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Chemical Dependency, Particularly Alcoholism, Within the History Of Psychology
Since the dawn of humankind, people have been experimenting with various chemicals for recreation, to alter their conscious state for religious purposes, or for medicinal applications. Indeed, a vast cornucopia of pharmaceutical preparations has been identified over the millennia that provide modern healthcare consumers with remedies for many human ailments, and more are being developed and identified every day. Used properly and under the supervision of healthcare providers, these chemical substances can deliver analgesic relief, reduce fevers and inflammations, cure diseases and much more. Used improperly, though, the abuse of many chemicals, particularly alcohol, has been a plague on humankind since fermented berries were first discovered, creating the need for timely and effective psychological interventions today. To gain some additional insights into the history of psychology as it relates to chemical dependency in general and alcoholism in particular, this paper provides…
Campbell, J.A., Essex, E.L. & Held, G. (1999). Issues in chemical dependency treatment and aftercare for people with learning differences. Health and Social Work, 19(1), 63-65.
Esterly, R.W. & Neely, W.T. (1997). Chemical dependency and compulsive behaviors.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Henley, T.B. & Thorne, B.M. (2005). The lost millennium: Psychology during the Middle
Nevertheless, the family capacity does not receive full exploitation during most intervention programs. A central challenge to most interventions is the need to broaden the chemical abuse treatment focus from the addict to the family.
The initial stages depict diligent commitment and focus from the families. Upon receiving pre-counseling, families shift more attention in uniting to help their loved ones free themselves from substance abuse. The initial stages of the intervention exercise trigger high expectations and an optimistic attitude usually fills the atmosphere (Marinelli, 2009). This is because the family unit has identified the crisis that has caused them so much anxiety in the past. Before the intervention program, most families live with the problem of an addicted loved one, and the mood is usually despondent. During this time, most of the communication is tensed, and ends in arguments caused by the denial in the part of the addict. In…
Marinelli, R.P. (2009). The Psychological and Social Impact of Disability. New York, Ny:
Springer Pub. Co.
Durand, V.M., & Hieneman, M. (2008). Helping Parents With Challenging Children: Positive
Family Intervention: Parent Workbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Behavioral Effects of Abused Drugs
The common denominator among all users of abused drugs is the goal of attaining an altered state of consciousness. Whether to escape the reality of their own lives or to fulfill a chemically adventurous inclination, all illicit drug users want to leave behind their mundane and sometime painful lives. All of the drugs mentioned are able to meet this goal to various degrees, from alcohol to Ritalin; however, there is often a steep price to pay.
The acute effect of drug or alcohol abuse is almost universally a sense of euphoria. The one exception to this rule is hallucinogens, which are typically taken to experience a dissociative state. Hallucinogens can also lead to experiencing a bad 'trip', which would be antithetical to seeking a euphoric state. Another common experience is disinhibition, which can be elicited through over-ingestion of alcohol or illicitly taking cocaine, marijuana, ecstasy,…
chemical dependency is a complex problem, with multiple causes and manifestations, there is no single best treatment model. However, the dual diagnosis model combines a variety of treatment modalities and approaches, accounting for individual differences as well as environmental factors. Studies by Brower, Blow & Beresford (1989) revealed the benefits of the dual diagnosis model, which presumes the need for an integrative approach. Moral models like those employed in Twelve Step programs might prove useful for some clients, but an integrative approach allows greater flexibility. From an organizational perspective, a flexible approach is essential because of the need to address a diverse workforce.
Models of treatment may be broken down into constituent parts, according to the situation and the needs of the client. esearch on the hearing impaired, for example, shows that differential needs of the client base will lead to the therapist designing a multifaceted treatment program (Guthmann, n.d.).…
Brower, K.J., Blow, F.C. & Beresford, T.P. (1989). Treatment implications of chemical dependency models in an integrative approach. Journal of Substance Abuse and Treatment 6(3): 147-157.
Guthmann, D. (n.d.). Models of alcohol and other drug treatment for consideration when working with deaf and hard of hearing individuals. Retrieved online: http://www.mncddeaf.org/articles/models_ad.htm
Krupski, A., et al. (2010). Impact of brief interventions and brief treatment on admissions to chemical dependency treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 110(1-2): 126-136.
The focus of this work in writing is making a determination of the most optimal course of action and the case formulation in a specific case. A plan of action will be provided and the crisis interpreted within a theoretical framework. A model of assessment, intervention and treatment will be used and included in the assessment will be a possible psychological diagnosis if a mental illness is believed to be present and included will be a referral to an appropriate treatment facility if it is needed and the thoughts on how the crisis will be most likely to be resolved. In addition, the substance abuse of Cassandra's family members will be discussed. The evidence on chemical dependency being passed from one generation to another will be examined and the cultural environment and genetic makeup in relation to substance abuse tendencies will be examined. This work will explain how…
Ashery, RS, Robertson, EB and Kumpfer, KL (1998) Drug Abuse Prevention Through Family Interventions. NIDA Research Monograph 177. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.dldocs.stir.ac.uk/documents/Monograph177.pdf
Barry, KL (1999) Brief Interventions and Brief Therapies for Substance Abuse Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 34. Retrieved from: http://radar.boisestate.edu/pdfs/TIP34.pdf
Brower, KJ et al. (1989) Treatment Implications of Chemical Dependency Models: An Integrative Approach. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Vol. 6. Retrieved from: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/28142/0000594.pdf?sequence=1
Levin, JD, Culkin, J and Perrotto, RS (2001) Introduction to Chemical Dependency Counseling. Jason Aronson, 2 Jan 2001., Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=felzn3Ntd-cC&dq=chemical+dependency+and+genetics+and+cultural+environment&source=gbs_navlinks_s
ules and roles are also cited as being a constituent of the family systems theory in alcoholism. Every family is different; however, they all have members that tend to fall into specific roles. The alcoholic's role is the dependent person, while their helpless partner is the enabler. The children also tend to fall into specific roles, either as the over-achiever, the scapegoat, the isolated, and/or the immature child. These are the typical roles that are makes up a family of an alcoholic. The transformation affects the entire family system, so much that everyone's life revolves around the alcoholism of the affected individual. Aside from the roles that everyone takes on, codependency begins to develop as well. There are two types of codependency discussed: the addict-centered model and the faulty family model. The latter blames the dysfunctional family unit as the root cause of the person's alcoholism and their mental health…
McNeece, C.A. & DiNitto, D.M. (2012). Family Systems and Chemical Dependency. In Chemical Dependency: A Systems Approach. (4th ed., pp. 293-304). Boston, MA. Pearson Education.
Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?
Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).
Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…
Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm
Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm
Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.galaxrecovery.com/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
' If a person does not disclose their drinking behavior if they seek outside help, they may be misdiagnosed as having an anxiety disorder. Mixing alcohol and medications for anxiety disorders can have lethal consequences, as well as prolonging a process of addiction." (Losinno, p. 1)
This denotes that especially in the face of trauma, those who are predisposed to dissonant responses and unhealthy coping mechanisms will struggle at a higher level to be liberated of chemical dependency. ith respect to treatment, outreach to specific risk groups such as those who are proven to be vulnerable to PTSD should be seen as a primary intervention strategy. Military veterans, families that have suffered the loss of a loved one, victims of system abuse and victims of traumatic injuries are all targeted candidates for this type of intervention.
3. Discuss genetic impact of chemical dependency? hat is the likelihood of some individuals…
Gans, S. (2006). New Genes Found for Excessive Alcohol Drinking. About Alcoholism.
Grinsteinner, K. (2006). Targeting Teen Drinking. Hibbing, MN: The Daily Tribune.
Losinno, N.D. (2007). Double Trouble: Anxiety and Substance Abuse. Employee Assistance Program Manager.
Stephens, P. & Smith, R. (2012). Substance Abuse Counseling: Theory and Practice. Merrill Education/Prentice Hall.
The work done at chemical dependency treatment centers is extremely important and challenging. My interest in the subject has led me to a special interview I recently conducted with Mr. ill Jones. ill is a treatment counselor at McAlister Institute Teen Recovery Center in Chula Vista, CA and was kind enough to share some of his experiences to help me learn more about addiction and treatment. This essay is a summary of the interview I conducted with ill. This document will discuss some of the important issues related to the topic of addiction and use ill's interview to highlight important factors.
ill Jones has been a treatment counselor at McAlister Institute for nearly five years. He graduated from college with a degree in social work and is aiming to earn his masters in the same subject in the next few years. ill has a bachelor's degree in social…
Jones, Will. Interview 3 Feb, 2013.
McAlister Institute Web page. Viewed 3 Feb, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.themcalisterinstitute.com/index.php
Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.
According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…
Bettmann, J., Russell, K., & Parry, K. (2013). How Substance Abuse Recovery Skills, Readiness to Change and Symptom Reduction Impact Change Processes in Wilderness Therapy Participants. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9665-2
DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror). (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2015, from https://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n136/mode/1up
Gregorowski, C., Seedat, S., & Jordaan, G.P. (2013).A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289
Hall, W., Farrell, M., & Carter, A. (2014). Compulsory treatment of addiction in the patient's best interests: More rigorous evaluations are essential. Drug & Alcohol Review, 33(3), 268-271. doi:10.1111/dar.12122
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…
Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com: http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/
Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.
Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
Substance Abuse Assessment
There are a variety of assessment or diagnostic instruments which can determine substance abuse. It is interesting to compare and contrast the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile (CDAP), and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).
Michigan Alcoholism Screening
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mast) is a "binary-choice, 25-item test which is considered the most widely used test of its type for adults (Hodgson, 2002)."
This can be attributed to the time it takes to administer the test, which is approximately 5 minutes, and how easy it is to score. The MAST consists of a "questionnaire that requires a 'yes' or 'no' response and addresses drinking patterns, social, occupational, and medical aspects of drinking, and previous attempts at treatment. The three primary questions in the survey instrument are: 1) Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous?; 2) Have you ever gone…
Blevins, L. David. Joann B. Morton and Kimberly A. McCabe. (01 June, 1996). "Using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to identify problem drinkers under federal supervision." Federal Probation.
Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile (CDAP). (accessed 17 May 2004). www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/cdap.htm).
Hodgson, Joele M. (22 December, 2002). "An adolescent version of the Michigan
Alcoholism Screening Test." Adolescence.
After several years of working with inpatients ranging from adolescents, dual-diagnosis patients, and intensive care patients, I transitioned to a Discharge Case Manager. I spent nine years there, and transitioned again -- this time to a Residential Counselor. At that time I assisted in the creation of a transitional house for people with persistent psychiatric disorders. It provided different types of therapy, so a wider range of people could be treated. I'm now DBT and Cognitive Remediation certified and I've helped so many people who really needed someone to care for them. With more than 10 years of experience at Silver Hill behind me, I'm ready to take the next step into nursing. My past experiences -- both personal and professional -- have equipped me well for this. I remember the people I've helped, and I remember those who helped my brother when I needed it the most. His 13…
However, not all facilities are prohibitively costly. Serenity Lane in Eugene, Oregon, proclaims as part of its marketing and advertising plan that it accepts almost all insurance plans, and trumpets the fact that it offers value deals like the "ExSL (Long-Term Program)" that requires only a relatively modest fee of $6,495 per 30 day period, with a 60 day recommended minimum stay" and "partial financing available and a $500 discount for paying cash up front" (Treatment Costs at Serenity Lane," Official ebsite, 2007). In contrast, a stay of the same duration at the more famous Betty Ford Center is $23,000 ("Programs," the Betty Ford Center, 2007).
Quality forms of rehabilitative assistance exist for individuals in a variety of income brackets. Also, for individuals who qualify, there are Medicaid assistance programs provided by the federal government. However, less costly programs often have longer waiting lists and offer less comprehensive, quality, and…
Health Insurers Block Mental Health Parity Bill." Drug Rehabs.com. 23 Sept 2007. http://www.drug-rehabs.com/health-insurers-block.htm
How Do I pay for a Drug Rehab?" Therapist Unlimited. 23 Sept 2007. http://therapistunlimited.com/rehabs/Articles/Drug+Rehabs/How+Do+I+pay+for+a+Drug+Rehab
Oregonians Gain Benefit of Parity MH Coverage." Psychiatric News.
40(19): 2. 7 Oct 2005. APA Website. http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/19/12
Christian Counseling Scenario
What are the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
In the case of Leon, a 52-year-old man with a dysfunctional childhood who has been unable to experience life in typical fashion, the most prominent presenting issue is definitely the individual's lack of emotional capacity and general apathy, both of which are obviously symptoms of a deeply repressed psychological trauma. The circumstances described in the introduction to Leon's case, wherein his eventually divorced parents both suffered from chemical dependency and addiction, while the father inflicted sever emotional and physical abuse, is extremely typical in terms of being connected to later symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.
Relapse prevention therapy breaks down the chemical dependency recovery process into specific tasks and skills, which patients must learn in order to recover; it also shows patients how to recognize when they are beginning to relapse, and how to change before they start using alcohol or drugs again (Gorski and Kelley, 2003).
In order to understand the process of relapse prevention, we will first look at the phenomena of chemical dependence, and its associated behaviors, and the phenomena of relapse, in order to be able to then look at the various ways of tackling these behaviors to induce relapse prevention in the patients.
What is Chemical Dependency/Chemical Addiction?
Chemical dependency is a disease caused by the use of alcohol and/or drugs, causing changes in a person's body, mind, and behavior: as a result of the disease of chemical dependency, people are unable to control the use of alcohol and/or drugs,…
Bell, T. (1990). Preventing adolescent relapse: A guide for parents, teachers and counselors. Independence, MO: Herald House / Independence Press.
Daley, D. (1987) Relapse prevention with substance abusers: clinical issues and myths. Social Work, 45(2), 38-42.
Gorski, T.T. Passages Through Recovery. Center City, MN. Hazelden Press, 1989.
Gorski, T.T. Understanding the Twelve Steps. New York: Prentice Hall/Parkside, 1989.
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Besides facing stress, and having easy access to medications, critical care and emergency nurses may use recreational drugs more often because they are more likely to have a sensation-seeking personality trait (www.nurseweek.com/news/98-5/25e.html)."
Getting treatment for chemical dependency will help the nurse get back to his or her daily life, however the nurse will have to address concerns and/or consequences related to the addiction. He or she faces a "multitude of traumatic experiences both potential and real, such as arrest, license suspension/revocation; negative publicity; reactions of family, friends and co-workers; fines; board and legal hearings; inability to secure work other than nursing; physical illness; and possible lack of health insurance. In the treatment setting, issues such as these add complexity to the nurse's recovery (Anderson)."
There are other complications which must be addressed during treatment of the impaired nurses. These issues include being considered a role model by everyone,…
Anderson, Jenny Lynn. "Treatment considerations for the addicted nurse." Behavioral Health
Management. (1994): 01 September.
(Substance abuse in nurses varies by specialty. (accessed 15 November, 2004).
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…
Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS
Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.
Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
Neurobiology of ohypnol
ohypnol, which is commonly known as Flunitrazepam, is a kind of benzodiazepine i.e. a category of drugs that slows down the central nervous system. Given its ability to depress the central nervous system, this drug was developed as a sleeping aid, which has partly contributed to its use in therapy for helping patients relax and talk. Notably, the drug is relatively cheap and has largely become popular among high school and college students. Actually, ohypnol is commonly used in parties and combined with alcohol because of its synergistic impact. Consequently, the neurobiology of ohypnol is an issue that has attracted considerable attention among researchers who seek to examine different aspects relating to the drug. One of the studies that were recently conducted on the neurobiology of ohypnol is the research by Kaustav Chakraborty, ajarshi Neogi, and Debasish Basu.
This study focuses on providing a review of club…
Chakraborty, K., Neogi, R. & Basu, D. (2011, June). Club Drugs: Review of the 'Rave' With a Note of Concern for the Indian Scenario. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 133(6), 594-604.
"Twelve Core Functions of Chemical Dependency Counselors." (n.d.). Student Handbook. Retrieved from Allied Health & Nursing Home -- Minnesota State University Mankato website: http://ahn.mnsu.edu/health/alcohol-drug/studenthandbook/12corefunctions.pdf
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
oth death and divorce are extreme experiences in a child's life and both can have a wide range of native psychological and developmental repercussions. Divorce is seen by many experts to be a potentially extremely traumatic experience in the life of the child. This of course does not mean to say that the impact of death is not equally traumatic. However, while the very young child may not be aware enough to be impacted by the death of parent, the effects of divorce are often felt over a longer long period and can be extremely traumatic for the child's sense of identify and self-worth. As an expert states, " divorce undermines this nurturing atmosphere. Children are very much affected by the disruption and absence of a unified two-parent home environment." (Dueck)
In essence this means that any traumatic event, whether it be death or divorce, that destroys or…
Generation At Risk. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.rainbows.org/statistics.html
Dueck, Ami. DIVORCE AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD. 2004. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:fjUsSic3ZV8J:www.fotf.ca/tfn/family/PDF/Divorce_impact.pdf+%22contact+with+a+non-custodial+parent+should+not+be+taken+lightly%22%22&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en
SELF TYPES & THEIR DIFFERENCES ACROSS GENERATIONS
AND THE LIFE-CYCLE. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/socpsy-6.html
State-Level Challenges and Issues
In the course of social worker's in Indiana performing clinical duties they are likely to provide service to Impaired Professionals. Impaired professionals bring to the clinical atmosphere additional clinical contemplations and challenges, not the least of which is their potential for endangerment or harm to the public (Supporting the Wellness and ecovery of Impaired Professionals, 2011). Impairment on the part of a professional is sure to contribute to unproductive service delivery, possibly even to bringing real harm to the client, and malpractice with all its consequences. Impairment may manifest itself in a number of ways, among them, chemical dependency, stress responses, and inadequate attention to the professionals own emotional troubles (The Impaired Helper, 2011).
Impaired professionals often experience inappropriate anger or resentment in the form of: intimidation, insulting or demeaning language, blaming or shaming others for mistakes or errors, needless sarcasm or pessimism and threats…
Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id
Supporting the Wellness and Recovery of Impaired Professionals. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.naswin.org/displayconvsceduledesc.cfm?SessionId=1988418B-FB48-2FAD-
Beautiful Boy by Sheff
As a seasoned journalist and New York Times bestselling author, David Sheff is undoubtedly accustomed to covering stories both triumphant and tragic, which makes the haunting detachment which resonates throughout the Introduction section of his acclaimed work of nonfiction Beautiful Boy: A Father's Journey Through His Son's Addiction both compelling and confounding. In describing the slow descent into methamphetamine addiction suffered by his son Nic, combining both a journalist's analytical approach to the issue of drug abuse and a parent's lamentable concern over a problem decidedly out his control, Sheff provides a startling glimpse into the havoc that chemical dependency can wreak on the average family unit. By immediately juxtaposing the deteriorating features of Nic, who Sheff describes as having a "gaunt and rice-papery" appearance and eyes that "are dark globes" (2009), with the "smooth complexions & #8230; and clear" eyes of his youthful siblings Jasper…
Sheff, D. (2009). Beautiful boy: a father's journey through his son's addiction. Houghton Mifflin
163 E. 174th street Bronx NY 10463
Phone (Home/Cell): *** Phone (Work): ***
Date of Birth: 11/11/1954
Social Security #: 050-44-5555
Guardianship (for children and adults when applicable): Not Applicable
Marital Status: Widowed
Family Members: Patient has three sons and one sister.
oberto odriguez, 25, M, Son
Juan odriguez, 27, M, Son
Steven odriguez, 22, M, Son
Felicia ivera, 57, F, Sister
Occupation: etired Nurse
Emergency Contact Information
elationship to Patient: Sister
Current Providers: Medicare and Aetna
Primary Medical Practitioner: Dr. Yomaris Pena
Patient does not give permission to contact provider.
Other Behavior Health Specialists or Consultants Specialist: None
Presenting Problem (include onset, duration, intensity)
Patient has been experiencing depressive symptoms and potentially suicidal thoughts. Depressive symptoms first appeared when her husband died around 7 years ago. They only transformed into depression when she received the…
Bhatia, R., Hartman, C., Kallen, M., Graham, J., & Giordano, T. (2010). Persons Newly Diagnosed with HIV Infection are at High Risk for Depression and Poor Linkage to Care: Results from the Steps Study. AIDS Behav, 15(6), 1161-1170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9778-9
Cruess, D., Minor, S., Antoni, M., & Millon, T. (2007). Utility of the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) to Predict Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Medication Regimens Among HIV-Positive Men and Women. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 89(3), 277-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223890701629805
Heitz, D. (2014). People with HIV Suffer from Depression Caused by Shame, Trauma, Substance Abuse. Healthline. Retrieved 26 November 2015, from http://www.healthline.com/health-news/hiv-patients-suffer-from-depression-090214
Mayoclinic.org,. (2015). Depression and anxiety: Exercise eases symptoms - Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 27 November 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/in-depth/depression-and-exercise/art-20046495
Addictive Nature of Vicodin
According to statistics provided by the Department of Health and Human Services, an estimated one and one-half million people in the United States started taking prescription painkillers for "non-medical" purposes in 1998, three times as many as in 1990. One of the most heavily abused painkillers is Vicodin.
Properly used, Vicodin is one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications, especially for those suffering from lower back pain, arthritis, post-operative distress, malignant cancer or sports injuries. It is not time-released, and therefore provides almost instant relief. Vicodin is a compound of two drugs: acetaminophen (found in Tylenol) and hydrocodone bitartrate. Both are painkillers, but together they are far more effective than either one individually.
Twenty tons of Vicodin are produced annually, and it is marketed under a plethora of brand names including Anexsia, Bancap-HC, Ceta-Plus, Co-Gesic, Dolacet, Hydrocet, Hydrogesic, Hy-Phen, Lorcet, Lortab, Margesic-H, Maxidone, Norco and…
Addicted to Vicodin." Extra, The Waismann Institute in the News #08. March 15, 2001. http://www.methadone-detox.com/vicodin_addiction_extra.html[November 10, 2002].
Associated Press article, Naples News, Wednesday, Nov. 21, 2001. "Deaths from abuse of OxyContin, hydrocodone skyrocketing. http://www.naplesnews.come/01/11/florida/d713145a.htm[November 10, 2002].
Costello, Daniel. "Clean and Sober in 48 Hours?." LA Times, October 28, 2002.
Indiana Prevention Resource Center at Indiana University, findings reported in Time article, March 19, 2001. http://www.jointogether.org/plugin.jtml?siteID=iprc&p=1&Tab=News&Object_ID=266437 .[November 10, 2002].
" (KGI, 1)
I did start to notice many changes in myself, both in terms of my increasing tendency toward physical activeness and my heightening interest in the opposite sex. At first, this interest was manifested of my generally social nature. And to the point, this adolescent period would be an excellent time in my life in terms of cultivating a loose but increasingly intimate social network. This conforms with my general research on this stage of development, which is highlighted by a transition from a life dominated by home and family to one increasingly more divided to the pursuits of school, extra-curricular activity, athletic team membership and information social gathering. These tend to function as substitutes in certain areas where previously only the family fulfilled certain needs.
This was a tough time though. In the midst of the rapid changes that were altering my physical and emotional experiences, my…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall.
Erikson, E.H. (1963). Childhood & Society. W & M. Morton & Co.
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University: Educational Psychology Interactive.
KGI. (2007). Growth Milestone-12 Years: Declaration of Independence. Kids Growth. Online at http://www.kidsgrowth.com/resources/articledetail.cfm?id=1130
Via stipulated agreement, a licensee who faces disciplinary action has the right to negotiate a settlement. uch a settlement is also subject to the Board vote, and may be approved or denied as a result. When disagreeing with the outcome of the disciplinary hearing, the licensee may also appeal to have the Board's decision overthrown. However, if the accused believes that the charges are valid, he or she may also voluntarily surrender the nursing license, and will no longer be allowed to practice in the state of California.
In cases where it is believed that an accused and convicted nurse will be able to rehabilitate, such an individual is entered into the Board's Diversion Program. This program is mainly focused upon nurses that are subject to problems such as chemical dependency and/or mental illness. These are seen as conditions that can be either remedied or managed in such a way…
Belak, Tony (2003). The Use of Mediation in the Patient Complaint Process. http://www.mediate.com/articles/belak3.cfm
Board of Registered Nursing. (2009). The Complaint Process. State of California. http://www.rn.ca.gov/enforcement/complaint.shtml
Board of Registered Nursing. (2009). What is the Diversion Program? State of California. http://www.rn.ca.gov/diversion/whatisdiv.shtml
Board of Registered Nursing (2009). What is the Enforcement Program? State of California. http://www.rn.ca.gov/enforcement/whatisenf.shtml
This essentially would send John to a treatment facility where he will undergo constant monitoring, education, and counseling. (Sims 2005; p. 106; Lewis, 2002; p. 77).
After successfully completing his inpatient treatment program, John still cannot be released to his own initiative. More likely than not John comes from an environment that would make alcohol and other triggers readily available. Further, John has a history of not following through with outpatient treatment. For this reason, the court should order that John be placed in a controlled environment, such as a halfway house.
While serving his time in a halfway house or other residential facility, John will be continually monitored and be able to live in a dry environment. Here John will be able to attend group therapy, individual counseling, and other similar programs. (urnet, 2004; p. 303).
The benefits of this special probation program is that John will retain enough…
Abadinsky, Howard (2005). Probation and Parole: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Burnet, Ros (2004). What Works in Probation and Youth Justice:
Developing Evidence-Based Practice. New York: Willam Publishing.
Culler, Francis (1982). Reaffirming Rehabilitation. New York:
Tracy is a thirteen-year-old, Caucasian female, who is being raised by her mother, Melanie in Los Angeles. Also living in the home is Tracy's older brother Mason, who is fifteen. Tracy's parents are divorced, with Melanie as custodial parent. Tracy is in regular contact by telephone with her father, Travis, who is now remarried with a new baby. Travis is employed with a decent salary but has suffered periods of unemployment in the past; Melanie is a high-school dropout who receives child support but otherwise makes a basic subsistence income as a hairdresser for children and women, operating out of her own home. She is a recovering alcoholic who attends weekly A.A. meetings, but most of her social circle is from the recovery movement. For example, Melanie's boyfriend Brady, who is about ten years younger than Melanie but still substantially older than the children, also regularly stays at…
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.
Freud, S. (1963). The unconscious. Standard edition Vol. 14. London: Hogarth Press.
Gardner, S. (1991). The unconscious. In Neu, J. (Ed.) The Cambridge companion to Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greene, R. (2008). General systems theory. In Greene, R. (Ed.) Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. 165-193.
Patient is a Hispanic male, aged 31. He is the father of one son, aged 10. The patient is Puerto ican, and was born and spent his childhood in Puerto ico. He came to live in the U.S. at age 11. He now lives in Brooklyn, New York. The patient is separated from the mother of his son. His son lives with his mother. The patient currently lives alone and is unemployed.
The chief complaint of the patient is that he is "feeling down and alone recently," and that he also feels separated from his family: "I also haven't seen my son for a while." Clearly he is depressed about his living situation, his prospects, and his health.
History of Present Illness
The patient's present illness is related to drug abuse, of which the patient has a considerable history. Essentially, the patient reports that over the past…
Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.
Hewitt, J. P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
This program experience, concurrent with my faith-based experience developing an additional residential treatment program provided the core of my personal and professional learning of both direct patient care and cemented my belief in the need for such programs to exists and grow to better meet the needs of the growing drug problem in my community and many others.
Upon completion of the position of Director of Residential Programs for the Jefferson County Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, I sought out in 2006 another position that would further my learning as a community service provider. My new task would be based around not the management of one county facility but the development of regional programming needs in the are as a member of the Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission -- Quality Management-Substance Abuse Division. I currently hold this position which includes a variety of tasks and learning opportunities: Conducting organizational…
Before discussing crimes regarding sexuality, it is important to distinguish between those laws that are currently enforced and those that are not being actively enforced. For example, there are some laws that still punish engaging in consensual homosexual behavior, certain consensual sexual acts committed in privacy between adults in non-commercial transactions, or the use of sexual aids. While these laws exist, the fact is that there simply is not a push towards the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of these crimes. On the contrary, even challenges to the constitutionality of these laws often only arise after those who oppose such laws have arranged for an arrest and prosecution. Therefore, it is improper to consider this category of crime in a discussion of overcriminalization.
However, law enforcement, prosecution, and the judiciary do expend a tremendous amount of energy targeting commercial sexual transactions. Opponents of this cite the fact that many of those…
Luna, E. (2005). The overcriminalization phenomenon. American University Law Review, 54,
Richards, D. (1986). Sex, drugs, death, and the law: an essay on human rights and overcriminalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc.
The ability for patients to access mental health services these days are more wide ranging than ever before. This is in part due to the fact that the realm of mental health, once simply governed by physicians, is now peopled by staff of all different types and disciplines. In addition, many mental health professionals are now multiply credentialed, so it is not impossible to see a mental health professional who is all at once a family and marital therapist, a chemical dependency practitioner and a social worker. All these elements only serve to improve the ability of patients/clients to receive quality mental health services, whether it be in a large institutional setting, a community mental health center or in a private clinical office.
But what are the different types of mental health professionals who are trained in the identification and treatment of patients with mental health issues? There…
Bridget, J. 1994, Treatment of Lesbians with Alcohol Problems in Alcohol services in North-West England, Lesbian Information Service.
Faulkner, A. 1997, Briefing No.1 - Suicide and Deliberate Self-Harm. Mental Health Foundation
National Patient Safety Agency 2001, Safety First, National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness, five-year report of the National Confidential Inquiry
Shaffi, M., Carigan, S., Whittinghall, J.R. et al. 1985, 'Psychological Autopsy of Completed Suicide in Children and Adolescents', American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1061-1064.
36). Thus, such research could also generate results which point to the truths of human words and actions of parents that contribute to healthy and unhealthy relationships with alcohol. In this case, these findings would not be as the result of numbers, but would be as the result of uncovered viewpoints and perspectives verbalized by the participants.
Which parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved) in the Jewish community (Ashkanas, Hasidic, Sfardy) connects most strongly with college freshman (18-26) alcohol abuse and alcohol maturity?
How do offspring's perspectives on their parents' parenting styles impact their relationship with alcohol as it manifests during college years in the Jewish community?
How do parenting styles characterized by warmth and attentiveness impact children's consumption of alcohol in the college years in the Jewish community?
How do parenting styles characterized by high expectations, structure and rigidity impact children's relationship to alcohol during college years…
Balter, L. (2000). Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Benson, J.B.; Haith, M.M. (2009). Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego: Academic Press.
Cohen, D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting Styles, Adolescent Substance Use, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 199-211.
Houghton, E., & Roche, a. (2001). Learning About Drinking. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Teen Alcohol Abuse
Adolescent alcohol abuse has been an ongoing public health problem for many years. While alcohol abuse trends tend to increase and subside over time, recent research continues to show an alarming level of alcohol use. For example, surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that alcohol use has dropped slightly when compared with previous years, in 2011 almost two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and almost one third (29%) of eighth graders had used alcohol within the past month (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst, 2011).
Health Needs Assessment
As of 1988, the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 is prohibited. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) define underage drinking as consuming alcohol prior to the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. Further, zero tolerance laws make it illegal in all states for youth under age 21 to drive…
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Alcohol & drug use. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/alcoholdrug/index.htm
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2011). InfoFacts: Nationwide trends. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/nationwide-trends
Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. (n.d.) Substance abuse/Chemical dependency. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/mental_health/mental_he alth_about/substance/Pages/index.aspx
Sterling, S., Weisner, C., Hinman, A., & Parthasarathy, S. (2010 July). "Access to treatment for adolescents with substance use and co-occurring disorders: Challenges and opportunities." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(7): 637-726. doi: 10:1016/j.jaac.2010.03.019
My visit to this location was extremely educational as I had a chance to witness firsthand how mental illness can be treated in this type of environment. I spoke to many people while there, including doctors, nurses, counselors and patients. The experience was informational but I am not convinced that this place is operating at its fullest potential.
My experience sitting in on a group therapy session was very enlightening. I heard many troubled stories and immediately became grateful for my personal upbringing and development. Hearing stories of abuse and reckless behavior had a profound impact on the way I see mental illness and can now appreciate the many complexities that accompany treating these wayward youths. The lead counselor for these sessions, was a bit overwhelmed and often lost control of the session while some of the boys demonstrated rude and unstable behavior. Perhaps this is normal for this type…
Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy
Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.
It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.
Fritscher, L. (2009). Brief therapy. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/brieftherapydef.htm
Levenson, H., Speed, J., & Budman, S.H. (1995). Therapists' experience, training and skill in brief therapy: A bicoastal survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 95-106.
Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F, J. (1998). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding (Revised Edition). boston: Shambhala
Presbury, J.H., Echterling, L. G, & McKee, J.E. (2008). Beyond brief counseling and therapy: An integrative approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson/Merill Prentice-Hall.
Evolution of Domestic Violence to Today: What it Is, and How We See It
Domestic violence has become a very important issue to be tackled in today's society. Fortunately, over the years, many have recognized the need to address this issue, which can grow to quite serious proportions. In order to provide a context for the following paragraphs, I would like to include some statistics on domestic violence here. Though upsetting, these statistics are necessary to see just how much of a problem this issue can be. According to Strengthen Our Sisters, an organization that aims to help domestic violence victims by providing them with information and a hotline which to call in times of trouble, women suffer greatly under this issue, with a woman being physically assaulted nearly every 15 seconds. Battery also contributes to the single major cause of injury for women, and exceeds any other…
Fresh: A Biopsychosocial Assessment
In the Yakin-directed film Fresh, a 12-year-old boy -- "Fresh" -- struggles to balance school and a tumultuous home life with the drug-running activities that allow him to make and save money. Though Fresh is intelligent, ambitious, and highly motivated to rise above his current station in life, as an African-American living in the crime-driven projects, his perceived opportunities for advancement are limited. As a result, Fresh makes money in the only way he knows how; as an inner-city drug mule for the number one suppliers of heroin -- "smack" -- and cocaine, referred to as "base." The money he makes, he saves in a tin can hidden by the tracks on the city's outskirts. Says Fresh to his friend osie in scene two, "If I had me a million dollars, I'd get me a Porshe 959." And when osie says it doesn't matter because he'll…
Baker, F.M., & Bell, C.C. (1999). Issues in the Psychiatric Treatment of African-Americans. Psychiatric Services, 50 (3), 362-368.
Bender, L. (Producer), & Yakin, B. (Screenwriter/Director). Fresh [Motion Picture]. (1994). United States: Miramax Films.
Howard, D.E., Feigelman, S., Xiaoming, L., Cross, S., & Rachuba, L. (2002). The relationship among violence victimization, witnessing violence, and youth distress. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31 (6), 455-462.
American today, works more that an American worker of even a generation ago. A 1999 Government report stated that workers worked 8% more hours than the previous generation. This translates to an average workweek of 47 hours. Twenty percent of workers today work more than 49 hours. The work place has been constantly changing -- the revolution from agronomies to industrialization having had its origins in the industrial revolution. Most of the industrialized regions of the world have attained better standards with significant improvements in quality of life as a result of the industrial revolution. In turn, however, the workplace became more formal and restrictive. Any personal skills of an individual worker were generally ignored. These abilities were not essential a worker's role in the "new" work environment.
Mass production was the next phase of change in the workplace. It made standardization the norm. Greater emphasis was placed on conforming…
Armour, Stephanie. "Workers Seek Compensation from Employers for Job Stress." USA TODAY May 15, 2002.
Barsade, S, and B. Wiesenfeld. Attitudes in the American Workplace Iii. New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Management., 1997.
Bond, J.T., E. Galinsky, and J.E. Swanberg. The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York, NY: Families and Work Institute, 1998.
Briggs, Susan. To Think or to Do? 2001. Available. December 8, 2002. http://www.pacpubserver.com/new/business/3-12-01/motivation.html
ay Kroc paying particular attention to leadership qualities. It has 6 sources.
Business strategy implemented in a particular market determines the success that an organization would have. In a highly competitive world, business strategy is vital to success and as demonstrated by some individuals an ordinary business can be converted into a massive chain of outlets on an international scale. An example of this kind of success is ay Kroc's McDonald's, which developed from a relatively small fast-food company into a fast-food chain with outlets in nearly every corner of the world.
ay Kroc's strategy is the key that changed the manner in which things were being conducted at the McDonald brothers' fast-food. At first he gained franchising rights from the owners, and then founded McDonald's Corporation in 1955. Six years later, Kroc bought the McDonald brothers for a sum of $2.7 million. From then on, Kroc implemented strategies of…
Avolio, Bruce J. & Bernard M. Bass. (1999). "Re-examining the Components of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire." Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 72(4), 441-462.
Barnes, Donelle M. (1996). "An Analysis of the Grounded Theory Method and the Concept of Culture." Qualitative Health Research, 6(3), 429-441.
Ciulla, Joanne B. (1995) "Leadership Ethics: Mapping the Territory."
Business Ethics Quarterly, v. 5, 5-24.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Techniques
For Treating Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic use disorder
Sedative-Hypnotic are a Class of Medications that Includes Barbiturates.
Sedative hypnotic refers to the medication such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates and nonbenzodiazepine. All these are medications used to treat insomnia. They are referred to as Z drugs because the members consist of zaleplon, the eszopiclone and zolpiden all of which contain letter Z. Benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs across the globe. They are used to treat anxiety, disorder, insomnia and panic disorders. The drugs are used to treat disorders even though they are hazardous, and expose the user to other conditions such as physical dependence misuse, overdose as well as abuse (Levounis, Herron & American Psychiatric Association, 2014). When the individuals become dependent, they suffer from anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative; a condition where one becomes dependent on the substances that cause a calming effect. They may also suffer…
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed. 5. Arlington, VA, APA Press.
Barlow, DH, Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Woods, S. W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.
Doweiko, H. (2014). Concepts of chemical dependency. Nelson Education.
GonAalves, D. C., & Byrne, G. J. (2012). Interventions for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of anxiety disorders, 26(1), 1-11.
vignette pertaining to addiction. Ethical and legal factors will be considered. Also discussed will be cross cultural matters related to the topic. Possible solutions to the issue at hand will also be considered.
Middle-aged couple, Anna and James, drops in for an appointment as Kevin, their son aged 16 years, faces suspension from school because of 'drug paraphernalia' found in his school bag. While James is Native-American, Anna is Japanese-American. James goes on to say that it is all Anna's fault, stating that she has smoked pot on a daily basis for the most part of their married life. Anna is of the view that she at least isn't a slobbering drunk like James, further elucidating that James over-indulges in drinking alcohol on weekends. It is discovered, in the course of assessment that James as well as Anna come from alcoholic homes.
Much is to be taken into…
(n.d.).CASAColumbia - Addiction Science, Prevention & Treatment Research. Designing an Addiction Treatment Plan | CASAColumbia. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.casacolumbia.org/addiction-treatment/treatment-plan
(n.d.). Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror).Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n637/mode/2up
(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4 Integrated Models for Treating Family Members - Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy - NCBI Bookshelf.Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64266/
(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4: Screening and Assessment - Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women - NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83253/
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…
Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.
Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.
Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
A fourth foundational element is the strength of the Starbucks brand itself and is ubiquity globally. As a result of rapid and well-defined strategies for opening up retail stores, Starbucks is now considered one of the most preeminent and strongest brands globally.
Starbucks has generated the strength of their brand through combining high-quality coffee and tea beverages with the third-place concept to generate customer loyalty and world-of-mouth among customers and their friends. It is common to hear students mention they will have a team meeting at the local Starbucks, for studying or completing projects.
In summary the Starbucks model is strengthened by the company's coffee expertise, impressive new product development record, and the development of Starbucks locations as "third places" where friends can meet and enjoy coffee and pastries. Underscoring all these points is the strength of the Starbucks brand.
What were the key issues and the decision by Starbucks…
Patrick Burnson (2002, December). Amsterdam's key role in Starbucks' global strategy. World Trade, 15(12), 40-41. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 241805271).
Deutsche Bank (2006) - Starbucks Overview. Deutsche Bank Securities Research. New York, NY. 10 July 2006.
Geoffrey a. Fowler (2003, July 14). Starbucks' Road to China; Prime Locations Are the Key, but So Is Using Snob Appeal to Lure Nation of Tea Drinkers. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 369860271).
Jeffrey S. Harrison, Eun-Young Chang, Carina Gauthier, Todd Joerchel, et al. (2005). Exporting a North American Concept to Asia: Starbucks in China. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(2), 275-283. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 832085141).
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it's not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.
According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don't possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as…
Angloplat Goes the Extra Mile to Pioneer Black Empowerment. Sunday Times; November 10th 2002.
Immanuel Wallerstein, The Eagle Has Crash Landed. Foreign Policy, July, 2002.
Between Here and There. The Economist, July 5, 2001.
Does Population Matter? The Economist, December 5, 2002.
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
5% unemployment figure, 7.6% inflation ratio, and $4.5 trillion in debt, Guatemala is forced to rely on external factors to survive.
National exports are coffee, sugar, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, meat, apparel, petroleum, electricity and the 9/11 events in the United States have severely impacted tourist trade.
Venezuela is a federal republic with over 24 million citizens, 67% of which live in poverty and 14% are unemployed.
The GDP is made up primarily of services with petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, and agricultural products composing the primary exports. Tourism is impacted negatively by the events of terrorism and the typical 587,000 visitors each year has dwindled considerably.
ECLAC's annual calendar reflects multiple meetings, lectures, educational workshops, conferences, seminars, and training sessions. Nowhere is there found a work initiative, a concerted on-site initiative or focused fund raiser, or any effort of measurable practicality.
According to the…
Altimir, Oscar & Sourrouille, Juan. Measuring Levels of Living in Latin America -- an Overview of Main Problems. The World Bank -- Working Paper no. 3. World Bank. Washington, D.C. 1980. Benson Collection. HC 59.7 a 47, 1980 LAC. (6)
Altimir, Oscar. The Extent of Poverty in Latin America. World Bank Staff Working Papers - Number 522. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. March 1982. (4-6)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique & Faletto, Enzo. Depend ncia e Desenvolvimento na America Latina. Zahar Editores. Sao Paulo, 1970-73. Benson Collection HC 125 C3413 LAC. (1-3)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. Dependency Revisited. Institute of Latin American Studies - the University of Texas at Austin. Austin, 1973. Benson Collection HC 125 C34162 LAC. (1)
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
Taste and Smell
Age elated Changes in Perception of Flavor and Aroma
It has been posited that the perception of flavor and aroma are derived from the senses of chemical irritation, taste and smell (awson, 2003).
Together, these senses constitute what has been termed chemosensation, although these sensory systems are purportedly considerably variant in their physiology and anatomy. Nevertheless, they do have the ability to regenerate, and their noted susceptibility to aging and age associated diseases has been noted (awson, 2003). It has been reported that nearly one third of all older individuals report dissatisfaction with their sense of smell and taste, and the actual occurrence of sensory loss amongst the elderly is maintained to be even higher (Pelchat, 2001). Furthermore, it has been asserted that age related sensory loss affects both personal safety and quality of life (awson, 2003). Moreover, the impact of the loss on the elderly's physical…
Chodosh, S., et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of a ten day course of 400 or 600
milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: comparison with a ten day course of 500 milligrams of Ciprofloxacin twice daily. Antimicrobial Agents in Chemotherapy, 42(1), 114-120.
Mathey, M., et al. (2001). Flavor enhancement of food improves dietary intake and nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents. Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(4), 200-205.
McConnell, R., et al. (1975). Defects of taste and smell in patients with hypothyroidism.
New communication technologies require stricter scrutiny, as well. The threat of reprisal is the most effective measure against intellectual property right infringements, and for this reason one of the most essential actions that can be taken in this regard -- and frequently is -- is the filing of civil and criminal charges against companies that infringe upon these rights in an aggressive and uncompromising manner (Long 2000). This not only limits damages, but dissuades future infringement.
Protecting Other Firms
efraining from infringing on another company's tangible and intellectual property rights might be seem to be a simple task, but it does require that certain actions are taken by pharmaceutical company managers. First and foremost, knowledge of the property right laws in effect must be obtained and thoroughly understood in order to refrain from infringing upon them. With this knowledge in place, managers can ensure that any similarities that develop between…
Ghauri, P. & Rao, P. (2008). "Intellectual property, pharmaceutical MNEs and the developing world." Accessed 17 January 2010. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W5M-4SY6YJR-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1171065541&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=e667e8f8848aae7fd6fe1c222ed046d6
GTN. (2004). "Intellectual property summary." Accessed 17 January 2010. http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidtrade/issues/ipr.html
Kaufman, J. (2008). "Intellectual Property Rights and the Pharmaceutical Industry." Accessed 17 January 2010. http://www.america.gov/st/econ-english/2008/April/20080429230451myleen0.4181027.html
Long, C. (2000). "Intellectual property rights in emerging markets." Accessed 17 January 2010. http://www.scribd.com/doc/2011460/Intellectual-Property-Rights-in-Emerging-Markets
The term marketing refers to identification and anticipation of consumer needs and wants and then satisfying them in a profitable manner. With the increase in globalization and consumer knowledge, marketing has evolved to become a comprehensive field with rapidly changing dynamics and is a key contributor in the success and failure of any business.
The way a marketing strategy of any product is designed depends greatly on whether the commodity is market oriented or product oriented. Detergent falls in the category of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) which means it is a highly market oriented product and the commodity operates in a market where consumers have more than adequate knowledge about the product (Kotler & Keller, 2008). Being a highly competitive market, detergent companies have to ensure that their marketing strategy is aggressive enough to promote a strong brand image and generate a strong brand loyalty in order to…
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2008) Marketing Management. USA: Prentice Hall
Czinkota, M (2007). International Marketing. USA: Thomson South-Western.
Silk, A. (2006), What is Marketing? USA: Harvard Business School Press.
This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of energy sustains order and life. Entropy is successful when organisms stop taking in energy and die (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010).
Many experts feel that Hydrogen is the ideal fuel known to man at this time. It is a fuel source that has no chance of being depleted until the Sun stops producing it. There isn't much chance of the Sun stopping production either. The only result of hydrogen combustion is water. Because one of the ways hydrogen can be produced is by separating it from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, the process lends itself to recycling within a closed system. There are a few negatives that surround the use of Hydrogen. First, it is a very dangerous explosive. It is…
Hydrogen: The Never Ending Fuel Source. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Laws of Thermodynamics. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Geagua County, OH
Planning -- The most effective strategy within a community for any public health issue is two-fold: education and focus. To accomplish this at the community level, there needs to be a broad level of focus and support from all levels of the government: local, State and Federal, in order for there to be a consistent and proactive message. Education should begin at the elementary school level, with teaching talking about substances, abuse and alternatives; and move through the school system as appropriate for the cognitive abilities of various age groups. In this way, the community can collaborate with schools to provide initiatives and programs that address the problem prior to it becoming as endemic, and offer proposed solutions in a way that almost everyone involved knows they can receive help if necessary. The educational process must also be pervasive and accessible -- people need a number to…
Bangeret-Drowns, R. (1988). The Effects of School-Based Substance Abuse Education. Journal of Drug Education, 18(3), 243-64.
Berkowitz, M., et al. (1991). Sociomoral Development and Drug and Alcohol Abuse. In W. Kurtines (Ed.), Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development (Vol. 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.
Blondell, R. (2005). Ambulatory detoxification of patients with alchohol dependence. American Family Physician, 71(3), 495-502.
Cook, P., & Moore, M. (2002). The Economics of Alchohol Abuse. Health Affairs, 21(2), 120-33.
Supportive political institutions were set in place with appropriate economic policy. Appropriate exchange rates and tariff levels were critical in the sphere of trade policy. Country tariff policies during this time and within this global liberal trade regime were systematically altered with industrialization levels. Tariff production of new industries was needed to initiate industrialization Other major players were large latecomers at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or OECD to the Industrial Revolution were Germany, Italy, Japan and Russia. They all adopted an import substitution industrialization strategy (Alderman).
Growth since the Industrial Revolution has been capital and energy-intensive (Alderman 1995). Technological changes in industry have displaced labor and technology has been embedded in capital. Technology, therefore, has required high rates and levels of capital. Among the major players in global economy, the rate and structure of investment were closely linked with inter-country differences in their rates of economic growth.…
1. Adelman, Irma. The Genesis of the Current Global Economic System. The Long-Term Impact of Economic Development of Developed Countries on Developing Countries, 1995. http://are.berkeley.edu/~adelman/KEYNOTE.DOC
2. Indian Springs. The Age of Nationalism 1850-1914. www.Indiansprings.org/image/Ch_25.pdf" http://www.Indiansprings.org/image/Ch_25.pdf Accessed December 13, 2006
3. San Diego State University. This Big Era and the Three Essential Questions. World History for Us All, 2006. http//worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/dev/eras/era7.htm
4. Science Museum, The. The Emergence of an Industrial and Urban Britain. Making the Modern World, 2004. http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learnng_modules/history/02.TU.02/?section=2
2002). This paper's focus will be on the CPM and PET methodologies.
The ockfest event has 26 tasks, each conveniently denoted by a letter in the alphabet. Having drawn up the Critical Path and analyzed it, I found the following. The Critical Path starts with task A, continues with B, D, E, F, G, and finally O. The time it takes to complete these tasks is 34 weeks. That is approximately eight and a half months. You will notice that the Critical Path does not include myriad tasks. That is because these tasks can be completed while the Critical Path tasks are being implemented.
Now, if, for instance, task B, or "select a local printer" took two more weeks than planned, how would a project manager handle the problem? I argue that the best thing to do, since task B. is part of the Critical Path, is begin crashing tasks…
Chen, Y.M. & Liang, M.W.; (2002) Design and implementation of a collaborative engineering information system for allied concurrent engineering, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 13, pp. 11-30
Chu, X.N.; Tso, S.K.; Zhang, W.J.; Li, Q.; (2002) Partnership synthesis for virtual enterprises, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 19, pp. 384 -- 391
Huang, X.G.; Wong, Y.S.; Liu, Z.J.; Qiu, Z.M.; (2005) Critical-path-analysis-based dynamic component supplier optimization, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 18, Issue 8, pp. 702- 709