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How Children Develop Cognitively

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20640679

Part 1: Running Record
Thomas is watching Paw Patrol on the couch. He is not so much sitting as he is lying on his stomach with his feet in the air. Paw Patrol ends and Thomas cries out, “IT’S OVER!” He gets no response, so hops down from the couch and looks for his mother. “It’s over, Mama!” he whines. “Okay, well, I told you you could watch one episode!” she responds. Thomas whines more loudly. “I want to watch another one! I want to watch Blaze!” Thomas cries, stretching out the sounds in the last words to emphasize them. He pouts and fusses and pulls at his hair and face as though he can’t stand this predicament. His mother says, “Why don’t we color?” Thomas cries more vehemently. His mother, unperturbed, says lovingly and with some excitement in her tone: “We got those new coloring books and crayons…… [Read More]

Fagot, B. I., Hagan, R., Leinbach, M. D., & Kronsberg, S. (1985). Differential reactions to assertive and communicative acts of toddler boys and girls. Child development, 1499-1505.
Fiese, B. H. (1990). Playful relationships: A contextual analysis of mother?toddler interaction and symbolic play. Child Development, 61(5), 1648-1656.
Garner, B. P., & Bergen, D. (2006). Play development from birth to age four. Play from birth to twelve: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings, 3-12.
Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of research in science teaching, 2(3), 176-186.

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Temperament in Young Children From Ages 8 to 12 Years

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 12242880

This paper provides a review of four peer reviewed articles relating to temperament in young children from ages 8-12 years. The articles were obtained from Sheridan College library database using the following keywords: “temperament in young children.”
Lukowski, A., & Milojevich, H. (2017). Sleep problems and temperament in young children with down syndrome and typically developing controls. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(3), 221-232.
The purpose of this article was to examine the association between sleep problems and temperament in children with Down syndrome (n = 19). The study, which included a control group with children without Down syndrome (n = 20), found that sleep difficulties can be both a cause and an outcome of temperament. This article is useful due to various reasons. First, the article was published in 2017, meaning that it offers current evidence on the relationship between sleep problems and temperament in young children.…… [Read More]

Dyson, M., Olino, T., Durbin, C., Goldsmith, H., Bufferd, S., Miller, A., & Klein, D. (2015). The structural and rank-order stability of temperament in young children based on a laboratory-observational measure. Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 1388-1401.
Lukowski, A., & Milojevich, H. (2017). Sleep problems and temperament in young children with down syndrome and typically developing controls. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(3), 221-232.
Oosterman, M., & Schuengel, C. (2007). Physiological effects of separation and reunion in relation to attachment and temperament in young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 119-128.
Salley, B., Miller, A., & Bell, M. (2013). Associations between temperament and social responsiveness in young children. Infant and Child Development, 22, 270-288.
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Overview of a Developmental Theory

Words: 323 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69162753

Developmental Theory
Developmental theories provide a systematic means of thinking regarding the growth and development of individuals from childhood to old age. These theories demonstrate the various stages and changes that people undergo as they develop. One of the most commonly used developmental theories is Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory. It was proposed by theorist Jean Piaget who is regarded as one of the most influential personalities in the field of cognitive development. Through this theory, Piaget is concerned with the development of an individual’s thought processes and how they shape his/her understanding and interactions with the world.
Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory helped to transform how people think about child development on the premise that children think differently in comparison to adults. This theory introduces four stages of a child’s cognitive development (Cherry par, 27). The first stage is the sensorimotor stage, which is the period between the child’s birth to…… [Read More]

Reference Cherry, Kendra. \\\\"Child Development Theories and Examples.\\\\" Verywell Mind. Dotdash Publishing Family, 13 Mar. 2019. Web. 26 Apr. 2019. .
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Children Development

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57170717

Children Development

Differentiating between phenomena of Theory-Theory and Theory of Mind

The 'Theory of Mind' is a cognitive-based science that examines how humans develop and ascribe mental states to people around us and how such mental states are used to foretell one's behavior and actions. It delves into the process of mental abilities and mind reading (Marraffa). 'Theory -- Theory', on the other hand, focuses on the structure of concepts, how they are acquired and applied in real life. Theory-theory points out that concepts are woven around theories and that one must first learn the theories in order to acquire the concepts (eiskopf)

Theory of mind grows over time. The intuitive social skills appear during the infancy stage while the reflective social cognition manifests during the preschool and the preceding toddler stages. Children aged three years understand that different people want and feel different things. Such mental stance is formidable…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Astington, Janet Wilde, and Margaret J. Edward. "The development of theory of mind in early childhood." Social Cognition in Infancy* 5 (2010): 16.

BOND, ALLISON. "How Moving Effects Mental Health in Kids." Huffington Post. The Huffington Post, 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 14 Oct. 2016.

Hartup, Willard W. "Peer relations in early and middle childhood." Handbook of social development. Springer U.S., 1992. 257-281.

Hay, Dale F. "Early peer relations and their impact on children's development." Encyclopedia on early childhood development 1.1 (2005): 1-6.
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Child Observation Term Winter 2014 John Age

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83184205

Child Observation

Term: Winter, 2014


Age of Child: 6 years old

Date of Observation: February 3, 2014

Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00

Place of Observation: Child Care Center

Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children

Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.

Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents

John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…… [Read More]


McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: 

McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
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Child Temperament Can Be Defined

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5867471

On the other hand, others may require a few weeks to get adjusted (Thompson; Connell; Bridges, 1988).

Threshold of esponsiveness:

This refers to how strong a stimulus requires to be reminded of a response from a child. For instance, one child may find a light touch irritating while another may need a deep hug to continue a response. This intensity of reaction refers to the vigor level of the response that is the characteristic of that child.

Another example is a child who has little threshold of responsiveness but at the same time his intensity of reaction is quite high may react to a bad taste medicine with a very loud, "Yuck!" along with lots of frowning and spitting. In contrast, another child may have the same threshold of responsiveness but a low intensity of reaction may just crumple his nose in dislike.

Persistence - Attention Span

This describes of…… [Read More]


Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1995). Child maltreatment and attachment organization: implications for intervention. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir and J. Kerr (Eds.). Attachment theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Fox, N., Kimmerly, N., & Schafer, W. (1991). Attachment to mother/attachment to father: A meta-analysis. Child Development.

Goldsmith, H., & Alansky, a. (1987). Maternal and infant temperamental predictors of attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Seifer, R., Schiller, M., Sameroff, a., Resnick, S., & Riordan, K. (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology.
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Child Abuse in England Using Given Scenario

Words: 2697 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69315184

Child Abuse in England

Initial Information

The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.

esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.

The bruises on Clara's…… [Read More]


1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking

2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman

3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK

4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
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Child Grief at Loss Grief

Words: 2087 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65827207

Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.

Loss at Teenage Years

At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.

In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…… [Read More]


1. Bonanno G., Neria Y., Mancini a., Coifman K., Litz B. & Insel B (2007)Is there more to complicated grief than depression and posttraumatic stress disorder? A test of incremental validity. Psychological Medical Journal.116, pp. 342 -- 351

2. Brent, D., Melhem N., Donohoe MB & Walker M. (2009). The Incidence and Cause of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months after the loss of a Parent to Suicide,

Accident, or Sudden Natural Death, Psychological Medical Journal.166, pp.786 -- 794.

3. Hensley P., Slonimski C., Uhlenhuth E. & Clayton P. (2009)Escitalopram: an open-label
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Children Exposure to Violence Through the Media

Words: 2785 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17371982

Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media

The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…… [Read More]


Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from 

Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.

Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.

Retrieved from
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Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17856720



Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.

Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.

Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…… [Read More]


Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
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Children and the Media Whether or Not

Words: 2734 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81749753

Children and the Media

Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.

I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse How Large Is

Words: 4401 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46242485

The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).

According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:

1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.

2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.

3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…… [Read More]


Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.

Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
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Children Raised by Same-Sex Parents Have More

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17832377

Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents

As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…… [Read More]


Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.

Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.

Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family

Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
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Child Abuse and Sexuality

Words: 2773 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32393386

Child Abuse and Sexuality

There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).

The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…… [Read More]

Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.

Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37

Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
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Child's Drawing Ability Drawing Complexity as the

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8364168


Drawing complexity as the complexity or the level of difficulty involved in children's drawing. Drawings from younger children can be less simple with fewer features but as the age of the child progresses the complexity of the drawings increases due to the complex cognitive development.

Drawings are mirror representation of the child's development. Children's drawings have significant roles in the cognitive development of the child. Other roles include training the brain of the child to pay attention and to sustain attention, stimulating individual cells and clusters of cells in the visual cortex for line and shape, practicing and to organizing the shapes and patterns of thought and, through an increasing affinity for marks, to prepare the mind of the child for its determining behavior

Understanding children's cognitive development has implications for many fields, and in particular for education. There exists many possible approaches to the study of…… [Read More]


Bensur, B.J., Eliot, J., and Hegde, L. (1997). Cognitive correlates of complexity of children's drawings. Perceptual and motor skills, 85, 1079 to 1089.

Callaghan, T.C. (2000). Factors affecting children's graphic symbol use in the third year.

Language, similarity, and iconicity. Cognitive Development, 15, 185 -- 214.

Cherney, I. D & Seiwert, C. S & Dickey, T.M. & Flichtbail, J.D. (2006). Children's drawings: a mirror to their minds. Educational psychology, 26(1), 127-142.
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Development of 18-Month-Old Child

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20300054

Developmental Checklist

Intelligence in Infancy


The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.


The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.


The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: 

CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: 

Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: 

Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
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Children's Use of Play

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87992455

Psychology Developmental

Children's Use of Play

Children use play as a way of role-playing and expression. Anxiety expression, mastering of conflict as well as many other developmental benefits are derived from play by children. This paper intends to explore the play of children in relation to the developmental benefits that play provides.

Though play children grow in the understanding of not only themselves but of others and the world around them as well in their capacity to communicate with their friend and the adults in their lives Children's play is vital to the developmental growth in a child.

Progression of Play in Development:

Paiget, 1962 described what he termed "sensorimotor practice play" which refers to the experimentation of bodily sensation and motor movements on the part of infants and toddlers and as well as in connection with objects and people. y the time a baby is six months old the…… [Read More]


Bergen, Doris (2001) "Pretend Play and Young Children's Development" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL.

Online] located at

DeHart, G.B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R.G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course (5th ed.). Toronto: McGraw-Hill.

Bear, G.G., & Rys, G.S. (1994). Moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status among elementary school children. Developmental Psychology, 30, 633-638.
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Child Exploitation on the Internet Public Awareness Campaign

Words: 1992 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75580998

Public Awareness Campaign: Child Exploitation on the Internet

Growing up in an era where the internet and video games take up more than 25% of a child's time made me realize just how integral technology has become to children's lives, and how vital it is that we increase our awareness on the dangers and benefits of technological advancement. Through this proposal, I intend to educate people, as well as myself, on how to handle the security risks that children are exposed to, online.

eports about children being abused and brutalized, either on the internet, or in the real world, have become an integral part of the news today. Not a day goes by without such kinds of reports; and what is even worse is that hundreds of cases remain unreported, and the culprits are left scot free, with immense avenues to identify and devour more unsuspecting children (Byron, 2008). Such…… [Read More]


Byron, T. (2008). Safer Children in a Digital World. The Report of the Byron Review. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from 

ITU. (2012). Child Online Protection. International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from 

NSPCC. (2014). How to Help Your Child Stay Safe Online: Tips, Controls, and Conversations to Help Keep Children Safe on the Internet and Social Networks. NPSCC. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from 

Thierer, A. (2007). Two Sensible Education-Based Legislative Approaches to Online Child Safety. The Progress Freedom Foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from
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Children Cannot Help but Notice About Certain

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96966509

children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.

rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…… [Read More]

Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press
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Children Fatherless Homes Parenting The Effects

Words: 2533 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39424929

0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).

Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.

Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.

The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.

Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.

According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…… [Read More]


Effects of Fatherlessness (U.S. Data) [Online]  er/econ/nodad.htm

ANCPR Alliance for Non-Custodial Parents
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Children of Parents With Parkinson's

Words: 2083 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23855343

" Does she have faith that a more clear understanding of those problems among the medical establishment will become evident? "I wonder," she wrote, cryptically.

HAT PARENTS HO HAVE PD SHOULD SAY to THEIR CHILDREN: The Parkinson's Disease Society ( offers pertinent advice and counsel to those parents who have both PD and children. "A key message seems to be open and honest" when talking to your kids, the PDS Information Sheet suggests. "Don't keep it a secret." As soon as you are diagnosed with PD, explain to them what it means to your health and to their lives as part of the family as a whole.

Don't be vague or apologetic, the PDS suggests. Be specific and clear, and fully explain that PD is not contagious. Because of the fatigue associated with PD - and the "on-off fluctuations" that are inevitable - parents with PD may not be able…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ali, Rasheda. "Muhammad Ali's Daughter Writes Children's Book on Parkinson's. ABC

News. 2005. Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at .

Lees, Lesley. "Living with Parkinson's disease - a child's perspective." British Medical

Journal 324.1562 (2002): Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at .
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Children in the Military

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38865446

Military Children

Military life and civilian life differ in key ways, and these differences affect families in particular. Since September 11, there have been higher rates of deployment and a correspondingly increased rate of family stress and domestic abuse. Deployment and the stressors associated therewith are especially important to understand. A review of literature shows that PTSD and other problems are linked to increased rates of abuse among military families. esearch also shows that abuse can be prevented, whether or not PTSD exists. The ways to prevent abuse include developing resilience. esilience includes a range of coping mechanisms that help parents be more able to deal with change and uncertainty. Parents can then pass on these traits to their children. Developing a strong social network has been proven especially helpful in both military and civilian families. Both civilian and military parents benefit from the development of resilience, coping skills, and…… [Read More]


Bursch, B. & Lester, P. (2011). The long war comes home: mitigating risk and promoting resilience in military children and families. Psychiatric Times 28.7 (July 2011): p26.

Chandra, A. & London, A.S. (2013). Unlocking insights about military children and families.

"Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully," (2014). MilitaryOneSource. 22 Feb, 2014.

Masten, A.S. (2013). Afterword: what we can learn from military children and famliies. The Future of Children 23(2): Fall 2013.
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Children in the Family

Words: 1013 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33092664

America is known as the melting pot of the world. Each year millions of immigrants travel from other cultures to begin new lives and try and attain the American Dream. Over the past two hundred years hundreds of different cultures have tried to meld together in a way that would allow cohesive living for all, yet there have been societal problems along the way. Societal changes as well as personal challenges face children who grow up in current society. Their parents are charged with nurturing them even in the face of societal prejudice or other obstacles. Growing up as an Italian-American, I was provided with a dual cultured childhood. The things I was taught and experienced helped me become a strong and able adult.

In, Taking Parenting Public the authors work to illustrate the changes that children today have to face on their journey to becoming adults.

According to the…… [Read More]


Taking Parenting Public: The Case for a New Social Movement. Sylvia Ann Hewlett (Editor), Nancy Rankin (Editor), Cornel West (Editor)
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Children of Divorce and How They Can be Helped

Words: 3360 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77153943

Divorce on Children

Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…… [Read More]

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Child Studies

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81690830

Does the ad contain any research-based evidence, or any evidence to substantiate its claims? If yes, what is the evidence?

No, the ad does not contain any research-based evidence or any kind of evidence that is able to substantiate its claims.

What is the overall concept related to the claim in the ad? (e.g., to improve some aspect of development, to increase well-being, to change behaviours, etc.).

There are three general concepts associated to the claim in the ad. The first is that bright colors, textures and fun sounds that are exuded by the toy aid in the stimulation of the baby's senses. Secondly, there is the concept that the action reaction activity nurtures understanding of cause and effect as the child manages to discover how to make noise with the activity blocks. Lastly, there is the concept of fine motor skills. The claim made by the ad is that…… [Read More]

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Child With Disability

Words: 1710 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59146135

Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities

Child With Disability

Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class

Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.

The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.

What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.

Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…… [Read More]


Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.

Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.

Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.

Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
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Child Life Specialist's Interview

Words: 1557 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56754386

Rachel Faybyshev

Foundations of Mental Health Counseling

Dr. Mary Owens

Interviewee -- April Slowenski BS, MEd, CCLS, CPMT

Please tell me your official job title and the length of time that you have held the Child Life Specialist degree.

I am a Certified Child Life Specialist and Certified Pediatric Massage Therapist. In February, it will be 7 years since I started working in this field.

What inspired your interest in the field of Child Life Specialist?

I've always wanted to work with children and at first I wanted to be a teacher. I was not aware of all the other professions that deal with children. I found out about child life specialists program by accident. While in undergrad, I majored in Education and took a psychology course. One day when I was going to class, there was a sign for a child life specialist's seminar right outside the classroom. Unfortunately,…… [Read More]