levels of our most well-trained and highly-educated employees were down last quarter. This is a troubling development given that a company can only be as good as its employee's efforts. Also, it is a waste of the money and time invested into employees if they constantly move in and out of a revolving door of employment. In particular, the attrition rate has been highest amongst women managers who struggle to balance the demands of home and family. This could be potentially problematic not simply in terms of losing top female talent, but also because having insufficient numbers of female managers could result in accusations (however unfounded) of discrimination. All employees have been complaining about their long hours and…
Birkinshaw's Four Dimensions of Management. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
Filey, A. (2008). Top-down and bottom-up project management. WRIKE. Retrieved:
Yes, the merger may have been a good idea in the beginning and would have allowed both companies to form a considerable economy of scale, but only if they could work out their differences and be able to make the changes necessary. According to Lewin's model they never even got past the first age, therefore they were never able to make the changes in the first place. A merger requires that both companies "unfreeze" of their business model and other elements of their company. Unless they can get past the first age, they will not be able to get to the second and third stage of the change model. This one the key lessons that is learned by the failed merger of Daimler-Chrysler.
In 2007, the failed restructuring attempt led to the decision by Daimler AG to sell Chrysler to Cerberus Capital Management (Szczesny, 2007). One of the key reasons…
Daimler. (2006). DaimlerChrysler Creates New Management Model. January 24, 20006. Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://www.daimler.com/dccom/0-5-7171-1-583502-1-0-0-0-0-0-9296-7164-0-0-0-0-0-0-0.html
Kadapa, S. (2008). Change Management Analysis of Daimler-Chrysler Merger. Retrieved February 22, 20110 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1306208/change_management_analysis_of_daimler.html?cat=27
[email protected] Wharton (2000). Has DaimlerChrysler Hit the Breakdown Lane or Just Stopped to Fill Up? Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=290
Mindtools (n.d.) Lewin's Change Management model. Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm
Describe at least three internal and external drivers of change for the organization in this simulation.
Internally, organizational changes are driven by three external pressures, as defined by Lewin's along the three-stage model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing employee behaviors. Motivating people during each of these change stages reinforces the acquired behaviors. Unfreezing involves the motivational factor of persuading people to replace the old behaviors and attitude with the preferred behaviors and attitudes by demonstrating the need for change by infusing employees with the knowledge and the confidence that the new behaviors and attitudes are needed to cope with external pressures. (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). hen, refreezing means the new behavior and attitude become integrated into the normal standard operating procedures of the organization. hen, the external pressures of positive reinforcement, modeling and coaching should be used to encourage the desired behaviors continuance. 'Change and constancy are relative…
To implement the above change strategy in response to pressures, the CEO had to weight he current personnel needs, the changing needs of the external environment, the internal demands of the corporate hierarchical structures, and the emotional and economic demands of the employees.
What kinds of resistance might the leader expect to see? Identify and explain at least five of these. What strategies might you employ to manage each of these areas of resistance?
According to Kreitner and Kinicki, "Resistance to change is an emotional/behavioral response to the real or imagined threats to an established work routine." (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). Of the authors' ten reasons employees resist change, five reasons that were of particular impact in the scenario were: surprises and fear of the unknown, as when innovative or radically different changes are introduced without warnings, and the natural emotion/tendency for employees is to become fearful. To prevent the spread of invalid rumors, managers must develop communication plans to minimize employees' emotions of fear of the unknown. Secondly, a climate of mistrust can arise when change comes under pretense and deception and employees come to distrust their managers. In an effort to prevent such an undesirable climate of secrecy managers must honestly discussing coming changes. Thirdly, intimidating changes can cause employee to doubt their capabilities. To
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
Bass, Bernard M. 1997. "Does the Transactional -- Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?" American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.
De Angelis, a.P. 2006, Spring. Don't 'dis' Chinese science. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(3), 31.
Dessler, Gary. 2006. "Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know about Human Resource Management in China Today." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11.
Change Cycle in an Organization:
As literature (Anderson 2001, Gelinas 1998, Olson 2001, Smith 1997) refers that process of organizational change starts from establishing a committed leadership through the need for and vision of the change to taking action, supervising the improvement and closing out the change. The basic organization change cycle is as under:
Launching A Committed Leadership:
Here we need to share stories within the organization about the need of change, passion one is having for change and how change helps in past and when change did not work. We need to decide that in any future possible situation who will take a stand? What a leader will do for taking stand? Why a leader needs to take stand?
Smell The Need For Change:
Before making a change we should know very well about some issues which arises questions like what is the current situation. Why do we…
Aderson, Dean And Linda (2001).Byond the change management, advanced strategies for todays transformational leaders.
Change Initiative: Communicating to Key Stakeholders
Know your audience
Just as a teacher conveys a lesson differently to students of varied ranges of abilities and age groups, a communicator of change must tailor the change message to the audience. What are his or her needs? Parents may be attracted to the idea of children gaining additional enrichment experiences that can help their children advance in life and get into college. Teachers might be excited by the possibility of giving additional input in how lessons are taught. The psychology and needs of the stakeholders will impact how the message will be shaped and which aspects will be emphasized.
Use different media
All too often, school districts merely deploy one means of communication when dealing with the public and employees. Merely having a meeting is not enough, as only the most interested and highly invested stakeholders will attend. Nor is sending out…
McLeod, Scott. (2010). 10 Reasons your educators are resisting your change initiative.
Education Week. Retrieved:
Change Is Never Easy
One of the hardest things for any company to accomplish is graceful change. This is true for at least several reasons. The first is that change is psychologically difficult: Letting go of the known for the unknown, even when the unknown is likely to be a good deal better, can seem fraught with numerous perils. The other major reason that change can be so difficult for companies and other large organizations is that group enterprises require a relatively high level of stability and predictability to thrive. Even an organization that is composed of highly skilled, intelligent, and flexible people cannot change as quickly as can a single individual. This is simply too much inertia in the system and too many specific relational dynamics that have to be shifted for change to occur as quickly as can be the case with an individual.
That said, it remains…
However, this research does not stop at the idea that inertia exists as a powerful force in organizations; rather, after acknowledging the power of inertia, the authors moved past this idea (which does not account for the real and successful changes that can and do occur in a number of organizations) to incorporate "theories of organizational learning and innovation not found in the original formulation of structural inertia. The result is a broader model of inertia and momentum in organizations."
In other words, any sophisticated analysis of change must be able to account for the ways in which organizations resist change in the name of stability but also how they are able to overcome this inertia and actually effect change. One of the most important aspects of this piece of research -- and a strength that was in fact exhibited by CMIG -- is that organizations tend to resist change not out of weakness but because stability (which can here be seen as the counterpart to change) is valued by so many different stakeholders:
Hannan and Freeman's (1984) structural inertia theory offers a model of the process of organizational change that includes both internal and external constraints on organizational change. The first part of their argument addressed the probability of organizational change. They argued that organizations exist because they are able to perform with reliability and, if questioned, to account rationally for their actions. Reliability and accountability are high when organizational goals are institutionalized and patterns of organizational activity are routinized, but institutionalization and routinization also generate strong pressures against organizational change. Thus, the very characteristics that give an organization stability also generate resistance to change and reduce the probability of change. The second part of their argument dealt with the effect of organizational change on survival. They argued that because both internal and external stakeholders prefer organizations that exhibit reliable performance and because change disrupts both internal routines and external linkages, organizational change is hazardous. (Amburgey, Kelly, & Barnett, 1993).