Charles Dickens Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Dickens & Bronte Keeping the

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46767836

Cathy is, although temporarily lowered to a servant when Lockwood first meets her, was brought up from birth by her father to be a refined young girl, and Hareton is the rightful owner of the estate he inherits, not a true orphan and stable boy like Heathcliff.

The shift in the individual and personal past cannot change society in Bronte -- perhaps because Bronte's tale is a romantic tale, embracing both female and male experience, and this acknowledges the limits of gender, of both partners in a relationship. In contrast, Scrooge's initially rejection of human kindness is solely told in male-directed, economic terms -- by providing a turkey and medical care for Bob Cratchit's family, Scrooge becomes a good man. Scrooge is more powerful, financially, even if he lacks a heart socially, than Catherine or Cathy is, as both are women who are possessed of an estate only through patrilineal…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Dickens and Marx the England

Words: 1770 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67203097

In other words, he changes, and for Marx, the capitalist cannot change until forced to do so, specifically by the revolution he and Engels call for in the Communist Manifesto. Marx sees the economic development of history as a matter of class struggle, following the dialectic of Hegel as opposing forces fight and through that revolution produce a synthesis, or a new social order. Dickens sees change as possible more simply by showing people the error of their ways and so getting them to change to a different way of behaving. Marx sees the need for a revolution to force any change into existence.

Again, the England described by Dickens was the England that helped produce Karl Marx and that contributed to his social theory. Both Marx and Dickens see the social ills of the time and ascribe these to the greed and single-minded pursuit of money on the part…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. Provided.

Marx, Karl. "The Duchess of Sutherland and Slavery." 1953. Provided.

Tucker, Richard C. The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: W.W. Norton, 1978.
View Full Essay

London and Dickens the City

Words: 2360 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85751733

Dickens took a dim view of London's preoccupation with materialism and commercialism -- even though he greatly empathized with the constraints that Londoners of the lower-classes felt.

Bob Cratchit, the poor but humble clerk in the office of Scrooge, serves as the representative of the impoverished but decent working class, with whom Dickens sympathized in the mid-1800s. However, like many of Dickens' characters, he is more fantastic than realistic. Dickens' idealism often had free reign (at least in his early works). Great Expectations, of course, reveals a London full of Londoners who fail to reach the heights of the humble Cratchit. But that novel also comes later in Dickens' career, and reveals a darker era in Dickens' own life, when the city of London seemed less likely to come to terms with its own corruption and spiritual decay.

In David Copperfield, the city of London is remarkably diverse and eclectic…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bacon, F. (1909). Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature. Essays of Francis Bacon (the

Harvard Classics). Retrieved from  http://www.bartleby.com/3/1/13.html 

Bishop, M., Green, M. (2009). Victorian Giving. Philanthrocapitalism. NY:

Bloomsbury Press.
View Full Essay

Hard Times by Dickens

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35871253

Hard Times

In sharp contrast to the bleak and gray industrial setting of Coketown, the circus in Charles Dickens' novel Hard Times is full of life, color, and character. In Hard Times, the circus therefore symbolizes the opposite of everything Coketown and the Industrial Revolution represent. For instance, the circus workers are fanciful and free; the factory workers, on the other hand, are drones who drudge through each day. Similarly, the performers demonstrate a cooperative, communal, and compassionate attitude, whereas the industrialists denote rampant individualism, greed, and self-centeredness. The circus represents a diversion from the mundane, a realm of pure imagination, whereas the factories of Coketown are nothing but mundane and are entirely lacking in imagination. To specific characters in Hard Times, Sleary's circus symbolizes several different and often conflicting ideas. For Tom and Louisa, and eventually for Gradgrind, Sleary's circus is a bastion of hope and a means of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. Online version at < http://www.online-literature.com/dickens/hardtimes/ >.
View Full Essay

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft How Does Industry Affect the Community in Which Market Live

Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43006602

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Sociology is the study of how humans interact with each another, whether alone or in groups. But since the study of human interactions is a diverse subject, many sociologist, professional and non-professional, have observed and made conclusions based on their observations and thought. Two of these are Ferdinand Tonnies and Charles Dickens, and while Tonnies is regarded as one of the fathers of the science of sociology, Charles Dickens' writings have as much of a sociological theme as anything written by Tonnies. One of Tonnies' theories is what is called "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft," and is commonly translated into English as "culture and society." This type of bipartisan split in society is also described by Charles Dickens in his "Hard Times," where his story centers on the lives of both wealthy and poor in a fictional Victorian industrialized city. In fact, "Hard Times," at its core, describes a…… [Read More]

References

Dickens, Charles. (1854). "Excerpts from Hard Times: For These Times." Retrieved from www.filesonic.com/file/2821003165/Charles_Dickens.rar

Forster, John. (1870). The Life of Charles Dickens: Vol. 2. London: Chapman and Hall.

Print.

Nilsson, Jerker, and George Hendrikse. (2009). "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft in Cooperatives." Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/17528/ERS-2009-059-ORG.pdf
View Full Essay

Death as a Theme in

Words: 1379 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9771650

Oliver and the other boys at the workhouse are also very nearly 'worked to death'.

Oliver is (again figuratively) 'scared to death', at that key moment in the novel that that turns out also to define his fate (the extra gruel request scene) when he is selected by the other boys at the workhouse for that most terrifying, unpleasant task. Then, moments after he asks, Oliver becomes equally scared that his still not-quite-to-be-believed question has now caused (so-to-speak) 'all hell to break loose' inside the workhouse, among the comfortably well-off, incredulous, poorhouse administrators. These well-fed individuals in fact cannot fathom, at all, how any boy so "lucky" as to be boarded and fed at their workhouse could possibly be so ungrateful as to request more than his daily starvation-level ration of gruel.

When one day the boys draw lots to see who among them would be designated to ask for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Gutenberg.org [online text]. Retrieved February

7, 2007, from: www.gutenberg.org/etext/730.html

Donovan, Frank. The Children of Charles Dickens. London: Frewin, 1968. 61-

Dunn, Richard J.. Oliver Twist: Whole Heart and Soul. Twayne's Masterwork
View Full Essay

Hard Times in His Novel Hard Times

Words: 3013 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51021164

Hard Times

In his novel Hard Times, Charles Dickens is not shy in confronting what he sees as the paramount social evils of his day, particularly when those evils come in the form of ostensibly beneficent social movements themselves. In particular, Dickens satirizes Jeremy Bentham's Utilitarianism through the characterization of Thomas Gradgrind and Josiah Bounderby as men of cold reason and hard facts, and uses the fates of the various characters to demonstrate the destructive potential of Utilitarian ethics when applied without a comprehensive, objective standard for determining good and bad. The city of Coketown represents the physical embodiment of the cruel, alien world produced by the enactment of Utilitarian policy, and contrasts with its creators expressed dedication to facts and reason. By considering the characterization of Gradgrind and Bounderby, the setting of Coketown, and the narrator's particular use of language throughout the novel alongside the philosophy of Utilitarianism as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bentham, Jeremy. The principles of morals and legislation. Oxford: University of Oxford Press,

Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. London: Bradbury & Evans, 1854.

Bentham 2.

Bentham 2.
View Full Essay

Metonymics in Little Dorit Metonymy

Words: 5420 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71958786

One cannot build the right sort of house -- the houses are not really adequate, "Blinds, shutter, curtains, awnings, were all closed and drawn to keep out the star. Grant it but a chink or keyhole, and it shot in like a white-hot arrow." The stare here is the metonymic device -- we assume it is stranger, the outside vs. The inside, but for some reason, it is also the authority involved, and one that is able to ensure adequacy. In a similar vein, the "churches were freest from it," but they offer only an homage' to safety, and use their power to shut people out from the light that "made the eyes ache" and had been inhumanly oppressive. The prison, though, is "so repulsive a place that even the obtrusive star blinked at it and left it to such refuse of reflected light as could find." The stare is…… [Read More]

Labor in Little Dorrit." Journal of the Novel. 31 (1) 21+.

Young, Arlene. (1996). "Virtue Domesticated: Dickens and the Lower Middle

Class." Victorian Studies. 39 (4): 483+.
View Full Essay

Alone Are Wanted in Life

Words: 1496 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46753736



Stephen Blackpool, on the other hand could be considered to be from the other side of the tracks. He was a poor man and worked in Bounderby's factory as a weaver. The language that Dickens' uses to describe the world that Blackpool is from is quite depressing. He tells us that the Gradgrinds live at Stone Lodge. This name itself conjures up and image of a mini castle surrounded by lush, green grass. He describes Stephen Blackpool's environment as a place 'where Nature was as strongly bricked out as killing airs and gases were bricked in' and 'the whole an unnatural family, shouldering and trampling and pressing one another to death'. He even lets us know that Stephen looks much older than his forty years because of the life and environment he is from. Poor Stephen loses his job for standing up for his coworkers and also left Coketown in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dickens, Charles. (1987). Hard times for these times. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

http://teachers.ewrsd.k12.nj.us/savedoff/humanities_9/victorian/characteristics_of_victorian_era.htm (Accessed on June 30, 2010).

 http://www.victoriaspast.com/FrontPorch/victorianera.htm  (Accessed on June 30, 2010).
View Full Essay

Classism and Racism Literature Is

Words: 3754 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70800341

"It was a curious childhood, full of weird, fantastic impressions and contradictory influences, stimulating alike to the imagination and that embryo philosophy of life which begins almost with infancy."

Paine 14) His consummate biography written in 1912, just after his death claims that Clemens spent the majority of his childhood in the company of his siblings, and the family slaves as his parents where often otherwise engaged, his father and inventor and his mother challenged by the running of such a large family with very little support.

Mark Twain did not remember ever having seen or heard his father laugh. The problem of supplying food was a somber one to John Clemens; also, he was working on a perpetualmotion machine at this period, which absorbed his spare time, and, to the inventor at least, was not a mirthful occupation. Jane Clemens was busy, too. Her sense of humor did not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnard, Robert. "Imagery and Theme in Hard Times." Charles Dickens's Hard Times. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 39-null8

Connor, Steven. "Deconstructing Hard Times." Charles Dickens's Hard Times. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 113-120.

Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. Ed. Paul Schlicke. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Leonard, James S., Thomas A. Tenney, and Thadious M. Davis, eds. Satire or Evasion?: Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992.
View Full Essay

Crime Punishment and Criminal Justice

Words: 2589 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77445927

Crime, Punishment & Justice in Great Expectations

Crime, Punishment and Justice in Great Expectations

In his novel Great Expectations Charles Dickens' characters often seem to be operating outside or just outside the law in gray areas where what is legally correct clash with what is morally the right thing to do. The theme of crime in Dickens' novels is used as a focal point to explore his deep concern for the pervasive array of social problems that permeated England in the nineteenth century (Ford 82-83).

Dickens frames this novel as an individual's struggle to rise above the social and political conditions of that time. Criminality, punishment, and a perverse sense of justice are some of the themes Dickens surfaces to explore this world. At several points throughout the novel convicts come into the story, Pip encounters Magwitch on the marshes in the first chapter (Dickens 2), Magwitch and Compeysen are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davie, Neil. "History Artfully Dodged? Crime, Prisons and the Legacy of 'Dickens's England'." Dickens Quarterly, Vol. 28, Issue 28, December 2011: 261-272. EBSOC Web. 6 December 2012.

Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Janice Carlisle (Ed.) New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996. Print.

Ford, George H. Dickens & His Readers. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1965. Print.

Lucas, John. The Melancholy Man: A Study of Dickens's Novels. London, UK: Methuen & Co. LTD., 1970. Print.
View Full Essay

Opening Paragraph of A Tale of Two

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99498952

Opening Paragraph of "A Tale of Two Cities" by Charles Dickens

In Charles Dickens' "A Tale of Two Cities," the characters and settings are doubled, and even the opening lines of the story sets the stage for an age of paradox. "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness," wrote Dickens.

This opening paragraph describes the conflict in France that Dickens will later describe in greater detail. Basically, the peasants are being destroyed because of the needs and desires of the wealthy and affluent. Like exterminators killing roaches, the rich aimed to drive out the poor during this time.

The opening paragraph provides a strong start to a brief yet informative first chapter, which describes the era in which the novel takes place: England and France in 1775. This age was marked by contradiction…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dickens, Charles. Tale of Two Cities. 1859.

Fielding, K.J. Charles Dickens: A Critical Introduction. New: York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1958.
View Full Essay

David Copperfield and Joseph Andrews

Words: 1138 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58789478

Home: David Copperfield and Joseph Andrews

Consider the respective namesakes of Joseph Andrews and David Copperfield. Briefly, how much do we know about these two characters? Are they fully developed characters? Are they atypical in terms of their respective novels? What does that information suggest about the respective methods of characterization of Henry Fielding and Charles Dickens?

The naming of the protagonists of the novels David Copperfield and Joseph Andrews is important, as these two characters are, to use Dickens's phrase, the heroes of their own lives. David's birth is filled with portents, from the caul around his neck, to his weak mother whom is a foreshadowing in waxen doll like attitude and form to her son's eventual wedlock with the silly Dora. The younger David becomes a kind of replacement father to his mother, taking the name and place of his ghostly, elderly father whom barely functions as a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Oh to Be England Now That the

Words: 1025 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13400773

Oh, To Be England Now That the Industrial Revolution Is Here

The emergence and expansion of industry within Victorian England was a primary concern among the writers and other members of the intelligentsia of that colorful era. During the 19th century, people were moving away from the farm and into the factories, which provided writers a new vista to cultivate stories about the plight of Man. Perhaps no one fully understood at the time it was the end of the agrarian age, where farming the land was no longer the only source and means people could survive and flourish in this world. There was a new commerce being generated from the smoke-stacked factories that began to litter the lush, green yet formidable countryside of England. George Eliot's exceptionally poignant novel Felix Holt: The Radical, set thirty years prior from its original publication date, examines and highlights the roles of the…… [Read More]

References

Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 1966.

Disraeli, Benjamin. Sybil. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.

Eliot, George. Felix Holt. London: Penguin Books. 1972.

Gaskell, Elizabeth. Mary Barton. Somerset: John Lehmann Ltd. 1947
View Full Essay

Realism in Literature Realism and

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37583613

This was Shelley's observation and the reality she experienced during her time.

Dickens and Bronte, meanwhile, experienced reality through social change, in the same way that Shelley had observed the changing times of 19th century society. However, while Shelley contemplated about the dominance of science over nature in "Frankenstein," both Dickens and Bronte reflected the breaking down of class divisions happening in the society, illustrated through the novels "Great Expectations" and "Wuthering Heights," respectively.

Dickens depicted the dissolution of class divisions through the characters of Pip and Estella, individuals who represented the underprivileged and the elite classes, respectively. In the novel, readers witnessed how Pip's ascent to a higher social class became possible through a secret benefactor, while Estella's higher stature eventually led to her poverty when Miss Havisham died. The once poor Pip eventually attained a better life, while Estella, once rich, became imprisoned in an abusive relationship with…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Fiction Messenger Economic Injustice in the Fictional

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28400725

Fiction Messenger

Economic Injustice in the Fictional Works of Dickens and Gaskell

In his text on human commercial practices and economic behaviors, author James Black diverges from many of the dryer and less nuanced textual considerations of socioeconomic dynamics. He does so by couching his discussion in frequent divergences into iconic and modern works of fiction. These add a humanitarian consideration to many of his discussion points, helping to provide more complex rationales for why human beings in business and matters of money tend to behave the way they do. Beyond this, Black provides a compelling template for consideration of broader sociological concerns. This serves as an ideal framework for the present discussion, which considers pressing human issues such as poverty and labor conditions. Hereafter, we consider the works of Charles Dickens and Elizabeth Gaskell, both of whom would comment extensively on the economic affairs of societies in their highly…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Black, J. (?). Humanist Issues in Commercial Practice. HC1 Reading Book. 1st Edition.

Lollar, C. (1997). The Role of Working Class Woman in the Labor Strikes. Victorian Web.org.

Perdue, D. (2010). Dickens' London. Charlesdickenspage.com.
View Full Essay

Ann Beattie's Janus Great Literature

Words: 2371 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93600186

6). Beattie, like anyone else, was a product of her times.

She is also, again like anyone else, a product of her own individual circumstances. A further interpretation of the bowl as a symbol of the feminine finds a deeper connection between the circumstances of the fictional Andrea and the real-life Ann Beattie. Though she is not especially forthcoming with personal details, there are some facts with which a correlation can be drawn.

Though (presumably) happily married for many years, Ann Beattie and her husband have no children (Frost, par. 1). Again, she has not shared the reasons for this, nor would it be a reasonable question to pose to her. It is a significant fact to note, however, given the resemblance of the bowl to the female womb. Henningfield suggests an interpretation of the bowl, especially of the husband's turning away from it and Andrea's refusal to let him…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beattie, Ann. "Janus." The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Allison Booth, J. Paul Hunter, Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, 2005. 280-283.

Brent, Liz. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.

Frost, Adam. "Beattie, Ann." Literature Online bibliography. Cambridge, 2002. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. 12 Mar. 2009. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl-ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xri:lion-us&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:ref:BIO006220:0

Henningfield, Diane Andrews. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
View Full Essay

Realism and Compromise

Words: 1189 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52706821

Victorian Prose and Poetry, by Lionel Trilling and Harold Bloom. Specifically, it will discuss Realism and compromise in Victorian Literature. How do Victorian writers search for realistic compromises with the world around them?

VICTORIAN LITERATURE

In Victorian literature, Realism followed the age of Romanticism, and Realism quickly evolved into Naturalism, practiced by many authors of the time, including Jack London, Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Jane Austen, and Sinclair Lewis. "There was a time when the intellectual and spiritual life of Europe as a whole was dominated by neo-classicism; it was dominated in the next era by Romanticism; and then it was dominated by Realism, which developed into Naturalism" (Baker 58). Realism in literature attempted to portray things as they really were, scientifically and without emotion, placing man in balance with nature.

The task of realism, Howells felt, was to defend "the people" against its adversaries. The realist, he wrote, "feels…… [Read More]

References

Baker, Joseph E., ed. The Reinterpretation of Victorian Literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950. Borus, Daniel H. Writing Realism: Howells, James, and Norris in the Mass Market. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

Decker, Clarence R. The Victorian Conscience. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1952.

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, ed. A Victorian Anthology, 1837-1895; Selections Illustrating the Editor's Critical Review of British Poetry in the Reign of Victoria. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1895.

Trilling, Lionel and Bloom, Harold, eds. Victorian Prose and Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
View Full Essay

Integrating Technology Into the Classroom

Words: 1762 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41588102

Using "Stage One: Rubric for Group Invesigative Roles" can be helpful here, a grading rubric that stresses the ability of students to present information aloud and on paper to with sources correctly cited, with understanding, etc. During the performance, students should be assessed not simply on acting ability, but as denoted in "Stage Three: Rubric for Peformance," that they can understand and morally evaluate what is going on, such as clearly explaining several ways in which a character 'saw' things differently than other characters. This may require teachers to meet with students one-on-one, before giving a final grade, so as to discuss what students learned from the project.

What is the revision process once you have the results from your evaluation?

Students can fill out a questionaire, reporting and assessing their contribution to the experience to allow the teacher to assimilate new information into the lesson plan next year.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beyond the Story: A Dickens of a Party." (2006). Read Write Think.

International Reading Association. Last Modified 29 Dec 2006. Retrieved 29 Dec 2006 at http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=238

DID Designer. (2006) Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved 29 Dec 2006 at http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_leverduffy_teachtech_2/0,9593,1573750-,00.html

Stage One: Rubric for Group Invesigative Roles" (2006). ReadWriteThink. Retrieved 29 Dec 2006 at http://www.readwritethink.org/lesson_images/lesson238/rubric_stage1.html
View Full Essay

Male Ambition in the Works

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54708288

Despite his illustration of the subject's greedy pursuit of his ambitions, Tennyson had also shown redemption through Ulysses' eventual realization that success and ambition must be shared and done for the benefit of others, too: "...we are, we are, One equal-temper of heroic hearts..."

In a similar depiction of male ambition, Dickens in the novel "A Christmas Carol" illustrated how the character of Scrooge embodied moral degeneration as a result of greed and bitterness. The ambitious Scrooge was characterized by his townspeople and employees as an "ogre," especially for the Cratchit family wherein "[t]he mention of his name cast a dark shadow..." Realizing his errors in life through the Three Ghosts of Christmas, Scrooge redeemed himself by changing his ways, a moral conversion showed through generosity and compassion to others: "He became as good a friend, as good a master, and as good a man as the good old city…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Edgar Allen Poe Washington Irving Ralph Waldo

Words: 1184 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52458431

Edgar Allen Poe, Washington Irving, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emily Dickinson, Mark Twain, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Harriet Beecher Stowe, James Fennimore Cooper, Mary Rowlandson, Walt Whitman) describe writing style, a discussion literary work.

Edgar Allan Poe: Poe's amoral universe

The American poet and short story author Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most famous mystery and horror writers of the 19th century. Contrary to many of his contemporaries, Poe is remembered as a virtuoso prose stylist and a student of human psychology. Poe rejected the obvious symbolism and didacticism exhibited by many of his contemporaries such as Melville and Hawthorne [Thesis]. Poe was born on January 19, 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts to professional actors but Poe was orphaned when he was three. Poe moved to the South, where he was fostered by John and Frances Allan ("Edgar Allan Poe," Academy of American Poets, 2013). A Southern gothic sensibility…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Edgar Allan Poe." Academy of American Poets. Poets.org. 9 Apr 2013.

http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/130#sthash.Yu7Vqy4J.dpuf

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart." University of Virginia, 1848. [9 Apr 2013]

 http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/poe/telltale.html
View Full Essay

Victorian Childhood and Alice in

Words: 3889 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33413380



Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.

For Victorians, control was part of…… [Read More]

Sander, David. The Fantasic Sublime: Romanticism and Transcendence in Nineteenth-Century Fantasy Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Thacker, Debora and Jean Webb. Introducing Children's Literature. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Walker, Stan. "Novels for Students: Alice in Wonderland." 1999. Enotes.com. < http://www.enotes.com >.
View Full Essay

Difficult to Understand Just How

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86753455

Respect must be shown for cultural differences and different belief systems and children should be encouraged to share their culture and values with others.

This belief can be operationalized by "show and tell "exercises in which children share something about their family and culture and by "International Night" in which children bring dishes of their country

Children are lazy; they need to be pushed to learn.

Learning takes place in a safe, supportive, and stimulating environment. This belief is operationalized by maintaining a classroom environment in which students show respect and tolerance for others, evaluating curriculum in term of how well it helps students learn, and the use of incentives, as opposed to discipline, to assure good behavior and academic excellence.

The teachers lectures; the student learns

Learning is the construction of knowledge and the making of meaningful connections through active participation. In real life, people learn more by doing…… [Read More]

References

History of Reproduction, Contraceptives and Control" (1998) [Online]New Junod, S.W. (2000) "The Pill at 40." [Online] FDA Consumer, 4, 36, Abstract from: author File: Academic Search Elite Item Number: 8532382
View Full Essay

Dichotomy Is the Presence of

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38119727

It is portrayal of extreme goodness with extreme evil that makes the story believable and causes us to lose ourselves in the process.

It was no wonder that the Russian authors such as Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, and Chekhov are renowned for their craft. Each of them were supreme psychologists with the portrayal of the human spirit brilliant in its comprehension and complexity. Take Dostoyevsky's 'Crime and Punishment' for instance. Here, evil slurred side-by-side with goodness. The hero murdered. Yet insertion of dichotomy into the narrative reveals his honesty, inclination towards religion, and desire to be good.

Pierre Bezukhov, a bumbling figure, was no different in Tolstoy's War and Peace. A drunkard and a fool, he was likeable, loyal, and ultimate survivor and hero of the tale.

In no other story could the benefit of dichotomy be more clearly evidenced than in Anne Karenina. The narrative is rife with contrast. The heroine…… [Read More]

References

Dickens, C. Tale of Two Cities, Signet Classica, NY, 2003
View Full Essay

Fall to Spring's Sprouting The

Words: 3355 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39314195



The Aeneid

Taking a character from The Iliad and setting him on his own journey, the Roman Virgil's epic The Aeneid necessarily contains certain parallels with the earlier Greek text. The overall story of this lengthy poem in and of itself reflects many of the same basic understandings of mankind's place in the universe, its relationship to the gods, and the relationships that exist within society and between men that are already described above, demonstrating that no real fundamental change has occurred in this schema. Aeneas, the titular hero of the tale who flees his native Troy after it is sacked by the Greeks, is as important as the individual heroes of the war itself, but more than a tale of individual heroism The Aeneid is the story of the founding of a people and the long trajectory of history and humanity. It is a tale for and in many…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Spheres Men and Women and

Words: 2773 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72212238



In the cinema, women were often sexual, powerful vamps and flappers, portrayed by actresses like Louise Brooks and Clara Bow. Flappers cut off their long hair and shed their long skirts for a more athletic and empowered appearance. However, although the flapper was culturally significant in terms of her image and power, her time in the limelight was relatively brief. Born of the prosperity of the Roaring 20s, during the Great Depression, women faced more sober circumstances. Still, many women continued to work, often because they were now the primary breadwinners for impoverished households. But working away from the home and female independence was less idealized. Films such as The Gold Diggers of 1933 showed women looking to marriage as a way of relieving their economic despair.

Katherine Hepburn: The Next New Woman

While some of the stars to emerge during the 1930s were decorous and feminine, others, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adam's Rib. Directed by George Cukor. 1949.

Ali, Atka. "Lesson 10: Separate Spheres. " Women's history." July 12, 2010.

 http://students.depaul.edu/~aali/lesson10.html 

The Gold Diggers of 1933. Directed by Mervyn LeRoy. 1933
View Full Essay

Legacy of Hans Christian Andersen if You

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68429477

Legacy of Hans Christian Andersen

If you want children to be intelligent, read them fairy tales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read more fairy tales. Albert Einstein

Biographical Background- Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author who is best known for his children's stories, many of which have become archetypes of popular culture and, in the 20th century, made into iconoclastic films, musicals, and ballets. While he was concerned about his legacy, he need not have worried for his poetry and stories have been translated into more than 150 languages and even spurred a whole generation of children's names (Bredsdorff 1975).

Andersen did not start off as an author, instead he moved at age 14 to Copenhagen to become an actor. While he had a great voice, and was accepted into the Royal Danish Theater, once his voice changed he had to find other work. A fellow…… [Read More]

Analysis -- Dilemmas and Dichotomies of the Artist- In the world of art, music and literature it is sometimes the truth that the genius of the artist comes before its time, and not until after the artist is dead is the work given the appreciation it is due. We can certainly see this in characters like Mozart, artists like Van Gough, and in some ways, Hans Christian Andersen. Art is difficult, it is a calling, and there are dilemmas and dichotomies that have plagued artists for years:

Art as a profession -- As much as we might want to romanticize artists, the life of the artist is usually far from luxurious. Andersen, for instance, did not support himself nor was he primarily known for his Fairy Tales until somewhat his later years, not globally until after his death (Life Timetable 2011).

Art as social norms -- For the artist, at least the inspired, there is the dichotomy of whether
View Full Essay

Oppose Capital Punishment

Words: 2154 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79163927

Capital Punishment: A Capital Offense in Today's Easily Misguided World

The debate surrounding the usage of capital punishment in the modern era has raged for generations. While there have always been arguments for the positive aspects of capital punishment, today's world is less optimistic about the death penalty -- and with good reason. The death penalty affects more than just the convicted, it affects all of society. In order to show why capital punishment should be avoided, it is helpful to draw lessons from history, literature, and psychology.

The historical case for capital punishment has long been made. Capital punishment has existed in every major society in one form or another throughout the centuries. As Michael Kronenwetter states, in every society "all punishment is based on the same simple proposition: There must be a penalty for wrongdoing" (1). Kronenwetter is correct in asserting as much: all major societies have had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arriens, Jan, ed. Welcome to Hell: Letters and Writings from Death Row. UK: UPNE,

2005. Print.

Bacon, Francis. "Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature." Essays of Francis Bacon (The

Harvard Classics), 1909. Web. < http://www.bartleby.com/3/1/13.html >
View Full Essay

Waste Land French Lieutenant the

Words: 4164 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35242335

(Eliot, 1971).

The Subjective over the Objective

Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).

Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (Baym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.

2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

3. Wilson, E., & Reill, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment. New York, NY: Facts on File.

4. Zafirovski, M. (2011). The Enlightenment and Its Effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer.
View Full Essay

Jew English Literature The Reflection Anti-Semitism Racism

Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61753691

Jew English literature. The reflection Anti-Semitism racism in novels plays Jew Malta, Oliver Twist, Shakespeare's works e.g The Merchant venice. With elaboration end racism anti-semitism.

Anti-Semitism in English literature

Anti-Semitism has been present in English culture for centuries, this being particularly obvious through studying literature and how it was influenced as a result of biased thinking. The British society put across its unwillingness to accept Jewish individuals as equals ever since the early second millennium. Lasting from that time and until the late nineteenth century English writers did not hesitate to express their anti-Semite convictions in their field of work. Influential English writers like Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare were actively involved in damaging the image of Jews through the way they presented them in their writings.

Europe has a long history in discriminating Jewish individuals, given that people in the territory came up with a series of false claims…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales of Chaucer. (BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009).

Wistrich, Robert S. Antisemitism Embedded in British Culture. Retrieved November 18, 2010, from the Institute for Global Jewish Affairs Web site: http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DRIT=3&DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=624&PID=0&IID=2214&TTL=Antisemitism_Embedded_in_British_Culture

Biberman, Matthew. Masculinity, anti-semitism, and early modern English literature: from the satanic to the effeminate Jew. (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004).

Brustein. William I. Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe before the Holocaust (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
View Full Essay

Blackest Bird by Joel Rose

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41173477

Blackest Bird opens on July 26, 1841 at midnight. A man, somewhat reluctantly and with a twinge of guilt, dumps Mary's dead body into the Hudson River. The killer audibly cries out, teeming with guilt as he wonders what have I done? "Oh Mary!" (Rose 11). Therefore, the killer knows Mary, and was likely either in love with her or a close companion. He could even be her relative.

Detective Jacob Hays is sixty-nine years old and in no mood to retire. He has long served the city of New York, as high constable. Known as Old Hays, he is obsessed with crime, and especially solving them. The murder of the as-of-yet unknown Mary captures his attention. When he realizes that the body belongs not just to any Mary, but to Mary Rogers, Old Hays knows he's got a huge story on his hands. Mary Rogers is the locally famous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rose, Joel. The Blackest Bird. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.

"Who Killed Mary Rogers?" Retrieved online:  http://my.ilstu.edu/~ftmorn/cjhistory/casestud/rogers.html
View Full Essay

Consequences of the Industrial Revolution on English

Words: 2239 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87981696

Consequences of the Industrial Revolution on English Society

The ninety years between 1760 and 1850, commonly regarded as the "First Generation" of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, were to bring about sweeping changes: technological, economic, philosophical and social. Previously, technology was low. Manufactured goods were produced by hand, often in the home or in small workshops, by skilled artisans who generally specialized in making one type of goods or one component of an item. The economy was dominated by agriculture, and the majority of the population was rural. Wealthy families who owned the land rented it to tenant farmers; these tenants, while mostly illiterate, had the opportunity to grow their own food and live in somewhat appealing and healthful surroundings. They were almost a cashless society, paying their rents and buying goods largely through their produce and exchange of labor. Their diversions often centered around fairs and saints' days, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chadwick, Edwin. "Report from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain." London, 1842, pp. 369-372. http://65.107.211.206/victorian/history/chadwick2.html

Gaskell, P. The Manufacturing Population of England. London, 1833 http://65.107.211.206/victorian/history/workers2.html

Hartwell, R.M. "History and Ideology," Modern Age, Vol. 18, No. 4, Fall, 1974.

Hartwell, R.M. The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth. London: Methuen and Company, 1971.
View Full Essay

Influential Victorian Literature Scott and Historical Fiction

Words: 2772 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75596424

Sir Walter Scott was a writer a part of the romantic era, roughly 1797 -- 1837. Scott was born slightly before the beginning of this era, in 1771, and died nearly at the same time the period changed in 1832. Scott is known as a novelist, playwright, and poet of Scottish descent. The beginning of the Romantic period is typically attributed to the publication of Wordworth's and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads, and closed with the rise into power of Queen Victoria. This is a period in literature that produced outstanding lyrical poetry, a few dramas, and several novelists that were popular, including Scott. Scott was known for the ability to blend European history into entertaining narratives. Scott happened to have mass appeal during this period, able to reach readers of various classes and places within the Victorian era. At the time of the Romantic Era, authors such as Jane Austen were…… [Read More]

References:

Edinburgh University Library. "Walter Scott." Edinburgh University Library, Web, 2014, Available from:  http://www.walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk/home.html . 2014 March 04.

MacKenzie, Robert Shelton. Sir Walter Scott: The Story of His Life. Kessinger Publishing, 2009. Print.

Scott, MD, Professor Walter. The Complete Works of Sir Walter Scott: With a Biography, and His Last Additions and Illustrations, Volume 7. Nabu Press, 2010. Print.
View Full Essay

Gang Activity Please See Notes

Words: 3398 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36646386

This becomes further complex as economic ties blur between the poor and middle classes and the expectations each has about the definition of materialistic success. By belonging to a subculture, however, one can feel part of something larger, insulated a bit from the criticisms and unattainable messages of the upper middle class, and certainly a way to belong and feel important with one's own environment (Siegel and Welsh, 2009, 130-1).

Contemporary Urban Issues- in the United States, the National Gang Center estimates that there are almost 800,000 active street gang members, most concentrated in Los Angeles County and the greater Chicago area. Demographically, Hispanics account for almost 50% of gang members, African-Americans 30%, Caucasians 13%, and Asians 6% (Carlie, 2002). Unfortunately, Native American communities are also being overrun by gang violence and drug trafficking. Most tribal communities, in fact, have significant gang activity; contributing also to the continued economic downturn…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gangs in America. (2003). The National Center for Victims of Crime. Retreived January 2011, from NCVC.org:

http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32352

The Gang Threat - Get Educated. (2009, February 6). Retrieved January 2011, from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2009/february/ngta_020609

Adamoli, Di Nicola, Savona and Zoffi. (1998, March). Orgqanized Crime Around the World. Retrieved January 2011, from University of Helsinki: http://www.heuni.fi/uploads/mmadzpnix.pdf
View Full Essay

Red Riding Hood Stories Have

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84559740

In fact, he stresses that these stories should be read without any commentary about the possible unconscious content. "Fairy tales can and do serve children well, can even make an unbearable life seem worth living, as long as the child doesn't know what they mean to him psychologically" (Bettelheim 57). This destroys the story's enchantment.

More recently, different authors have returned to the earlier usage of fairy tales, or conveying a message about society perspectives. Catherine Storr, for example, emphasizes a feminist viewpoint. In "Little Polly Riding Hood." Polly does not become a victim to the cunning of the male wolf. In fact, she outsmarts him and refutes the stereotype of men being smarter than women. Polly does not even live in a forest but in a city. She deceives the wolf by taking the bus or getting a ride to her grandmother's house. Finally, the story ends with the…… [Read More]

References

Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York: Vintage, 1977.

Cashdan, Sheldon. The Witch Must Die: The Hidden Meaning of Fairy Tales. New York:

Basic Books. 1999.

Dumas, Philippe. Little Navy Blue Riding Hood. In Recycling Red Riding Hood.
View Full Essay

Political Social & Economic Reforms

Words: 2180 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51729702

However, the act only applied to larger towns and the rural districts were still left under the administrative control of the Justices of the Peace until the establishment of elected county councils in 1888. Even though it was quite inadequate for the immediate needs of the common peoples of England, this act made it possible for main urban areas to form their own powerful authority, subject to popular control, and thus able to levy a local rate. From this simple beginning, a concentration of new functions arose and throughout the 20th century powers would continue to be added to municipal corporations. One of the best results of the Municipal Corporations Act was that it created new possibilities, such as the education of children, and supplied the public with trams, light, water and housing.

Before the years of the 19th century in England, those that worked in coal mines which furnished…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Birnie, Arthur. An Economic History of the British Isles. New York: Crofts & Company,

Brown, John. The British Welfare State: A Critical History. UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1980.

Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: The Great Democracies. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1958.

Graham, Gerald S. A Concise History of the British Empire. New York: Viking Press, 1971.
View Full Essay

Formalism the Subject of Films Is a

Words: 1971 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78943050

Formalism

The subject of films is a matter of dreams for many persons though the attraction has come down after the new medium of video has come in. Yet, for some it is still the medium to dream in.

To get into the concept of formalist film theory, one has to talk about the film in terms of the formal or technical elements within the film. These are in terms of its lighting, sound and set design, scoring, color usage, composition of shots and editing. This is the most prevalent method of studying films today. Thus when the theory is considered, it will take into account the synthesis or lack of synthesis of the different elements of film production and the total effects that are produced by the individual elements of the film. One of the common examples of this is to consider the effects of editing and when a…… [Read More]

References

Baker, Elizabeth. 2003. Hitchcock. Retrieved from http://www.sprocketguild.org/pdf/essay-hitchcock.pdf Accessed 14 August, 2005

Film Reviews: Great Expectations. Retrieved from http://www.timeout.com/film/70513.html Accessed 14 August, 2005

Formalist film theory. Retrieved from http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/F/Fo/Formalist_film_theory.htm Accessed 14 August, 2005

Spotlight of the Month: The Night of the Hunter. Retrieved from http://www.turnerclassicmovies.com/ThisMonth/Article/0,,99305%7C911%7C29975,00.html Accessed 14 August, 2005
View Full Essay

William Shakespeare's a Midsummer Night's

Words: 1791 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98757717

And while it may seem silly upon first reading or seeing the play, it is clear that a Midsummer Night's Dream also has quite serious ideas. Scholars have noted that the play includes a cultural critique of the Elizabethan era in which it is set (Lamb 93-124). Other critics have noted that the play may contain quite subversive ideas regarding the fluid nature of sexual identity (Green 369-370). Whatever way you choose to interpret a Midsummer Night's Dream, the play's goofy characters, outrageous situations, and rich language have ensured the play's status as a classic work of English literature.… [Read More]

Bibliography

Casey, Charles. "Was Shakespeare Gay? Sonnet 20 and the Politics of Pedagogy."

College Literature, Fall 1998. 29 November 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3709/is_199810/ai_n8827074.

Gibson, H.N. The Shakespeare Claimants: A Critical Survey of the Four Principal

Theories Concerning the Authorship of the Shakespearean Plays. New York: Routledge, 2005.
View Full Essay

Harlot House Life in Victorian

Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71214947

And yet, the clockwork puppet, certainly but a shadow of a living woman, can only try to sing, try to move out from the shadows, out from the stereotype crushing her. The horrible marionette, in contrast, rather than singing, smoked its cigarette and tried to pretend it was alive. Finally, the utter hopelessness of the dark side of Victorian society comes out with the phrase, "The dead are dancing with the dead, the dust is whirling with the dust," evoking the funeral speak of "ashes to ashes, dust to dust," and the dead -- the underside of society, those with whom the proper Victorian had little use, pass from love to lust, from light to dark, tire of the game as they do the synthetic waltz, their shadows morphing into nothing as they continue to wheel and whirl, finally weary of it all.

The literary images of this poem, coupled…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Hay, C. "A Glimpse at Lust Redeemed." The Victorian Web. 2003.Cited in:

http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm

"Welcome to the Twilight City." HistoricalEye.Com., (n.d.). Cited in:

 http://www.historicaleye.com/Lost1.html
View Full Essay

Vonnegut in Cultural History as

Words: 2683 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49418035

A Vonnegut theme, however, is often hard to miss; especially since part of Vonnegut's style placed the author in a position where many readers could palpably feel him throughout the novel. Vonnegut seems to read alongside the reader and assist him; he seems to teach and guide -- gently -- as well as write. As such, Vonnegut helped re-define what high art, and the novel specifically, could be:

Irving, who went on to write "The World According to Garp" and "The Cider House Rules," remembered Vonnegut as a self-effacing presence who "didn't have an agenda about what 'the novel' should be." Vonnegut also appreciated that you didn't have to be in the classroom to get your work done (MSNBC, 2007).

South Park postmodernism seems to be endemic to recent generations, and, if so, the ideological roots of those generations must be traced back to Vonnegut and his contemporaries.

Some more…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Vonnegut, Kurt.

a. Slaughterhouse Five. New York: Random House, 1969. Print

b. Glapagos. New York: Random House, 1985. Print.

c. Cat's Cradle. New York: Random House, 1963. Print.
View Full Essay

Roald Dahl Is the Author

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84553473



All of his efforts were recognized, however insufficiently, through the awarding of the World Fantasy Lifetime Achievement Prize in 1983. He had been once more nominated for the prize in 1978, but he would only receive it at his second nomination, five years later (Wands, 2010). Several of his works were adapted to television and the big screen.

4. Dahl's Matilda

Matilda is one of the most representative works for Roald Dahl for several reasons. First, it is part of the series addressed to children. Then, it has been so well received by the public that it was put into film in 1996. Finally, it is inspired from the author's own life and experiences at the boarding school. Matilda is as such the story of a young girl, Matilda Wormwood, with high intelligence, who is neglected by her parents that force her to watch television, and abused by her teachers,…… [Read More]

References:

Dahl, R., Matilda, Puffin Books, 20004, ISBN 0142402532

Liukkonen, P., Roald Dahl (1916-1990), Pegasos, 2008, http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/rdahl.htm last accessed on January 14, 2010

Wands, D.C., Roald Dahl (1916-1990),Fantastic Fiction, 2010, http://www.fantasticfiction.co.uk/d/roald-dahl / last accessed on January 14, 2010

Roald Dahl, Infloox, 2009, http://www.infloox.com/person?id=6a5f6877 last accessed on January 14, 2010
View Full Essay

Karain and the Daughters of

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48503418

Superstition relates to the sense of exploration and the hunger for knowledge in the contemporary human heart. The themes of light and darkness in the modern context has developed to signify knowledge and ignorance - the former being banished by knowledge like shadow by light. In this way, the main themes of the story take on a symbolic significance for the contemporary world, and remains relative to the paradigm of the universal reader.

The Daughters of the Late Colonel by Katherine Mansfield.

Like Conrad, Mansfield includes a strong sense of the supernatural in her story. At one point, the daughters visit their departed father's room. They become very frightened when they sense their father's presence, with Josephine even feeling that the father is in a specific drawer, watching them. This provides little ground for connection, as it is likely to make the reader laugh rather than feel jitters.

In Mansfield's…… [Read More]

Sources

Conrad, Joseph. "Karain." Available online: http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/2787/

Mansfield, Katherine. "The Daughters of the Late Colonel." Available online:  http://www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/UBooks/DaugLate.shtml
View Full Essay

Instructional Levels According to Burns

Words: 842 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1163473

Lesson plans should closely follow the IEP goals.

Disabilities should be an essential part of any curriculum discussion because it can impact a student's ability to learn certain material. Dylexic students for instance will have a fundamentally harder time with reading comprehension and writing than other students. Therefore, their IEP will factor in their learning disability in order to allow them to reach their own goals in terms of education level and standards. Without such a criteria certain students will become frustrated and oftentimes underperform.

Reading Levels

Reading level refers to ability of students to read and comprehend instructional material. It is critical to understand that students' reading levels might be higher or lower than their grade level. A fifth grader might enjoy reading books with a 6.0 to 6.9 reading level, which would be appropriate for the average sixth grader.

By using assessments that indicate a student's reading level,…… [Read More]

Reference

Burns, M., VanDerHeyden, a., Jiban, C. (2007). Assessing the instructional level for mathematics: A comparison of methods. School Psychology Review. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/spr/sprsupplement5.aspx
View Full Essay

Social Times and the Culture

Words: 4845 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5402298

They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and Woock].

The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:

The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal

Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.

It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car

Porters. W.E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did

James Weldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.

December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.

A wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_v._Board_of_Education.html>.
View Full Essay

Dramatic Performance Andrea Chenier

Words: 3388 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29738655

Andrea Chenier

Though Umberto Giordano's work has often been overshadowed by that of his rather more famous contemporary Giacomo Puccini, Giordano's Andrea Chenier offers the ideal site for one to engage in a critical examination of nineteenth century opera and the various thematic and stylistic strains popularized at the time, as well as the complications which arise from modern interpretation and performance. In particular, examining the critical history of verismo alongside the historical context of Andrea Chenier serves to demonstrate how fully a modern performance of the opera seemingly subsumes and dissolves any revolutionary character that might have been present in the original text by reproducing the story of doomed love during the French Revolution in a gaudy, ahistorical performance.

Before conducting an analysis of a modern performance of Andrea Chenier, there are a few key topics one must investigate further in order to place the subsequent analysis in its…… [Read More]

References

Giger, A. (2008). Landscape and gender in italian opera: The alpine virgin from bellini to puccini. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 61(2), 431-438, 454.

Giger, A. (2007). Verismo: Origin, corruption, and redemption of an operatic term. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 60(2), 271-315, 472.

Gilman, L. (1915). Drama and music. The North American Review (1821-1940), OL. CCI., 439-

Giordano, U. (1896). Andrea chenier [Theater].
View Full Essay

Conversing With an Alien Who

Words: 953 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38963880

"

Part 2- When I think of child labor, I think of Charles Dickens -- Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, and the other novels that showed how in the Victorian Era, only wealthy children had childhoods. And then, in America, I think of the factory mills of the north producing cotton, dangerous places to work, and mines that used children because it was easier for them to be in tunnels. However, in the modern world, I think of not only younger children working in factories, mostly in Asia to make American and Western European sporting outfits, tennis shoes, etc., but of the market for child slaves and prostitutes from Eastern Europe and Asia. As for causes of child labor, it seems to me that it is a function of capitalism and the market -- capitalism requires some sort of cheap labor for certain items that people want. Greed being what it…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Child Labor Public Education Project. (2012). University of Iowa. Retrieved from:

http://www.continuetolearn.uiowa.edu/laborctr/child_labor/about/cau ses.html

Brady, Fullerton and Cross, (2010). More than Just Nickels and Dimes: A Cross

-National Analysis of Working Poverty in Affluent Democracies. Social Problems. 57 (4): 559-85. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.duke.edu/~brady/web/Bradyetal2010.pdf
View Full Essay

Critical Thinking & Writing Anyone

Words: 2454 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51743355

Thus, the idea of a strong, female leader is created through conceptual blending, and the ultimately oxymoronic pairing of unlike words. Something new is created, through the use of cultural, political, religious, and historical references, and of the pairing of these two specific nouns together.

3. Explain what Fauconnier and Turner mean when they assert on page 15, in effect, that, "Metaphor is not just something derived from 'core meaning'?" Are they right? (Please refer to The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Tuner)

Because unlike the literary device or trope of simile, the use of metaphor deploys the verb 'is,' as in, 'hope is a thing with feathers,' in the famous poem of Emily Dickinson of this title, one is tempted to assume that metaphor accesses some core meaning of a word or concept. But as this example shows, the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Richard Hughes A High Wind in Jamaica

Words: 5266 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8084380

Richard Hughes: A High Wind in Jamaica

This story, the first novel by Richard Hughes, takes place in the 19th Century, and mixes the diverse subjects of humor, irony, satire, pirates, sexuality and children into a very interesting tale, with many sidebar stories tucked into the main theme.

The first part of the story has an eerily familiar ring and meteorological link with the December, 2004 tsunami-related disaster in Asia. In A High Wind, first there is an earthquake, then hurricane-force winds, followed by torrential rains (although no tidal wave) devastate the island and the British children who lived there are sent to England. However, on the way they are attacked by pirates and unwittingly kidnapped by those pirates. From there, the novel has a definite Lord of the Flies tone to it: the English children actually take over control of much of the activities on board, which is as…… [Read More]

References

Greene, Graham. Brighton Rock. London: Heinemann, 1938.

Hughes, Richard. High Wind in Jamaica. New York: Harper, 1957.

Rhys, Jean. Voyage in the Dark. London: A. Deutsch, 1967.

Waugh, Evelyn. A Handful of Dust. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1962.
View Full Essay

Prince of Tides Pat Conroy

Words: 481 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83760132

As Conroy entwines the past and present, the reader is carried away by this very engaging story.

Although Conroy paints Tom as very human, complete with flaws and strengths, his character is not as memorable as, say perhaps, a Charles Dickens character. However, Conroy's psychological profile of this Southern family is every bit as captivating as that of William Faulkner or Tennessee Williams. The story depicts how easy a family can hide behind a veil of secrets, never daring to allow the light of truth, lest the emotions of guilt and shame overpower one's grip on reality. Yet that is exactly what happens when certain events stay buried, as evident in Savannah's character, and to a lesser degree in Tom's.

Only time will tell whether future generations will regard this book as a literary classic, however, Pat Conroy's novel possesses all the markings of true masterwork fiction. The book is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conroy, Pat. The Prince of Tides. Bantam Books. 1987; Pp. 1.
View Full Essay

Carnival Culture Twitchell Has a

Words: 828 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38840123

And perhaps worst of all are books like Chicken Soup for the Soul, which are usually given as graduation gifts or gifts given to a person undergoing a difficult emotional crisis, again more like one would give a greeting card than a book full of information.

But Twitchell's other point, that the publishing industry must maintain a clear sense of high culture and guide rather than respond to America's tastes, is more controversial than his suggestion that the book world should re-focus its attention on reading rather than simply selling printed matter. Although some of the best sellers Twitchell despises, like works by Danielle Steel or Steven King, may be without merit one might ask -- has he ever read the cultural critiques found within the pages of a Calvin and Hobbes comic? Why speak of the quality of Salmon Rushdie in the same breath as Steel and King --…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Male and Female Relationships in Calabash Parkway

Words: 1661 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58586537

Male and Female Relationships in 'Calabash Parkway'

The objective of this research study is to examine the male and female relationships in the work entitled 'Calabash Parkway' written by Brenda Chester DoHarris published by Tantaria Press in 2005. Towards this end, this study will conduct a review of literature and specifically reviews of other writers on the work of DoHarris.

Calabash Parkway -- A Novel

The work of DoHarris (2005) entitled Calabash Parkway is written for "her undocumented sisters and brothers, many of whom, have taken great risks and made great sacrifices to enter and live in the U.S., and who prefer to languish in an 'undocumented twilight zone and die rather than remain in an economic and political ferment at home." (Book Shelf, 2008, p.2) The novel's setting is New York City and Guyana in the 1950s. It is reported that DoHarris "pours her heart in the story, assuming…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Book Review (By Emeritus Professor Frank Birgalsingh) (2010) Kaiteur News. 30 May 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2010/05/30/book-review-by-emeritus-professor-frank-birbalsingh/ 

Sukhdeo, Gokarran (2005) Calabash Parkway: A Novel by Brenda Chester DoHarris, Tantaria Press, 2005. Guyana Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.guyanajournal.com/Calabash_Parkway.html

Desperate Lives: Gyals and Gyurls in NYC: A Review of Calabash Parkway. Book Shelf. 11 June 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.guyanacaribbeanpolitics.com/books/calabash_parkway.html
View Full Essay

Dignity of Work and the Rights of Workers

Words: 2522 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13501516

Dignity of Workers

Dignity of Work and the Rights of Workers

There is a set of photographs taken by Sebastiao Salgado that explains the viewer both who Salgado is and why he covers the worker's plight throughout the world. The images are set in a gold mine in Brazil called Serra Pelada which is a vast pit where people toil daily to dig gold from the mud. The people dig the mud from the pit using the meanest of tools (pick, shovels) which they then put into wicker baskets. The baskets, weighing between "30 and 60 kilograms" (Stallabrass), or 65 to 130 pounds, are then carried up wooden ladders. The ladders are approximately 50 feet tall (and can be more), and the workers make as many as 60 trips per day with their baskets (Stallabrass). For each trip, the worker is paid the equivalent of 20 United States cents on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arceyut-Frixione, Helen Adilia. "Picturing and consuming Images of Misery and Injustice." Concordia University, 2008. Web.

Bakre, Shilpa. "AMOA Presents: "Workers: Photographs of by Sebastiao Salgado." AMOA News, 2009. Web.

Crow, Thomas. "The Practice of Art History in America." Daedalus 135.2 (2006): 70-84. Print.

Salgado, Sebastiao. Workers: An Archeology of the Industrial Age. London: Phaidon, 2002. Print.
View Full Essay

Tamerlane From Edgar Allen Poe Exhibit

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58731760

Gothic and Edgar Allan Poe's Tamerlane And Other Poems

The writing of Edgar Allan Poe will always be connected to the gothic style of literature because Poe used death, mourning and sadness as major themes, and his first published work actually shows some of the style that would make him famous later in life. Published in 1827 when Poe was just a young man of 18-years old, the book Tamerlane and Other Poems contained several poems written when Poe was just a teenager. Because the poetry was the work of such a young man, Poe made sure to tell readers in the Preface that "they were of course not intended for publication; why they are now published concerns no one but himself. Of the smaller pieces very little need be said: they perhaps savour too much of egotism; but they were written by one too young to have any knowledge…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

True Since We Were Children and We

Words: 2062 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69071477

true since we were children and we were told by adults that "words will never hurt us." A good many of us would most likely have preferred the sticks and stones because physical injuries often heal far more quickly and far more effectively than psychological ones.

And yet, even as we must all acknowledge the basic principle that words can do real harm, many people continue to insist that sexist language is a trivial concern. This paper looks at the reasons why it is important to be careful about the language that we use. It is all too easy for opponents of care in language to toss off concerns about bias as "political correctness." But it is important that the rest of us insist that "political correctness" can be viewed another way: As basic courtesy and civility.

Because language is one of the most powerful forces that there is, anyone…… [Read More]

References

Cameron, D. (1990). The feminist critique of language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.  http://www.friesian.com/language.htm l

Spender, D. (1985). Man-made language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand. New York: William Morrow.

Spender 14.
View Full Essay

Spontaneous Human Combustion

Words: 1199 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57744041

Spontaneous human combustion is the claim that human beings from time to time burst into flame and are consumed, usually without much damage to their surroundings, as if the heat from the flame came from inside their bodies. These claims have been made for a long time, fueled by newspaper accounts of such deaths and vague statements about there being no other apparent means for these fires to have started. More recent investigations have suggested that most of these accounts ar a matter of faulty observation or faulty reporting in the press.

Mark Benecke makes this clear when he writes,

Paranormal proponents and popular articles are quick to attribute certain dramatic fire-death characteristics to an unknown or bizarre power source, but in all such deaths documented in forensic literature, there has been no need to resort to bizarre interpretations to account for the observed facts (Benecke 47).

The phenomenon was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benecke, Mark. "Spontaneous Human Combustion: Thoughts of a Forensic Biologist." Skeptical Inquirer (4 March 1998), 47-50.

Chalmers, Robert. "Weird Stuff: Flaming mysteries..." The Observer (3 March 1996), 24.

Herbert, Susannah. "International: Mystery of Widow Reduced to Ashes." The Daily Telegraph (10 Dec 1998), 4.

Irwin, Aisling. "The Theory of Spontaneous Human Combustion Goes Up in Flames." The Daily Telegraph (14 April 1998), 4.
View Full Essay

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain

Words: 1205 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57400482

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. The Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Twain M., The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: The Norton Anthology of American Literature Volume C. Page 219, Penguin USA (Paper) Publishers; ISBN: 0140390464

Zwick J. Huckleberry Finn Debated. Retrieved March 9, 2003 from: http://www.boondocksnet.com/twainwww/hf_debate.html
View Full Essay

Little Women and Popular Culture

Words: 2704 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75762140

Little Women, Louisa May Alcott's defining work, which brought her much fame in her time, is a biographical account of her family. In the book, her father Amos Bronson is Mr. March and her mother Abigail May is Marmee, while her older sister Anna is Meg and younger sisters Lizzie and May are Beth and Amy, respectively. And Louisa May is the lead character, Josephine or Jo March, the second daughter. The novel, published in 1868-1869, made Alcott a major author of her era.

The March family is poor all throughout, and the women are always doing routine housework, which bores and frustrates them. Mr. March serves as a Union chaplain in the Civil War, which then rages, and he writes his family to inspire them to be more tolerant of their poverty and hardships. The girls wake up on Christmas morning to find copies of books under their pillows,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. SparkNotes.com. (accessed 12:03:03)

 http://www.sparknotes.com 

Microsoft Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia 2003. (accessed 12:03:03). http://encarta.msn.Microsoft Corporation 2003

Schafer, Nancy Imelda. Life and Works of Louisa May Alcott. Camden County Free Library. (accessed 12:03:03). http://www.rsf.k12.ca.us/~dwebber/LouisaMayAlcott.htm
View Full Essay

David - A Literary Perspective Smehra Literary

Words: 1096 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56861051

David - a Literary Perspective smehra

Literary Perspective on David from the Bible

Throughout literary history, authors have created characters that are both enigmatic and treacherous; who by their very nature epitomize all that is evil, as well as all that is good in human nature. Character development is an important part of any story, and for there to be a realization on the reader's behalf, there must be a justifiable, and equally strong character development, or moral change for such a message to get across in the story, or literary work.

Many authors will have a turn of events, as a means to justify this change in personality of a particular character, as seen in Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens. While others may let their character follow a course of action and in turn, suffer the consequences as a lesson to the reader, as in the case of Antigone.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Federal Government Activism During the New Deal

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9523727

Federal Government Activism During the New Deal With That Which Came Before Progressive Reform/Red Scare

The New Deal seems to have been in many ways a border between the federal government activism of the period before the Great Depression and the period that followed after. According to many writers, "the New Deal represented activism in contrast to the inaction of the federal government under Hoover" (Abderrahmane El-Moudden, Ruby Maloni and Mustafa Turkes. The New Deal. On the Internet at (http://www.salzburgseminar.org/ASC/csacl/progs/reform/newdeal.htm).Besides the change in activism, all this was reflected within the masses of voters, with an increased involvement on their part during the New Deal period and an additional worker support for the Democratic Party.

Many of the sources consulted lean towards the general opinion that before the New Deal, "the Republicans were the party of government activism and the Democrats the party of conservatism" (Randall G. Holcombe. THE GROWTH OF…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.libertyhaven.com/theoreticalorphilosophicalissues/economichistory/federalgov.shtml  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1061.html 

http://www.salzburgseminar.org/ASC/csacl/progs/reform/newdeal.htm

http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj16n2-2.html
View Full Essay

Roger Ebert Denied That Video Games Were an Art Form

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69855759

Video Games -- Artistic Medium

Our media-rich environment, in which digital technologies are proliferating faster than our cultural, legal, or educational institutions can keep up with them ... addresses our culture's contradictory imperatives for immediacy and hypermediacy" (Bolton, et al., 1999).

Should video games, which are interactive and bring a sense of immediacy to the participant, be considered an art form? Is it pushing the envelope too far to assert that video players are not only having fun and engaging in friendly competition, they are participating in an art form? This paper delves into that subject and points to the available scholarly literature that supports the idea that video games constitute an artistic medium.

The Literature on Video Games as an Artistic Medium

In the scholarly publication Library Technology Reports (LTR, 2006) the writer notes that increasingly "all types of libraries" are adding the phrase "gaming and libraries" to their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolton, J.D., and Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media / Introduction:

The Double Logic of Remediation. Retrieved June 8, 2016, from https://monoskop.org.

Hall, S. (2008). Video Games as Collaborative Art. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 88(1), 19-19.

Hecker, C. (2001). Why Games Will Be the Preeminent Art Form of the 21st Century.
View Full Essay

Understanding Augustine's Many Contributions

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94705247

Augustine contributed greatly to Christianity. He was a man who held beliefs that transcended his turbulent beginnings and manifested into insightful philosophy. Such philosophy became deeply embedded in Christianity and would lend the way for further examination of Biblical text in the future. This essay will discuss Augustine's beliefs- through his contributions to the Church's beliefs and practices.

Augustine contributed not just in the religious sense, but in the philosophical sense. For example, one of his main contributions was Theory of Time seen in Book 11 of Confessions. In it, he developed what some may say a challenging concept of time. From there he examined and tried to explain how young children express language, learn. One of his famous lines "Believe in order that you may understand" can be seen again interspersed in Confessions, with a clear example concerning a crime committed. "When, then, we ask why a crime was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Augustine, Augustine. Confessions. Authentic Publishers, 2012.

Murphy, Andrew R. The Blackwell Companion to Religion and Violence. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
View Full Essay

Home Exam When a Critic Speaks of

Words: 437 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14076507

Home Exam

When a critic speaks of the infusion of the didactic spirit into the novel, he or she means the 'teaching spirit' of the novel in either its plot structure, character development, or the way the author philosophically uses the novel to teach the reader, by reflecting upon the good or bad fates of the novel's protagonists. The eminent critic who referred to the didactic spirit of the novel thus meant that it is not surprising, given the teaching or instructive spirit of novels that novelists show readers how they ought to behave or how life ought to be using the examples of fictional characters. Novelists thus could be called prophets or seers because they use what happens to the interior or exterior life of their characters for instructive purposes, as if these characters were living in myths, or as if the characters had mythical significance.

Dickens clearly functions…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Home a Round Character Has Multiple Dimensions

Words: 458 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45333776

Home

A round character has multiple dimensions as a human being, and strikes more than one 'note' in the text -- for instance, the snobbish Mrs. Elton of Emma is a one-dimensional presence in that novel, while Hardy's Bathsheba is contradictory as a real human being, and one cannot predict her likely actions.

Retrospective narration is narrated from the point-of-view of a present day narrator, looking into the far-off past of a long-ago world, like Hardy's third person omniscient narrator of Far from the Madding Crowd, or a narrator looking back on his own life, like Dickens' David Copperfield.

Didactic literature teaches an explicit lesson of how one ought to behave, like Jane Austen's Emma, or how human life evolves in strange ways in the point-of-view of the narrator, as in Joseph Andrews by Fielding.

A novel of manners is plot-driven in terms of questions about how its characters should…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Fiction and Non-Fiction in 19th Century England Example of the Grotesque

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91505486

All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge Biographia IX)

To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia Barbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…… [Read More]

By mid-century, however, these forces in the use of grotesque in prose were fully integrated as a matter of style. We can contrast two convenient examples from mid-century England, in Dickens's 1850 novel David Copperfield, compared with Carlyle's notorious essay originally published in 1849 under the title "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question." Dickens is, of course, the great master of the grotesque in the Victorian novel. Most of Dickens' villains -- the villainous dwarf Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, the hunchback Flintwinch in Little Dorrit, the junkshop-proprietor Krook who perishes of spontaneous combustion in Bleak House -- have names and physical characteristics that signpost them as near-perfect examples of the grotesque. The notion that this grotesquerie is, in some way, related to the streak of social criticism in Dickens' fiction is somewhat attractive, because even the social problems in these novels are configured in ways that recall the grotesque, like the Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, Boffin's mammoth dust-heap in Our Mutual Friend, or the philanthropist and negligent mother Mrs. Jellaby in Bleak House who proves Dickens' polemical point about charity beginning at home by being rather grotesquely eaten by the cannibals of Borrioboola-Gha. We can see Dickens' grotesque in a less outlandish form, but still recognizable as grotesque, in the introduction of the villainous Uriah Heep in Chapter 15 of David Copperfield:

When the pony-chaise stopped at the door, and my eyes were intent upon the house, I saw a cadaverous face appear at a small window on the ground floor (in a little round tower that formed one side of the house), and quickly disappear. The low arched door then opened, and the face came out. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person -- a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older -- whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony's head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise. (Dickens, Chapter 15)

We may note the classic elements of