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Describe the significance of the invention of agriculture to the development of Mesoamerica. When and where did it happen? What were the consequences of this invention?
The ancient Mexico was the branch of the region that is often regarded as Middle America or Mesoamerica. This culturally developed region encompasses the entire Mexico, Belize and Guatemala, and forming extensions into the division of Honduras. Mexico the area of central focus of the Mesoamerica and is recognized for having the earliest civilizations in America. It includes a diversity of environmental factors ranging from mountains, semi-aired deserts to the tropical rain forests. It has been therefore emphasized that the agricultural set up of Mesoamerica was established in Mexico (Havemeyer 244).
The agricultural setup of Mesoamerica was established approximately in the 5000 BCE, it was precisely the time when the agricultural activities at Mesoamerica were apparently observed. More than 6000 yeas ago…
Marshall Cavendish. Mexico and the United States. Vol. 1. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2003.
Newton, Lynn D., and Douglas P. Newton. Coordinating Science across the Primary School. London: Falmer Press, 1998.
Taylor, Clark L., et al. "5 Legends, Syncretism, and Continuing Echoes of Homosexuality from Pre-Columbian and Colonial Mexico." Latin American Male Homosexualities. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995. 80-99.
S. They have always struggled for dignity and will continue to do so.
4. The quebradita clubs indicate that social hierarchies and political consciousness exist at all levels of society, and that young people want something to fight for and believe in. The dance became so popular in the U.S. because it represented a fight against the backlash against immigrants and Hispanics, and also gave new information on Mexican culture to a generation that was attempting to learn more about their origins and background. The style was not popular in Mexico because the Mexican population is in tune with their culture, while the young Hispanics were exploring, developing, and attempting to broaden theirs, while they used the movement as a political platform to criticize Governor Wilson and many of his policies enacted in California.
5. Quebradita began as a dance phenomenon, and the music followed, which is why the study…
Rodolfo Acuna's The Making of Chicano Studies opens the door to an often-neglected chapter in American studies of history, sociology, and culture. Acuna's book primarily traces the evolution of Chicano studies as an academic discipline. However, in the course of discussions about Chicano pedagogy and curriculum, the author addresses the actual meat of the subject itself. The Making of Chicano Studies has earned its position and placement on the shelves of professors. The subject is multidisciplinary, which means that Acuna's book need not be segregated to the shelves of Chicano studies professors or departments only.
Chicano history, culture, and inquiry is intimately and inextricably linked with American history, culture, and inquiry. Acuna begins the investigation with an overview of Mexican history: including its complex racial identity and race relations. The story of Chicano culture begins at the intersection of identities: as after 1848 and the invasion of Mexico, Chicanos in…
Acuna, Rodolfo. The Making of Chicano Studies. Rutgers, 2011.
Chicano Movement was one of numerous movements for human rights and social justice that took place and reach great heights in American during the 1960s. The Chicano people were and are Mexican-Americans. Mexican-Americans advocated and organized so that there experiences and voices would be heard and respected. They, like many other groups fighting for justice and freedom in America, protested, demonstrated, held vigils, rallies, sang songs, and confronted the politicians that supposedly represented them and their interests. The Chicano Movement, like many other social movements in American and in the world, additionally was about the creative expression of people from this group. There were musicians, poets, writers, and fine artists of all kinds that were motivated and inspired by the struggles of their Chicano brothers and sisters. They created art and other forms of creative expression during this movement and as part of this movement, too. The Chicano Movement fundamentally…
Farager, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A History of the American people, Volume 2, 5th Edition. Upper Salle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chapter 29: "The politics of identity," 837 -- 843.
This growing population group surely has much more to offer than service industry work.
Once again, the Texas community sets an example not only in leadership, but also in the possibilities of uplifting educational opportunities for the Latino community. Indeed, the Texas program is driven by the Latino community itself, with intellectuals setting examples in leadership and education that can only be inspiring to their peers and to future generations. At Texas a&M, a university research center has been proposed that would serve to not only honor the contributions of Latino leaders to the culture, but also to educate and inspire future generations of this population.
Another issue within the same category is the fact that many different cultures exist within the Hispanic community. As seen above, the name "Latino" refers to many different population types, all of which are predominantly panish speaking. This issue is not to be overlooked…
NHLBI Information Center. "Latino Community Profile." Bethesda, MD. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/heart/latino/lat_dcd.htm
Aggie Daily." Top Latino Leader Examine Critical Issues for Future of Latinos." Texas a&M University, 2003. http://www.tamu.edu/aggiedaily/news/stories/03/052003-5.html
This committee works in conjunction with Land Use and Control Committees that oversee the best us of the land within the community. These two committees work together with local special interest groups to help assure that community resources are utilized for the greatest benefit of the people. Different communities call these committees by different names, but the purpose of the committees is always the same.
Anti-discrimination laws make it a crime to discriminate against a person for reasons of their race or religion. However, just because the laws exist does not mean that the problem is nonexistent. Race can be a defining characteristic of a community. Race can be the basis for community culture and community pride. People are often proud of their race and the cultural heritage that it embodies. However, stereotypes often stand in the way of getting fair treatment as far as housing is concerned.
Eisenberg, P. Time to Remove the Rose-Colored Glasses. March/April 2000. ShelterForce Issue
110. http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/110/eisenberg.html . Accessed March 23, 2007.
Hon. Senator Murray. Supporting the Latino Community. 2006. http://murray.senate.gov/latino/index.cfm Accessed March 23, 2007.
Lockyer, B. SHA Battles to Save County Affordable Housing Program. April/May 2005. SAC
Chicano/Mexican Culture History In the United States: Conflict and Assimilation in the Contemporary American Society
American society is described by many historians and social scientists to be a "melting pot" of cultures, and pseudo-societies of people with different races and nationalities. This is because throughout the years that America had been established as a stable political and economic society, a sudden influx of migration occurred, resulting to the arrival of numerous displaced people from all over the world. The surge in immigration in the United States are caused by the two world wars, which happened in during the early 1920s (World War I) and 1940s (World War II).
In effect, there has been immigration of German Jews, Asian nationals, and even the country's nearest neighbors, Spanish-speaking nationals from Central and South America. Among these Spanish-speaking nationals were the Mexicans, who were forced to leave their country to find better opportunities…
Douglas, M. (1990). Thrown among strangers: The Making of Mexican culture in frontier California. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Saldivar, J. (1997). Border Matters: Remapping American Cultural Studies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Salvador, R. (2003). Are Chicanos the same as Mexicans? Iowa State University. Available at http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rjsalvad/scmfaq/chicano.html.
Tatum, C. (2001). Chicano Popular Culture. University of Arizona Press. Available at http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/samples/sam1406.htm .
Chicano Identity in Literature
In "My Name" by Sandra Cisneros, the principle character's name is Esperanza. Esperanza's problem, at first, seems only to be displeasure with her name. She is certainly displeased with her name. She is disappointed with the meaning of her name in her native tongue, Spanish. She is frustrated and perplexed with the persistent difficulty that Americans have pronouncing her Chicana name. Esperanza wishes she could be lucky, like her sister, who can come home and have a different name, a prettier name, an easier name than her proper first name.
As the story progresses, readers learn that Esperanza's central problem is greater than her name. Her problem is with the history and the legacy of her name. She was named after her grandmother. Esperanza is somewhat conflicted about her connection and her similarities with her grandmother. One on hand, she does not like her name,…
Baugh, S.L. (ed) (2006) Mediating Chicana/o Culture: Multicultural American Vernacular. Cambridge Scholars Press: Cambridge, UK.
Bernal, D.D. (2002) Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemologies: Recognizing Students of Color as Holds and Creators of Knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105 -- 126.
Cuadraz, G.H. (2005) Chicanas and Higher Education: Three Decades of Literature and Thought. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 4(3), 215 -- 234.
Deutsch, S. (1994) Gender, Labor History, and Chicano/a Ethnic Identity. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 14(2), 1 -- 22.
Because Chavez also deployed faith and prayer in achieving his goal, he was able to fuse the Christian religion that was so important to the farm workers into a vital element of the Chicano movement in a way that advanced rather than impeded its political struggles.
Part 3, entitled "Taking Back the Schools," brings an urban dimension to the struggle for Chicano rights. The high drop out rate, crumbling buildings, lack of Mexican-American teachers all mobilized Latino and Latina students to walk out of their schools in 1968. They demanded better conditions under which to realize their education, and although not all of the urban ills were addressed by their collective action, this act provides an important reminder of the ability of young people in urban circumstances to use their anger for political rather than self-destructive means.
Part 4, "Fighting for Political Power," concludes the book. It describes the creation…
Rosales, Franciso Arturo. Chicano! The History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. New York, 1996
More precisely, this notion may be interpreted as being a certain de facto acceptance of the Mexican population as part of the American cultural heritage. There are many discriminatory criteria which have marked the history of the United States. The nationality and the family descent was often a reason for social exclusion. Therefore, the identification of Mexicans as being Americans as well represented an important step in their integration in the society.
The notion of "Latino" has often been used especially in recent history to define "people originating from, or having a heritage related to, Latin America, in recognition of the fact that this set of people is actually a superset of many nationalities. Since the term "Latin" comes into use as the least common denominator for all peoples of Latin America in recognition of the fact that some romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, French) is the native tongue of the…
California Historical Eras. N.d. 6 March 2008 http://calrepublic.tripod.com/history.html#californio
Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California. A History of Mexican-Americans in California: The Chicano Movement. 2004. 6 March 2008 http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/5views/5views5e.htm
Immigration. Becoming Part of the United States. 2005. 6 March 2008. http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/alt/mexican2.html
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Segregation, Desegregation and Integration of Chicano Students
The article, "Segregation, Desegregation, and Integration of Chicano Students: Old and New ealities" by ichard . Valencia et al., covers the desegregation and integration of Chicano students in America's schools from the first known practices in the 1840's through the present times. Chicano children actually had more educational opportunities than blacks, and they enjoyed segregated schools well before the turn of the 20th century. What is more interesting, is that Chicanos have tended to remain segregated in schools around the nation, while blacks have managed to achieve a high percentage of desegregation. In most cases, there are fewer Chicano students in white schools today than there were in the 1960s. As the author's note, "The more dramatic and largely ignored [segregation] trends are those affecting Latinos'" (Valencia et al. 74). Unfortunately, these trends affect the schools, the education available to Chicano students,…
Valencia, Richard R., et al. "Segregation, Desegregation, and Integration of Chicano Students: Old and New Realities."
Cotton must be picked within a very narrow harvest time. If it is not harvested when the time is right much of the production will be lost. It was the intent of the workers to time the strike so that it would have the greatest impact on owners in hopes that it would force them to raise wages for workers. However, many of the owners did not see the migrant workers as American citizens and treated them much as slaves were treated in the old South. They used tear-gas, saw-off shotguns, and arrested workers that participated in the strike (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121).
Schools were closed and children were used to make up for the lost workforce. They also recruited cotton pickers from Texas to fill the labor gap (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 128). These substitutions reduced the impact of the strike and many migrants lost their positions as a result. The strike…
Guerin-Gonzales, C. Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration,
Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ. 1994.
Hamilton, N. Central American Migration: a Framework for Analysis. Latin American Research Review. Vol. 26. No. 1. 1991. pp. 75-94.
Sanchez, G. Becoming Mexican-American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945. Oxford University Press. New York.
In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…
Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.
Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
population of California underwent dramatic changes in the last 60 years. In the 1940s, the Latinos were a minority of only 6% of the state or roughly 374,000 (autista 1991). ut by 1980, the Latino population grew to 4 million, almost doubling the figure and increased to more than 7 million in the 90s. In the 2000s, Latinos accounted for a third of California's total population, creating huge political, economic and social impact upon its entire society (autista). esides sheer volume, the continuously increasing Latino population has developed the distinct feature. efore the 60s, immigrants were rare and less than 20% of these Latinos were foreign born, most of them from Northern Mexico. Immigration, however began to fill the ranks since the 80s so that, today, the majority of adult Latinos in California are immigrants. These developments are among the most important criteria to social and demographic policy makers in…
California Labor and Workforce Development Agency. (2004). 1975 Agricultural Labor Relations Act. Agricultural Labor Relations Board. http://www.alrb.ca.gov
Democrats Assembly. (2004). Measure to Prohibit Employers from Locking In Their Workers Passes Assembly. California State Assembly. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/template/ademmain.sp?articleid=122&zoneid=2
Full Assembly Approves Proposed Increase in the State's Minimum Wage. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/templates/ademmain.asp?articleid=106&zoneid=2
House of Representatives. ((1998). Hearing on the Failures and Promises of the California Garment Industry. 105th Congress, Subcommittee on Oversight Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, serial 105-110. http://commdocs.gov/committee/edu/hedo&i5-110.html
Feminine Pedagogy and Critical Theory
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
"We are living in a period of profound challenges to traditional Western epistemology and political theory" that are in evidence in every aspect of modern life, and that are especially profound in the field of education (Weiler, 2003). The single most profound aspect of these epistemological, social, and political changes is based in the ironic history of postmodernist movements: An oppressed group may not understand the roots of their disenfranchised position, nor be able to conceptualize ways to address what appears to be a normative condition. Tacit agreement exists among powerful or influential contingents that their worldview is to be dominant. Although certainly not universal, there is an enduring social undercurrent that tolerates oppression when it benefits one class of people over another, particularly when the social majority identifies with or strives to become a member of the powerful group. Indeed,…
Brady, J. (2003). Critical literacy, feminism, and a politics of representation. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 142-153). Retreived http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Liberation-Paths -
Freire, P. (1970, 1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury Press.
Giroux, H. (1983). Critical Theory and Educational Practice. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University.
Gaudino, E.G. And de Alba, A. (2003). Freire -- present and future possibilities. In Lanshear, C. And McLaren, P. (Eds.) (2003). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, (pp. 123-134). Retreived
intended to provide an overview of the individuals and movements who played important part in Chicano movement
Chicano movement is one of the most eminent chapters in the history of Mexican-Americans. The Chicano movement reflects a decade's long pursuit of Mexican-Americans for their rights. Although it has its roots in 1800s, the movement grew stronger in 1940s. In order to understand what Chicano movement really is, one needs to understand the past events leading to it. It is a common saying in Mexican-Americans that we did not crossed the borders, the border crossed us. There have been several treaties signed between Mexicans and Americans which provided a lot of benefits to Mexicans along with citizenship, however when the senate revised these treaties, all these leverages were removed depriving Mexicans of their lands and other properties. Then started the journey of Chicano Movement. There are various individuals and several movements who…
Chavez, E. (2002). "Mi Raza Primero!" (My People First!): Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles, 1966-1978. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Gonzales, M.G.(2000). Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Rosales, F.A. (1997). Chicano! History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. Houston, TX: Arte Publico.
Lopez, I.F. (2004). Racism on Trial. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Readers know that Maria is very religious, and that she prays often and cooks for the family. On page 7 readers learn that in her haste to keep the Catholic ritual of crossing herself, she mixes cooking and religion. "She breathed a prayer and crossed her forehead. The flour left white stains on her, the four points of the cross." Her life is not at all about her, but about the men in her family. And it seems she is a literary counterpoint to Ultima, who is spiritually as strong as Maria is faithful to Catholicism.
On page 50 it is clear that Tony will not depend on his mother's nurturing for a long period of time. "He will be all right,' Ultima said. 'The sons must leave the sides of their mothers,' she said almost sternly, and pulled my mother gently." And as the friendship between Tony and his…
Anaya, Rudolfo a. Bless Me, Ultima. Berkeley: Tonatiuh International Inc., 1972
Rivera, Tomas. And the Earth Did Not Part. Berkeley: Editorial Justa Publications, Inc.,
S. Census ureau statistics, which disproportionately omit U.S. Latino-residents and, as a result, understate the population bases on which congressional representation and decisions on program funding are made. This kind of resistance has repeatedly resulted in an incomplete policy agenda and the formation of the appropriate and responsive management of demographic change. The fast-aging character of the American population places the burden of caring for the elderly on minorities and immigrants. Current and projected demographic patterns indicate that the economic success of the nation depends more and more on the fate of the growing Chicano population. Their education and welfare can, therefore, not be ignored by policymakers (aker).
Confronting and realistically addressing the significance of the education and welfare of the growing -and mostly young - Chicano population in America is a primacy concern in policymaking for the 21st century (aker). The focus and direction of policies must be the…
1. Baker, Susan Gonzales. Demographic Trends in the Chicana/o Population: Policy Implications for the Twenty-First Century.
2. Shrestha, Laura B. Changing Demographic Profile of the United States. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, May 5, 2006. http://www.fas.org/sgf/crs/misc/RL32701.pdf
S. democracy. In 1998, the Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture at UCLA convened several middle-aged Latinos to discuss the Latino society in California while they were growing up. Born in the 1940s and 1950s, they remembered a much more segregated and exclusionary society than the one today, and the hurt remains: They described growing up in a situation in which being Latino was simply not validated. "Back then [1950s]... who cares? You're just a Mexican, you're a 'beaner,' you know, you're a 'greaser'" (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 14).
The Mexicans born after the war had a very different experience than their parents and grandparents. The children of the postwar era were mostly children of U.S.-born Mexicans and grew up in barrios populated almost completely by the U.S.-born residents (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 19)
Much did not change for the Mexicans from the 1940s to 1960s, with discrimination and…
Hayes-Bautista, David E. Latinos in the Golden State. Berkley: University of California Press, 2004.
Kowalski, Kathiann. Life in the Barrio. Cobblestone (2004) 25.5.
Menchaca, Martha. Mexican Outsiders. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. We feel the want of protection: The politics of law and race in California, 1848-1878. California History (2003) 81:3-4, 96(31).
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…
Del Valle, Aracelis. "Garcia, Dr. Hector Perez." Learning to Give. Retrieved online: http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper99.html
Holley, Joe. "Hector Perez Garcia, 82, Dies; Led Hispanic Rights Group." The New York Times. 29 July 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/29/us/hector-perez-garcia-82-dies-led-hispanic-rights-group.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
"Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/justiceformypeople/
Kells, Michelle Hall. Hector P. Garcia: Everyday Rhetoric and Mexican-American Civil Rights. SIU Press, 2006.
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…
Pena, M. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women Gender and Society, 9, 32-47.
Pena, M. & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 620-629
Pineda-Madrid, N. (March 2005). Interpreting Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mediating the Christian Mystery of Redemption. Graduate Theological Seminary, Berkeley, CA,
Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On Mysticism, Latinas/os, and the Journey: A Reflection in Conversation with Mary Engel, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24, 178-183.
Language defines identity, and creates boundaries between self and other. In Borderlands: The New Mestiza, Gloria Anzaldua refers to the "broken" and "forked" tongues that represented the boundaries and intersections of social, cultural, racial, ethnic, and gender identities. The roots of sociolinguistic hypotheses of language suggest that at the very least, language impacts the social construction of reality, as well as psychic self-perception. According to Noam Chomsky, language use is a type of "organized behavior" that is both a cause and effect of reality (2). The study of language structure and function "can contribute to an understanding of human intelligence," (Chomsky xiv). Chomsky goes so far as to suggest that language precedes cognition in some cases, by stating that, "the study of language structure reveals properties of mind that underlie the exercise of human mental capacities in normal activities," including the use of language as a creative mechanism, form, and…
Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza -- La Frontera. Aunt Lute, 1999.
Chomsky, Noam. Language and Mind. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Hudson, Richard A. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Sapir, Edward. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1921.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
This does not only apply in the case of someone interested in Native American culture, as it can also assist someone performing business with natives, concerning that the respective individual would know the attitudes that he needs to employ in order to make the partnership as effective as possible.
Lala Guerrero's song "No Chicanos on Tv" is meant to induce strong feelings in audiences as individuals acknowledge the fact that the contemporary society straightforwardly discriminates particular groups on account of their particularities. It is difficult to determine whether it is best to laugh or to cry when hearing the lyrics, as they are intense and sarcastic at the same time. When considering the humanities in general and their connection to this song, it appears that they are also directed at changing people's perception of certain communities. The song raises public awareness concerning the gravity associated with discriminating particular groups and…
Heritage scholars obert ector and ea Hederman found that only a little more than one quarter worked for 2,000 hours or more. They suggested that poverty in America was less of a material deprivation and more of emotional and spiritual loss, the awareness or knowledge of one's dependence on state and federal bureaucrats and a loss of self-esteem resulting from the knowledge of self-insufficiency. The working poor, on the other hand, are capable of facing their future with optimism and confidence, no matter how little they earned. It was the control they had over their lives, which translated into their contribution to the economy (Kersey).
An opposing view was suggested, wherein an increase in the minimum wage would benefit low-income workers, in general, and those below the official poverty line, in particular (Economy Policy Institute 2006). If and when the proposed minimum wage increase was approved, the wages of approximately…
1. Economy Policy Institute.2006. Minimum Wage Facts at a Glance. http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguides_minwage_minwagefacts
2. Kersey, Paul. 2004. The Economic Effects of the Minimum Wage. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/labor/tst042904a,cfm?tenderforprint=1
3. Morris, David. 2004. The American Voice 2004. The American Voice. http://www.americanoice2004.org/minimumwage/index.html
4. Office for Social Justice St. Paul and Minneapolis. 2006. Facts about Poverty. 101 Economic Facts that Every American Should Know. http://www.osjspm.org/101_poverty.htm
Hispanic-Americans during World War II, and looks at the educational profile, in terms of learning styles, preferred fields of study, and outcomes.
Hispanic-Americans have fought in every war that the U.S. has fought, in the 20th and 21st centuries, including the two great wars, and the two Gulf wars (ean and Tienda, 1988). During these tours of duty, Hispanic-Americans have received 38 Congressional Medals of Honor: this is a high number, according to the percentage of Hispanic citizens in the U.S. population, and makes Hispanic-Americans, proportionately, the largest single ethnic group to receive this honor (Stone, 2000; Sanchez-Korroll, 1983). During World War II, 400,000 Americans of Hispanic descent fought, including citizens of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Spanish, and South and Central American descent. Indeed, relative to their representation in the U.S. population as a whole, Hispanic-Americans contribute a disproportionately high number of military enlistees.
Yet, despite the fact that these…
Bean, F.D., and Tienda, M. (1988). The Hispanic Population of the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Sanchez-Korrol, V. (1983). From Colonia to Community. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Stone, K. (2000). Latinos In War. The American Military Experience. Goals 2000 - Partnerships for Educating Colorado Students.
Suchlicki, J. (1986). Cuba: From Columbus to Castro. Washington: Pergammon.
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
However, there is also danger to the sexuality that lies behind sweetness, as when a girl Sally, marries a marshmallow salesman to escape an abusive father, entering a union that seems as bad as the home she is leaving.
A final symbol of the novel is that of play -- few adult women, except for the insane Ruthie, are seen enjoying themselves over the course of the novel. Girls can play at jump rope and look at clouds, but they worry about how the burdens and cares of an adult life -- like abusive or absent husbands, children, and money worries -- will weigh them down, as their bodies mature. Men are shown playing and gambling, but women must put their own pleasures aside for fathers, husbands, and brothers. Early on in the novel, Esperanza comments how even in her family the boys and the girls tend to separate as…
Art and Public Space
ho 'owns' public space? Public space is never neutral, even though it is theoretically owned 'in common,' but rather reflects the particular ideology of those who construct it. Thus, in a sense we all own public because we have a hand in how it is used and we are all owned by public space in the sense that the locations in which we dwell limit and define our social interactions. "One of the main trends in philosophy is to see the public sphere as a form of social reality, and less as an act of creation whose results would be negotiated intersubjectively" (Gheorghe 317).
Marxists see the demarcation of spaces into public and private arenas as a way to negotiate power relationships. Anyone who doubts this should consider the extent to which desirable real estate is determined by proximity to privileged social spaces: an apartment with…
"Chapter 3: A critical overview of public art." Temple University.
http://astro.temple.edu/~ruby/wava/alex/chap3.pdf [15 Mar 2013]
Gheorgh, C. "Theories and Uses in Common: Responses of Art in the Public Sphere."
Meta Research in Hermeneutics and Practical Philosophy, 2.2 (2010): 316-27.
Freedom and Equality in the 20th century
AN UN-ENDING FIGHT
Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies
The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).
The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…
AAO (n.d.). The civil rights era. Part I, African-American Odyssey. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.memory/oc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html
Civil Rights 101 (2001). Civil rights expanded: contemporary effects. The Leadership
Conference. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights.101/erexpanded.html
Foner, E. (1997). Expert report. Diversity Matters: University of Michigan. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/legal/expert/foner.html
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
Although the absolute magnitude of group differences on measures such as the BDI may appear moderate, the finding that 22% of troops deployed to the Persian Gulf reported at least mild levels of depression on the BDI compared to 9% of those who served stateside within the first year of such military duty is of clinical significance (p. 422)."
Amy B. Adler (1996), writing for Military Psychology, points out that soldiers experiencing the highest levels of combat stress were those exposed to dead troops and civilians, but exposure to their own fallen comrades, people with whom they had bonded, resulted in the highest levels of stress (p. 2).
The goals of the study were to identify the extent of PTS symptomatology following redeployment and to identify the relation between such symptoms and rank and type of traumatic exposure. It was hypothesized that soldiers who had been exposed to the most…
Adler, Amy B. "Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology among U.S. Soldiers Deployed to the Gulf War." Military Psychology 8.1 (1996): 1-14. Questia. 7 Mar. 2008
Feet of Jesus, a Work of ealism
Helena Viramontes' book, From Under the Feet of Jesus, is a novel that explores the difficulties of life that Chicanos faced in the United States from the 1930's through the 1970's. Her work is an exercise in realism as it does not trivialize the trials of Chicano life with grand political statements or symbolism. Instead, it is a very clean portrait of a family and their friends who are all attempting, at times desperately, to live their lives in a land that, more often than not, does not want them there. A realist work find the truth paramount. Viramontes faithfully reconstructs life in a series of pictures, that puts a perspective of reality, of truth, and of hopefulness for a people long suffering in this nation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the elements of realism in Viramontes' book and…
Chicano! Episode Four: Fighting for Political Power." Galan, Hector; Morales, Sylvia; Racho, Susan; Moreno, Mylene & Cozens, Robert. Film. National Latino Communications Center, 1996.
Garrison, Chad. "Reporting 'The Other': A Challenge on Both sides of the Border" The IRE Journal Jan-Feb, 1999. v22. i1. p15.
Viramontes, Helene. From Under the Feet of Jesus. Chicago: Plume, 1996.
Rudolfo Anaya grew up in the New Mexico and much of his work reflects this upbringing. A popular theme in his fiction is the background of the state and the introduction of factors that can lead to human destruction: greed, lust, self-righteousness, deception, and connivance (Garcia 2000, p. 11). His short story "The Apple Orchard" is not exception to this. This is the story about a young boy named Isador who is in seventh grade as he struggles to come of age in his community. The first-person narrator has a father who values education. The themes of education and its importance is integral in Chicano literature. According to Hector Colderon (1999), it is extremely difficult to finish education in the Hispanic community, particularly if English is not your first language. He says, "Out of some thirty-plus students, three of us graduated from high school on time, a few others had…
Anaya, Rudolfo. (2006). The Apple Orchard. The Man Who Could Fly and Other Stories. 74-86.
Calderon, Hector and Jose David Saldivar. (1991). Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature.
Garcia, Nasario. (2000). Rudolfo Anaya. Platicas: Conversations with Hispanic Authors. 5-34.
It has been reported that due to the economic disparity the available opportunities have been inaccessible for the minority groups, and therefore such initiatives are important to be formulated which facilitate the minority groups in their quest to reach the mark. Affirmative Action is incorporated once the society has failed to materialize the society value equality and fairness. Affirmative Action are installed only to regret the failure on the behalf of the state to ensure equality and justice to the people irrespective of the racial, sexual, ethnic and religious divisions, therefore the Affirmative Action has diluted the heavily concentrated ethnic and racial vigor, and has subdue the negative fallout of such practices. Affirmative Action has brought ultimate relief to those particular elements of the society which were previously ignored, and whose existence was previously deplored in the society. The American society has although benefit from the implementation of the Affirmative…
James P. Sterba. Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. Journal Title: Stanford Law Review. Volume: 57. Issue: 2. 2004
Ronald Dworkin. A Matter of Principle. McGraw-Hill. pp. 294-303. 1985.
Randall Kennedy. Persuasion and Distrust: A Comment on the Affirmative Action Debate. Thomson South-Western Publication. 1987. pp. 165-180
Jed Rubenfeld. Affirmative Action. Yale Law Journal. Volume: 107. Issue: 2. 1997. pp. 213-230. Yale University, School of Law Publication.
Tortilla Curtain - by T.Coraghessan Boyle
The much-talked-about "American Dream" - that elusive dream of being able to own a house, raising educated and successful kids, earning middle class money, and most of all being accepted as a functioning part of the great diverse U.S. economic and social structure - is but an "American Myth" to many immigrants arriving in this country. It's certainly a myth for many thousands of Mexicans coming to the U.S. And attempting to carve out a better life for themselves. The Boyle novel offers readers a close-up, graphically realistic view of the hardships that confront those immigrants - juxtaposed with the "good life" of an affluent family living behind stylish walls.
This review of The Tortilla Curtain will compare and contrast the main characters in the novel - Delaney Mossbacker (and his wife Kyra) and Candido incon (and his wife America) - in order to…
Boyle, Coraghessan T. The Tortilla Curtain. New York: Viking, 1995.
Brzezinski, Steve. "The Tortilla Curtain." The Antioch Review. 54 (1996): 113-114.
Hicks, Heather J. "On Whiteness in T. Coraghessan Boyle's The Tortilla Curtain."
CRITIQUE: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 45 (2003): 43-65.
Type I diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Type 1 account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). The most common form of diabetes is Type II, which accounts for about 90 to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). Pre- diabetes is a condition often present prior to the development of Type II diabetes. In pre-diabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered diabetic.
Pre-diabetes does not have to lead to the development of diabetes if a person diagnosed with this condition: Patients who work to control their weight and increase their physical activity can often prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. There are 41 million Americans…
American Diabetics Association. Retrieved 22 March 2010 from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/
Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet.Retrieved 18 March 2010 from www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf
Meng and Meurs (2009) examine the effects of intermarriage, language, and economic advantage. They find that immigrants who have some skill in the dominant language of the country to which they immigrate tend to intermarry and earn more income (Meng and Meurs). Marrying outside of one's culture may influence language acquisition due to social and economic needs to advance within the adopted culture.
Moua and Lamborn (2010) note that ethnic socialization practices by parents of immigrant adolescents strengthen the ethnic heritage connection between adolescent, parent, and ethnic community. These include native language use, marriage ties, taking part in cultural events, sharing history, and preparing traditional foods (Moua and Lamborn). As noted previously, immigrant parents tend to congregate in ethnic communities, where they are essentially immersed in the ethnic culture. The native language is often the most utilized if not the exclusive language in the home. However, children are acculturated into…
Akresh, I. "Contexts of English Language Use among Immigrants to the United States." International Migration Review (2007): 930-955.
Bacallao, M and P. Smokowski. "The Costs of Getting Ahead: Mexican Family System Changes After Immigration." Family Relations (2006): 52-66.
Blatchley, L and M. Lau. "Culturally Competent Assessment of English Language Learners for Special Education Services." Communique: Newspaper of National Association of School Psychologists May 2010: 1-8.
Bleakley, H and A. Chin. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants." American Economic Journal of Applied Economics (2010): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813069/pdf/nihms-132959.pdf .
And Vela-Gude's article offers several of the main points of this paper's research; the services must be ready, and the counselors must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the cultural implications as well as the academic realities facing those Latino students (2009).
Racism Against Latinos
This paper alludes to the high number of Latinos in California and Texas, but according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's research, the South is home to one of the "fastest growing populations of Latinos in the country" (Bauer, et al., 2009, p. 4). But though the typical Latino immigrant comes to the South to escape "crushing poverty in their home countries" they often encounter "…widespread hostility, discrimination and exploitation" (Bauer, 2009, p. 4).
hat kinds of discrimination do Latinos come up against in the South? Mary Bauer and her chief researcher, Sarah Reynolds, claim that Latinos are "…routinely cheated out of their earnings…
Barneclo, Nick Anthony. (2008). El Laberinto del exito: A Mixed methods investigation of resilience within the context of Mexican-American late adolescents lives. Dissertation at New Mexico State University in Counseling Psychology. ProQuest Publication Number:
Cannon, Edward, and Levy, Marielle. (2008). Substance-Using Hispanic Youth and Their
Families: Review of Engagement and Treatment Strategies. The Family Journal: Counseling
Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm orker's Clinic)
The central issue of this case was that the social ecology of administration and other external factors were not taken into consideration during the implementation of a plan to build new health clinics for migrant farm workers in Bakersfield California.
The program was created to meet the requirements of legislation of the 1970 Migrant Health Act sponsored by Senator alter Mondale. Although there was plenty of money available, the money came with time constraints and the group who needed to spend the money had a poor overall knowledge of the community the funding was supposed to serve. This case was significant because it demonstrated how multiple levels of government, both federal and local, often mismanage their responsibilities simply because of poor communication and planning.
There were several factors that created this problem. The…
Aron, Michael. (1972). "Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm Worker's Clinic)." The Washington Monthly. October: pp.23-32.
Charles, Michael T.. (1989). "The Last Flight of Space Shuttle Challenger." Coping With Crises: The Management of Disaster, Riots and Terrorism.
Sciolino, Elain., Bronner, Ethan. (1999). "The Decision To Bomb the Serbs." New York Times. April 18.: p.1+.
There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)
In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…
Arfaniarromo, A. (2001). Toward a Psychosocial and Sociocultural Understanding of Achievement Motivation among Latino Gang Members in U.S. Schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(3), 123. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000891430
Boose, D.W. (2003). Rethinking the Korean War. Parameters, 33(4), 175+. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002573236
Coughlin, B.C., & Venkatesh, S.A. (2003). The Urban Street Gang after 1970. 41+.
Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S.E. (Eds.). (2004). Teen Gangs: A Global View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107029652
For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.
Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."
When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.
Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?
Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…
Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,
Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.
Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
Female Sexuality and Self Development in Chicana Culture
Eysturoy (1996) points out that studies of women's sexuality related to Chicana culture have focused on the quest "for authentic female self development." She notes that this process involves environment and psychological factors combined, and involves "coming to terms with multiple social and cultural forces" in addition to coming to terms with internal and external issues that often impede Chicana women from realizing "individuation" or understanding their sense of individual self (77).
The author notes that a recurrent theme in much of Chicana literature centers on the evolvement of a child into an older women, and that in fact a majority of the literature related to Chicana women focus on the process of self development that is not just a search for identity, but rather a method for engaging Chicana readers and exploring or articulating a process that will ultimately lead to…
Aldama, F.L. (2003). "Gang Nation: Delinquent Citizens in Puerto Rican, Chicano, and Chicana Narratives." Melus, 28(4):242
Canut, N., Cardenas, G., Cordova, T., Garcia, J. & Sierra, C. (1993). Chicana voices:
Intersections of class, race, and gender. Albuquerque: New Mexico Press.
Dicochea, P.R. (2004). "Chicana Critical Rhetoric: Recrafting la Causa in Chicana
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…
Proposition #209 in California
The preponderance of evidence suggests that the passage of Proposition #209 had no significant impact on government or business..." In California, is likely two-thirds true, albeit it's difficult to quantify given the dearth of statistical evidence currently available. Indeed, there are examples, cited in this paper, of "business as usual" in California regarding affirmative action; and, unlike the government and business sectors, there is explicit statistical evidence that "state educational services" have been impacted in a dramatic way by Proposition #209.
Background on Proposition #209
What was Proposition #209 designed to accomplish in California?
The language of the original Proposition #209 (public initiative) sounded like civil rights legislation from the 1960s, and was intended to sound that way; but according to detractors, the law sought to reverse civil rights gains from that era. The title, "Prohibition against Discrimination or Preferential Treatment by State and other Public…
Black Issues in Higher Education (2001). UC Hiring Fewer Women Professors
After Prop. 209. 18, 12.
California Secretary of State (1996). Vote96 - an Analysis of Proposition 209
By Legislative Analyst; Official Title and Summary prepared by the Attorney
The knowledge of the evolution and starting point of the field of Victimology is of utmost worth. Three different ancient epochs describing the Victims' position inside methods of justice were reviewed by some foremost Researchers including Moriarty and Jerin. The Epochs are the Golden Age, the Reemergence of the Victim and the Dark Age. There is a proposition that the Golden Age has been before the time when laws were documented and governments founded and when ethnic law was in power. In most of the ethnic law, victims' position in defining the penalty for the criminal dealings that another person executed on them or their belonging is direct. This time is reckoned to be when the only judgment for unlawful events is individual justice. This means that the victims request payback or return for their damages right from their offenders. The Evolution of the Dark Ages of victimology was solely…
espondents challenged that the LSA has just such an interest in the educational benefits that result from having a racially and ethnically diverse student body and that its program is narrowly tailored to serve that interest. The court ruled for the respondents as to the LSA's current admissions guidelines and granted them summary judgment in that respect. The court also held that the LSA's admissions guidelines for 1995 through 1998 operated as the functional equivalent of a quota running afoul of Justice Powell's Bakke opinion, and thus granted petitioners summary judgment with respect to respondents' admissions programs for those years (Gratz v Bollinger, (02-516) 539 U.S. 244, 2003).
Affirmative action continues to be a topic of controversy in America's political and legal arenas. Bakke touched on the question, settling only the narrower issue of racial quotas in admissions to state supported schools and leaving later cases to test the propriety…
Blum, Edward. (2009). Deciphering Grutter V. Bollinger. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Web site:
Equal protection. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Cornell University Law School
Web site: http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/Equal_protection
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Mississippi Masala, "Do the Right Thing" and "Scarface."
Over the years, Hollywood and independent filmmakers have taken the 'American identity' and given audiences an opportunity to view the multi-faceted ethnicity of community-based ethics and interracial harmonies - or lack thereof. America has become a melting pot of cultures and beliefs that have had to fight off social stereotypes and fight against anglo-conformity.
Directors like rian De Palma, Mira Nair and Spike Lee have taken their audiences into the heart of ethnic racism in communities and the struggle some cultures face in order to survive against 'Americanization' and the paradox of achieving their 'American Dream'.
In De Palma's remake of "Scarface," the 1980 Mariel boat lift from Cuba formed the backdrop and set the stage for Tony Montana's desire to gradually manifest his destiny that eventually leads to his self-destruction.
Drawing on historical fact involving the North Miami refugee camps, including…
Do the Right Thing Dir. Spike Lee. Written by Spike Lee.
Perfs. Danny Aiello, Spike Lee, John Turturro. Film. 1989.
Mississippi Masala Dir. Mira Nair. Written by Sooni Taraporewala.
Perfs. Denzel Washington, Sarita Chodhury, Roshan Seth. Film. 1991
The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.
The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand…
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
Art and Artists of San Diego-Tijuana Border and the Economic Impact
The Mexico/U.S. border has been an area of focus in both countries politics because of the increased concerns regarding the impact of immigration to the United States. Securing this border has been a major priority of both governments to help in curbing several crimes, especially drug trafficking. hile this border continues to dominate immigration policy debates and agenda, its cultural production has been increasingly diverse and fruitful throughout the history of these two countries (Prieto par, 1). Art has emerged has an important activity in the cultural production of Mexico/US border, especially San Diego-Tijuana border. The emergence of art in this border can be traced back to the early 80's when it was explicitly used to address border politics. Since then, art in the San Diego-Tijuana border has continued to develop to an extent that it has considerable economic…
Brown, Particia L. "No Walls Here: Between Tijuana and San Diego, an Art Ethos Thrives." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 30 Oct. 2016. Web. 24 Jan. 2017. . This article examines the thriving art culture along the San Diego-Tijuana border. The author discusses how art has developed to become a borderless activity between people from these two countries. This discussion includes an overview of the historical development of art and artists along this border. It includes examples of how people in this region operate in a seemingly "borderless world" because of art.
Prieto, Antonio. "Border Art as a Political Strategy." ISLA Feature Coverage. Information Services Latin America, 1999. Web. 24 Jan. 2017. . The article provides an evaluation of the historical development of art in the U.S.-Mexico border, especially San Diego-Tijuana border. The author demonstrates how art was used as a political strategy to deal with border issues in the early 80s. The article demonstrates how art during this period was largely influenced by the Chicano movement. The influence of the Chicano movement was later replaced by the emergence of conceptual art. The article also highlights events in the artistic production in the region during this period.
Sheren, Ila N. "The San Diego Chicano Movement and the Origins of Border Art." Journal of Borderland Studies (2016): 1-15. Taylor & Francis Online. Taylor and Francis Group, 17 Oct. 2016. Web. 24 Jan. 2017. . The article discusses the influence of Chicano movement in art in San Diego-Tijuana border in the 80s and the subsequent emergence of border art. Through this discussion, the author highlights how complex and divisive immigration issues influenced art in the 1970s. The article provides insights regarding the role artists played during this period. Additionally, it shows how border art emerged to focus on economic inequality and human rights violations.
Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)
Introduction / Background History
Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.
Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating,…
Anonymous. "Piri Thomas" (2000). 09 December 2003. http://www.peacehost.com
Coeyman, M. "In a Largely Minority School, Literature Helps Students Confront Complex
Issues of Race and Culture" (2002). The Christian Science Monitor. 10 December 2003. http://www.csmonitor.com
Fisher, S. "Mean Streets Author Launches Latino Month" (2003). 10 December 2003. http://www.advance.uconn.edu/htm
.. hungry, cold.... The big problem is poverty. I spend 50% of my time taking care of them other than teaching, and this includes downtime because of behaviors such as fistfights, tantrums, aggression. (Harry, Klingner & Hart, 2005, esearch and design section ¶ 8)
Hispanic Males//Females Educational Pursuits
Although Hispanic females frequently outperform Hispanic males, cultural values that limit the range of school choices and career paths, frequently restrict the females to opportunities to access higher education. In addition, many Latina/o students, male and female, do not recognize that higher education currently constitutes a financially feasible, realistic option for them (Dosal, 2008, ¶ 5).
Erica Tortorella (2009) reports in "EACH prep program helps boost Latino presence in private education," that the fact Hispanics and other minority groups are underrepresented in private schools throughout the U.S. reveal that minority students, at all member schools account for only 21.9% of total enrollment.…
Anonymous. (2005). The health, education and welfare of Hispanics. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Bergstrom, C.A., & Heymann, S.J. (2005). Impact of gender disparities in family carework on women's life chances in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(2), 267+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009876863
Casado, M.A., & Dereshiwsky, M.I. (2007). Cultural diversity in higher education: Implications for hospitality programs. Education, 128(2), 294+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5025695726
And it is the tragedy of not knowing that Marin imagines in the story's last paragraph, when she envisions the family he left behind in Mexico as they "wonder, shrug, remember" the pretty boy who vanished and was "never heard from…again."
Cisneros arranges "Geraldo No Last Name" around two basic structural facts. One is the filtering of the story through Marin's consciousness, so that the subject of the story is not really Geraldo's brief life and death -- it is about what somebody like Marin thinks about when she contemplate somebody like Geraldo. And the second fact is, of course, the emphasis given to the different elements of what Marin considers: in some sense, the sad fact of Geraldo's death is subsidiary to the sad facts of his actual life as an illegal worker in a foreign country, who will die without ever seeing his family again. The fact that…
Cisneros, Sandra. "Geraldo No Last Name." In Wyrick, Jean. Steps to Writing Well. New York: Cengage, 2013. Print.
Cruz, Felicia J. "On the 'Simplicity' of Sandra Cisneros's House on Mango Street." Modern Fiction Studies 47:4 (2001): 910-946. Print.
Harlow, Barbara. "Sites of Struggle: Immigration, Deportation, Prison and Exile." In Calderon, Hector and Saldivar, Jose David, (Editors) Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture, and Ideology. Raleigh-Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.
The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.
Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…
Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.
Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.
Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.
Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
The bulk of the Cuban community in exile in Miami focuses on its white contingency. Afro-Cubans have a second-class status there, and their patterns of migration have been much different than they have for white Cuban refugees and immigrants. As Newby & Dowling (2007) note, recent Afro-Cuban immigrants have settled in various other places in the United States including the Southwest, where there are already entrenched Chicano communities and African-American communities. Afro-Cubans do not fit into the Chicano communities, the communities with other white Latinos, or the African-American communities. Language presents one of the most significant cultural barriers and identity markers distinguishing the AfroCubans from the African-Americans. Although they share some common ethnic heritage and ancestral experiences of racism, slavery, and political oppression, centuries have passed since their cultures demonstrated divergent trajectories. With regards to white Latinos in the Southwest such as Austin and Albuquerque, race raises serious…
"Effects of Heroin Use." (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.heroinabuse.us/effects.html
National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA 2010). InfoFacts: Heroin. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/heroin
homosexual latinos: the difficulties latinos face in being homosexual; the differences between homosexual latinos and Caucasian homosexuals; how latino homosexuals are treated within their communities, by their families, and within their countries of origin; and how homosexual latinos are treated within Latin America as a whole.
People have argued that homosexuality is part of the latino culture, and has been since pre-Columbian time, as records from pottery, and accounts from conquistadors of the Aztecs' behavior confirms. As the following quote, from a website championing gay and lesbian rights, shows, "homosexuality is a part of the pre- Columbian history of America. Spanish chroniclers observed various socio-sexual roles, including private same-sex relationships, and homosexuality as public ritual. Surviving effigy pottery demonstrates that Native people practiced a wide array of sexual customs. Among the militaristic and prudish Aztecs, sex also had a religious aspect. Xochiquetzal was considered the goddess of eroticism and sexual…
Marsiglia (1998). Homosexuality and Latinos/as: Towards and Integration of Identities. Journal of Gay and lesbian Social Services 8(3): 113-125. http://www.hivtest.org/docs/factslatino.pdf "HIV / AIDS among latinos: key facts." Accessed 26th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/brazil.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Brazil." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/mexico.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Mexico." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.geocities.com/eltejanito/gaylhis.htm" Gay and Lesbian History, and "Dia de la Raza." Accessed 29th November 2003. http://www.blacklightonline.com/gaylatinos.html " Gay Latinos, "La Raza" and the new "Familia." Article by Sidney Brinkley. Accessed on 27th November 2003.
e are no longer content with merely providing quality instruction. e will judge ourselves henceforth on the quality of student learning we produce" (O'Banion, 2007). Professional development and personal enrichment thus now go hand-in-hand, in terms of the way the university views its process of operation.
Descriptive synopsis of the marketing situation
The university presents itself as an ideal university for an individual seeking a flexible university plan in a diverse community of students. The educational opportunities are vast and wide-ranging, spanning from everything from preparation for future teachers in deaf education, to a comprehensive background in the film industry, or grounding Pan African regional studies. Its one weakness to its user-friendly promotional and informative website is that international students might find inadequate information about fees, aid, and also living on campus.
About Cal State Northridge." Official ebsite. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. http://www.csun.edu/aboutCSUN/
Academic Programs." Official ebsite. 2007.…
About Cal State Northridge." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. http://www.csun.edu/aboutCSUN/
Academic Programs." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. http://www.csun.edu/academic/index.html
Costs of Attendance." Official Website. 2007. 10 Nov 2007. http://www.csun.edu/finaid/ cost.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
teach students who first language is not English continues to be one of the most contested and misunderstood issues facing educators in the U.S. today. wo main educational philosophies and lines of research prevail. Proponents of dual language education assert that the long-term education of students benefits from a bilingual approach primarily because it facilitates cognitive development and is, thereby, a better method to address an achievement gap (Jost, 2009). he opposing educational camp argues that students whose first language is not English should be given support in their first language through bilingual education, but only for a short time (Jost, 2009). he watershed for these two approaches appears to be a long-term focus vs. A short-term focus (Jost, 2009).
he policy problem associated with English as second a language academic programs is fundamentally two-fold: o address the need for acceleration of the development of English language skills and linguistic…
The tendency is to think of bilingual education as focusing on Hispanic students, but this is decidedly a limited perspective (Haas, 2009). Students who need to learn English in order to fully participate in the schools they attend cross all grade levels (Haas, 2009). Moreover, the number of foreign languages represented in any given school can be quite large (Haas, 2009). During the time of the public brouhaha of the Umz Initiative, one teacher reported that, "I have had 32 different languages spoken in my classroom over a 25-year period. Eighty-four languages are spoken in our district" (Anonymous, 1998). With this level of diversity, teachers who are frustrated by the bureaucracy of educational institutions and the lag of simply choose to "just teach in the way that you know is effective" (Anonymous, 1998). Essentially, that means to many teachers that they must reach out to their students in whatever language makes them want to learn and be able to study (Haas, 2009).
Assimilation is a focus for proponents of immersion programs in which students receive instruction only in English. This movement is supported by demonstrations