Chicano Studies Essays (Examples)

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Chicano Affordable Housing in the

Words: 2779 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31936798

Through the examination of land use in a given area, local government can locate areas of large urban cities where homelessness and poverty are high, and can thus develop assistance programs in areas that require such assistance (Ahn, 6). For example, areas that have high populations but little affordable housing can be identified, in order for funds to be appropriated to those areas, as needed.

Impact of acism on Housing Accessibility

In spite of federal and local housing assistance, the number of homeless individuals in the U.S. shows clearly there are still issues in the public and private housing markets. One such issue of particular concern for the Mexican-American community is that of racism. acism affects the quality of housing available, the rates for housing, access to education, and even the backing sector.

First, racism affects the quality of housing within any given area. According to one study, current practices…… [Read More]

References

Ahn, SoEun. "Historical Trends and Projections of Land Use." National Dept of Agriculture Report 530. Washington, D.C.: National Forest Service (2003): 5-15.

Burt, Martha. Helping America's Homeless. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2001.

Camarillo, Albert. "Hispanics in a Multi-Cultural Society." America Becoming. Washington, D.C.:

National Academic Press (2001): 103-134.
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Chicano Movement Was One of Numerous Movements

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68293770

Chicano Movement was one of numerous movements for human rights and social justice that took place and reach great heights in American during the 1960s. The Chicano people were and are Mexican-Americans. Mexican-Americans advocated and organized so that there experiences and voices would be heard and respected. They, like many other groups fighting for justice and freedom in America, protested, demonstrated, held vigils, rallies, sang songs, and confronted the politicians that supposedly represented them and their interests. The Chicano Movement, like many other social movements in American and in the world, additionally was about the creative expression of people from this group. There were musicians, poets, writers, and fine artists of all kinds that were motivated and inspired by the struggles of their Chicano brothers and sisters. They created art and other forms of creative expression during this movement and as part of this movement, too. The Chicano Movement fundamentally…… [Read More]

References:

Farager, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A History of the American people, Volume 2, 5th Edition. Upper Salle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chapter 29: "The politics of identity," 837 -- 843.
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Chicano Latino Community According to the

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90592402

This growing population group surely has much more to offer than service industry work.

Once again, the Texas community sets an example not only in leadership, but also in the possibilities of uplifting educational opportunities for the Latino community. Indeed, the Texas program is driven by the Latino community itself, with intellectuals setting examples in leadership and education that can only be inspiring to their peers and to future generations. At Texas a&M, a university research center has been proposed that would serve to not only honor the contributions of Latino leaders to the culture, but also to educate and inspire future generations of this population.

Another issue within the same category is the fact that many different cultures exist within the Hispanic community. As seen above, the name "Latino" refers to many different population types, all of which are predominantly panish speaking. This issue is not to be overlooked…… [Read More]

Sources

NHLBI Information Center. "Latino Community Profile." Bethesda, MD. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/heart/latino/lat_dcd.htm

Aggie Daily." Top Latino Leader Examine Critical Issues for Future of Latinos." Texas a&M University, 2003. http://www.tamu.edu/aggiedaily/news/stories/03/052003-5.html
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Chicano Community Housing Crisis Chicano

Words: 2117 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23847331

This committee works in conjunction with Land Use and Control Committees that oversee the best us of the land within the community. These two committees work together with local special interest groups to help assure that community resources are utilized for the greatest benefit of the people. Different communities call these committees by different names, but the purpose of the committees is always the same.

Anti-discrimination laws make it a crime to discriminate against a person for reasons of their race or religion. However, just because the laws exist does not mean that the problem is nonexistent. Race can be a defining characteristic of a community. Race can be the basis for community culture and community pride. People are often proud of their race and the cultural heritage that it embodies. However, stereotypes often stand in the way of getting fair treatment as far as housing is concerned.

Many see…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eisenberg, P. Time to Remove the Rose-Colored Glasses. March/April 2000. ShelterForce Issue

110.  http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/110/eisenberg.html . Accessed March 23, 2007.

Hon. Senator Murray. Supporting the Latino Community. 2006. http://murray.senate.gov/latino/index.cfm Accessed March 23, 2007.

Lockyer, B. SHA Battles to Save County Affordable Housing Program. April/May 2005. SAC
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Chicano Mexican American Culture

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52419715

Chicano/Mexican Culture History In the United States: Conflict and Assimilation in the Contemporary American Society

American society is described by many historians and social scientists to be a "melting pot" of cultures, and pseudo-societies of people with different races and nationalities. This is because throughout the years that America had been established as a stable political and economic society, a sudden influx of migration occurred, resulting to the arrival of numerous displaced people from all over the world. The surge in immigration in the United States are caused by the two world wars, which happened in during the early 1920s (World War I) and 1940s (World War II).

In effect, there has been immigration of German Jews, Asian nationals, and even the country's nearest neighbors, Spanish-speaking nationals from Central and South America. Among these Spanish-speaking nationals were the Mexicans, who were forced to leave their country to find better opportunities…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Douglas, M. (1990). Thrown among strangers: The Making of Mexican culture in frontier California. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Saldivar, J. (1997). Border Matters: Remapping American Cultural Studies. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Salvador, R. (2003). Are Chicanos the same as Mexicans? Iowa State University. Available at http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rjsalvad/scmfaq/chicano.html.

Tatum, C. (2001). Chicano Popular Culture. University of Arizona Press. Available at http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/samples/sam1406.htm.
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Chicano Identity in Literature Culture in My

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72503356

Chicano Identity in Literature

Culture

In "My Name" by Sandra Cisneros, the principle character's name is Esperanza. Esperanza's problem, at first, seems only to be displeasure with her name. She is certainly displeased with her name. She is disappointed with the meaning of her name in her native tongue, Spanish. She is frustrated and perplexed with the persistent difficulty that Americans have pronouncing her Chicana name. Esperanza wishes she could be lucky, like her sister, who can come home and have a different name, a prettier name, an easier name than her proper first name.

As the story progresses, readers learn that Esperanza's central problem is greater than her name. Her problem is with the history and the legacy of her name. She was named after her grandmother. Esperanza is somewhat conflicted about her connection and her similarities with her grandmother. One on hand, she does not like her name,…… [Read More]

References:

Baugh, S.L. (ed) (2006) Mediating Chicana/o Culture: Multicultural American Vernacular. Cambridge Scholars Press: Cambridge, UK.

Bernal, D.D. (2002) Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemologies: Recognizing Students of Color as Holds and Creators of Knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105 -- 126.

Cuadraz, G.H. (2005) Chicanas and Higher Education: Three Decades of Literature and Thought. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 4(3), 215 -- 234.

Deutsch, S. (1994) Gender, Labor History, and Chicano/a Ethnic Identity. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 14(2), 1 -- 22.
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Chicano -- Mexican Civil Rights

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19544758

Because Chavez also deployed faith and prayer in achieving his goal, he was able to fuse the Christian religion that was so important to the farm workers into a vital element of the Chicano movement in a way that advanced rather than impeded its political struggles.

Part 3, entitled "Taking Back the Schools," brings an urban dimension to the struggle for Chicano rights. The high drop out rate, crumbling buildings, lack of Mexican-American teachers all mobilized Latino and Latina students to walk out of their schools in 1968. They demanded better conditions under which to realize their education, and although not all of the urban ills were addressed by their collective action, this act provides an important reminder of the ability of young people in urban circumstances to use their anger for political rather than self-destructive means.

Part 4, "Fighting for Political Power," concludes the book. It describes the creation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rosales, Franciso Arturo. Chicano! The History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. New York, 1996
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History of the Chicano in

Words: 1417 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16211948

More precisely, this notion may be interpreted as being a certain de facto acceptance of the Mexican population as part of the American cultural heritage. There are many discriminatory criteria which have marked the history of the United States. The nationality and the family descent was often a reason for social exclusion. Therefore, the identification of Mexicans as being Americans as well represented an important step in their integration in the society.

The notion of "Latino" has often been used especially in recent history to define "people originating from, or having a heritage related to, Latin America, in recognition of the fact that this set of people is actually a superset of many nationalities. Since the term "Latin" comes into use as the least common denominator for all peoples of Latin America in recognition of the fact that some romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, French) is the native tongue of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

California Historical Eras. N.d. 6 March 2008  http://calrepublic.tripod.com/history.html#californio 

Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California. A History of Mexican-Americans in California: The Chicano Movement. 2004. 6 March 2008 http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/5views/5views5e.htm

Immigration. Becoming Part of the United States. 2005. 6 March 2008. http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/alt/mexican2.html

Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
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Diversity Segregation Desegregation and Integration of Chicano

Words: 363 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70671316

Diversity

Segregation, Desegregation and Integration of Chicano Students

The article, "Segregation, Desegregation, and Integration of Chicano Students: Old and New ealities" by ichard . Valencia et al., covers the desegregation and integration of Chicano students in America's schools from the first known practices in the 1840's through the present times. Chicano children actually had more educational opportunities than blacks, and they enjoyed segregated schools well before the turn of the 20th century. What is more interesting, is that Chicanos have tended to remain segregated in schools around the nation, while blacks have managed to achieve a high percentage of desegregation. In most cases, there are fewer Chicano students in white schools today than there were in the 1960s. As the author's note, "The more dramatic and largely ignored [segregation] trends are those affecting Latinos'" (Valencia et al. 74). Unfortunately, these trends affect the schools, the education available to Chicano students,…… [Read More]

References

Valencia, Richard R., et al. "Segregation, Desegregation, and Integration of Chicano Students: Old and New Realities."
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Borderlands and Chicano Culture Mexican-Americans

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89188957

Cotton must be picked within a very narrow harvest time. If it is not harvested when the time is right much of the production will be lost. It was the intent of the workers to time the strike so that it would have the greatest impact on owners in hopes that it would force them to raise wages for workers. However, many of the owners did not see the migrant workers as American citizens and treated them much as slaves were treated in the old South. They used tear-gas, saw-off shotguns, and arrested workers that participated in the strike (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121).

Schools were closed and children were used to make up for the lost workforce. They also recruited cotton pickers from Texas to fill the labor gap (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 128). These substitutions reduced the impact of the strike and many migrants lost their positions as a result. The strike…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Guerin-Gonzales, C. Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration,

Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ. 1994.

Hamilton, N. Central American Migration: a Framework for Analysis. Latin American Research Review. Vol. 26. No. 1. 1991. pp. 75-94.

Sanchez, G. Becoming Mexican-American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945. Oxford University Press. New York.
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Race and Racism in the

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40048270



3.

According to Yosso, "Vincent Tinto's Stages of Passage" model argues that students engage in three processes early on in college: separation, transition and incorporation. However, in the Esmeralda section of Yosso's book, where Esmeralda narrates the story, one discovers that this is really just a specific formulation of stages geared to focus on the experiences of white students and doesn't at all encapsulate the very unique and very distinct experience of minority students. Esmeralda's first stage refers to the imminent culture shock that Chicana/o students are met with when they experience life on a college campus (Yosso, 125). The culture, lifestyle, and expectations turn out to be drastically, different from what they are used to. The second stage devised refers to the act of building up a sense of community among the Chicana/o and other ethnic minority students to help them combat the sense of racism they experience on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calfeti, Jessica. Arizona Bans Ethnic Studies. 12 May 2010. Website. 16 May 2012.

FBI.gov. Hate Crimes. 2012. Website. 16 May 2012.

Haney-Lopez, Ian. Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2003. Print.

Yosso, Tara. Critical race counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. New York: Routledge Publishers, 2006. Print.
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Race Class and Gender

Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80454724



In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.

Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.

Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
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Strategic Diversity Management

Words: 5944 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71605051

Strategic Diversity Management

Diversity management is a stratagem which contributes actively in encouraging the conception, recognition and implementation of diversity in the operations of different corporations and institutions. This whole notion has its roots in the idea that diversity is the only means of enriching lives of innumerable people by ensuring equal rights, positive behaviour and a fair attitude to all and sundry. Individuals are often dissimilar in terms of age group, societal history and environment, sex, sexual preferences, fitness in reference to psychological and physical health. In addition to that, religion and matters of faith are also important aspect in determining the individuality of any human. Diversity management is basically the acceptance and appreciation of likeness and dissimilarities amongst the entire staff. This holds consequential importance when being considered at the time of planning policies, procedures and planning allotment of resources.

Diversity is usually described as recognizing, comprehending, appreciating,…… [Read More]

References

Agocs, C. & Burr, C. (1996), 'Employment equity, affirmative action and managing diversity: assessing the differences', International Journal of Manpower, vol.17, no.4 pp.30-45, April-May,

Cox, T. 1993, Cultural Diversity in Organisations: Theory, Research and Practice, Berrett-

Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.

Esty, Katharine, Richard Griffin, and Marcie Schorr-Hirsh (1995). Workplace diversity. A manager's guide to solving problems and turning diversity into a competitive advantage. USA
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California Law

Words: 3080 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15605385

population of California underwent dramatic changes in the last 60 years. In the 1940s, the Latinos were a minority of only 6% of the state or roughly 374,000 (autista 1991). ut by 1980, the Latino population grew to 4 million, almost doubling the figure and increased to more than 7 million in the 90s. In the 2000s, Latinos accounted for a third of California's total population, creating huge political, economic and social impact upon its entire society (autista). esides sheer volume, the continuously increasing Latino population has developed the distinct feature. efore the 60s, immigrants were rare and less than 20% of these Latinos were foreign born, most of them from Northern Mexico. Immigration, however began to fill the ranks since the 80s so that, today, the majority of adult Latinos in California are immigrants. These developments are among the most important criteria to social and demographic policy makers in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

California Labor and Workforce Development Agency. (2004). 1975 Agricultural Labor Relations Act. Agricultural Labor Relations Board. http://www.alrb.ca.gov

Democrats Assembly. (2004). Measure to Prohibit Employers from Locking In Their Workers Passes Assembly. California State Assembly. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/template/ademmain.sp?articleid=122&zoneid=2

Full Assembly Approves Proposed Increase in the State's Minimum Wage. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/templates/ademmain.asp?articleid=106&zoneid=2

House of Representatives. ((1998). Hearing on the Failures and Promises of the California Garment Industry. 105th Congress, Subcommittee on Oversight Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, serial 105-110. http://commdocs.gov/committee/edu/hedo&i5-110.html
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Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Words: 2063 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37920764

Feminine Pedagogy and Critical Theory

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

"We are living in a period of profound challenges to traditional Western epistemology and political theory" that are in evidence in every aspect of modern life, and that are especially profound in the field of education (Weiler, 2003). The single most profound aspect of these epistemological, social, and political changes is based in the ironic history of postmodernist movements: An oppressed group may not understand the roots of their disenfranchised position, nor be able to conceptualize ways to address what appears to be a normative condition. Tacit agreement exists among powerful or influential contingents that their worldview is to be dominant. Although certainly not universal, there is an enduring social undercurrent that tolerates oppression when it benefits one class of people over another, particularly when the social majority identifies with or strives to become a member of the powerful group. Indeed,…… [Read More]

References

Brady, J. (2003). Critical literacy, feminism, and a politics of representation. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 142-153). Retreived http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Liberation-Paths-

Freire, P. (1970, 1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury Press.

Giroux, H. (1983). Critical Theory and Educational Practice. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University.

Gaudino, E.G. And de Alba, A. (2003). Freire -- present and future possibilities. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 123-134). Retreived http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Liberation-Paths-
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Intended to Provide an Overview of the

Words: 1896 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79949184

intended to provide an overview of the individuals and movements who played important part in Chicano movement

Chicano movement is one of the most eminent chapters in the history of Mexican-Americans. The Chicano movement reflects a decade's long pursuit of Mexican-Americans for their rights. Although it has its roots in 1800s, the movement grew stronger in 1940s. In order to understand what Chicano movement really is, one needs to understand the past events leading to it. It is a common saying in Mexican-Americans that we did not crossed the borders, the border crossed us. There have been several treaties signed between Mexicans and Americans which provided a lot of benefits to Mexicans along with citizenship, however when the senate revised these treaties, all these leverages were removed depriving Mexicans of their lands and other properties. Then started the journey of Chicano Movement. There are various individuals and several movements who…… [Read More]

References

Chavez, E. (2002). "Mi Raza Primero!" (My People First!): Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles, 1966-1978. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Gonzales, M.G.(2000). Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Rosales, F.A. (1997). Chicano! History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. Houston, TX: Arte Publico.

Lopez, I.F. (2004). Racism on Trial. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
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Earth Did Not Part

Words: 3450 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48843531

Readers know that Maria is very religious, and that she prays often and cooks for the family. On page 7 readers learn that in her haste to keep the Catholic ritual of crossing herself, she mixes cooking and religion. "She breathed a prayer and crossed her forehead. The flour left white stains on her, the four points of the cross." Her life is not at all about her, but about the men in her family. And it seems she is a literary counterpoint to Ultima, who is spiritually as strong as Maria is faithful to Catholicism.

On page 50 it is clear that Tony will not depend on his mother's nurturing for a long period of time. "He will be all right,' Ultima said. 'The sons must leave the sides of their mothers,' she said almost sternly, and pulled my mother gently." And as the friendship between Tony and his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anaya, Rudolfo a. Bless Me, Ultima. Berkeley: Tonatiuh International Inc., 1972

Rivera, Tomas. And the Earth Did Not Part. Berkeley: Editorial Justa Publications, Inc.,
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Demographics in Chicana O Population the

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71499241

S. Census ureau statistics, which disproportionately omit U.S. Latino-residents and, as a result, understate the population bases on which congressional representation and decisions on program funding are made. This kind of resistance has repeatedly resulted in an incomplete policy agenda and the formation of the appropriate and responsive management of demographic change. The fast-aging character of the American population places the burden of caring for the elderly on minorities and immigrants. Current and projected demographic patterns indicate that the economic success of the nation depends more and more on the fate of the growing Chicano population. Their education and welfare can, therefore, not be ignored by policymakers (aker).

Confronting and realistically addressing the significance of the education and welfare of the growing -and mostly young - Chicano population in America is a primacy concern in policymaking for the 21st century (aker). The focus and direction of policies must be the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Baker, Susan Gonzales. Demographic Trends in the Chicana/o Population: Policy Implications for the Twenty-First Century.

2. Shrestha, Laura B. Changing Demographic Profile of the United States. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, May 5, 2006. http://www.fas.org/sgf/crs/misc/RL32701.pdf
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Mexican-Americans Mexicans Have a Long

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73711822

S. democracy. In 1998, the Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture at UCLA convened several middle-aged Latinos to discuss the Latino society in California while they were growing up. Born in the 1940s and 1950s, they remembered a much more segregated and exclusionary society than the one today, and the hurt remains: They described growing up in a situation in which being Latino was simply not validated. "Back then [1950s]... who cares? You're just a Mexican, you're a 'beaner,' you know, you're a 'greaser'" (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 14).

The Mexicans born after the war had a very different experience than their parents and grandparents. The children of the postwar era were mostly children of U.S.-born Mexicans and grew up in barrios populated almost completely by the U.S.-born residents (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 19)

Much did not change for the Mexicans from the 1940s to 1960s, with discrimination and…… [Read More]

References sited

Hayes-Bautista, David E. Latinos in the Golden State. Berkley: University of California Press, 2004.

Kowalski, Kathiann. Life in the Barrio. Cobblestone (2004) 25.5.

Menchaca, Martha. Mexican Outsiders. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.

Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. We feel the want of protection: The politics of law and race in California, 1848-1878. California History (2003) 81:3-4, 96(31).
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Mexican-American Employee A Growing Labor Force This

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39252965

Mexican-American Employee: A growing Labor Force

This article suggests that the employment figures for the Mexican-American community is not a pleasant one. The United States has seen its wages for common workers stagnated from 1980's and onwards, this translates into an even more grim picture for those workers who have been living in the country for many decades.

Chicanos also have a very minimal amount of representation at the white-collar or managerial posts and they also get limited opportunities to prove themselves that they are worthy for such a post. It is often termed that newer generation of Chicanos are making steady progress as compared to their parents who immigrated to the U.S. But still they are termed to be falling behind rapidly when judging from the context of the overall opportunity structure that exists in the complete population.

When focusing on the demographics of the U.S., it is seen…… [Read More]

References

Blea, I. (1988). Toward a Chicano Social Science. New York: Praeger.

Gomez, J. (1990). Chicano Politics. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
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Hector Perez Garcia Veterans Rights Leader

Words: 1572 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61135965

Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…… [Read More]

References

Del Valle, Aracelis. "Garcia, Dr. Hector Perez." Learning to Give. Retrieved online: http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper99.html

Holley, Joe. "Hector Perez Garcia, 82, Dies; Led Hispanic Rights Group." The New York Times. 29 July 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/29/us/hector-perez-garcia-82-dies-led-hispanic-rights-group.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

"Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/justiceformypeople/

Kells, Michelle Hall. Hector P. Garcia: Everyday Rhetoric and Mexican-American Civil Rights. SIU Press, 2006.
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Instruction Namely Introduction Added and

Words: 4714 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52992639

She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.

Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe

Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.

1. Empowerment:

Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…… [Read More]

References

Pena, M. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women Gender and Society, 9, 32-47.

Pena, M. & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 620-629

Pineda-Madrid, N. (March 2005). Interpreting Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mediating the Christian Mystery of Redemption. Graduate Theological Seminary, Berkeley, CA,

Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On Mysticism, Latinas/os, and the Journey: A Reflection in Conversation with Mary Engel, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24, 178-183.
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To What Extent Language Is a Representation of the World

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41888394

Language defines identity, and creates boundaries between self and other. In Borderlands: The New Mestiza, Gloria Anzaldua refers to the "broken" and "forked" tongues that represented the boundaries and intersections of social, cultural, racial, ethnic, and gender identities. The roots of sociolinguistic hypotheses of language suggest that at the very least, language impacts the social construction of reality, as well as psychic self-perception. According to Noam Chomsky, language use is a type of "organized behavior" that is both a cause and effect of reality (2). The study of language structure and function "can contribute to an understanding of human intelligence," (Chomsky xiv). Chomsky goes so far as to suggest that language precedes cognition in some cases, by stating that, "the study of language structure reveals properties of mind that underlie the exercise of human mental capacities in normal activities," including the use of language as a creative mechanism, form, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza -- La Frontera. Aunt Lute, 1999.

Chomsky, Noam. Language and Mind. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Hudson, Richard A. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Sapir, Edward. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1921.
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Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha

Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44825476



Government

Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
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Humanities Even With the Fact

Words: 811 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46546819

This does not only apply in the case of someone interested in Native American culture, as it can also assist someone performing business with natives, concerning that the respective individual would know the attitudes that he needs to employ in order to make the partnership as effective as possible.

Lala Guerrero's song "No Chicanos on Tv" is meant to induce strong feelings in audiences as individuals acknowledge the fact that the contemporary society straightforwardly discriminates particular groups on account of their particularities. It is difficult to determine whether it is best to laugh or to cry when hearing the lyrics, as they are intense and sarcastic at the same time. When considering the humanities in general and their connection to this song, it appears that they are also directed at changing people's perception of certain communities. The song raises public awareness concerning the gravity associated with discriminating particular groups and…… [Read More]

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Americans in Poverty Level and

Words: 1409 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41770563

Heritage scholars obert ector and ea Hederman found that only a little more than one quarter worked for 2,000 hours or more. They suggested that poverty in America was less of a material deprivation and more of emotional and spiritual loss, the awareness or knowledge of one's dependence on state and federal bureaucrats and a loss of self-esteem resulting from the knowledge of self-insufficiency. The working poor, on the other hand, are capable of facing their future with optimism and confidence, no matter how little they earned. It was the control they had over their lives, which translated into their contribution to the economy (Kersey).

An opposing view was suggested, wherein an increase in the minimum wage would benefit low-income workers, in general, and those below the official poverty line, in particular (Economy Policy Institute 2006). If and when the proposed minimum wage increase was approved, the wages of approximately…… [Read More]

References

1. Economy Policy Institute.2006. Minimum Wage Facts at a Glance. http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguides_minwage_minwagefacts

2. Kersey, Paul. 2004. The Economic Effects of the Minimum Wage. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/labor/tst042904a,cfm?tenderforprint=1

3. Morris, David. 2004. The American Voice 2004. The American Voice. http://www.americanoice2004.org/minimumwage/index.html

4. Office for Social Justice St. Paul and Minneapolis. 2006. Facts about Poverty. 101 Economic Facts that Every American Should Know. http://www.osjspm.org/101_poverty.htm
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Hispanic Americans

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47299933

Hispanic-Americans during World War II, and looks at the educational profile, in terms of learning styles, preferred fields of study, and outcomes.

Hispanic-Americans have fought in every war that the U.S. has fought, in the 20th and 21st centuries, including the two great wars, and the two Gulf wars (ean and Tienda, 1988). During these tours of duty, Hispanic-Americans have received 38 Congressional Medals of Honor: this is a high number, according to the percentage of Hispanic citizens in the U.S. population, and makes Hispanic-Americans, proportionately, the largest single ethnic group to receive this honor (Stone, 2000; Sanchez-Korroll, 1983). During World War II, 400,000 Americans of Hispanic descent fought, including citizens of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Spanish, and South and Central American descent. Indeed, relative to their representation in the U.S. population as a whole, Hispanic-Americans contribute a disproportionately high number of military enlistees.

Yet, despite the fact that these…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bean, F.D., and Tienda, M. (1988). The Hispanic Population of the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Sanchez-Korrol, V. (1983). From Colonia to Community. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Stone, K. (2000). Latinos In War. The American Military Experience. Goals 2000 - Partnerships for Educating Colorado Students.

Suchlicki, J. (1986). Cuba: From Columbus to Castro. Washington: Pergammon.
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Symbolism and Cisneros' the House

Words: 1702 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98611598

However, there is also danger to the sexuality that lies behind sweetness, as when a girl Sally, marries a marshmallow salesman to escape an abusive father, entering a union that seems as bad as the home she is leaving.

A final symbol of the novel is that of play -- few adult women, except for the insane Ruthie, are seen enjoying themselves over the course of the novel. Girls can play at jump rope and look at clouds, but they worry about how the burdens and cares of an adult life -- like abusive or absent husbands, children, and money worries -- will weigh them down, as their bodies mature. Men are shown playing and gambling, but women must put their own pleasures aside for fathers, husbands, and brothers. Early on in the novel, Esperanza comments how even in her family the boys and the girls tend to separate as…… [Read More]

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Isolation African-American Civil Rights Historically

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37834676

Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.

By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…… [Read More]

References

Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903

Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40

Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2

Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
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Art and Public Space

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82914537

Art and Public Space

ho 'owns' public space? Public space is never neutral, even though it is theoretically owned 'in common,' but rather reflects the particular ideology of those who construct it. Thus, in a sense we all own public because we have a hand in how it is used and we are all owned by public space in the sense that the locations in which we dwell limit and define our social interactions. "One of the main trends in philosophy is to see the public sphere as a form of social reality, and less as an act of creation whose results would be negotiated intersubjectively" (Gheorghe 317).

Marxists see the demarcation of spaces into public and private arenas as a way to negotiate power relationships. Anyone who doubts this should consider the extent to which desirable real estate is determined by proximity to privileged social spaces: an apartment with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Chapter 3: A critical overview of public art." Temple University.

http://astro.temple.edu/~ruby/wava/alex/chap3.pdf [15 Mar 2013]

Gheorgh, C. "Theories and Uses in Common: Responses of Art in the Public Sphere."

Meta Research in Hermeneutics and Practical Philosophy, 2.2 (2010): 316-27.
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History and Fate of the Civil Rights Movement

Words: 1475 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90401413

Freedom and Equality in the 20th century

AN UN-ENDING FIGHT

Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies

The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).

The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AAO (n.d.). The civil rights era. Part I, African-American Odyssey. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.memory/oc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html

Civil Rights 101 (2001). Civil rights expanded: contemporary effects. The Leadership

Conference. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights.101/erexpanded.html

Foner, E. (1997). Expert report. Diversity Matters: University of Michigan. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/legal/expert/foner.html
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Sociological Theories Sociology of Gender

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29285085

Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies

Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"

In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.

Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]

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Hispanic Soldiers PTSD the American

Words: 3058 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84885304

Although the absolute magnitude of group differences on measures such as the BDI may appear moderate, the finding that 22% of troops deployed to the Persian Gulf reported at least mild levels of depression on the BDI compared to 9% of those who served stateside within the first year of such military duty is of clinical significance (p. 422)."

Amy B. Adler (1996), writing for Military Psychology, points out that soldiers experiencing the highest levels of combat stress were those exposed to dead troops and civilians, but exposure to their own fallen comrades, people with whom they had bonded, resulted in the highest levels of stress (p. 2).

The goals of the study were to identify the extent of PTS symptomatology following redeployment and to identify the relation between such symptoms and rank and type of traumatic exposure. It was hypothesized that soldiers who had been exposed to the most…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77520859

Adler, Amy B. "Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology among U.S. Soldiers Deployed to the Gulf War." Military Psychology 8.1 (1996): 1-14. Questia. 7 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77520859.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27330336

Blea, Irene I. Toward a Chicano Social Science. New York: Praeger, 1988. Questia. 7 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27330336.
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Feet of Jesus a Work of Realism

Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53041909

Feet of Jesus, a Work of ealism

Helena Viramontes' book, From Under the Feet of Jesus, is a novel that explores the difficulties of life that Chicanos faced in the United States from the 1930's through the 1970's. Her work is an exercise in realism as it does not trivialize the trials of Chicano life with grand political statements or symbolism. Instead, it is a very clean portrait of a family and their friends who are all attempting, at times desperately, to live their lives in a land that, more often than not, does not want them there. A realist work find the truth paramount. Viramontes faithfully reconstructs life in a series of pictures, that puts a perspective of reality, of truth, and of hopefulness for a people long suffering in this nation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the elements of realism in Viramontes' book and…… [Read More]

Referenced

Chicano! Episode Four: Fighting for Political Power." Galan, Hector; Morales, Sylvia; Racho, Susan; Moreno, Mylene & Cozens, Robert. Film. National Latino Communications Center, 1996.

Garrison, Chad. "Reporting 'The Other': A Challenge on Both sides of the Border" The IRE Journal Jan-Feb, 1999. v22. i1. p15.

Viramontes, Helene. From Under the Feet of Jesus. Chicago: Plume, 1996.
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Rudolfo Anaya Grew Up in the New

Words: 1648 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46007941

Rudolfo Anaya grew up in the New Mexico and much of his work reflects this upbringing. A popular theme in his fiction is the background of the state and the introduction of factors that can lead to human destruction: greed, lust, self-righteousness, deception, and connivance (Garcia 2000, p. 11). His short story "The Apple Orchard" is not exception to this. This is the story about a young boy named Isador who is in seventh grade as he struggles to come of age in his community. The first-person narrator has a father who values education. The themes of education and its importance is integral in Chicano literature. According to Hector Colderon (1999), it is extremely difficult to finish education in the Hispanic community, particularly if English is not your first language. He says, "Out of some thirty-plus students, three of us graduated from high school on time, a few others had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anaya, Rudolfo. (2006). The Apple Orchard. The Man Who Could Fly and Other Stories. 74-86.

Calderon, Hector and Jose David Saldivar. (1991). Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature.

Garcia, Nasario. (2000). Rudolfo Anaya. Platicas: Conversations with Hispanic Authors. 5-34.
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Affirmative Action Help or Hinder

Words: 3865 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55915360

It has been reported that due to the economic disparity the available opportunities have been inaccessible for the minority groups, and therefore such initiatives are important to be formulated which facilitate the minority groups in their quest to reach the mark. Affirmative Action is incorporated once the society has failed to materialize the society value equality and fairness. Affirmative Action are installed only to regret the failure on the behalf of the state to ensure equality and justice to the people irrespective of the racial, sexual, ethnic and religious divisions, therefore the Affirmative Action has diluted the heavily concentrated ethnic and racial vigor, and has subdue the negative fallout of such practices. Affirmative Action has brought ultimate relief to those particular elements of the society which were previously ignored, and whose existence was previously deplored in the society. The American society has although benefit from the implementation of the Affirmative…… [Read More]

References

James P. Sterba. Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. Journal Title: Stanford Law Review. Volume: 57. Issue: 2. 2004

Ronald Dworkin. A Matter of Principle. McGraw-Hill. pp. 294-303. 1985.

Randall Kennedy. Persuasion and Distrust: A Comment on the Affirmative Action Debate. Thomson South-Western Publication. 1987. pp. 165-180

Jed Rubenfeld. Affirmative Action. Yale Law Journal. Volume: 107. Issue: 2. 1997. pp. 213-230. Yale University, School of Law Publication.
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Tortilla Curtain - By T Coraghessan Boyle the

Words: 3755 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57661518

Tortilla Curtain - by T.Coraghessan Boyle

The much-talked-about "American Dream" - that elusive dream of being able to own a house, raising educated and successful kids, earning middle class money, and most of all being accepted as a functioning part of the great diverse U.S. economic and social structure - is but an "American Myth" to many immigrants arriving in this country. It's certainly a myth for many thousands of Mexicans coming to the U.S. And attempting to carve out a better life for themselves. The Boyle novel offers readers a close-up, graphically realistic view of the hardships that confront those immigrants - juxtaposed with the "good life" of an affluent family living behind stylish walls.

This review of The Tortilla Curtain will compare and contrast the main characters in the novel - Delaney Mossbacker (and his wife Kyra) and Candido incon (and his wife America) - in order to…… [Read More]

References

Boyle, Coraghessan T. The Tortilla Curtain. New York: Viking, 1995.

Brzezinski, Steve. "The Tortilla Curtain." The Antioch Review. 54 (1996): 113-114.

Hicks, Heather J. "On Whiteness in T. Coraghessan Boyle's The Tortilla Curtain."

CRITIQUE: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 45 (2003): 43-65.
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People of Color Ethnic Groups Excluded in U S History

Words: 1977 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96125482

Exclusion

Deutsch, Sarah. 1987. No separate refuge: culture, class, and gender on an Anglo-Hispanic frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940. New York: Oxford University Press.

ace has excluded people of color and ethnic groups in the Southwest. Deutsch draws parallels with all forms of subjugation around the world. Hispanic identity in particular was viewed as a threat by white Americans. White Americans began to cling to nativism, which was a theory that was related to white supremacy. This systematically excluded Hispanics, but especially Latin American women, from having access to social, cultural, and financial capital. Exclusion was built on race, as positions of power in politics, government, and business were reserved for white males. Stereotyping has been an important way for race to be used as a method of exclusion.

The theme or thesis on people of color and ethnic groups in the United States is that subjugation is the…… [Read More]

References

Deutsch, Sarah. 1987. No separate refuge: culture, class, and gender on an Anglo-Hispanic frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 1998. Whiteness of a different color: European immigrants and the alchemy of race. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Ruiz, Vicki. 1998. From out of the shadows: Mexican women in twentieth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Taylor, Quintard. 1998. In search of the racial frontier: African-Americans in the American West, 1528-1990. New York: Norton.
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Connected Immigrant Communities Chaney 2010

Words: 4201 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69242488

Meng and Meurs (2009) examine the effects of intermarriage, language, and economic advantage. They find that immigrants who have some skill in the dominant language of the country to which they immigrate tend to intermarry and earn more income (Meng and Meurs). Marrying outside of one's culture may influence language acquisition due to social and economic needs to advance within the adopted culture.

Moua and Lamborn (2010) note that ethnic socialization practices by parents of immigrant adolescents strengthen the ethnic heritage connection between adolescent, parent, and ethnic community. These include native language use, marriage ties, taking part in cultural events, sharing history, and preparing traditional foods (Moua and Lamborn). As noted previously, immigrant parents tend to congregate in ethnic communities, where they are essentially immersed in the ethnic culture. The native language is often the most utilized if not the exclusive language in the home. However, children are acculturated into…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Akresh, I. "Contexts of English Language Use among Immigrants to the United States." International Migration Review (2007): 930-955.

Bacallao, M and P. Smokowski. "The Costs of Getting Ahead: Mexican Family System Changes After Immigration." Family Relations (2006): 52-66.

Blatchley, L and M. Lau. "Culturally Competent Assessment of English Language Learners for Special Education Services." Communique: Newspaper of National Association of School Psychologists May 2010: 1-8.

Bleakley, H and A. Chin. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants." American Economic Journal of Applied Economics (2010):  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813069/pdf/nihms-132959.pdf .
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Latinos -- Introduction it Is

Words: 8953 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64943335

273).

And Vela-Gude's article offers several of the main points of this paper's research; the services must be ready, and the counselors must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the cultural implications as well as the academic realities facing those Latino students (2009).

Racism Against Latinos

This paper alludes to the high number of Latinos in California and Texas, but according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's research, the South is home to one of the "fastest growing populations of Latinos in the country" (Bauer, et al., 2009, p. 4). But though the typical Latino immigrant comes to the South to escape "crushing poverty in their home countries" they often encounter "…widespread hostility, discrimination and exploitation" (Bauer, 2009, p. 4).

hat kinds of discrimination do Latinos come up against in the South? Mary Bauer and her chief researcher, Sarah Reynolds, claim that Latinos are "…routinely cheated out of their earnings…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barneclo, Nick Anthony. (2008). El Laberinto del exito: A Mixed methods investigation of resilience within the context of Mexican-American late adolescents lives. Dissertation at New Mexico State University in Counseling Psychology. ProQuest Publication Number:

AAT 3349360.

Cannon, Edward, and Levy, Marielle. (2008). Substance-Using Hispanic Youth and Their

Families: Review of Engagement and Treatment Strategies. The Family Journal: Counseling
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Street Level Hispanic Drug Gangs

Words: 2051 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6980434

There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)

3. Conclusion

In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…… [Read More]

References

Arfaniarromo, A. (2001). Toward a Psychosocial and Sociocultural Understanding of Achievement Motivation among Latino Gang Members in U.S. Schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(3), 123. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000891430

Boose, D.W. (2003). Rethinking the Korean War. Parameters, 33(4), 175+. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002573236

Coughlin, B.C., & Venkatesh, S.A. (2003). The Urban Street Gang after 1970. 41+.

Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S.E. (Eds.). (2004). Teen Gangs: A Global View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107029652
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Ethnic Cultures' Experience of Art

Words: 2675 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56733059



For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.

Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."

When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.

Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?

Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,

Inc.

Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.

Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
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Chicana Women A Qualitative Examination

Words: 3541 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66514160



Female Sexuality and Self Development in Chicana Culture

Eysturoy (1996) points out that studies of women's sexuality related to Chicana culture have focused on the quest "for authentic female self development." She notes that this process involves environment and psychological factors combined, and involves "coming to terms with multiple social and cultural forces" in addition to coming to terms with internal and external issues that often impede Chicana women from realizing "individuation" or understanding their sense of individual self (77).

The author notes that a recurrent theme in much of Chicana literature centers on the evolvement of a child into an older women, and that in fact a majority of the literature related to Chicana women focus on the process of self development that is not just a search for identity, but rather a method for engaging Chicana readers and exploring or articulating a process that will ultimately lead to…… [Read More]

References:

Aldama, F.L. (2003). "Gang Nation: Delinquent Citizens in Puerto Rican, Chicano, and Chicana Narratives." Melus, 28(4):242

Canut, N., Cardenas, G., Cordova, T., Garcia, J. & Sierra, C. (1993). Chicana voices:

Intersections of class, race, and gender. Albuquerque: New Mexico Press.

Dicochea, P.R. (2004). "Chicana Critical Rhetoric: Recrafting la Causa in Chicana
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Children With Disabilities

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26181354

classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?

A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction

The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency

serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,

Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…… [Read More]

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Passage of Proposition 209

Words: 2431 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15481808

Proposition #209 in California

The preponderance of evidence suggests that the passage of Proposition #209 had no significant impact on government or business..." In California, is likely two-thirds true, albeit it's difficult to quantify given the dearth of statistical evidence currently available. Indeed, there are examples, cited in this paper, of "business as usual" in California regarding affirmative action; and, unlike the government and business sectors, there is explicit statistical evidence that "state educational services" have been impacted in a dramatic way by Proposition #209.

Background on Proposition #209

What was Proposition #209 designed to accomplish in California?

The language of the original Proposition #209 (public initiative) sounded like civil rights legislation from the 1960s, and was intended to sound that way; but according to detractors, the law sought to reverse civil rights gains from that era. The title, "Prohibition against Discrimination or Preferential Treatment by State and other Public…… [Read More]

References

Black Issues in Higher Education (2001). UC Hiring Fewer Women Professors

After Prop. 209. 18, 12.

California Secretary of State (1996). Vote96 - an Analysis of Proposition 209

By Legislative Analyst; Official Title and Summary prepared by the Attorney
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Community Nurse Diabetic Clinic One

Words: 3696 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69636084

hhs-stat.net).

Type I diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Type 1 account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). The most common form of diabetes is Type II, which accounts for about 90 to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). Pre- diabetes is a condition often present prior to the development of Type II diabetes. In pre-diabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered diabetic.

Pre-diabetes does not have to lead to the development of diabetes if a person diagnosed with this condition: Patients who work to control their weight and increase their physical activity can often prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. There are 41 million Americans…… [Read More]

References

American Diabetics Association. Retrieved 22 March 2010 from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/

Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet.Retrieved 18 March 2010 from www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf

http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf

2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/released200906.html
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Education Politics Dumping 2 6 Million on Bakersfield

Words: 1400 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13652970

Education Politics

Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm orker's Clinic)

The central issue of this case was that the social ecology of administration and other external factors were not taken into consideration during the implementation of a plan to build new health clinics for migrant farm workers in Bakersfield California.

The program was created to meet the requirements of legislation of the 1970 Migrant Health Act sponsored by Senator alter Mondale. Although there was plenty of money available, the money came with time constraints and the group who needed to spend the money had a poor overall knowledge of the community the funding was supposed to serve. This case was significant because it demonstrated how multiple levels of government, both federal and local, often mismanage their responsibilities simply because of poor communication and planning.

There were several factors that created this problem. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aron, Michael. (1972). "Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm Worker's Clinic)." The Washington Monthly. October: pp.23-32.

Charles, Michael T.. (1989). "The Last Flight of Space Shuttle Challenger." Coping With Crises: The Management of Disaster, Riots and Terrorism.

Sciolino, Elain., Bronner, Ethan. (1999). "The Decision To Bomb the Serbs." New York Times. April 18.: p.1+.
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African-Americans & Hispanic-Americans Are Currently

Words: 2189 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50200951

As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.

Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.

It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.

Institutional Networks

Institutional networks continue to play…… [Read More]

References

Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm

Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm

Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December

1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
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Race Relations the Word Racism

Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64992025

Advertisers and television networks are no longer protested or boycotted for displaying black images with their products and on household TV screens. In less than half a century black men have gone from being killed simply for whistling at a white woman to an increase of five hundred and four percent in mixed marriages over the last twenty five years (Woodgate, 2010).

Unfortunately all social change is slow. Old habits tend to die hard and a lot of suffering has to occur all along the path of progress. ace will perhaps forever be a factor in American civilization but the line will grow to be blurred as time pushes back in opposition to nearly three hundred years of human mistreatment. acial hate is a strong feeling that needs very little to surface with some but to endure it must have social significance to inspire others to comparable levels of hate.…… [Read More]

Resources

Anderson, Brian. (2010). Race Relations in America: Why the Left is Wrong. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from Web site: http://alineofsight.com/content/race-relations-america-why-left-wrong

Lester, Todd. (2010). Race Relations in America. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from Web site:

http://ezinearticles.com/?Race-Relations-in-America&id=3584446

Woodgate, L.B. (2010). Are Race Relations Improving in America? Retrieved December
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Bakke 438 U S 265 1978

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82785159

espondents challenged that the LSA has just such an interest in the educational benefits that result from having a racially and ethnically diverse student body and that its program is narrowly tailored to serve that interest. The court ruled for the respondents as to the LSA's current admissions guidelines and granted them summary judgment in that respect. The court also held that the LSA's admissions guidelines for 1995 through 1998 operated as the functional equivalent of a quota running afoul of Justice Powell's Bakke opinion, and thus granted petitioners summary judgment with respect to respondents' admissions programs for those years (Gratz v Bollinger, (02-516) 539 U.S. 244, 2003).

Affirmative action continues to be a topic of controversy in America's political and legal arenas. Bakke touched on the question, settling only the narrower issue of racial quotas in admissions to state supported schools and leaving later cases to test the propriety…… [Read More]

References

Blum, Edward. (2009). Deciphering Grutter V. Bollinger. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Web site:

http://www.mindingthecampus.com/originals/2009/09/by_edward_blum_as_the.html

Equal protection. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Cornell University Law School

Web site: http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/Equal_protection
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Mississippi Masala Do the Right Thing and

Words: 1092 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34454418

Mississippi Masala, "Do the Right Thing" and "Scarface."

Over the years, Hollywood and independent filmmakers have taken the 'American identity' and given audiences an opportunity to view the multi-faceted ethnicity of community-based ethics and interracial harmonies - or lack thereof. America has become a melting pot of cultures and beliefs that have had to fight off social stereotypes and fight against anglo-conformity.

Directors like rian De Palma, Mira Nair and Spike Lee have taken their audiences into the heart of ethnic racism in communities and the struggle some cultures face in order to survive against 'Americanization' and the paradox of achieving their 'American Dream'.

In De Palma's remake of "Scarface," the 1980 Mariel boat lift from Cuba formed the backdrop and set the stage for Tony Montana's desire to gradually manifest his destiny that eventually leads to his self-destruction.

Drawing on historical fact involving the North Miami refugee camps, including…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Do the Right Thing Dir. Spike Lee. Written by Spike Lee.

Perfs. Danny Aiello, Spike Lee, John Turturro. Film. 1989.

Mississippi Masala Dir. Mira Nair. Written by Sooni Taraporewala.

Perfs. Denzel Washington, Sarita Chodhury, Roshan Seth. Film. 1991
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Roosevelt Theodore

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49859960

American Morality

The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.

The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…… [Read More]

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Racial Ideology of Latinas

Words: 11967 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57637272



The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.

The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]

Reference:

Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.

San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).

San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.

Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
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San Diego Tijuana Border Art

Words: 1271 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90956604

Art and Artists of San Diego-Tijuana Border and the Economic Impact

The Mexico/U.S. border has been an area of focus in both countries politics because of the increased concerns regarding the impact of immigration to the United States. Securing this border has been a major priority of both governments to help in curbing several crimes, especially drug trafficking. hile this border continues to dominate immigration policy debates and agenda, its cultural production has been increasingly diverse and fruitful throughout the history of these two countries (Prieto par, 1). Art has emerged has an important activity in the cultural production of Mexico/US border, especially San Diego-Tijuana border. The emergence of art in this border can be traced back to the early 80's when it was explicitly used to address border politics. Since then, art in the San Diego-Tijuana border has continued to develop to an extent that it has considerable economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Particia L. "No Walls Here: Between Tijuana and San Diego, an Art Ethos Thrives." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 30 Oct. 2016. Web. 24 Jan. 2017. . This article examines the thriving art culture along the San Diego-Tijuana border. The author discusses how art has developed to become a borderless activity between people from these two countries. This discussion includes an overview of the historical development of art and artists along this border. It includes examples of how people in this region operate in a seemingly "borderless world" because of art.

Prieto, Antonio. "Border Art as a Political Strategy." ISLA Feature Coverage. Information Services Latin America, 1999. Web. 24 Jan. 2017. . The article provides an evaluation of the historical development of art in the U.S.-Mexico border, especially San Diego-Tijuana border. The author demonstrates how art was used as a political strategy to deal with border issues in the early 80s. The article demonstrates how art during this period was largely influenced by the Chicano movement. The influence of the Chicano movement was later replaced by the emergence of conceptual art. The article also highlights events in the artistic production in the region during this period.

Sheren, Ila N. "The San Diego Chicano Movement and the Origins of Border Art." Journal of Borderland Studies (2016): 1-15. Taylor & Francis Online. Taylor and Francis Group, 17 Oct. 2016. Web. 24 Jan. 2017. . The article discusses the influence of Chicano movement in art in San Diego-Tijuana border in the 80s and the subsequent emergence of border art. Through this discussion, the author highlights how complex and divisive immigration issues influenced art in the 1970s. The article provides insights regarding the role artists played during this period. Additionally, it shows how border art emerged to focus on economic inequality and human rights violations.
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Down These Mean Streets

Words: 6074 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42314847

Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)

Introduction / Background History

Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.

Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. "Piri Thomas" (2000). 09 December 2003. http://www.peacehost.com

Coeyman, M. "In a Largely Minority School, Literature Helps Students Confront Complex

Issues of Race and Culture" (2002). The Christian Science Monitor. 10 December 2003. http://www.csmonitor.com

Fisher, S. "Mean Streets Author Launches Latino Month" (2003). 10 December 2003. http://www.advance.uconn.edu/htm
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Hispanic Male Perception Key Words

Words: 5433 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25036744

.. hungry, cold.... The big problem is poverty. I spend 50% of my time taking care of them other than teaching, and this includes downtime because of behaviors such as fistfights, tantrums, aggression. (Harry, Klingner & Hart, 2005, esearch and design section ¶ 8)

Hispanic Males//Females Educational Pursuits

Although Hispanic females frequently outperform Hispanic males, cultural values that limit the range of school choices and career paths, frequently restrict the females to opportunities to access higher education. In addition, many Latina/o students, male and female, do not recognize that higher education currently constitutes a financially feasible, realistic option for them (Dosal, 2008, ¶ 5).

Erica Tortorella (2009) reports in "EACH prep program helps boost Latino presence in private education," that the fact Hispanics and other minority groups are underrepresented in private schools throughout the U.S. reveal that minority students, at all member schools account for only 21.9% of total enrollment.…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2005). The health, education and welfare of Hispanics. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-791110001.html

Bergstrom, C.A., & Heymann, S.J. (2005). Impact of gender disparities in family carework on women's life chances in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(2), 267+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009876863

Casado, M.A., & Dereshiwsky, M.I. (2007). Cultural diversity in higher education: Implications for hospitality programs. Education, 128(2), 294+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5025695726
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History of Heroin

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24079194

Heroin History -- San Diego

Brief Introduction to the History of Heroin

The drug known today as "heroin" is actually an opioid that was first synthesized into heroin in 1874. In fact heroin was also synthesized by the Bayer aspirin company in 1897 and sold as a legal pain-killer for years prior to its regulation in the United States. "The initial response to the launch of heroin by the Bayer Company was overwhelmingly positive," according to an article published in the Sunday Times (1998). The chemist for Bayer was Heinrich Dreser, and he wrote about heroin in several medical journals, and additional studies "…endorsed the view that heroin could be effective in treating asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and tuberculosis" (Sunday Times, p. 2).

By the year 1899 Bayer was making about "…a ton of heroin a year," and the company exported its brand of heroin to 23 countries; but the citizens…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jorquez, J.S. (1984). Heroin use in the barrio: solving the problem of relapse or keeping the tecato gusano asleep. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 10(1), 63-75.

National Drug Intelligence Center. (2000). Heroin. Retrieved June 19, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov.

Loue, Sana. (2002). Case Studies in Forensic Epidemiology. New York: Springer.

NIDA International Program. (2012). Question 2: What is the history of opioid addiction in the United States? Retrieved June 19, 2013, from http://international.drugabuse.gov.
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Meaning in Geraldo No Last Name

Words: 1774 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79960301

And it is the tragedy of not knowing that Marin imagines in the story's last paragraph, when she envisions the family he left behind in Mexico as they "wonder, shrug, remember" the pretty boy who vanished and was "never heard from…again."

Cisneros arranges "Geraldo No Last Name" around two basic structural facts. One is the filtering of the story through Marin's consciousness, so that the subject of the story is not really Geraldo's brief life and death -- it is about what somebody like Marin thinks about when she contemplate somebody like Geraldo. And the second fact is, of course, the emphasis given to the different elements of what Marin considers: in some sense, the sad fact of Geraldo's death is subsidiary to the sad facts of his actual life as an illegal worker in a foreign country, who will die without ever seeing his family again. The fact that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cisneros, Sandra. "Geraldo No Last Name." In Wyrick, Jean. Steps to Writing Well. New York: Cengage, 2013. Print.

Cruz, Felicia J. "On the 'Simplicity' of Sandra Cisneros's House on Mango Street." Modern Fiction Studies 47:4 (2001): 910-946. Print.

Harlow, Barbara. "Sites of Struggle: Immigration, Deportation, Prison and Exile." In Calderon, Hector and Saldivar, Jose David, (Editors) Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture, and Ideology. Raleigh-Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.
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Latina & AIDS Hispanic Population

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15524811

The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.

Ethnicity

Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…… [Read More]

References

Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.

Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.

Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.

Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
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Afro Cubans the Bulk of the Cuban

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15438465

Afro Cubans

The bulk of the Cuban community in exile in Miami focuses on its white contingency. Afro-Cubans have a second-class status there, and their patterns of migration have been much different than they have for white Cuban refugees and immigrants. As Newby & Dowling (2007) note, recent Afro-Cuban immigrants have settled in various other places in the United States including the Southwest, where there are already entrenched Chicano communities and African-American communities. Afro-Cubans do not fit into the Chicano communities, the communities with other white Latinos, or the African-American communities. Language presents one of the most significant cultural barriers and identity markers distinguishing the AfroCubans from the African-Americans. Although they share some common ethnic heritage and ancestral experiences of racism, slavery, and political oppression, centuries have passed since their cultures demonstrated divergent trajectories. With regards to white Latinos in the Southwest such as Austin and Albuquerque, race raises serious…… [Read More]

References

"Effects of Heroin Use." (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.heroinabuse.us/effects.html 

National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA 2010). InfoFacts: Heroin. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/heroin
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Among Latinos

Words: 2178 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2443448

homosexual latinos: the difficulties latinos face in being homosexual; the differences between homosexual latinos and Caucasian homosexuals; how latino homosexuals are treated within their communities, by their families, and within their countries of origin; and how homosexual latinos are treated within Latin America as a whole.

People have argued that homosexuality is part of the latino culture, and has been since pre-Columbian time, as records from pottery, and accounts from conquistadors of the Aztecs' behavior confirms. As the following quote, from a website championing gay and lesbian rights, shows, "homosexuality is a part of the pre- Columbian history of America. Spanish chroniclers observed various socio-sexual roles, including private same-sex relationships, and homosexuality as public ritual. Surviving effigy pottery demonstrates that Native people practiced a wide array of sexual customs. Among the militaristic and prudish Aztecs, sex also had a religious aspect. Xochiquetzal was considered the goddess of eroticism and sexual…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Marsiglia (1998). Homosexuality and Latinos/as: Towards and Integration of Identities. Journal of Gay and lesbian Social Services 8(3): 113-125. http://www.hivtest.org/docs/factslatino.pdf"HIV / AIDS among latinos: key facts." Accessed 26th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/brazil.htm" The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Brazil." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/mexico.htm" The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Mexico." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.geocities.com/eltejanito/gaylhis.htm" Gay and Lesbian History, and "Dia de la Raza." Accessed 29th November 2003. http://www.blacklightonline.com/gaylatinos.html" Gay Latinos, "La Raza" and the new "Familia." Article by Sidney Brinkley. Accessed on 27th November 2003.
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Marketing Plan for California Marketing

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16721976

e are no longer content with merely providing quality instruction. e will judge ourselves henceforth on the quality of student learning we produce" (O'Banion, 2007). Professional development and personal enrichment thus now go hand-in-hand, in terms of the way the university views its process of operation.

Descriptive synopsis of the marketing situation

The university presents itself as an ideal university for an individual seeking a flexible university plan in a diverse community of students. The educational opportunities are vast and wide-ranging, spanning from everything from preparation for future teachers in deaf education, to a comprehensive background in the film industry, or grounding Pan African regional studies. Its one weakness to its user-friendly promotional and informative website is that international students might find inadequate information about fees, aid, and also living on campus.

orks Cited

About Cal State Northridge." Official ebsite. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. http://www.csun.edu/aboutCSUN/

Academic Programs." Official ebsite. 2007.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Cal State Northridge." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007.  http://www.csun.edu/aboutCSUN/ 

Academic Programs." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007.  http://www.csun.edu/academic/index.html 

Costs of Attendance." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. http://www.csun.edu/finaid/cost.html

Financial Aid & Scholarship Department." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. http://www.csun.edu/finaid/
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Bilingual Introspective

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4621269

teach students who first language is not English continues to be one of the most contested and misunderstood issues facing educators in the U.S. today. wo main educational philosophies and lines of research prevail. Proponents of dual language education assert that the long-term education of students benefits from a bilingual approach primarily because it facilitates cognitive development and is, thereby, a better method to address an achievement gap (Jost, 2009). he opposing educational camp argues that students whose first language is not English should be given support in their first language through bilingual education, but only for a short time (Jost, 2009). he watershed for these two approaches appears to be a long-term focus vs. A short-term focus (Jost, 2009).

he policy problem associated with English as second a language academic programs is fundamentally two-fold: o address the need for acceleration of the development of English language skills and linguistic…… [Read More]

The tendency is to think of bilingual education as focusing on Hispanic students, but this is decidedly a limited perspective (Haas, 2009). Students who need to learn English in order to fully participate in the schools they attend cross all grade levels (Haas, 2009). Moreover, the number of foreign languages represented in any given school can be quite large (Haas, 2009). During the time of the public brouhaha of the Umz Initiative, one teacher reported that, "I have had 32 different languages spoken in my classroom over a 25-year period. Eighty-four languages are spoken in our district" (Anonymous, 1998). With this level of diversity, teachers who are frustrated by the bureaucracy of educational institutions and the lag of simply choose to "just teach in the way that you know is effective" (Anonymous, 1998). Essentially, that means to many teachers that they must reach out to their students in whatever language makes them want to learn and be able to study (Haas, 2009).

Immersion

Assimilation is a focus for proponents of immersion programs in which students receive instruction only in English. This movement is supported by demonstrations
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Wanna Be Average Written by Mike Rose

Words: 3292 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14238822

Wanna Be Average," written by Mike Rose. Although each of these writers has a very different writing style, both essays deal with similar issues about the educational experiences of young boys growing into men. Five main areas will be discussed: assimilation; the power of academic reading; identity crisis; self-awareness; and cultural conflict.

Assimilation

Blending into a new and different culture from the one you are accustomed to can be a challenging and frightening process for people of any age. For young people who are still in their formative years, it can be even more confusing and intimidating. They have not yet developed the coping skills that adults have, and they often do not understand the strange, exciting, and sometimes uncomfortable feelings they experience in the process. Writers of both of these essays go through experiences of assimilation in their childhood years. The experiences are similar in that they both are…… [Read More]

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Latin Music Many Are Unaware That in

Words: 2317 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31533544

Latin Music

Many are unaware that in the United States today, people are blessed with a variety of Spanish-language and other Latin American cultures that are in the midst -- which were brought to the country by individuals from numerous different parts of the hemisphere. In attempting to understand and appreciate these cultures, we can learn much from their music Mexican-American music is something that has high regards in their culture. Over the years it has been expanded crossing over into many cultures ith that said, this essay is intended to analyze the many methods and styles of music and musical cultures that have been able to make their way into the United States from Latin American nations.

Origins

Surprisingly, Latin American music is a subject where there has not been a lot written about it. There is very little research on Latin music perhaps because many are not interested.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gonzalez, J.P. "Third latin american conference of the international association for the study of popular music." Popular Music 20.9 (2009): 269-274.

Loza, Steven. Barrio Rhythm: Mexican-American Music in Los Angeles. University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Moehn, F. "From tejano to tango: Latin american popular Music/Musical migrations: Transnationalism and cultural hybridity in Latin/o america, volume I/Situating salsa: Global markets and local meaning in latin popular music." Ethnomusicology 49.1 (2010): 137-142.
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Sex and Gender

Words: 1684 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74595723

Kim Chernin and Susan Faludi make a case for the crimes of our culture against women -- crimes that women may not correctly and clearly perceive because they are being duped by the media, society, and cultural ideals. Both authors express dismay over the way our culture punishes women for their capacities, and attempts to keep them frail in both a metaphorical and literal sense. They both point out the strikingly contradictory messages society feeds women. Above all, both authors lament that women end up blaming themselves for their unhappiness and defeat in a patriarchy that actually has not given them a fair shake. Though Faludi focuses on sweeping cultural and economic issues, and Chernin zooms in on the issue of weight and its physical as well as spiritual implications, they share the same feminist outrage over the condition of women in contemporary America.

Susan Faludi's essay "Blame it On…… [Read More]

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Race Class & Gender Color-Blind

Words: 1805 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32893564

For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.

I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…… [Read More]

References

Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
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Education Sara in Anzia Yezierska's

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16956107



The conflict between Sara and her father mirrors that of Ana and her mother. Reb and Carmen both try to control and manipulate their daughters by appealing to traditional cultural values. Gender is at the heart of their struggle, as gender norms are critical to their old-fashioned worldviews. Interestingly, there are traditionalists in both Bread Givers and in Real Women Have Curves who retain their ethnic identities while promoting gender equality. For example, Ana's grandfather relays a tale about a treasure-filled mountain in Mexico. He tells the tale to a captivated Ana before telling her that he wants Ana to "find her gold" too. Ana's father and grandfather support her academic achievements and want her to take advantage of the scholarship. In Bread Givers, Sara meets another traditional Polish-American. Although Hugo is not Jewish, he and Sara bond over their cultural identity and prove that ethnic pride does not need…… [Read More]

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Diversity Issues in Schools That

Words: 3345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74862249

According to these authorities, "Workplace stressors often have detrimental effects on faculty job satisfaction and may lead to decisions to leave the institution or to leave higher education entirely. Although some degree of turnover is inevitable and perhaps desirable, high rates of faculty turnover can be costly to the reputation of an institution and to the quality of instruction" (p. 776). In many cases, the very faculty members that are adversely affected in this fashion are those the school district can least afford to lose, with a concomitant negative effect on those teachers who remain: "Too often the faculty who leave are those the institution would prefer to retain. Additional negative consequences of faculty turnover include costs for recruiting replacements, reduced integration within the academic department, disruption of course offerings, and diminished morale among those employees who remain in the organization" (Daly & Dee, p. 777).

In reality, the outcomes…… [Read More]

References

Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003). Post-tenure review at graduate institutions in the United States: Recommendations and reality. Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 241.

Becton, J.B. & Schraeder, M. (2004). Participant input into rater selection: Potential effects on the quality and acceptance of ratings in the context of 360-degree feedback. Public Personnel Management, 33(1), 23.

Broadnax, W.D. (2000). Diversity and affirmative action in public service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Brownell, M.T., Ross, D.D., Colon, E.P., & Mccallum, C.L. (2005). Critical features of special education teacher preparation: A comparison with general teacher education. Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 242.
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Othering That Allows the Majority

Words: 1332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57006341

The author thus divided the process into exclusionary and inclusionary as she saw some marked differences between the two routes. She noticed that in exclusionary process, relationships were often used to suppress and dominate one person while in inclusion; relationships were used to create awareness and consciousness.

The author has explained her views in very succinct and clear terms. She has made it clear that her focus is nursing faculty and their teaching practices that are allegedly influenced by othering. But also made it known that throughout the nursing literature, she didn't find the word othering used anywhere. Though the literature discussed marginalization and discrimination, the process of othering was not recognized. The author does a great job of explaining the whole process and its two sides in the beginning, which set the tone for later research. The researcher doesn't start with nursing faculty in the beginning but tries to…… [Read More]

Reference

Mary Canales. Othering: Toward an Understanding of Difference. Advances in nursing science/June 2000
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Macabre Marketing Forest Lawn Macabre Marketing Forest

Words: 880 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35096052

Macabre Marketing: Forest Lawn

Macabre Marketing

Forest Lawn and the entrance of 'dark tourism' in Los Angeles

"Crypt For Sale: overlooking ocean by private owner" reads the ad. A classified post in the sea of advertising in the Megalopolis of Los Angeles, the mortuary market is significant in terms of combining funerary services with the delicacies of celebrity thanatourism. It is an underestimate to argue that Southern California's cemetery real estate is at a premium. Forest Lawn Mortuaries located throughout the Southland, reflect precision in consumer segmentation. Much like the planned communities of the San Fernando Valley surrounding Forest Lawn Mortuaries, 'communities' adjacent find comfortable simulacra in the marketing, spatial organization and classification of the deceased by according to branding and segregation resonant with class identification.

Property ownership and its confining boundaries of memory and social contract merge in the most elite location at Forest Lawn in the plot section,…… [Read More]

References

Forest Lawn (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.forestlawn.com

Mitford, J. (1969). The American Way of Death. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Rentel, R. And Zellnik (2007). Karma Queens, Geek Gods, and Innerprenuers: Meet the Nine Consumer Types Shaping Today's Marketplace. New York: Mc-Graw Hill.

Schwartz, A. (2003). The Queen's Own Private Royal Garden. Scalpel & tongs, 47, 12 -13.
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Hispanic Culture & Healthcare the Hispanic Culture

Words: 2169 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92013512

Hispanic Culture & Healthcare

The Hispanic culture has barriers to receiving adequate healthcare (Swanson, 2012). Language has been a huge barrier in respects to the practitioner's ability to speak Spanish that has created communication barriers. Long wait times, staff taking adequate time in a caring manner, and the physical environment, whether friendly and facilitates interactions, can develop perceptions of the lack of caring. Some Hispanics believe they receive poor quality of care because of financial limitations, race or ethnicity, or the accent in the way they communicate in English (Livingston, 2008).

The Hispanic culture is community oriented with a high value placed on family input (Swanson, 2012). The family encounters provide a huge amount of support for the Hispanic patient. Members who speak Spanish and English are heavily relied on for support in healthcare decision making. Gender roles are especially appreciated as women do caregiving, even in hospital, and men…… [Read More]