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Another theory, posited by Erik Erikson, also focuses on the psychological elements of development. According to Eriksson, all children go through the same psychological stages, and so development occurs the same everywhere. Vygotsky believed development to occur differently within different cultures, dependent on the characteristics of the individuals' children are cared for. Finally, a third theory of attachment, is actually quite similar in that it depends on healthy social interaction to provide normal developmental processes.
One of the primary features of Vygotsky's social theory of development is his concept of the zone of proximate development, or ZPD. According to Vygotsky, "any pedagogy creates learning processes that lead to development," (Gallagher 1999). Thus, the help that children receive from caregivers helps shapes how they will then approach certain situations in the future. esearch states that "It's the concept that a child accomplishes a task that he/she cannot do alone, with the…
Gallagher, Christina. (1999). Lev Semyonvich Vygotsky.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1929). The problem of the cultural development of the child II. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 36, 415-32
The first two years of life, known as infancy, is universally recognized as an extremely important stage of human development, and is therefore distinguished from the later stages. Infancy witnesses the rapid growth of the child's cognitive, psychosocial, and biosocial development, and the infant's increasing responsiveness to the environment and the people within that environment.
Infants grow at a very rapid rate during the first one and a half years of life, developing not only physically, but also mentally, emotionally, and socially. The infant's brain is immature at birth, and the child's early behavior therefore involves the display of a set of reflexes: some that occur in response to the infant's adjustment to its new environment and stimuli and others that are present because the cerebral cortex is not yet mature enough to control them. Infants appear particularly attentive to visual stimuli, such as movement, contrast, color, and…
Humans are born with basic capabilities and distinct temperaments, however, everyone goes through dramatic changes along the way to adulthood, and while growing old (Erikson's pp). According to psychologist Erik H. Erikson, every individual passes through eight developmental stages, called psychosocial stages, and each stage is characterized by a different psychological 'crisis,' which must be resolved by the individual before he or she can move on to the next stage (Erikson's pp). However, if the person cope with a certain crisis in a maladaptive manner, then the outcome will result in more struggles with that particular issue later in life (Erikson's pp). Erikson believed the sequence of the stage are set by nature and it is within these set limits that nature works its ways (Erikson's pp).
The first stage, infancy, involves the crisis in this stage is trust verses mistrust, stage two, the toddler stage involves the…
Erikson's Eight Stages of Human Development
Instead of being frustrated and depressed because they are not succeeding, these children feel good about themselves and what they have accomplished. They also have the added benefit of doing something they enjoy and that will give them personal pleasure. These are the children who have the self-confidence to try something new on their own.
Understanding child development can also help caregivers and educators recognize when a children are not working to their potential. In such cases, it is not lack of ability that is keeping them from succeeding, but something psychological, emotional or physical that is acting as a barrier to their goal attainment. The earlier such difficulties are noticed, the more chance there is get the children the help that is needed and turn the situation around in a relatively short period of time. Caregivers, teachers and mentors who take the time and effort to consider development are…
Center for Disease Control (CDC), 2009) Website retrieved November 21, 2009.
Piaget, J. (1977) "The Mission of the Idea." In H.E.Gruber and J.J.Voneche (Eds) The
Essential Piaget, pp, ix-xlii. New York: Basic Books.
"The quality of the relationship between parents and young children is one of the most powerful factors in a child's growth and development," (Brotherson, 2005, p. 1). esearch unequivocally supports the notion that a young's child's social and emotional well-being is enhanced through the development of positive attachments, especially in the first three years of life. It is important to research and understand the issue of attachment in early childhood because of the social factors that prevent the development of healthy attachments, including the fact that many fathers and mothers work full-time during the first three years of their child's life. Leaving children in the care of secondary caretakers has become an essential means of making ends meet for many families, and yet it might have a strong bearing on the child's eventual psychological growth and development including psychological and emotional well-being. Consistently, research has revealed "negative associations…
Belsky, J. & Rovine, M.J. (1988). Nonmaternal care in the first year of life and the security of infant-parent attachment. Child Development. Vol. 59, No. 1 (Feb., 1988), pp. 157-167
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Han, Wen-Jui & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development 73(4): 1052-1072.
Brotherson, S. (2005). Understanding attachment in young children. NDSU Extension. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:yid4mF2O0HcJ:www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs617.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESipHzJnj3jwaFvNOfadieU9Hm5SGZHZOLg0r9QO1QL-cEdt6_zquVn4pRA0zOQywVbCART3nk-obmfyTHQnM6BNzTMtZxmzHIm7JFloG7PvyA8kblXYcMzqKJJXNJi03g89deu3&sig=AHIEtbTu0NmiNlPIVWfsvozgKv1AwAFeFw
Davis, D. & Clifton, A. (n.d.). Psychosocial theory: Erikson. Retrieved online: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
In order to provide an age appropriate program with activities that enhance the numerous stages of growth and development in children, the adult should have a good understanding of where the child is developmentally coming from, where the child is currently, and where he or she is heading to into the near future.
Middle Childhood a. Gross Motor Skills - with a list of specific skills and what those might look like in the child's age range you have chosen.
A a1. Flexibility-Physically more pliable and elastic. ie: Swinging a bat, kicking a ball a2. alance-Improved balance supporting advanced skills in running, jumping, skipping, throwing and rapid change in direction.
A a3. Agility-Quicker and more accurate. Forward, backward and sideways motions.
A a4. Force- Stronger able to propel themselves farther off the ground when running and jumping.
b. Play - what activities might your expect a child in…
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 56-95.
2. Erikson, E., (1950). Childhood and Society
3.Piaget, J., (1966).The Psychology of the Child
According to McGrath (2003), "In almost every case of significant adult depression, some form of abuse was experienced in childhood, either physical, sexual, emotional or, often, a combination." Child abuse can cause a wide range of deleterious effects in adulthood, impacting the ability to form healthy relationships or develop a sense of self-efficacy (ivers, 2011). The link between child abuse and clinical problems like depression, addiction, and anxiety can be best explained via developmental psychology. Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development demonstrate how abuse at any one stage might predict psychological or behavioral problems later in life. ivers (2011) notes, "Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development show that failing to master early stages -- often because of abuse -- causes maladaptive behaviors and impaired emotional capacity in the adult."
Although abuse can happen at any age and wreak havoc on the psychological health of the individual, it…
Dalcour, J. (2011). Child abuse and its effects on Erikson's third stage of development. eHow. Retrieved online: http://www.ehow.com/info_8417073_child-eriksons-third-stage-development.html
Gallagher, J. (2001). Persistent depression risk 'doubles' in abused children. BBC. August 14, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14503479
McGrath, E. (2003). Child abuse and depression. Psychology Today. May 7, 2003. Retrieved online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200305/child-abuse-and-depression
Rivers, M.B. (2011). Psychological effects on adults abused as children. eHow.com. Retrieved online: http://www.ehow.com/info_8365660_psychological-effects-adults-abused-children.html
I hypothesizes that children at what Piaget would call a preoperational stage do in fact perform complex analysis of numbers and situations, but that they approach this analysis is a tentative and relative way which is open to influence and negation from outside sources. More succinctly:
children at early stages do perform conservation but consider it relative to mitigating factors and prone to correction.
The following few pages will follow an interview with a child. After describing the situation and method of this interview and a summary of the way in which outside influence was controlled as much as possible, the results of the interview will be presented in brief. From these results it is hoped a conclusion as to the application of Piaget's stages to the actual relative task of conservation may be analyzed.
The interviewee for this research is a four-going-on-five-year-old female child, from a white lower-middle class…
Child Development and Learning
Child development is the psychological, biological and emotional changes which occur in human beings from birth till when adolescence ends as the individual progresses from being dependent to a state of increased autonomy. Child development is influenced by genetic factors and prenatal events. There are several theories of child development that have been put forth by different people. The first of the two major theories is the theory of cognitive development which was put forth by a Swiss theorist. The second is the theory of cultural-historical psychology which was put forth by Lev Vygotsky who was a ussian theorist. There are also other theories of child development such as Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and the behaviorism theory by John B. Watson. All these theories attempt to explain the processes of child development and the factors that influence the process.
Piaget's cognitive development theory
Das, J.P. (1999). Some Thoughts on Two Aspects of Vygotsky's Work. Educational Psychologist, 30(2), 93-99.
DeVries, R. (1997). Piaget's Social Theory. Educational Researcher, 26(2), 4-17.
Glidden, L.M. (2000). Adopting Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Long-Term Perspective. Family Relations, 49(4), 397-405.
Holland, D.C., & Valsiner, J. (1988). Cognition, Symbols, and Vygotsky's Developmental Psychology. Ethos, 16(3), 247-272.
I don't recall ever feeling that way but now my chest expands and contracts continuously all by itself and I can't stop it; nor would I want to because it was very uncomfortable the last time my chest wouldn't expand properly.
It's unbelievably cold and bright out here and I don't like it at all; I really want to go back home where I was always warm and usually pretty comfortable. Those rude things are grabbing at me and holding me again. They're wrapping me in something that is warm and pretty comfortable considering that it's not wet at all. Finally, I have something covering my eye too; it is shielding my eyes from the incredible brightness outside there. What are they doing with all that light anyway? Cutting diamonds?
Now I'm pretty comfortable except for the residual light and all the noise. The one good thing is that I…
Unlike six-year-olds, whose development is much the same in both sexes, ten-year-old girls and ten-year-old boys develop differently, especially in terms of physical development. Ten-year-old girls begin to experience more growth spurts, growing faster than boys ("Well Child" 2006). Like six-year-olds, ten-year-olds will be awkward and energetic in their physical development. They are also still engaged with their own bodies, and excited about learning how their bodies work (McKesson Corporation 2006). A child at age ten differs from a child at age six in physical development, though, with a new appreciation for physical fitness and a curiosity in drugs, alcohol and tobacco, as well as an appreciation for "bathroom humor" (McKesson Corporation 2006).
While the six-year-old's recent start in school marks their social and intelligence development, the ten-year-old is an old pro-at school by this time. Socially, the need to show off is replaced for the need for approval and…
Child Development Guide: Nine to Ten Years." (2006-2009). Retrieved March 6, 2009 from education.com. Web Site: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Child_Center_Nine/
Child Development Guide: Six to Seven Years." (2006-2009). Retrieved March 6, 2009 from education.com. Web Site: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Child_Guide_Six/
Child Development Tracker." (2003-2008). Retrieved March 6, 2009, from PBS. Web
Children proceed through various stages of literacy development as they move from reading readiness to fluency and high levels of comprehension. Parents and others can influence literacy development by offering opportunities for literacy experiences. Parents, teachers, siblings, and others can help support early literacy development through various ways including modeling fluency while reading, asking children questions after reading every book, reading aloud with the child on a daily basis, playing with language, and spending time in conversation. Modeling fluency while reading helps to bring excitement for the child to read while playing with language helps children listen to letter sounds and rhymes. One of the stages in literacy development is beginning literacy phase where children demonstrate minimal or no receptive or productive reading and writing skills. During this stage, a child is not confident to build his/her vocabulary and requires time to read and write. Educators can support…
"Early Reading Strategy." (2003). The Report of the Expert Panel on Early Reading in Ontario.
Retrieved from Ontario Ministry of Education website: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/reports/reading/effective.html#assessment
"Ideas and Activities for Developing Phonological Awareness Skills." (1998, June). Virginia
Early Intervention Reading Initiative. Retrieved from Virginia Department of Education website: http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/virginia_tiered_system_supports/resources/ideas_activities_develop_phonological.pdf
Rogers lists these qualities of experiential learning: personal involvement, self-initiated, evaluated by learner, and pervasive effects on learner.
To Rogers, experiential learning is equivalent to personal change and growth. Rogers feels that all human beings have a natural propensity to learn; the role of the teacher is to facilitate such learning. This includes: (1) setting a positive climate for learning, (2) clarifying the purposes of the learner(s), (3) organizing and making available learning resources, (4) balancing intellectual and emotional components of learning, and (5) sharing feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominating.
The theory of .F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When…
Flavell, J.H. (1963). The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Rogers, C.R. (1969). Freedom to Learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Skinner, B.F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57(4), 193-216.
My parenting philosophy has been formed as a conglomeration and synthesis of research. Each theory of child development has something to offer, and there is no one right or universal theory. Situational, psychological, biological, and cultural variables will all impact which theories work, when, and why. Two principles that have most often guided my personal philosophy of parenting include social learning theory and Piaget's theories of cognitive development. In particular, I appreciate Piaget's explanation of the stages of development. Any parent or anyone who works with children can observe the often dramatic changes in the ways children manipulate objects, make inferences and judgments, and develop ethical schemas. Understanding stages of development can help parents be more patient and tolerant of certain phases their children go through. Social learning is, I believe, of the utmost importance because children do model their behavior after adults, and it is not just…
Kail, R. (2011). Children and Their Development. 7th Edition.
eflections on "Whole Child" Development
eflection on "Whole Child" Development
My current thinking regarding the importance of helping the "whole child" develop is that it is essential and that this theory should be applied in a way that it is more widespread. The "whole child" theory is one of the theories that made the most sense to me and it made sense almost immediately. Having had a chance to understand it further, I think that it should be a theory to which all teachers and educators should be exposed. I do not think that one domain is more important than the other, but I do think that there are some cultures that are suffering in one or more areas over others, in a general way. For example, in American culture in the 21st century, I would argue that there is significant deficiency in emotional intelligence -- likely…
Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years. Harvard Graduate School of Education, American Education Research Association, 1 -- 15, Chicago: IL.
Piramide. (2012). Educating the Whole Child. The Piramide Approach to Early Learning, Web, Available from: http://piramideapproach.com/theory-educating.html . 2014 February 19.
child development theories of several prominent psychologists, using a theoretical four-year-old girl and her interactions with her parents as an example.
Child Development: An Exploration of the Theories
The development of a child is an important matter in psychology. In order to become a well-adjusted adult and able to easily fit into the adult world when they are grown, children must meet certain psychological benchmarks as they are growing up. Ours is a complex culture, full of do's and don'ts of social behavior; children must learn the ins and outs of this behavior in a timely manner if they are to become active and productive members of our society. However, just what constitutes normal childhood development is debated. While the desirable traits of adults are not in question, the methods and timetables by which children acquire these traits is debatable. This paper examines the development of a four-year-old child using…
Resilience in Context: Ecological Systems." (2002). Building Resilience in the Early Years of School. Retrieved on November 9, 2003 at http://home pages.picknowl.com.au/Julietta/2-3Sys.htm.
Yet, neo-Piagetian theories differ in the original theory in their concept of stage-by-stage transition. ather than blindly accepting Piaget's stages as absolute truth, much of modern neo-Piagetian theories posit differences within the stages. These new changes to Piaget's stages were aimed primarily at exploring the intra-individual and inter-individual evolutions within the growing cognitive mind of the child. In addition to these changes, neo-Piagetian theory also suggests that development along all lines of stage-by-stage transgression occurs primarily because of an increasing working capacity, where the child is slowly becoming more and more capable of larger memory storages and therefore recalls. With more in the child's memory bank, they are able to process stimuli around them more efficiently.
Piaget has long been known for his theories on egocentric-speech and the role of internalizing language within the progression of the developing child. According to Piaget, children speak primarily to and about themselves when…
Karpov. Yuriy. (2005). The Neo-Vygotskiam Approach to Child Development. Cambridge University.
Evaluating Child Development Issues
I have chosen the article from the New York Times. Dr. Perri Klass wrote this article and the topic of this article is 'The Makings of Our Earliest Memories'. The author's main subject is memory and for this reason, she is targeting parents and adults in this article by making them aware about the memory system of childhood and the abilities of children to retrieve their memories.
The author is trying to determine that do infants have the ability to remember past events and if they do then since when this ability develops. The author tells us how our memory develops during different stages of our life. Small children do have memories but with the passage of time, these memories seem to fade away (Klass). She says that babies seem to remember doctors dress color and that is why when the doctors approach them…
Klass, Dr. Perri. "The Makings of Our Earliest Memories." 11-06 2012. The New York Times. 17-06 2012 .
Papalia, Diane, Ruth Duskin Feldman and Ruth Feldman. A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.
Child Development Preschool Facility Plan
Objective of this paper is to design a "child development center facility plan" that includes both the indoor and outdoor facilities that will comply with state licensing regulations. The project also reveals the school layout that is able to accommodate 12 infants, 12 toddlers and 48 pre-schoolers. The center will also consist of the following support areas:
The facilities will also provide necessary facilities for the personal children needs that include restrooms and changing tables. The next section discusses the overall layout of the facilities and the measurement of the overall classroom environment.
This section provides facility layouts of the school that include the indoor, outdoor and supporting environment. The lists of footage of each classroom are also discussed in this section. The facility layouts consist of two phases:
Phase I consists of 2 preschool…
In observing Toby, age 5, his verbalizations, vocabulary, language, emotional state, and cognitive development are fully intact for his age group. As I observe his play time, he is at the family computer viewing web sites such as nickjr.com and pbskids.com. He knows and understands how to access these web sites and their interactive games that teach language skills, mathematical skills and social skills. Toby understands how to use the keyboard and mouse properly. By observing him, it is easily assumed that he is very sociable with other children because he answers the questions that the games are asking him out loud. Plus, he pulls his five-month-old sister closer to him while she is in her stroller watching him. I also observed that his cognitive development is appropriate for his age group because he is curious about science and likes to explore new things. Therefore, I feel that…
Early Learning. Cognitive Learning in Preschoolers. n.d.
http://www.del.wa.gov/publications/eceap/docs/WebChart_Cognitive.pdf. 27 April 2012.
Wasik, C. Seefeldt|B.A. Cognitive Development in Preschooler. 2006.
http://www.education.com/reference/article/cognitive-development-preschoolers/?page=6 . 27 April 2012.
The impact of media on child development is well documented. It is important to note that various studies have in the past indicated that the impact television has on the psychological development of children could either be positive or negative. For most families, cartoons are an inevitable part of the family’s entertainment mix.
It should be noted that cartoons aid early learning (Wyk, 2011). This is more so the case with regard to educational cartoons themed on learning content such as colors, numbers, as well as shapes. Here, learning is aided by the approach most educational cartoons adopt – i.e. an interactive and fun approach. According to Wyk (2011), when kids find learning to be an enjoyable undertaking, they are likely to retain more content. Razali, Buhari, and Rejani (2014) also point out that watching cartoons could be instrumental for a child’s cognitive skills development. This is more so the…
Ghilzai, S.A., Alam, R., Ahmad, Z., Shaukat, A. & Noor, S.S. (2017). Impact of Cartoon Programs on Children\\'s Language and Behavior. Insights in Language Society and Culture, 2, 104-126.
Razali, N., Buhari, F.B. & Rejani, B. (2014). Impact of Barney and Friends Program on Cognitive Development among Early Childhood. Journal of Human Capital Development, 7(2), 79-96.
Wyk, M.M. (2017). The Use of Cartoons as a Teaching Tool to Enhance Student Learning in Economics Education. Journal of Social Sciences, 26(2), 117-130.
Part 1: Running Record
Thomas is watching Paw Patrol on the couch. He is not so much sitting as he is lying on his stomach with his feet in the air. Paw Patrol ends and Thomas cries out, “IT’S OVER!” He gets no response, so hops down from the couch and looks for his mother. “It’s over, Mama!” he whines. “Okay, well, I told you you could watch one episode!” she responds. Thomas whines more loudly. “I want to watch another one! I want to watch Blaze!” Thomas cries, stretching out the sounds in the last words to emphasize them. He pouts and fusses and pulls at his hair and face as though he can’t stand this predicament. His mother says, “Why don’t we color?” Thomas cries more vehemently. His mother, unperturbed, says lovingly and with some excitement in her tone: “We got those new coloring books and crayons…
Fagot, B. I., Hagan, R., Leinbach, M. D., & Kronsberg, S. (1985). Differential reactions to assertive and communicative acts of toddler boys and girls. Child development, 1499-1505.
Fiese, B. H. (1990). Playful relationships: A contextual analysis of mother?toddler interaction and symbolic play. Child Development, 61(5), 1648-1656.
Garner, B. P., & Bergen, D. (2006). Play development from birth to age four. Play from birth to twelve: Contexts, perspectives, and meanings, 3-12.
Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of research in science teaching, 2(3), 176-186.
This paper provides a review of four peer reviewed articles relating to temperament in young children from ages 8-12 years. The articles were obtained from Sheridan College library database using the following keywords: “temperament in young children.”
Lukowski, A., & Milojevich, H. (2017). Sleep problems and temperament in young children with down syndrome and typically developing controls. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(3), 221-232.
The purpose of this article was to examine the association between sleep problems and temperament in children with Down syndrome (n = 19). The study, which included a control group with children without Down syndrome (n = 20), found that sleep difficulties can be both a cause and an outcome of temperament. This article is useful due to various reasons. First, the article was published in 2017, meaning that it offers current evidence on the relationship between sleep problems and temperament in young children.…
Dyson, M., Olino, T., Durbin, C., Goldsmith, H., Bufferd, S., Miller, A., & Klein, D. (2015). The structural and rank-order stability of temperament in young children based on a laboratory-observational measure. Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 1388-1401.
Lukowski, A., & Milojevich, H. (2017). Sleep problems and temperament in young children with down syndrome and typically developing controls. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(3), 221-232.
Oosterman, M., & Schuengel, C. (2007). Physiological effects of separation and reunion in relation to attachment and temperament in young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 119-128.
Salley, B., Miller, A., & Bell, M. (2013). Associations between temperament and social responsiveness in young children. Infant and Child Development, 22, 270-288.
Observation of a Child Aged 7
The child observed is a boy aged 7 named Nolan. His native language is English. He has one half-brother (aged 6 months) and two step-brothers (also 7) who are twins. The boy is Caucasian and lives in an urban environment in a middle-class neighborhood.
The child was observed on November 15th, 2007, from 12 pm to 6 pm while at an entertainment facility wherein there are a number of activities for children, such as ziplining, wall climbing, trampolines, dodge ball, and ice skating. The child was with his father, who watches the child on the weekends since the father and the mother are separated and the mother is now married to another man. I decided to observe this particular child because I am friends with the father and he did not mind if I conduct this observation. The first half of the…
Berk, L. (2014). Development through the Lifespan. NY: Pearson.
Collins, W., Russell, G. (1991). Mother-child and father-child relationships in middle childhood and adolescence: a developmental analysis. Developmental Review, 11: 99-136.
Eccles, J. (1999). The development of children ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children,9(2).
NAEYC. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://oldweb.naeyc.org/about/positions/dap3.asp
Developmental theories provide a systematic means of thinking regarding the growth and development of individuals from childhood to old age. These theories demonstrate the various stages and changes that people undergo as they develop. One of the most commonly used developmental theories is Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory. It was proposed by theorist Jean Piaget who is regarded as one of the most influential personalities in the field of cognitive development. Through this theory, Piaget is concerned with the development of an individual’s thought processes and how they shape his/her understanding and interactions with the world.
Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory helped to transform how people think about child development on the premise that children think differently in comparison to adults. This theory introduces four stages of a child’s cognitive development (Cherry par, 27). The first stage is the sensorimotor stage, which is the period between the child’s birth to…
Reference Cherry, Kendra. \\\\"Child Development Theories and Examples.\\\\" Verywell Mind. Dotdash Publishing Family, 13 Mar. 2019. Web. 26 Apr. 2019. .
Differentiating between phenomena of Theory-Theory and Theory of Mind
The 'Theory of Mind' is a cognitive-based science that examines how humans develop and ascribe mental states to people around us and how such mental states are used to foretell one's behavior and actions. It delves into the process of mental abilities and mind reading (Marraffa). 'Theory -- Theory', on the other hand, focuses on the structure of concepts, how they are acquired and applied in real life. Theory-theory points out that concepts are woven around theories and that one must first learn the theories in order to acquire the concepts (eiskopf)
Theory of mind grows over time. The intuitive social skills appear during the infancy stage while the reflective social cognition manifests during the preschool and the preceding toddler stages. Children aged three years understand that different people want and feel different things. Such mental stance is formidable…
Astington, Janet Wilde, and Margaret J. Edward. "The development of theory of mind in early childhood." Social Cognition in Infancy* 5 (2010): 16.
BOND, ALLISON. "How Moving Effects Mental Health in Kids." Huffington Post. The Huffington Post, 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 14 Oct. 2016.
Hartup, Willard W. "Peer relations in early and middle childhood." Handbook of social development. Springer U.S., 1992. 257-281.
Hay, Dale F. "Early peer relations and their impact on children's development." Encyclopedia on early childhood development 1.1 (2005): 1-6.
An example of this is a young man and woman talking about a new law. The man says that everybody should follow it, like it or not, since laws are crucial to social group (conventional level). The woman remarks, however, that some well organized societies, such as Nazi Germany, were not mostly moral. The man therefore notices that some evidence contradicts his view. He experiences some Nazi Germany, were not particularly moral. The man hence sees that some evidence opposes his analysis. He experiences some cognitive conflict and is motivated to think about the matter more fully (post-conventional level).
Kincheloe, J.L., & Horn, .A. (Eds.). (2007). The Praeger Handbook of Education and Psychology. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Kincheloe, J.L., & Horn, R.A. (Eds.). (2007). The Praeger Handbook of Education and Psychology. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Child development- A case study
One of the popular ideas of child development and learning in the early childhood educational setting is engaging children in play activities. Play stimulates and improves cognitive, motor and socio-emotional skills of children. Children practice as well as gain mastery over their behaviors, through play. Play theories are broadly categorized into two groups: classical and modern play theories; the former group focuses on human energy, evolution, and instincts (Does play matter, 2013).
Observed levels of play
"Ted" in the striped shirt: Ted is involved in a cooperative form of play, and has cultivated the skills for interacting with others in order to play. He has well-developed communication skills (listening and speaking) and conveys ideas effectively, telling others what must be done. Play-related communication is the key skill in cooperative play.
"Adam" in the Celtic shirt: Adam also exhibits cooperative play, and aims to engaging in…
Borghans, L., Golsteyn, B. H., & Zolitz, U. (2015).School Quality and the Development of Cognitive Skills between Age Four and Six. Plos ONE, 10(7), 1-20. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129700
DOES PLAY MATTER TO PARENTS? TAIWANESE PARENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF CHILD'S PLAY. (2013). Education, 134(2), 244-254.
Ferguson, K. T., Cassells, R. C., MacAllister, J. W., & Evans, G. W. (2013). The physical environment and child development: An international review. International Journal of Psychology, 48(4), 437-468. doi:10.1080/00207594.2013.804190
Nixon D, Aldwinckle M (2003) Exploring: Child Development from three to six years 2nd edition. Social Science Press, Katoomba.
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
deduce the effects of parenting on the process of coping for a child, as parents take divorces or get separated. The data sample includes children aged between 9 to 12 years. These effects are being reviewed by studying the changes induced by intervention in a mother-child relationship quality and discipline (Ve'lez, Wolchik, Tein, & Sandler, 2011).
The article explains that children are more prone to the risk of getting mental health problems if they suffer from psychosocial stressors. In the presence of these stressors, such mental health problems can be avoided if the coping efforts are more active and engaging. Coping efficacy or the belief in one's self of being able to positively negotiate with the effects of emotional traumas and situations also plays a positive part in keeping at bay the development of mental health problems. It is mentioned that several factors can aid in developing an effective coping…
Ve'lez, C.E., Wolchik, S.A., Tein, J.-Y., & Sandler, I. (2011). Protecting Children From the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes. Child Development, January/February, Volume 82, Number 1., Pages 244 -- 257.
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…
Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…
Benson, B. (2012). Advances in Child Development. London: Academic Press.
Bowden, V.G. (2009). Children and Their Families. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Cummings, M. (2010). Human Heridity; Principles and Issues. New York: Cengage Learning.
We don't really know everything a newborn infant is capable of, but we know that mother and infant relate to each other within the first few minutes of life (Klaus, 1998). When we think of infancy, in my opinion we have to keep in mind that we cannot observe brain activity. The baby that can reach for a toy at seven months was learning things all along that brought him or her to that point. So I believe infancy to be a crucial part of child development.
If this is true, then the role of the caregiver is crucial. We know that babies are cared for in different ways by members of different cultures. In the United States, a mother is likely to place the baby in some kind of stroller and push the child in front of her. However in some African and Asian cultures, the mothers carry…
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. 1997. "The cultural context of infant caregiving. Childhood Education, Sept. 22.
Klaus, Marshall. 1998. "Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties." Pediatrics 102:5, November.
Mogilner, Celly. 1995. "Maternal social and physical contact: links to early infant attachment behaviors." Journal of Genetic Psychology, December.
Small, Meredith F. 1997. "Making connections (adult-infant connections) (1997). American Scientist, November.
Child Development Center
Louisa Bell, 27, in the Starry Night Child Development and Preschool, starts her day greeting the toddlers in the front pathway. Chris (2.5), a quite dynamic boy, comes with a huge bag with snacks and drinks inside, and so do Tamara (3), and Rachel (2). This week, Chris doesn't want to wear other apparel but his blue jeans overall with a horse and cart on the pocket.
After praying, Louisa asks them if they like watching TV. She asks them to sit on the cushion. Both Tamara and Chris want the red cushion, so Louisa has to calm them down and take another red cushion from the other room. Louisa says, she wants them to keep the cushion clean before she starts the film, then she helps the kids putting the cushions forward the TV.
She puts a Teletubbies tape on a VHS player and…
Visual Perception: Child Development
The concept of preferential looking in regards to visual perception suggests that even infants will show preference in fixating upon certain interesting objects versus other, less stimulating objects. This occurs before they are able to verbally articulate why and have formed specific associations with those images. A good example of this is that infants show a preference for looking at faces that are visually coherent, versus faces which are scrambled. Infants in a series of studies conducted by obert Fantz, as noted in the video "Visual acuity testing (part 1): History of preferential looking and early testing" shifted preference from non-human objects such as a bull's eye image versus stripes and vice versa, preference for intact faces remained consistent.
Fantz also found that when confronted with images of patterns, even ones without faces, infants will tend to prefer visually interesting or varied patterns, versus spaces absent…
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Sensorimotor stage. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
Visual acuity testing (part 1): History of preferential looking and early testing. (2014).
Perkins School for the Blind. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMUlti4QarQ
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
On the other hand, others may require a few weeks to get adjusted (Thompson; Connell; Bridges, 1988).
Threshold of esponsiveness:
This refers to how strong a stimulus requires to be reminded of a response from a child. For instance, one child may find a light touch irritating while another may need a deep hug to continue a response. This intensity of reaction refers to the vigor level of the response that is the characteristic of that child.
Another example is a child who has little threshold of responsiveness but at the same time his intensity of reaction is quite high may react to a bad taste medicine with a very loud, "Yuck!" along with lots of frowning and spitting. In contrast, another child may have the same threshold of responsiveness but a low intensity of reaction may just crumple his nose in dislike.
Persistence - Attention Span
This describes of…
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1995). Child maltreatment and attachment organization: implications for intervention. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir and J. Kerr (Eds.). Attachment theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
Fox, N., Kimmerly, N., & Schafer, W. (1991). Attachment to mother/attachment to father: A meta-analysis. Child Development.
Goldsmith, H., & Alansky, a. (1987). Maternal and infant temperamental predictors of attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Seifer, R., Schiller, M., Sameroff, a., Resnick, S., & Riordan, K. (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology.
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…
1. Bonanno G., Neria Y., Mancini a., Coifman K., Litz B. & Insel B (2007)Is there more to complicated grief than depression and posttraumatic stress disorder? A test of incremental validity. Psychological Medical Journal.116, pp. 342 -- 351
2. Brent, D., Melhem N., Donohoe MB & Walker M. (2009). The Incidence and Cause of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months after the loss of a Parent to Suicide,
Accident, or Sudden Natural Death, Psychological Medical Journal.166, pp.786 -- 794.
3. Hensley P., Slonimski C., Uhlenhuth E. & Clayton P. (2009)Escitalopram: an open-label
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…
Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.
Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family
Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…
Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.
Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37
Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
Lesson objectives enhance teacher-student and teacher-teacher communications. Pupils must understand exactly what they're supposed to do, which will lead them to commit time to the activities that facilitate attainment of objectives. Their ability to differentiate and prioritize important course-based learning tasks will increase, and thus, they will not waste precious time over irrelevant details. Also, students need to make guesses with regards to what the teacher deems important, as well as what is expected in the form of evaluation matter (UNESCO, n.d.).
Evaluating the developmental progress of children is a never-ending process; it offers an understanding of children's fortes, inclinations, interests, and requirements, which can be utilized for planning suitable, meaningful activities for promoting learning and development of children, individually (CCHP, 2006).
Inclusion denotes growth and learning of all children together irrespective of individual abilities. Inclusion in practice resembles inclusion in standard early childhood courses, since, in case of…
(2010, September). Retrieved from www.theinclusiveclass.com: http://www.theinclusiveclass.com/2011/07/supports-modifications-and.html
CCHP. (2006). Children with Disabilities and other Special Needs. San Francisco: California Child Healthcare Program.
Dowell, H. H. (2008). The Ausbelian Preschool Program: Balancing Child-Directed and Teacher-Directed Approaches. Retrieved from www.earlychildhoodnews.com: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=114
EdTech. (n.d.). ESL Students with Assistive Technology. Retrieved from http://www.edtechpolicy.org/CourseInfo/educ477/Fall2005/yan_finalpaper.pdf
CHILD'S DAWING ABILITY
Drawing complexity as the complexity or the level of difficulty involved in children's drawing. Drawings from younger children can be less simple with fewer features but as the age of the child progresses the complexity of the drawings increases due to the complex cognitive development.
Drawings are mirror representation of the child's development. Children's drawings have significant roles in the cognitive development of the child. Other roles include training the brain of the child to pay attention and to sustain attention, stimulating individual cells and clusters of cells in the visual cortex for line and shape, practicing and to organizing the shapes and patterns of thought and, through an increasing affinity for marks, to prepare the mind of the child for its determining behavior
Understanding children's cognitive development has implications for many fields, and in particular for education. There exists many possible approaches to the study of…
Bensur, B.J., Eliot, J., and Hegde, L. (1997). Cognitive correlates of complexity of children's drawings. Perceptual and motor skills, 85, 1079 to 1089.
Callaghan, T.C. (2000). Factors affecting children's graphic symbol use in the third year.
Language, similarity, and iconicity. Cognitive Development, 15, 185 -- 214.
Cherney, I. D & Seiwert, C. S & Dickey, T.M. & Flichtbail, J.D. (2006). Children's drawings: a mirror to their minds. Educational psychology, 26(1), 127-142.
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
Children's Use of Play
Children use play as a way of role-playing and expression. Anxiety expression, mastering of conflict as well as many other developmental benefits are derived from play by children. This paper intends to explore the play of children in relation to the developmental benefits that play provides.
Though play children grow in the understanding of not only themselves but of others and the world around them as well in their capacity to communicate with their friend and the adults in their lives Children's play is vital to the developmental growth in a child.
Progression of Play in Development:
Paiget, 1962 described what he termed "sensorimotor practice play" which refers to the experimentation of bodily sensation and motor movements on the part of infants and toddlers and as well as in connection with objects and people. y the time a baby is six months old the…
Bergen, Doris (2001) "Pretend Play and Young Children's Development" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL.
Online] located at http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed307967.html
DeHart, G.B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R.G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course (5th ed.). Toronto: McGraw-Hill.
Bear, G.G., & Rys, G.S. (1994). Moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status among elementary school children. Developmental Psychology, 30, 633-638.
Public Awareness Campaign: Child Exploitation on the Internet
Growing up in an era where the internet and video games take up more than 25% of a child's time made me realize just how integral technology has become to children's lives, and how vital it is that we increase our awareness on the dangers and benefits of technological advancement. Through this proposal, I intend to educate people, as well as myself, on how to handle the security risks that children are exposed to, online.
eports about children being abused and brutalized, either on the internet, or in the real world, have become an integral part of the news today. Not a day goes by without such kinds of reports; and what is even worse is that hundreds of cases remain unreported, and the culprits are left scot free, with immense avenues to identify and devour more unsuspecting children (Byron, 2008). Such…
Byron, T. (2008). Safer Children in a Digital World. The Report of the Byron Review. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/DCSF-00334-2008.pdf
ITU. (2012). Child Online Protection. International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.itu.int/osg/csd/cybersecurity/gca/cop/policy.html
NSPCC. (2014). How to Help Your Child Stay Safe Online: Tips, Controls, and Conversations to Help Keep Children Safe on the Internet and Social Networks. NPSCC. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.nspcc.org.uk/help-and-advice/for-parents/online-safety/how-to-help/help-child-safe-online_wda99633.html
Thierer, A. (2007). Two Sensible Education-Based Legislative Approaches to Online Child Safety. The Progress Freedom Foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2014 from http://www.pff.org/issues-pubs/ps/2007/ps3.10safetyeducationbills.html
children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.
rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…
Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…
" Does she have faith that a more clear understanding of those problems among the medical establishment will become evident? "I wonder," she wrote, cryptically.
HAT PARENTS HO HAVE PD SHOULD SAY to THEIR CHILDREN: The Parkinson's Disease Society (www.parkinsons.org.uk) offers pertinent advice and counsel to those parents who have both PD and children. "A key message seems to be open and honest" when talking to your kids, the PDS Information Sheet suggests. "Don't keep it a secret." As soon as you are diagnosed with PD, explain to them what it means to your health and to their lives as part of the family as a whole.
Don't be vague or apologetic, the PDS suggests. Be specific and clear, and fully explain that PD is not contagious. Because of the fatigue associated with PD - and the "on-off fluctuations" that are inevitable - parents with PD may not be able…
Ali, Rasheda. "Muhammad Ali's Daughter Writes Children's Book on Parkinson's. ABC
News. 2005. Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/print?id=913265 .
Lees, Lesley. "Living with Parkinson's disease - a child's perspective." British Medical
Journal 324.1562 (2002): Retrieved 23 Oct. 2006 at http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/short/324/7353/1562?eaf .
Military life and civilian life differ in key ways, and these differences affect families in particular. Since September 11, there have been higher rates of deployment and a correspondingly increased rate of family stress and domestic abuse. Deployment and the stressors associated therewith are especially important to understand. A review of literature shows that PTSD and other problems are linked to increased rates of abuse among military families. esearch also shows that abuse can be prevented, whether or not PTSD exists. The ways to prevent abuse include developing resilience. esilience includes a range of coping mechanisms that help parents be more able to deal with change and uncertainty. Parents can then pass on these traits to their children. Developing a strong social network has been proven especially helpful in both military and civilian families. Both civilian and military parents benefit from the development of resilience, coping skills, and…
Bursch, B. & Lester, P. (2011). The long war comes home: mitigating risk and promoting resilience in military children and families. Psychiatric Times 28.7 (July 2011): p26.
Chandra, A. & London, A.S. (2013). Unlocking insights about military children and families.
"Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully," (2014). MilitaryOneSource. 22 Feb, 2014.
Masten, A.S. (2013). Afterword: what we can learn from military children and famliies. The Future of Children 23(2): Fall 2013.
America is known as the melting pot of the world. Each year millions of immigrants travel from other cultures to begin new lives and try and attain the American Dream. Over the past two hundred years hundreds of different cultures have tried to meld together in a way that would allow cohesive living for all, yet there have been societal problems along the way. Societal changes as well as personal challenges face children who grow up in current society. Their parents are charged with nurturing them even in the face of societal prejudice or other obstacles. Growing up as an Italian-American, I was provided with a dual cultured childhood. The things I was taught and experienced helped me become a strong and able adult.
In, Taking Parenting Public the authors work to illustrate the changes that children today have to face on their journey to becoming adults.
According to the…
Taking Parenting Public: The Case for a New Social Movement. Sylvia Ann Hewlett (Editor), Nancy Rankin (Editor), Cornel West (Editor)
Divorce on Children
Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…
Does the ad contain any research-based evidence, or any evidence to substantiate its claims? If yes, what is the evidence?
No, the ad does not contain any research-based evidence or any kind of evidence that is able to substantiate its claims.
What is the overall concept related to the claim in the ad? (e.g., to improve some aspect of development, to increase well-being, to change behaviours, etc.).
There are three general concepts associated to the claim in the ad. The first is that bright colors, textures and fun sounds that are exuded by the toy aid in the stimulation of the baby's senses. Secondly, there is the concept that the action reaction activity nurtures understanding of cause and effect as the child manages to discover how to make noise with the activity blocks. Lastly, there is the concept of fine motor skills. The claim made by the ad is that…
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…
Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.
Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
Foundations of Mental Health Counseling
Dr. Mary Owens
Interviewee -- April Slowenski BS, MEd, CCLS, CPMT
Please tell me your official job title and the length of time that you have held the Child Life Specialist degree.
I am a Certified Child Life Specialist and Certified Pediatric Massage Therapist. In February, it will be 7 years since I started working in this field.
What inspired your interest in the field of Child Life Specialist?
I've always wanted to work with children and at first I wanted to be a teacher. I was not aware of all the other professions that deal with children. I found out about child life specialists program by accident. While in undergrad, I majored in Education and took a psychology course. One day when I was going to class, there was a sign for a child life specialist's seminar right outside the classroom. Unfortunately,…
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.