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Chicano/Mexican Culture History In the United States: Conflict and Assimilation in the Contemporary American Society
American society is described by many historians and social scientists to be a "melting pot" of cultures, and pseudo-societies of people with different races and nationalities. This is because throughout the years that America had been established as a stable political and economic society, a sudden influx of migration occurred, resulting to the arrival of numerous displaced people from all over the world. The surge in immigration in the United States are caused by the two world wars, which happened in during the early 1920s (World War I) and 1940s (World War II).
In effect, there has been immigration of German Jews, Asian nationals, and even the country's nearest neighbors, Spanish-speaking nationals from Central and South America. Among these Spanish-speaking nationals were the Mexicans, who were forced to leave their country to find better opportunities…
Douglas, M. (1990). Thrown among strangers: The Making of Mexican culture in frontier California. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Saldivar, J. (1997). Border Matters: Remapping American Cultural Studies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Salvador, R. (2003). Are Chicanos the same as Mexicans? Iowa State University. Available at http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rjsalvad/scmfaq/chicano.html.
Tatum, C. (2001). Chicano Popular Culture. University of Arizona Press. Available at http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/samples/sam1406.htm .
In terms of the mental development, video game offers negative effects to the brain activities. To reiterate, video gaming, if not dealt properly, is addictive. As the teens play this game for a number of hours, growing to days and even months, they will be tempted to skip school classes or reviewing times at home. The teens' minds will always be glued to how they can perform bettering the video game, and not on the school. They will soon forget their responsibility in school, in a way that they will opt to play the games instead of doing their home works.
Psycho-social aspect of the teens can also be negative affected by video gaming. It should be noted that video games can be played by single person and can be done inside the four corners of the room. If the teen has become so addicted to playing video games, he/she…
Schutte NS, Malouff JM, Post-Gorden JC, Rodasta AL. (1988). Effects of playing video games on children's aggressive and other behaviors. J Appl Soc Psychol. 18(5):454-460.
Valencia, R.(2002). The plight of Chicano students: An overview of schooling conditions and outcomes. In Valencia, R. (2002) (Eds.) Chicano school failure and success: Research and policy agenda for the 1990s. New York: The Routledge/Falmer Press.
Chicano Movement was one of numerous movements for human rights and social justice that took place and reach great heights in American during the 1960s. The Chicano people were and are Mexican-Americans. Mexican-Americans advocated and organized so that there experiences and voices would be heard and respected. They, like many other groups fighting for justice and freedom in America, protested, demonstrated, held vigils, rallies, sang songs, and confronted the politicians that supposedly represented them and their interests. The Chicano Movement, like many other social movements in American and in the world, additionally was about the creative expression of people from this group. There were musicians, poets, writers, and fine artists of all kinds that were motivated and inspired by the struggles of their Chicano brothers and sisters. They created art and other forms of creative expression during this movement and as part of this movement, too. The Chicano Movement fundamentally…
Farager, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A History of the American people, Volume 2, 5th Edition. Upper Salle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chapter 29: "The politics of identity," 837 -- 843.
Chicano Identity in Literature
In "My Name" by Sandra Cisneros, the principle character's name is Esperanza. Esperanza's problem, at first, seems only to be displeasure with her name. She is certainly displeased with her name. She is disappointed with the meaning of her name in her native tongue, Spanish. She is frustrated and perplexed with the persistent difficulty that Americans have pronouncing her Chicana name. Esperanza wishes she could be lucky, like her sister, who can come home and have a different name, a prettier name, an easier name than her proper first name.
As the story progresses, readers learn that Esperanza's central problem is greater than her name. Her problem is with the history and the legacy of her name. She was named after her grandmother. Esperanza is somewhat conflicted about her connection and her similarities with her grandmother. One on hand, she does not like her name,…
Baugh, S.L. (ed) (2006) Mediating Chicana/o Culture: Multicultural American Vernacular. Cambridge Scholars Press: Cambridge, UK.
Bernal, D.D. (2002) Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemologies: Recognizing Students of Color as Holds and Creators of Knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105 -- 126.
Cuadraz, G.H. (2005) Chicanas and Higher Education: Three Decades of Literature and Thought. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 4(3), 215 -- 234.
Deutsch, S. (1994) Gender, Labor History, and Chicano/a Ethnic Identity. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 14(2), 1 -- 22.
This growing population group surely has much more to offer than service industry work.
Once again, the Texas community sets an example not only in leadership, but also in the possibilities of uplifting educational opportunities for the Latino community. Indeed, the Texas program is driven by the Latino community itself, with intellectuals setting examples in leadership and education that can only be inspiring to their peers and to future generations. At Texas a&M, a university research center has been proposed that would serve to not only honor the contributions of Latino leaders to the culture, but also to educate and inspire future generations of this population.
Another issue within the same category is the fact that many different cultures exist within the Hispanic community. As seen above, the name "Latino" refers to many different population types, all of which are predominantly panish speaking. This issue is not to be overlooked…
NHLBI Information Center. "Latino Community Profile." Bethesda, MD. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/heart/latino/lat_dcd.htm
Aggie Daily." Top Latino Leader Examine Critical Issues for Future of Latinos." Texas a&M University, 2003. http://www.tamu.edu/aggiedaily/news/stories/03/052003-5.html
Because Chavez also deployed faith and prayer in achieving his goal, he was able to fuse the Christian religion that was so important to the farm workers into a vital element of the Chicano movement in a way that advanced rather than impeded its political struggles.
Part 3, entitled "Taking Back the Schools," brings an urban dimension to the struggle for Chicano rights. The high drop out rate, crumbling buildings, lack of Mexican-American teachers all mobilized Latino and Latina students to walk out of their schools in 1968. They demanded better conditions under which to realize their education, and although not all of the urban ills were addressed by their collective action, this act provides an important reminder of the ability of young people in urban circumstances to use their anger for political rather than self-destructive means.
Part 4, "Fighting for Political Power," concludes the book. It describes the creation…
Rosales, Franciso Arturo. Chicano! The History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. New York, 1996
This committee works in conjunction with Land Use and Control Committees that oversee the best us of the land within the community. These two committees work together with local special interest groups to help assure that community resources are utilized for the greatest benefit of the people. Different communities call these committees by different names, but the purpose of the committees is always the same.
Anti-discrimination laws make it a crime to discriminate against a person for reasons of their race or religion. However, just because the laws exist does not mean that the problem is nonexistent. Race can be a defining characteristic of a community. Race can be the basis for community culture and community pride. People are often proud of their race and the cultural heritage that it embodies. However, stereotypes often stand in the way of getting fair treatment as far as housing is concerned.
Eisenberg, P. Time to Remove the Rose-Colored Glasses. March/April 2000. ShelterForce Issue
110. http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/110/eisenberg.html . Accessed March 23, 2007.
Hon. Senator Murray. Supporting the Latino Community. 2006. http://murray.senate.gov/latino/index.cfm Accessed March 23, 2007.
Lockyer, B. SHA Battles to Save County Affordable Housing Program. April/May 2005. SAC
Chicano/Chicana Art Questions
In what way does Chicano/a Art relate to contemporary awareness regarding social, political, and aesthetic issues?
Art is often used as a vehicle to raise or sustain awareness when it comes to social, political and other issues. For example, there are many in the Chicano community that vehemently oppose deportation of undocumented workers as it would separate families and/or relegate the deported people to a life of squalor and destitution due to the poverty or persecution that they would face back home. At the same time, Chicanos are very proud of their homeland and heritage and that is often infused very deeply into whatever messages are extended. hether it be images about family, laws (good or bad), national pride, the American dream or other things, the art created and offered by Chicanos can be emblematic of some of all of that, depending on the situation (Butler) (Butler).…
Butler, Christopher. Modernism: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions). Oxford
University Press, 2010. Print.
Butler, Christopher. Postmodernism: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions).
Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
This fear is not unfounded, for Chicano lifestyle and diet are rich in elements that contribute to the escalation of diabetes, which includes a steady diet of fatty and starchy foods, not to mention the propensity among Chicanos to eat, both as a physical need and a social activity in their communities.
This measure is also biologically crucial to Chicano communities, since diabetes as a primarily genetic ailment can influence the way in which Chicanos' mental health is developed. In the same manner that mental health is mainly a function of genes (or one's genetic make-up), diabetes, then, becomes susceptible and possibly dangerous if left untreated among individuals who also experiences mental health problems. In addition to this concern, diabetes as an ailment also causes stress, attributing this not only to the physical degradation due to the illness, but also the emotional and financial distress that develop out of the…
More precisely, this notion may be interpreted as being a certain de facto acceptance of the Mexican population as part of the American cultural heritage. There are many discriminatory criteria which have marked the history of the United States. The nationality and the family descent was often a reason for social exclusion. Therefore, the identification of Mexicans as being Americans as well represented an important step in their integration in the society.
The notion of "Latino" has often been used especially in recent history to define "people originating from, or having a heritage related to, Latin America, in recognition of the fact that this set of people is actually a superset of many nationalities. Since the term "Latin" comes into use as the least common denominator for all peoples of Latin America in recognition of the fact that some romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, French) is the native tongue of the…
California Historical Eras. N.d. 6 March 2008 http://calrepublic.tripod.com/history.html#californio
Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California. A History of Mexican-Americans in California: The Chicano Movement. 2004. 6 March 2008 http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/5views/5views5e.htm
Immigration. Becoming Part of the United States. 2005. 6 March 2008. http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/alt/mexican2.html
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Film has the potential to provide multifaceted multimedia insight into a culture and community. Mexico has a rich and varied cinematic history, and the traditions and themes of Mexican filmmaking have naturally spilled across the border to influence Chicano-made films in the United States. hen Chicanos produce, write, and direct their own films, they remain firmly in control of the ways their people and community are portrayed. Thus, film can become a medium of political and social empowerment even when the film is not directly about a political issue. Many Chicano films do, however, directly address social justice like Luis Bunuel's classic Los Olvidados. Los Olvidados continues to have an important message about class conflict in Mexico. As such, Los Olvidados is much more about class-based social justice than it is about Chicano culture. Similarly, Harry Gamboa's short film "Baby Kake" is less about Chicano culture than it is about…
Bunuel, Luis. Los Olvidados. [Feature Film]. Retrieved online: https://vimeo.com/57837968
Gamboa, Harry. Baby Kake. [Feature Film]. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYi2V8xR6wQ
Olmos, Edward James. American Me. [Feature Film]. Retrieved online: https://vimeo.com/124079577
Segregation, Desegregation and Integration of Chicano Students
The article, "Segregation, Desegregation, and Integration of Chicano Students: Old and New ealities" by ichard . Valencia et al., covers the desegregation and integration of Chicano students in America's schools from the first known practices in the 1840's through the present times. Chicano children actually had more educational opportunities than blacks, and they enjoyed segregated schools well before the turn of the 20th century. What is more interesting, is that Chicanos have tended to remain segregated in schools around the nation, while blacks have managed to achieve a high percentage of desegregation. In most cases, there are fewer Chicano students in white schools today than there were in the 1960s. As the author's note, "The more dramatic and largely ignored [segregation] trends are those affecting Latinos'" (Valencia et al. 74). Unfortunately, these trends affect the schools, the education available to Chicano students,…
Valencia, Richard R., et al. "Segregation, Desegregation, and Integration of Chicano Students: Old and New Realities."
Cotton must be picked within a very narrow harvest time. If it is not harvested when the time is right much of the production will be lost. It was the intent of the workers to time the strike so that it would have the greatest impact on owners in hopes that it would force them to raise wages for workers. However, many of the owners did not see the migrant workers as American citizens and treated them much as slaves were treated in the old South. They used tear-gas, saw-off shotguns, and arrested workers that participated in the strike (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121).
Schools were closed and children were used to make up for the lost workforce. They also recruited cotton pickers from Texas to fill the labor gap (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 128). These substitutions reduced the impact of the strike and many migrants lost their positions as a result. The strike…
Guerin-Gonzales, C. Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration,
Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ. 1994.
Hamilton, N. Central American Migration: a Framework for Analysis. Latin American Research Review. Vol. 26. No. 1. 1991. pp. 75-94.
Sanchez, G. Becoming Mexican-American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945. Oxford University Press. New York.
intended to provide an overview of the individuals and movements who played important part in Chicano movement
Chicano movement is one of the most eminent chapters in the history of Mexican-Americans. The Chicano movement reflects a decade's long pursuit of Mexican-Americans for their rights. Although it has its roots in 1800s, the movement grew stronger in 1940s. In order to understand what Chicano movement really is, one needs to understand the past events leading to it. It is a common saying in Mexican-Americans that we did not crossed the borders, the border crossed us. There have been several treaties signed between Mexicans and Americans which provided a lot of benefits to Mexicans along with citizenship, however when the senate revised these treaties, all these leverages were removed depriving Mexicans of their lands and other properties. Then started the journey of Chicano Movement. There are various individuals and several movements who…
Chavez, E. (2002). "Mi Raza Primero!" (My People First!): Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles, 1966-1978. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Gonzales, M.G.(2000). Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Rosales, F.A. (1997). Chicano! History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. Houston, TX: Arte Publico.
Lopez, I.F. (2004). Racism on Trial. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Readers know that Maria is very religious, and that she prays often and cooks for the family. On page 7 readers learn that in her haste to keep the Catholic ritual of crossing herself, she mixes cooking and religion. "She breathed a prayer and crossed her forehead. The flour left white stains on her, the four points of the cross." Her life is not at all about her, but about the men in her family. And it seems she is a literary counterpoint to Ultima, who is spiritually as strong as Maria is faithful to Catholicism.
On page 50 it is clear that Tony will not depend on his mother's nurturing for a long period of time. "He will be all right,' Ultima said. 'The sons must leave the sides of their mothers,' she said almost sternly, and pulled my mother gently." And as the friendship between Tony and his…
Anaya, Rudolfo a. Bless Me, Ultima. Berkeley: Tonatiuh International Inc., 1972
Rivera, Tomas. And the Earth Did Not Part. Berkeley: Editorial Justa Publications, Inc.,
S. Census ureau statistics, which disproportionately omit U.S. Latino-residents and, as a result, understate the population bases on which congressional representation and decisions on program funding are made. This kind of resistance has repeatedly resulted in an incomplete policy agenda and the formation of the appropriate and responsive management of demographic change. The fast-aging character of the American population places the burden of caring for the elderly on minorities and immigrants. Current and projected demographic patterns indicate that the economic success of the nation depends more and more on the fate of the growing Chicano population. Their education and welfare can, therefore, not be ignored by policymakers (aker).
Confronting and realistically addressing the significance of the education and welfare of the growing -and mostly young - Chicano population in America is a primacy concern in policymaking for the 21st century (aker). The focus and direction of policies must be the…
1. Baker, Susan Gonzales. Demographic Trends in the Chicana/o Population: Policy Implications for the Twenty-First Century.
2. Shrestha, Laura B. Changing Demographic Profile of the United States. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, May 5, 2006. http://www.fas.org/sgf/crs/misc/RL32701.pdf
S. democracy. In 1998, the Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture at UCLA convened several middle-aged Latinos to discuss the Latino society in California while they were growing up. Born in the 1940s and 1950s, they remembered a much more segregated and exclusionary society than the one today, and the hurt remains: They described growing up in a situation in which being Latino was simply not validated. "Back then [1950s]... who cares? You're just a Mexican, you're a 'beaner,' you know, you're a 'greaser'" (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 14).
The Mexicans born after the war had a very different experience than their parents and grandparents. The children of the postwar era were mostly children of U.S.-born Mexicans and grew up in barrios populated almost completely by the U.S.-born residents (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 19)
Much did not change for the Mexicans from the 1940s to 1960s, with discrimination and…
Hayes-Bautista, David E. Latinos in the Golden State. Berkley: University of California Press, 2004.
Kowalski, Kathiann. Life in the Barrio. Cobblestone (2004) 25.5.
Menchaca, Martha. Mexican Outsiders. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. We feel the want of protection: The politics of law and race in California, 1848-1878. California History (2003) 81:3-4, 96(31).
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
172). Another man writes of his obvious charms to his female customers at the gift counter in a department store, and how he works the system and gets caught. There is something innocent about all these stories, even though the characters are not all innocent or even in some cases likable. However, just like the theme of the book, they show the melting pot that forms Chicano/a culture, and how so many different people and personalities make up these people. It also shows the view they have of one another, which is not always positive, and indicates again that all these writers are writing about people who are searching for their culture, their voice, and their purpose in a life that pulls them in two directions at once.
Finally, the New Departures section is the hope of the culture in the future. These beautiful works, which read more like fairy…
Garcia, C. 2006. Bordering fires: The vintage book of contemporary Mexican and Chicano/a literature. New York: Vintage Books.
Spanglish is a combination of Spanish and English, with each of these two languages having more or less of an influence on the final product depending on the circumstances. The speech of Spanghlish users involves them bringing together the two languages and creating a dialect that is not native to the country they inhabit. Spanglish is widely used in Hispanic communities in North America, as they prefer it as an intermediary dialect assisting them to connect with the English-speaking community.
Living in two cultures can have a strong impact on a person, as he or she gradually comes to switch back and forth between cultural values promoted in each of these respective environments. This is perfectly demonstrated by individuals speaking Spanglish, taking into account that they need to concentrate on adopting attitudes that enable them to improve their relationship to both English and Spanish-speaking communities.
Although Spanish plays an integral…
Betz, Regina M., "Chicana "Belonging" in Sandra Cisneros' The House on Mango Street," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://rmmla.innoved.org/ereview/SI2012/Betz.pdf
Canas, Alberto, "Spanglish: The Third Way," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://www.hokuriku-u.ac.jp/jimu/kiyo/kiyo25/209.pdf
Cisneros, Sandra, "The House on Mango Street," (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004)
Johnston, Bethany, "Code Switching as Spanglish," (GRIN Verlag, 14 Jan 2011)
Although the absolute magnitude of group differences on measures such as the BDI may appear moderate, the finding that 22% of troops deployed to the Persian Gulf reported at least mild levels of depression on the BDI compared to 9% of those who served stateside within the first year of such military duty is of clinical significance (p. 422)."
Amy B. Adler (1996), writing for Military Psychology, points out that soldiers experiencing the highest levels of combat stress were those exposed to dead troops and civilians, but exposure to their own fallen comrades, people with whom they had bonded, resulted in the highest levels of stress (p. 2).
The goals of the study were to identify the extent of PTS symptomatology following redeployment and to identify the relation between such symptoms and rank and type of traumatic exposure. It was hypothesized that soldiers who had been exposed to the most…
Adler, Amy B. "Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology among U.S. Soldiers Deployed to the Gulf War." Military Psychology 8.1 (1996): 1-14. Questia. 7 Mar. 2008
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…
Del Valle, Aracelis. "Garcia, Dr. Hector Perez." Learning to Give. Retrieved online: http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper99.html
Holley, Joe. "Hector Perez Garcia, 82, Dies; Led Hispanic Rights Group." The New York Times. 29 July 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/29/us/hector-perez-garcia-82-dies-led-hispanic-rights-group.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
"Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/justiceformypeople/
Kells, Michelle Hall. Hector P. Garcia: Everyday Rhetoric and Mexican-American Civil Rights. SIU Press, 2006.
Human development and evolution across all cultures mean that there will be a gap between older generations, who tend to cling to outdated ideals and paradigms, and younger generations, who tend away from the traditional and towards new developments. While there are merits in both positions, subscribers to each respective position seldom see the value in the viewpoint of the other. Hence, the conflicts that arise are often difficult to manage and impossible to overcome.
Such conflict is clearly portrayed in Nash Candelaria's "El Patron," and also to a degree in Oscar Hijuelos's "Visitors, 1965. n the former, the traditional viewpoint is represented by Lola's father, Senor Martinez, while the more progressive viewpoint is represented by the other three major characters in the story; Lola, her brother Tito, and her husband, the narrator of the story. The difference in viewpoints can be seen on a variety of platforms, including…
In "Visitors, 1965" on the other hand, the differences between respective generations, traditions, and paradigms are far more complex and multi-dimensional than in Candelaria's story. The story begins with an atmosphere of hope and joy as a result of Fidel Castro assuming power in Cuba. One of the main characters, Alejo, is a cook and the time, and chosen to be in charge of the dessert for Castro's visit to the United States. Alejo observes that "Only in America could a worker get so close to a fat little guy with enormous power" (295).
This event represents the difference in power relations as observed in the United States and in Cuba. The contrast is further strengthened as time increasingly reveals the suffering brought about by Castro's rule. American citizens have enough to eat and receive fair trials, along with humane treatment in prisons, while the same could not be expected in Cuba.
Another dichotomy is the one between cultures as represented by language. This is particularly embodied in the character of Hector. As the story progresses, so does Hector's feeling of displacement between cultures. He is not sufficiently confident to speak his native Spanish, nor is he happy in the United States, which he associates with feelings of loneliness and despair. He relates best to his displaced aunts and cousins from Cuba. In this way, the story offers a vision of the displaced and the necessity of adjustment amidst war and uncertainty.
History of Multi-Cultural America
Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America - Ronald Takaki
What was the result of the 1903 Supreme Court Lone Wolf Decision and the 190 Burke Act? The Lone Wolf Decision came about partly in response to a law passed by Congress in 1902. That law "accelerated the transfer of lands from Indians to whites," according to Takaki (237). The provisions of the 1902 law required that those who inherited the land must sell all allotted lands at public auctions - once the original owners had passed away. Basically, this meant that unless an Indian had the money to purchase their own family lands, they would lose what had been their property. The President (Theodore Roosevelt) was informed that this new law would ensure that all Indian lands will pass into the hands of settlers within a short few years.
But, notwithstanding this injustice, when Chief…
6) Why do you think the author named this chapter, "Through a Glass Darkly"? One can see that the tumultuous times following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor were "dark" times in more ways than one. First, the fear and loathing generated against Japan by the sneak attack on Hawaii was nearly universal and immediate among the American population. And secondly, it is a dark time indeed in American history when pure paranoia is the motivation for "interring" (e.g., placing in concentration camps) tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans. Even so-called responsible media members such as the LA Times (380) behaved with racist spite; "A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched," the Times editorialized. "So a Japanese-American, born of Japanese parents - grows up to be a Japanese, not an American."
7) To what was the NAACP responding when they said, "A Jim Crow army cannot fight for a free world"? Discuss the effect of the 1941 Executive Order 8802 on the U.S. labor force. The NAACP statement was responding to the fact that a) many blacks felt that they didn't really enjoy all the fruits of democracy in American anyway, so why would they shed their blood to "save democracy" from the Nazis; and b) while fighting for the U.S. In WWII blacks were in general assigned to segregated units because, according to the War Department, "social relationships" between blacks and whites had "been established...through custom and habit." Racial segregation is very much akin to Jim Crow laws from the South's history. When FDR instituted Executive Order #8802, it in effect allowed over a million blacks to take jobs in the defense industry during the war. But more than that, it set in motion the movement of many blacks from the South to better paying jobs in the industrial north.
8) List three (3) things you learned from your cross-cultural presentation and one (1) you learned from someone else's cross-cultural presentation.
"Reproductive labor includes activities such as purchasing household goods, preparing and serving food, laundering and repairing clothing, maintaining furnishings and appliances, socializing children, providing care and emotional support for adults, and maintaining kin and community ties."
While they are working hard with their employers, they are still working in their home especially those mothers who have children. They are expected to keep an eye with their kids, serve their husband and children, do the housekeeping, cook and do the laundry. There is only little time for rest.
The church believed that women especially Chicanas should satisfy and serve the priests and not only that they should be submissive to their husband. They should remain in the house and keep it safe, clean and in order all the time.
Chicana/Mexican were not allowed to become a leader, they cannot rule any organization especially in politics because they look at them as…
Krause, B. (Accessed: 2005) "The Economic Exploitation of Chicana Women: How personal struggles led to labor and community activism" [Online] Available at: http://www.wisc.edu/chicanastudies/BrookeKrause.htm
Knothe, N. (Accessed: 2005) "Where is the Recognition? - Chicanas: Reproductive Laborers" [Online] Available at: http://www.wisc.edu/chicanastudies/NicoleKnothe.htm
Vidal, M. (Accessed 2005) "Chicanas Speak Out - Women: New Voice of La Raza" NY: Pathfinder Press, 1971 [Online] Available at: http://latino.sscnet.ucla.edu/research/docs/chicanas/women.htm
Wikipedia (2005) "Chicanos" [Online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicana
Feet of Jesus, a Work of ealism
Helena Viramontes' book, From Under the Feet of Jesus, is a novel that explores the difficulties of life that Chicanos faced in the United States from the 1930's through the 1970's. Her work is an exercise in realism as it does not trivialize the trials of Chicano life with grand political statements or symbolism. Instead, it is a very clean portrait of a family and their friends who are all attempting, at times desperately, to live their lives in a land that, more often than not, does not want them there. A realist work find the truth paramount. Viramontes faithfully reconstructs life in a series of pictures, that puts a perspective of reality, of truth, and of hopefulness for a people long suffering in this nation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the elements of realism in Viramontes' book and…
Chicano! Episode Four: Fighting for Political Power." Galan, Hector; Morales, Sylvia; Racho, Susan; Moreno, Mylene & Cozens, Robert. Film. National Latino Communications Center, 1996.
Garrison, Chad. "Reporting 'The Other': A Challenge on Both sides of the Border" The IRE Journal Jan-Feb, 1999. v22. i1. p15.
Viramontes, Helene. From Under the Feet of Jesus. Chicago: Plume, 1996.
Rudolfo Anaya grew up in the New Mexico and much of his work reflects this upbringing. A popular theme in his fiction is the background of the state and the introduction of factors that can lead to human destruction: greed, lust, self-righteousness, deception, and connivance (Garcia 2000, p. 11). His short story "The Apple Orchard" is not exception to this. This is the story about a young boy named Isador who is in seventh grade as he struggles to come of age in his community. The first-person narrator has a father who values education. The themes of education and its importance is integral in Chicano literature. According to Hector Colderon (1999), it is extremely difficult to finish education in the Hispanic community, particularly if English is not your first language. He says, "Out of some thirty-plus students, three of us graduated from high school on time, a few others had…
Anaya, Rudolfo. (2006). The Apple Orchard. The Man Who Could Fly and Other Stories. 74-86.
Calderon, Hector and Jose David Saldivar. (1991). Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature.
Garcia, Nasario. (2000). Rudolfo Anaya. Platicas: Conversations with Hispanic Authors. 5-34.
This does not only apply in the case of someone interested in Native American culture, as it can also assist someone performing business with natives, concerning that the respective individual would know the attitudes that he needs to employ in order to make the partnership as effective as possible.
Lala Guerrero's song "No Chicanos on Tv" is meant to induce strong feelings in audiences as individuals acknowledge the fact that the contemporary society straightforwardly discriminates particular groups on account of their particularities. It is difficult to determine whether it is best to laugh or to cry when hearing the lyrics, as they are intense and sarcastic at the same time. When considering the humanities in general and their connection to this song, it appears that they are also directed at changing people's perception of certain communities. The song raises public awareness concerning the gravity associated with discriminating particular groups and…
Tortilla Curtain - by T.Coraghessan Boyle
The much-talked-about "American Dream" - that elusive dream of being able to own a house, raising educated and successful kids, earning middle class money, and most of all being accepted as a functioning part of the great diverse U.S. economic and social structure - is but an "American Myth" to many immigrants arriving in this country. It's certainly a myth for many thousands of Mexicans coming to the U.S. And attempting to carve out a better life for themselves. The Boyle novel offers readers a close-up, graphically realistic view of the hardships that confront those immigrants - juxtaposed with the "good life" of an affluent family living behind stylish walls.
This review of The Tortilla Curtain will compare and contrast the main characters in the novel - Delaney Mossbacker (and his wife Kyra) and Candido incon (and his wife America) - in order to…
Boyle, Coraghessan T. The Tortilla Curtain. New York: Viking, 1995.
Brzezinski, Steve. "The Tortilla Curtain." The Antioch Review. 54 (1996): 113-114.
Hicks, Heather J. "On Whiteness in T. Coraghessan Boyle's The Tortilla Curtain."
CRITIQUE: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 45 (2003): 43-65.
Like our genes, our native tongues are both unique and passed down from generation to generation. Native tongues are integral and inescapable parts of our personal and collective identity, like skin color or gender. Therefore, language can be a stigma, an indicator or race, ethnicity, and culture. In the book Borderlands: La Frontera, Gloria Anzaldua explores expressions of Chicano culture in America through an analysis of the language she calls Chicano Spanish. Chicano Spanish is a by-product of ways Tex-Mex peoples created a unique cultural heritage in the Southwestern United States. The author speaks about Chicano culture, race, and identity all as functions of language. In her essay "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," Gloria Anzaldua shows how language indicates personality, culture, and background more than any other aspect of self-expression. Therefore, we should be proud of our native tongue just as we should be proud of our culture,…
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
Tame a Wild Tongue
Language and Identity in Anzaldua How to Tame a Wild Tongue
How to Tame a Wild Tongue is a fascinating internal expose of the evolution and development of language among immigrants of Spanish linguistic heritage. Gloria Anzaldua recognizes herself as a "blended" individual who speaks and contributes to a myriad of native and blended languages that are all varied and regionally expressive of both native Mexican and other "Chicano" immigrants as well as many of this heritage which were born in the U.S. To new immigrants or second generation immigrants to the U.S. Or even some who were isolated linguistically from their mother tongue by political borders. The work is powerful and expressive; it also lends itself to an internalized (externalized) idea of self. Anzaldua specifically discusses the cultural connections and disconnections that are created by language and its evolution and also addresses issues of internal…
Anzaldua, G. (1993). "How To Tame a Wild Tongue." Ways of Reading: An Anthology for Writers. Eds. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston: Bedford, 39-48. Print.
Fought, C. (2008). "On the borderlands of communities: Taking linguistic research to la frontera." Plenary talk at-New Ways of Analyzing Variation 37?(NWAV-37), 8 November, Houston, Texas. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://nwav37.rice.edu/abstracts/Fought_Preston.pdf.
Lynch-Biniek, A. (Summer/Fall 2009) Filling in the blanks: They say, I say, and the persistence of formalism. The CEA Forum 38 (2) Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://www2.widener.edu/~cea/382lynchbiniek.htm.
Gloria Anzaldua has a wild tongue, a tongue that roams free from the confines of both formal English and formal Spanish. Anzaldua's wild tongue, which she describes in Borderlands: La Frontera in the chapter "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," is Chicano Spanish, a "border tongue which developed naturally" by immigrants from Mexico living in the United States. As Anzaldua notes, "wild tongues can't be tamed, they can only be cut out," (76). Yet to cut out Chicano Spanish would mean obliterating an entire culture and way of life. Chicano Spanish is essential to Chicano culture and Chicano Spanish is also essential to Anzaldua's identity. "Identity is the essential core of who we are as individuals, the conscious experience of the sale inside" (84). Gloria Anzaldua perceives language as an indicator for identity, culture, and gender differentiation and her essay effectively conveys how language is an essential component in…
As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…
All readings from: Augenbraum, Harold and Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader.. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Thomas, Piri. Down these Mean Streets. Vintage, 1997.
Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)
Introduction / Background History
Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.
Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating,…
Anonymous. "Piri Thomas" (2000). 09 December 2003. http://www.peacehost.com
Coeyman, M. "In a Largely Minority School, Literature Helps Students Confront Complex
Issues of Race and Culture" (2002). The Christian Science Monitor. 10 December 2003. http://www.csmonitor.com
Fisher, S. "Mean Streets Author Launches Latino Month" (2003). 10 December 2003. http://www.advance.uconn.edu/htm
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…
Pena, M. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women Gender and Society, 9, 32-47.
Pena, M. & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 620-629
Pineda-Madrid, N. (March 2005). Interpreting Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mediating the Christian Mystery of Redemption. Graduate Theological Seminary, Berkeley, CA,
Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On Mysticism, Latinas/os, and the Journey: A Reflection in Conversation with Mary Engel, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24, 178-183.
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
(Olivia C. Smith, 2002).
One of the leading political Chicana women today is Dolores Huerta; she is the co-founder of the First Vice President Emeritus which belongs to United Farm Workers of America. orn in April 10, 1930, she founded an organization namely Community Service Organization in 1955 and in 1960 she founded Agricultural Workers Association. Later on, she worked with Cesar Chavez and built an organization, National Farm Workers Association which name was changed to United Workers Organizing Committee and afterwards it became UFW in 1966. She made a contract between UFW and Schenley Wine Company for the farm workers who successfully bargained with an agricultural enterprise. Dolores directed a boycott the UFW's national grape for the farm workers to the consumers. In result for this boycott, California table grape industry signed a three years agreement with the United Farm Workers. She is highly politically active and against the…
Jandura, Tereza. Women in the Mexican Revolution. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-jand.htm#Soldaderas
Smith, Olivia C. 2002 Chicana Feminism http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/chicana.html
Wikipedia.com Maria Echaveste and Dolores Huerta www.wikipedia.comPath: Maria Echaveste, Dolores Huerta.
Learning a language: Gaining fluency in a language to be free
The acquisition of language is never a culturally neutral process. When someone learns his or her first or even a second language, that individual also acquires a status in the eyes of the world, based upon how that language is perceived. The race of the speaker, his or her perceived level of education, gender, and race all interact with the stereotypes that exist in the gazer's mind. In Christine Marin's essay "Spanish Lessons," Marin chronicles how her unsteadiness in Spanish did not initially bother her, given the fact that she grew up in a society that prized whiteness. Gradually, as she grew older and her attitude towards her heritage changed, her lack of fluency in her native tongue became a burden. Similarly, Malcolm X was forced to grapple with his complex relationship with the English language. On one hand,…
Language defines identity, and creates boundaries between self and other. In Borderlands: The New Mestiza, Gloria Anzaldua refers to the "broken" and "forked" tongues that represented the boundaries and intersections of social, cultural, racial, ethnic, and gender identities. The roots of sociolinguistic hypotheses of language suggest that at the very least, language impacts the social construction of reality, as well as psychic self-perception. According to Noam Chomsky, language use is a type of "organized behavior" that is both a cause and effect of reality (2). The study of language structure and function "can contribute to an understanding of human intelligence," (Chomsky xiv). Chomsky goes so far as to suggest that language precedes cognition in some cases, by stating that, "the study of language structure reveals properties of mind that underlie the exercise of human mental capacities in normal activities," including the use of language as a creative mechanism, form, and…
Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza -- La Frontera. Aunt Lute, 1999.
Chomsky, Noam. Language and Mind. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Hudson, Richard A. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Sapir, Edward. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1921.
Motivation of Writing Poetry
According to Benjamin Saenz
Why Poetry: the Definition and Motivation of Writing Poetry According to Benjamin Saenz
In his narrative at the end of Elegies in Blue, Benjamin Saenz says that when he first started writing poetry, he was "learning a new language" (Saenz 1, 95), and in his essay, Meditations on Writing: A Novena, he says that "every language is a way of translating the world, and that no language translates the world without a particular bias" (Saenz 2, para. 31). The act of writing poetry, therefore, is an attempt to translate the world and one's experience within the world via a particular language; while the motivation to write poetry stems from an innate desire to communicate experience.
Whose experience? In Elegies Saenz endeavors to communicate his own experience, as well as that of his family and fellow Chicano countryman. "I live on the border,"…
Saenz, B. (2002). Elegies in Blue. El Paso. Cinco Puntos Press.
Saenz, B. (2010). Meditations on Writing: A Novina. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from http://www.benjaminaliresaenz.com/essays.php
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
Daniel, Cletus E. Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farm workers, 1870-1941. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.
he United Farm Workers of America Website praised Cletus E. Daniel's book Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farm workers, 1870-1941 as "well-researched," (accessed at http://www.holtlaborlibrary.org/ufw.html, last modified September 2003). he Journal of San Diego History's book reviewer Lawrence J. Jelinek also praised the sensitivity of the work, as well as its comprehensive nature. (Accessed at http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/83fall/,1983, website last modified September 2003) hese reviews both testify to the work's sympathetic treatment of early American labor history as well as its attempt to provide a sweeping view of the California labor movement.
However, none of these reviewers stress what is the most interesting and important part of Daniel's book, which is his stress upon how little Franklin Delano Roosevelt's so-called New Deal benefited ordinary farm workers. Daniels shows how the New Deal was…
The United Farm Workers of America Website praised Cletus E. Daniel's book Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farm workers, 1870-1941 as "well-researched," (accessed at http://www.holtlaborlibrary.org/ufw.html, last modified September 2003). The Journal of San Diego History's book reviewer Lawrence J. Jelinek also praised the sensitivity of the work, as well as its comprehensive nature. (Accessed at http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/83fall/,1983 , website last modified September 2003) These reviews both testify to the work's sympathetic treatment of early American labor history as well as its attempt to provide a sweeping view of the California labor movement.
However, none of these reviewers stress what is the most interesting and important part of Daniel's book, which is his stress upon how little Franklin Delano Roosevelt's so-called New Deal benefited ordinary farm workers. Daniels shows how the New Deal was only a New Deal for some Americans, disproportionately benefiting those who lived on the East Coast and selectively benefiting only certain farmers and farm workers, usually only large, land-owning, and labor-controlling farmers. Daniels additionally adds a very important 'racial' component to his analysis of the New Deal. Chicano farm workers in particular were not protected by protective legislation passed in the 1930's because they were often not naturalized citizens or simply did not own any land, unlike the small and large property owners New Deal legislation was designed to protect.
To prove his thesis, Daniels does not simply review the lives of Chicano farm workers of the era. He examines the legislation passed during the New Deal in detail, regarding subsidies to farmers, and also contemporary, primary source accounts of the history of farming in America and how owners were more able to resist the protections offered by unionization for laborers. Daniels shows that the Chicano contribution to the labor movement in America is not recent, but can be traced back to the 19th century. This is evidenced by the personal testimonials, both written and photographic, accessed by the author. Although Daniel's prose is not always easy to read, his thesis is an important reminder for an America that still remains dependant upon transient and immigrant labor to provide its West and East coasts, as well as the world, with food from farms.
Chicana/O Art Affects Private and Public Space
Public arts became the most noticeable form of Chicana/o art, starting from the 60's. Signs from the Heart: California Chicano Murals editors, Eva Cockcroft and Holly Barnet-Sanchez, state that an artwork that is truly "public" offers society a symbolic illustration of its collective beliefs, together with a continued reassertion of its collective self-image. The movement's artistic expressions include posters, murals, street processions, performances, and films (Chicano Art). Modernist art's early tendency was presenting subjective experience, in addition to stressing its value in a way that has never been done before (Butler, 2010 page51). Prominent artists from that era, who had taken over from the latter part of the nineteenth century and had a focus on the part played by symbolism, imagery, the unconscious, and dreams, were always inclined to give preference to individual self-realization. Furthermore, they employed epiphany and intuitive, imaginative ways of…
"Artwork -- Festival of Masks Parade." LA Metro Home -- Getting Started. Web. 20 Feb 2016. .
Butler, Christopher. Modernism: A Very Short Introduction. N.p.: Oxford UP, 2010. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. .
Butler, Christopher. Postmodernism: A Very Short Introduction. N.p.: Oxford UP, 2002. Web. 20 Feb. 2016.
However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.
On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…
Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.
Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.
King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas" http://www.umich.edu/~historyj/pages_folder/articles/Iconography_and_Stereotype.pdf (Accessed May 3, 2010)
Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
.. hungry, cold.... The big problem is poverty. I spend 50% of my time taking care of them other than teaching, and this includes downtime because of behaviors such as fistfights, tantrums, aggression. (Harry, Klingner & Hart, 2005, esearch and design section ¶ 8)
Hispanic Males//Females Educational Pursuits
Although Hispanic females frequently outperform Hispanic males, cultural values that limit the range of school choices and career paths, frequently restrict the females to opportunities to access higher education. In addition, many Latina/o students, male and female, do not recognize that higher education currently constitutes a financially feasible, realistic option for them (Dosal, 2008, ¶ 5).
Erica Tortorella (2009) reports in "EACH prep program helps boost Latino presence in private education," that the fact Hispanics and other minority groups are underrepresented in private schools throughout the U.S. reveal that minority students, at all member schools account for only 21.9% of total enrollment.…
Anonymous. (2005). The health, education and welfare of Hispanics. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Bergstrom, C.A., & Heymann, S.J. (2005). Impact of gender disparities in family carework on women's life chances in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(2), 267+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009876863
Casado, M.A., & Dereshiwsky, M.I. (2007). Cultural diversity in higher education: Implications for hospitality programs. Education, 128(2), 294+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5025695726
In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…
Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.
Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
It has been reported that due to the economic disparity the available opportunities have been inaccessible for the minority groups, and therefore such initiatives are important to be formulated which facilitate the minority groups in their quest to reach the mark. Affirmative Action is incorporated once the society has failed to materialize the society value equality and fairness. Affirmative Action are installed only to regret the failure on the behalf of the state to ensure equality and justice to the people irrespective of the racial, sexual, ethnic and religious divisions, therefore the Affirmative Action has diluted the heavily concentrated ethnic and racial vigor, and has subdue the negative fallout of such practices. Affirmative Action has brought ultimate relief to those particular elements of the society which were previously ignored, and whose existence was previously deplored in the society. The American society has although benefit from the implementation of the Affirmative…
James P. Sterba. Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. Journal Title: Stanford Law Review. Volume: 57. Issue: 2. 2004
Ronald Dworkin. A Matter of Principle. McGraw-Hill. pp. 294-303. 1985.
Randall Kennedy. Persuasion and Distrust: A Comment on the Affirmative Action Debate. Thomson South-Western Publication. 1987. pp. 165-180
Jed Rubenfeld. Affirmative Action. Yale Law Journal. Volume: 107. Issue: 2. 1997. pp. 213-230. Yale University, School of Law Publication.
The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.
Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…
Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.
Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.
Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.
Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
The bulk of the Cuban community in exile in Miami focuses on its white contingency. Afro-Cubans have a second-class status there, and their patterns of migration have been much different than they have for white Cuban refugees and immigrants. As Newby & Dowling (2007) note, recent Afro-Cuban immigrants have settled in various other places in the United States including the Southwest, where there are already entrenched Chicano communities and African-American communities. Afro-Cubans do not fit into the Chicano communities, the communities with other white Latinos, or the African-American communities. Language presents one of the most significant cultural barriers and identity markers distinguishing the AfroCubans from the African-Americans. Although they share some common ethnic heritage and ancestral experiences of racism, slavery, and political oppression, centuries have passed since their cultures demonstrated divergent trajectories. With regards to white Latinos in the Southwest such as Austin and Albuquerque, race raises serious…
"Effects of Heroin Use." (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.heroinabuse.us/effects.html
National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA 2010). InfoFacts: Heroin. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/heroin
American English is incredible malleable and diverse, and it would be a mistake to impose artificial rules. Not only would it be a mistake, it could even be construed as racist. The imaginary Correct English (whether Oxford or Webster-based prescriptive grammatical rules) is one that is clearly defined by the white upper-class hegemony in higher education. As Deresiewicz (2005) states, "there is no such thing as Correct English, and there never has been." Dialects and accents are a sign that the language is alive. Language reflects subculture and social identity, and can allow for the vivid expression of ideas that would be severely restricted if there were only one Correct English.
Language is a form of cultural capital. Therefore, "stigmatized forms" of language such as edneck or African-American speech, are "typically those used by social groups other than the educated middle classes -- professional people, including those in law,…
Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/socialsetting/
Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/prestige/crossing/
Deresiewicz, W. (2005). You talkin' to me? The New York Times. Jan 9, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/09/books/review/09DERESIE.html?_r=2&pagewanted=print&position=
Finegan, E. (n.d.). State of American. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/prescriptivism/
Race and Music: Richie Valens
In the past, an individual's culture would dominate whether or not he or she could have any kind of financial success outside of fans of that particular culture. However, there have been a few musical artists who have been able to transcend the limitations of their culture and become what would be considered mainstream performers. These people are extraordinary in that not only were they able to achieve great success, but were able to do so without sacrificing the integrity of their heritages. One of the first successful Latin or Chicano artists to achieve mainstream success in the United States was Richie Valens, born Ricardo Esteban Valenzuela Reyes. This man introduced 1950s America to the sounds of Latin and Hispanic culture and incorporated Spanish language into popular songs which became big hits in America among Hispanic and white audiences as well. hat is particularly remarkable…
Lehmer, Larry (2004). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper,
and Richie Valens. Schirmer: New York, NY.
"Son Jarocho Music." (2011). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/son_jarocho_789/en_US
Hispanic-Americans during World War II, and looks at the educational profile, in terms of learning styles, preferred fields of study, and outcomes.
Hispanic-Americans have fought in every war that the U.S. has fought, in the 20th and 21st centuries, including the two great wars, and the two Gulf wars (ean and Tienda, 1988). During these tours of duty, Hispanic-Americans have received 38 Congressional Medals of Honor: this is a high number, according to the percentage of Hispanic citizens in the U.S. population, and makes Hispanic-Americans, proportionately, the largest single ethnic group to receive this honor (Stone, 2000; Sanchez-Korroll, 1983). During World War II, 400,000 Americans of Hispanic descent fought, including citizens of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Spanish, and South and Central American descent. Indeed, relative to their representation in the U.S. population as a whole, Hispanic-Americans contribute a disproportionately high number of military enlistees.
Yet, despite the fact that these…
Bean, F.D., and Tienda, M. (1988). The Hispanic Population of the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Sanchez-Korrol, V. (1983). From Colonia to Community. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Stone, K. (2000). Latinos In War. The American Military Experience. Goals 2000 - Partnerships for Educating Colorado Students.
Suchlicki, J. (1986). Cuba: From Columbus to Castro. Washington: Pergammon.
homosexual latinos: the difficulties latinos face in being homosexual; the differences between homosexual latinos and Caucasian homosexuals; how latino homosexuals are treated within their communities, by their families, and within their countries of origin; and how homosexual latinos are treated within Latin America as a whole.
People have argued that homosexuality is part of the latino culture, and has been since pre-Columbian time, as records from pottery, and accounts from conquistadors of the Aztecs' behavior confirms. As the following quote, from a website championing gay and lesbian rights, shows, "homosexuality is a part of the pre- Columbian history of America. Spanish chroniclers observed various socio-sexual roles, including private same-sex relationships, and homosexuality as public ritual. Surviving effigy pottery demonstrates that Native people practiced a wide array of sexual customs. Among the militaristic and prudish Aztecs, sex also had a religious aspect. Xochiquetzal was considered the goddess of eroticism and sexual…
Marsiglia (1998). Homosexuality and Latinos/as: Towards and Integration of Identities. Journal of Gay and lesbian Social Services 8(3): 113-125. http://www.hivtest.org/docs/factslatino.pdf "HIV / AIDS among latinos: key facts." Accessed 26th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/brazil.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Brazil." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/mexico.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Mexico." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.geocities.com/eltejanito/gaylhis.htm" Gay and Lesbian History, and "Dia de la Raza." Accessed 29th November 2003. http://www.blacklightonline.com/gaylatinos.html " Gay Latinos, "La Raza" and the new "Familia." Article by Sidney Brinkley. Accessed on 27th November 2003.
And it is the tragedy of not knowing that Marin imagines in the story's last paragraph, when she envisions the family he left behind in Mexico as they "wonder, shrug, remember" the pretty boy who vanished and was "never heard from…again."
Cisneros arranges "Geraldo No Last Name" around two basic structural facts. One is the filtering of the story through Marin's consciousness, so that the subject of the story is not really Geraldo's brief life and death -- it is about what somebody like Marin thinks about when she contemplate somebody like Geraldo. And the second fact is, of course, the emphasis given to the different elements of what Marin considers: in some sense, the sad fact of Geraldo's death is subsidiary to the sad facts of his actual life as an illegal worker in a foreign country, who will die without ever seeing his family again. The fact that…
Cisneros, Sandra. "Geraldo No Last Name." In Wyrick, Jean. Steps to Writing Well. New York: Cengage, 2013. Print.
Cruz, Felicia J. "On the 'Simplicity' of Sandra Cisneros's House on Mango Street." Modern Fiction Studies 47:4 (2001): 910-946. Print.
Harlow, Barbara. "Sites of Struggle: Immigration, Deportation, Prison and Exile." In Calderon, Hector and Saldivar, Jose David, (Editors) Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture, and Ideology. Raleigh-Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…
Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Meng and Meurs (2009) examine the effects of intermarriage, language, and economic advantage. They find that immigrants who have some skill in the dominant language of the country to which they immigrate tend to intermarry and earn more income (Meng and Meurs). Marrying outside of one's culture may influence language acquisition due to social and economic needs to advance within the adopted culture.
Moua and Lamborn (2010) note that ethnic socialization practices by parents of immigrant adolescents strengthen the ethnic heritage connection between adolescent, parent, and ethnic community. These include native language use, marriage ties, taking part in cultural events, sharing history, and preparing traditional foods (Moua and Lamborn). As noted previously, immigrant parents tend to congregate in ethnic communities, where they are essentially immersed in the ethnic culture. The native language is often the most utilized if not the exclusive language in the home. However, children are acculturated into…
Akresh, I. "Contexts of English Language Use among Immigrants to the United States." International Migration Review (2007): 930-955.
Bacallao, M and P. Smokowski. "The Costs of Getting Ahead: Mexican Family System Changes After Immigration." Family Relations (2006): 52-66.
Blatchley, L and M. Lau. "Culturally Competent Assessment of English Language Learners for Special Education Services." Communique: Newspaper of National Association of School Psychologists May 2010: 1-8.
Bleakley, H and A. Chin. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants." American Economic Journal of Applied Economics (2010): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813069/pdf/nihms-132959.pdf .
The conflict between Sara and her father mirrors that of Ana and her mother. Reb and Carmen both try to control and manipulate their daughters by appealing to traditional cultural values. Gender is at the heart of their struggle, as gender norms are critical to their old-fashioned worldviews. Interestingly, there are traditionalists in both Bread Givers and in Real Women Have Curves who retain their ethnic identities while promoting gender equality. For example, Ana's grandfather relays a tale about a treasure-filled mountain in Mexico. He tells the tale to a captivated Ana before telling her that he wants Ana to "find her gold" too. Ana's father and grandfather support her academic achievements and want her to take advantage of the scholarship. In Bread Givers, Sara meets another traditional Polish-American. Although Hugo is not Jewish, he and Sara bond over their cultural identity and prove that ethnic pride does not need…
And Vela-Gude's article offers several of the main points of this paper's research; the services must be ready, and the counselors must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the cultural implications as well as the academic realities facing those Latino students (2009).
Racism Against Latinos
This paper alludes to the high number of Latinos in California and Texas, but according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's research, the South is home to one of the "fastest growing populations of Latinos in the country" (Bauer, et al., 2009, p. 4). But though the typical Latino immigrant comes to the South to escape "crushing poverty in their home countries" they often encounter "…widespread hostility, discrimination and exploitation" (Bauer, 2009, p. 4).
hat kinds of discrimination do Latinos come up against in the South? Mary Bauer and her chief researcher, Sarah Reynolds, claim that Latinos are "…routinely cheated out of their earnings…
Barneclo, Nick Anthony. (2008). El Laberinto del exito: A Mixed methods investigation of resilience within the context of Mexican-American late adolescents lives. Dissertation at New Mexico State University in Counseling Psychology. ProQuest Publication Number:
Cannon, Edward, and Levy, Marielle. (2008). Substance-Using Hispanic Youth and Their
Families: Review of Engagement and Treatment Strategies. The Family Journal: Counseling
espondents challenged that the LSA has just such an interest in the educational benefits that result from having a racially and ethnically diverse student body and that its program is narrowly tailored to serve that interest. The court ruled for the respondents as to the LSA's current admissions guidelines and granted them summary judgment in that respect. The court also held that the LSA's admissions guidelines for 1995 through 1998 operated as the functional equivalent of a quota running afoul of Justice Powell's Bakke opinion, and thus granted petitioners summary judgment with respect to respondents' admissions programs for those years (Gratz v Bollinger, (02-516) 539 U.S. 244, 2003).
Affirmative action continues to be a topic of controversy in America's political and legal arenas. Bakke touched on the question, settling only the narrower issue of racial quotas in admissions to state supported schools and leaving later cases to test the propriety…
Blum, Edward. (2009). Deciphering Grutter V. Bollinger. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Web site:
Equal protection. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Cornell University Law School
Web site: http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/Equal_protection