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Child Poverty Essays (Examples)

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Urban Children in Poverty Cognitive Development
Words: 2202 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71895846
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Sasha is 3 and Cayley is 1. Cayley is beginning to walk which is about normal for her age. Sasha is small for her age and could be considered underdeveloped. Cayley still uses a bottle and sleeps with the bottle for comfort and still puts everything in her mouth. Much of this is normal, though fewer things should be going in the mouth by about this time. She is able to say a few words which is good (often second children speak less than the first child anyway), and her interest in the blocks that the CPS worker brings is a good sign. Sasha is curious and interested in things, but she does not speak much and she does not listen well to basic commands. She also is abusive towards her sister and mother, which is a sign that she has not received the necessary amount of physical stimulation and…

Briggs, M., Rayle, A. (2005). Incorporating spirituality into core counseling courses: Ideas for classroom application. Counseling and Values, 50(1), 63-75.
Durston, S., Casey, B. J. (2006). What have we learned about cognitive development from neuroimaging? Neuropsychologia, 44, 2149-2157.
Eggum-Wilkens, N. D., Fabes, R. A., Castle, S., Zhang, L., Hanish, L. D., & Martin, C. L. (2014). Playing with others: Head start children\\'s peer play and relations with kindergarten school competence. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(3), 345-356.
Li, Z., Sheng, M. (2003). Some assembly required: the development of neuronal synapses. Nature Reviews, 4, 833-841.
Mission and Values. (n.d.). Saint Leo University. Retrieved from
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2006). The boy who was raised as a dog: And other stories from a child psychiatrist\\'s notebook – What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Children and Poverty
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 68698738
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Poverty and Homelessness in Children

Poverty is the deficiency in the amount of money or material possessions considered to be acceptable for individuals in a particular country. Among families who are homeless with children 42% of homeless children are under the age of six years old. The majority of homeless families with children cited poverty as the third most common reason for their being homeless. A child is born into poverty every 33 seconds in the United States.

Key professional and community organizations addressing this issue/population: There are several organizations addressing this issue including the U.S. Department of Agriculture with programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Program, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) seeking to provide affordable housing to everyone, the Children's Defense Fund, Voices for America's Children, the National Urban League, and the National Coalition for the Homeless. Local and community-based organizations such as The Salvation Army,…

Children's Defense Fund-purpose Needs Statement Children's
Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 97370659
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The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.

Our Mission

To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.

To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.

To educate children, families and education professionals.

To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.

To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.

To increase awareness overall.

The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…


About Us. (n.d.). Children's Defense Fund (CDF): Health Care Coverage for All of America's Children, Ending Child Poverty, Child Advocacy Programs. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from 

Epilepsy Fdn.-Mission Statement. (n.d.). Epilepsy Foundation-Epilepsy Foundation-trusted, reliable information for people with seizures, and their caregivers. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from 

Mission Statement. (n.d.). because a goblin is a terrible thing to waste.. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from

Child Abuse and Neglect
Words: 3043 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41442181
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Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.

Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…


Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592

A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.

The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.

Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.

Poverty and Public Policy Charles Blow Discusses
Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 57109364
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Poverty and Public Policy

Charles Blow discusses in hits NYT op-ed column the issue of child poverty. He notes up front that his belief is that poverty can never really be ended, highlighting that the man has a realistic outlook on the issue. There are many different causes of poverty, not the least of which is that poverty is, ultimately, relative. What we call poverty today in America would be considered wealthy in half the other countries in the world. His point, however, is that even if you accept that there will always be some poverty, there is a societal obligation to keep the poverty rate as low as possible. He argues in particular against children living in poverty.

This is where public policy comes into play. The United States, simply put, performs poorly on the issues of overall poverty and child poverty, and that is the direct result of…


Blow, C. (2015). Reducing our obscene level of child poverty. New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from /2015/01/28/opinion/charles-blow-reducing-our-obscene-level-of-child-poverty.html

Borjas, G. (2011). Poverty and program participation among immigrant children. The Future of Children. Vol. 21 (1) 247-266.

Hall, D. & Cooper. D. (2012). How raising the federal minimum wage would help working families and give the economy a boost. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from

Children's Poverty in Louisiana Poverty
Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48948532
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60) creating what is being called a "School-to-Prison Pipeline." Even before the hurricane, New Orleans schools were the worst in the country. The school system had a history of financial mismanagement, failing test scores, crumbling buildings and facilities, and accompanying school violence and racial segregation. The schools have a prison-like atmosphere that is hardly conducive to learning. eal damage is being done to Louisiana's children by "turning simple acts of childishness into crimes punishable by incarceration" (p. 61). Although the schools alone cannot end the cycle of poverty, it stands to reason that children who lack education cannot break out of it. They are more likely to drop out, commit crimes, and end up in prison. "The single largest predictor of later arrest among adolescents is having been suspended, expelled, or held back..." (cited in Tuzzolo & Hewitt, 2006, p. 63).

Most people would say they love their children and…


Cuomo, M. (1994). The New York idea: An experiment in democracy. New York: Crown.

Burger, W.R. And Youkeles, M. (2004). Human services in contemporary America (2004). Belmont CA: Wadesworth Publishing.

Katrina exposes our schools' shameful inequality (2006). The Education Digest, 71 (7) 27-31.

Linowes, D. (1995). The rational for privatization. Vital Speeches of the Day, 86-88.

Poverty Some Challenges Might Undermine the Effort
Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18006910
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poverty, some challenges might undermine the effort of these strategies. Disability and health are the recurring themes in the article. The author argues that intervention to address unemployment needs a new social accord to generate policies and labor market reforms to create more jobs. This approach is subject to the threat of the deeper powers of inequalities, which influence the current regime of distribution. On the other hand, the alternative is the widespread continuation of policies generating jobless growth.

The article reports that child poverty is a substantial health concern. It points to the adverse effects of low socioeconomic status on people's health such as their well-being. The author included a discussion of wide-reaching effects on the health conditions of the future and current generations around the globe. The author clearly illustrated the health-oriented significance of poverty and worked closely with various organizations and professionals to address poverty.

The early…


Strother S. (2013). A Study of Poverty: Its Causes, Effects, and Repercussions.

Rights of Children
Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56813296
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Child Rights

Children's Rights

hat are the main debates on equality on the MDGs post 2015, and how is this important for the children's well-being?

There are many debatable items and priorities that are associated the ongoing efforts in the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. One of the main priorities is to eradicate poverty. This is no easy task and has been a goal for the group since its origin. However, this issue is important to children in many ways. One particular way to help eradicate poverty is through education; especially the education of young females.

One of the reasons education is especially important for young women is that education is linked to the age at which women marry and have children. In sub-Saharan Africa and in South and est Asia, child marriage affects one in eight girls; one in seven gives birth by the age of 17; education can empower…

Works Cited

Rose, P. "The Great Debate." 25 September 2013. Reuters. Online. 30 March 2014.

UNICEF. "The Changing State of Global Poverty." July 2011. UNICEF. Online. 31 March 2014.

United Nations. "Conventions on the Rights of the Child." 2 September 1990. United Nations Human Rights. Online. 31 March 2014.

Critique on an International Relations Study on Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Words: 2326 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68900885
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Poverty and Inequality Among Children

Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).

In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…


1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. 

2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. )%3B2-L

3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995.

4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003.

Child Adoption Is a Process
Words: 4497 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58904188
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Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)

It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…


Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption.

Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. 

Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.

Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York

Child Labor Define Child and Labor Separately
Words: 3346 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 803623
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Child Labor

Define child and labor separately.

Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.

Purpose Statement

Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…


Browne, M.N., Frondorf, A., Harrison-Spoerl, R., & Krishnan, S. (2004). Universal moral principles and the law: The failure of one-size-fits-all child labor laws. Houston Journal of International Law, 27(1), 1-37.

Bullard, M.G. (2001). Child labor prohibitions are universal, binding, and obligatory law: The evolving state of customary international law concerning the unempowered child laborer. Houston Journal of International Law, 24(1), 139-171.

Cox, K. (1999). The inevitability of nimble fingers? law, development and child labor. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 32(1), 115-146.

Donald, C.G., Ralston, J.D., & Merker, S.L. (2002). Results of opinion surveys related to Kentucky's child labor laws. International Journal of Public Administration, 25(7), 859- 876.

Child Abuse and Neglect in
Words: 2490 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54056564
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ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.


The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…


Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.

CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.

CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.

Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.

Children's Development Early Childhood Language
Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89179616
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esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…


Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at 

This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.

Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at

This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.

Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention
Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17856720
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Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.

Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.

Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…


Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.

Child Abuse Is One of the Most
Words: 1429 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82232124
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Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.

This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…

Child Abuse According to the
Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41668967
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Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.


Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…


Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from

Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State Retrieved April 2, 2011 from 

Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from

Poverty in the Nation's Young Families and Children
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74875413
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The guidelines for professional integrity are focusing on creating moral standards for everyone to follow. This is achieved through offering leadership in the areas of: duties, responsibilities, communication, interacting with stakeholders and building strong bonds. A philosophy of integrity can be created by combining these different concepts together. It is as follows, "All educators must have the flexibility to understand how various events will impact students. This requires identifying problems early and addressing them. At the same time, they must provide direction, become a mentor and follow a clear set of ethical standards. This is achieved through integrity, having strong set of principles and consistently practicing them." If these ideas are embraced, educators will be more effective in communicating and interacting with stakeholders. This will help them to reach out to students and teach them the skills they need in the future. ("NAEYC Ethical Code of Conduct and Statement…

3. The article that was written by Patrick (2013) is showing how homelessness will have an impact on children. In most cases, it hardens them and forces each person to grow up faster than they should. This is problematic, as it can go from one generation to the next. (Patrick, 2013)

This is not a scholarly source. It was written in a local newspaper and often quotes from secondary information. Evidence of this can be seen with the author saying, "Some kids just age out of foster care at 18 without resources, perhaps before high school graduation, ending up homeless. About 25% of homeless are children; another quarter is over 50. Twelve percent are veterans; 30% have a physical or mental disability; 18% are victims of domestic violence. One in 25 children does not know when their next meal will be." This is illustrating how many of these conclusions are based upon emotions vs. actual studies that were conducted. (Patrick, 2013)

The article is focusing on how homelessness affects children. A good example of this can be seen in the passage which says, "Many homeless are children enrolled in school. They're often hungry (inadequate sleep and food make learning difficult) and live outside in tents, cars, or when lucky, shelters. Teachers and fellow students may not know; kids may fear telling will mean separation from parents." This is showing how the

Child Abuse the Well-Known Attorney
Words: 3228 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44725613
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Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.

As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.

Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:

Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…


Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. - capta-of-1974.html.

Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.

Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October

Child Abuse How Large Is
Words: 4401 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46242485
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The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).

According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:

1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.

2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.

3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…


Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.

Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.

Children's Literature
Words: 2790 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44250974
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Children's Literature

"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This adage takes on various meanings according to context -- in the early twenty-first century, it will most likely be used to imply too much seriousness about schoolwork. But in the consideration of children's literature in the nineteenth century, we face the prospect of a society where child labor was actually a fact of life. e are familiar with the stereotypes that still linger on in the collective imagination, of young boys forced to work as chimney-sweeps or girls forced to labor in textile factories. But the simple fact is that between the present day and the emergence of children's literature as a category of its own, largely during the nineteenth century, there has been a widespread reform in labor practices and social mores which has altered the meaning of what "work" might mean for young Jack, or…

Works Cited

Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Edited with an introduction by Elaine Showalter. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Edited with an introduction by John Seelye. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. Print.

Poverty Both Payne N D and Taylor N D
Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43626302
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Both Payne (n.d.) and Taylor (n.d.) argue that poverty is institutionalized and embedded in social norms. Payne's (n.d.) model proposes multiple dimensions and manifestations of poverty, especially as it impacts both adult and child education. Poverty is relative, according to Payne, and must be understood within a contextual framework. Moreover, Payne notes that socioeconomic class must be reframed not as a sharp delineation between haves and have-nots, but as a continuum. Schools and other social institutions not only fail to realize these fundamental factors, but they also operate with a dominant culture framework, using "middle class norms" and the "hidden rules" of the middle class as well (Payne, n.d., p. 2). Payne goes so far as to say that students hoping to achieve upward social mobility sacrifice their relationships for their personal achievement, thereby creating social and psychological problems. However, those relationships are precisely what can cause generational poverty.…


Payne, R.K. (n.d). Understanding and working with students and adults from poverty.

Taylor, K.A. (n.d.). Povety's multiple dimensions. Journal of Educational Controversy. Retrieved online:

Children Tried as Adults
Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76895186
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Children Tried as Adults

Tennessee Code Annotated or TCA 37-1-134 provides for the transfer of the jurisdiction of a child offender from the juvenile court to a criminal court for trial as an adult, depending on the offender's age, gravity of offense, prior delinquency records, past treatment and the offender's response. In the last decade, tens of thousands of youngsters less than 17 and as young as 10 years old have been processed through America's criminal justice system (White 1998). Hard and vindictive politicians are behind it in proving their toughness off by arguing that these very young offenders perform "adult time for adult crimes (White)." Statistics actually show only a minimal rise in violent crimes committed by juveniles in the U.S. since the 80s. ut recent shootings and other crimes in schools in Kentucky, Arkansas and Pennsylvania roused the distorted enthusiasm of some politicians to condemn these young people…


1. Aronson, B. (2001). Getting Flexible with, Instead of Just Tough on, Juvenile Crime. FindLaw. 

2. Gilberti, W, (1998). Five-Year-old Arrested in Florida on Felony Charges. World Socialist Web Site. 

3. Justice Policy Institute. (2002). Florida's Experience with Trying Juveniles as Adults, a case study.

4. LaVelle, A. (1994). Should Children Be Tried as Adults? Essence: Essence Communications.

Child of the Dark Was the First
Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15629329
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Child of the Dark was the first book written by Carolina Maria de Jesus, a black Brazilian woman born in 1914. The book rapidly became a bestseller in Brazil. The book is famous and still in print today, published in 14 languages. It details the story of the woman's struggle as the great-grandchild of slaves, to seek a better and productive life for herself and her family. Though the theme is common to many great heroes, it inspires motivation and awe in many people. Her book in fact became the best selling novel in Brazilian history, capturing a unique aspect of her life and times.

The book brings to life the hardships and social and economic difficulties of the people of Brazil. The story resounds in the heart of many, as it tells the struggle of a young woman born into poverty who becomes famous.

Born in the year 1914…

Poverty Welfare and Sociology Poverty
Words: 2176 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47217994
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" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:

Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)

Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:

The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.

Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…



Poverty and Race in America
Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9988902
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The paper looked at other possible explanations, such as teacher experience, but found little correlation (Mitchell, 2001).

In the weakest schools, 81% of the students qualified for free or reduced-price lunches. In the schools rated highest, only 3 1/2% of students qualified for such programs. In addition, school ratings dropped in direct proportion to the rise in number of students receiving subsidized lunches. The paper used subsidized lunches as one indication of the economic status of the students' families (Mitchell, 2001). Overall, among schools where 75% or more of the students were part of the subsidized lunch program, only four schools were rated "average." All others scored "low," or "unsatisfactory," and none were considered to be doing a better-than-average job of educating students (Mitchell, 2001). These schools also had largely minority student populations: about 20% were black, 68% were Hispanic, while 1% were Asian and 8% white, thus tying both…


Bush, Rod. 2003. "The Civil Rights Movement and the continuing struggle for the redemption of America." Social Justice, Mar. 22.

Furdell, Phyllis. 1993. "Survey finds solutions to addressing poverty in local economic development initiatives." Nation's Cities Weekly, Sept. 13.

Mitchell, Nancy. 2001. "30 'Worst' Schools Named." Denver Rocky Mountain News, Sept. 14.

Petrie, Laurie. 1997. "Infant Death Rate Soars in Poor Areas." The Cincinnati Post, Oct. 28.

Poverty and Family Dysfunction Poverty
Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32541256
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This is undoubtedly a necessary component, especially in those societies where most transactions are facilitated by transfers of cash for desired goods or services (Dixon and Macarov, 2)."

The dysfunction that arises from poverty involves self-esteem, domestic violence, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and child abuse (Dixon and Macarov, 130). It is a harsh reality, and one that, ultimately, costs the rest of society on a large scale. There are global initiatives to eliminate poverty, but the condition of poverty is one that is so widespread that the idea of eliminating poverty far exceeds the actual philanthropy necessary to do that.

orks Cited

Dixon, John, and David Macarov, eds. Poverty: A Persistent Global Reality. London: Routledge, 1998. Questia. 12 Oct. 2008

United States Census Bureau, found online at,2008. Retrieved 12 Oct. 2008

Works Cited


Poverty Imbalance the Gap in America's Distribution
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Poverty Imbalance

The Gap in America's Distribution of ealth and the Socioeconomic Consequences

The United States often characterizes itself in the context of political rhetoric and public displays of patriotrism as the wealthiest and greatest nation in the world. Unfortunately, the wide variance of living standards represented in this plurality suggests that this is an experience reserved only for those with the means. Quite to the point, the poverty that a substantial percentage of Americans live with everyday indicates that this apparent enormity of wealth is not accessible to all. Indeed, the discussion here centers on the understanding that 50% of all of America's vast wealth is possessed by no more than 1% of Americans. This means that the wealthiest individuals in America on their own control more wealth than entire communities and regions. And as the discussion hereafter will show, this is a trend with serious and negative consequences…

Works Cited:

Cutter, W.B. IV; Federman, M.; Garner, T.I. Kiely, J. & Levine, D et al. (1996). What Does It

Mean to Be Poor in America? Monthly Labor Review, 119.

Galbraith, J.K. (1998). The Affluent Society. 40th Anniversary Edition. Mariner Books.

Rodrik, D. (2000). Growth and Poverty Reduction: What are the Real Questions? Finance & Development.

Poverty Prevention Strategy as it
Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19535607
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Organizations such as habitat for humanity have proven that home ownership is possible for the very poor. The prevention strategy will call for the implementation of a housing plan that is modeled after habitat for humanity.

In addition, the strategy will also address education, healthcare, and economic opportunities. As it relates to education teachers should have the proper credential and pay should be appropriate and consistent with experience. There should be a proper amount of textbooks. There should be no more than 20 students per teacher and computers and internet access should be available at all schools. Certain standards should be in place as it relates to the condition of school buildings and any building that does not meet these standards must be renovated to meet these standards. These standards would be inclusive of working fire alarms, secure entrances and exits, proper lighting, clean floors, clean and operational restrooms, no…


Green, R. And M. White. 1997. Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children. Journal of Urban Economics 41: 441-461.

Haurin D.R. Haurin J., Parcel T.L. (2002) Does Homeownership Affect Child Outcomes?. Real Estate Economics. 30 (4): 635.

Rohe, W., G. McCarthy and S. Van Zandt. 2000. The Social Benefits and Costs of Homeownership: A Critical Assessment of the Research. Working paper No. 00-01. Research Institute for Housing America: Washington, DC.

Poverty Has Affected Michael's Emotional
Words: 300 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 51205319
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The short-term should mainly include goals to repair Michael's emotional wounds. Academic goals should be the focus of long-term therapy.


Michael and those like him should be provided with programs to support them on both an emotional and academic basis. Professional psychological assistance should be used to ensure the emotional health and continued well-being of these children. This can then be used as a basis to implement academic programs to help children flourish in their schooling and careers later in life.


Local, state and national programs need to be implemented to address the problem of homeless families. May of these families are the victims of abuse and other factors beyond their control. The stigma surrounding homelessness should also be removed. Only when fundamental changes occur on a widely social level can children like Michael…

Children Budget Children's Defense Fund
Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 11386515
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This large amount of program funding must necessarily be further broken down, of course, into the various programs and program needs that the Children's Defense Fund engages in. Food costs are highly volatile, meaning that accurate projections for the nutritional programs that the Children's Defense Funds are quite difficult to achieve; due to this volatility, approximately three million dollars of the above-mentioned seven-and-a-half should be devoted to purchasing food to ensure that an adequate amount of funding exists throughout the year to maintain these programs. Educational work is also a major area of operations for the Children's Defense Fund, and another one-and-a-half million should go directly towards the purchasing of educational materials, with the remaining four million allocated amongst the various poverty-reducing programs of the organization (CDF 2010). Administrative costs will also necessarily form a major part of the budget for this organization, and though these should be kept to…


CDF. (2010). Accessed 4 December 2010.

Protect at Risk Children From
Words: 1273 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89852719
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In order to formulate effective early childhood development interventions, though, it is important to determine what risk factors are involved and what coping skills young children possess. In this regard, Pati and her associates add that, "Identifying critical risk and resilience factors is the first step in developing interventions to promote early school success" (p. 5). These recommendations, though, will not magically produce the resources needed to eradicate poverty, but they do emphasize the need to determine what specific factors must be addressed in order to develop effective interventions to address them. These recommendations also make it clear that all children and their families are unique and some may require more assistance than others in certain areas. This recommendation is congruent with Pati et al.'s observations that, "From a treatment perspective, separating patients into different service intensity levels is also commonplace in clinical practice" (p. 13).

No matter what other…


Aber, L. (2007, December). Changing the climate on early childhood: The science of early childhood development is as persuasive as the science of global climate change. The American Prospect, 18(12), 4-5.

Barnett, W.S. & Belfield, C.R. (2006). Early childhood development and social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2), 73-74.

Bornstein, M.H., Davidson, L., Keyes, C.L. & Moore, K.A. (2003). Well-being: Positive development across the life course. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55-71. [Online]. Available:  / stable/1602387?cookieSet=1.

Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families Children and Homelessness
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Rising Poverty and Homelessness


Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families, Children and Homelessness

Census ureau (2010) reported that, for the three consecutive years, the number of people living in poverty has been increasing and reached 46.2 million or 15% of the total population. Overall poverty rate for all U.S. families went up from 9.8% in 2007 to 11.7% in 2010. Recession in the late 2007 has strongly cut through all ages, both genders and all race-ethnic groups. ut the most severely affected are young families, headed by adults under 30, with one or more children. This condition is seen to assert long-lasting negative effects of children's cognitive achievement, education, nutrition and physical and mental health as well as social behavior. These developments are likely to have long-term consequences on the nation's economy and social future U.S. Census ureau). ut professionals and parents can buffer these…


Aratani, Y. (2009). Homeless children and youth. National Center for Children and Poverty: Columbia University. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from 

Ascend (2012). Two generation, one future. The Aspen Institute: Family Economic

Security Program. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from 

Conrad N. Hilton Foundation (2012). Supporting homeless young children and their parents. The National Center on Family Homelessness:

Impoverished Australian Children
Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 62704426
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Team was comprised of an informal group of social workers who are interested in the current situation facing Australian children in terms of marginalization with respect to percentages of children living below the poverty line. The information required was considered unprotected since it is available to the general public (Information sharing: Policy and procedure guidelines, 2008).

Information-collection method, tests for relevance and timeliness, and formatting approach

The information needed by the team of social workers was collected from relevant Australian government online resources as well as nonprofit organizations, peer-reviewed and scholarly sources as well as the mainstream media. The information collected was limited to reports published within the last 4 years to ensure timeliness and all reports that were not specifically targeted at Australian children were excluded from the analysis to ensure relevance. The information was presented in a systematic format that addressed each issue of interest in turn.



Child poverty. (2014). Australian Council of Social Service. Retrieved from http://www.acoss.

Cox, J. (2013, July 30). Poverty in Australia: Statistics and facts. Poverty Living. Retrieved from

Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.

Educational Needs of Children in
Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71350329
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(Renchler, 1993)

Datcher-Loury researched a set of black children belonging to low income families from three regions to find out whether variations in educational performance were due to variation in behavior and attitudes within the families. Focused on the outcomes of the student's achievement on reading and math exams and also on the interviews with and examination of the mothers of the children; Datcher-Loury arrived at the decision that variations in family behavior and attitudes of course had huge and vital long-term impacts on the educational performance of children. From these outcomes, Datcher-Loury recommends that the programs concentrated at changing parental attitudes might be helpful in assisting to surmount the impact of economic shortcoming on the academic achievement on children. (Renchler, 1993) research undertaken by Judith Anderson and others demonstrated the association between poverty at public school and achievement of students among eighth graders, concentrating on the most poor schools…

Americans in Poverty Level and
Words: 1409 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41770563
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Heritage scholars obert ector and ea Hederman found that only a little more than one quarter worked for 2,000 hours or more. They suggested that poverty in America was less of a material deprivation and more of emotional and spiritual loss, the awareness or knowledge of one's dependence on state and federal bureaucrats and a loss of self-esteem resulting from the knowledge of self-insufficiency. The working poor, on the other hand, are capable of facing their future with optimism and confidence, no matter how little they earned. It was the control they had over their lives, which translated into their contribution to the economy (Kersey).

An opposing view was suggested, wherein an increase in the minimum wage would benefit low-income workers, in general, and those below the official poverty line, in particular (Economy Policy Institute 2006). If and when the proposed minimum wage increase was approved, the wages of approximately…


1. Economy Policy Institute.2006. Minimum Wage Facts at a Glance.

2. Kersey, Paul. 2004. The Economic Effects of the Minimum Wage. The Heritage Foundation.,cfm?tenderforprint=1 

3. Morris, David. 2004. The American Voice 2004. The American Voice.

4. Office for Social Justice St. Paul and Minneapolis. 2006. Facts about Poverty. 101 Economic Facts that Every American Should Know.

Psychological Impact of Poverty and the Solutions
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psychological impact) of poverty and the solutions to the problem of poverty described in some of the stories covered in this course.


There is much controversy about poverty, given that it was, is, and most probably will be one of the most terrible things that ever existed. People are known to perform exceptional acts as a result of their low social status, especially when they acknowledge the fact that their condition is desperate and that they have to care for their families. Individuals who experience financial breakdowns experience great difficulties in trying to behave normally, given that poverty affects people both physically and mentally. Some actually come to perform desperate acts with the purpose of getting even the smallest amount of resources. There are numerous cases in which people abandoned their lifelong ideals and decided that it was essential for them to do whatever they could in order to…

Works cited:

Dun, Mao "Spring Silkworms"

Shia, Rou, "Slave Mother"

Shuli, Zhao "Lucky"

Zuxiang Wu "Let there be peace"

No Child Left Behind President
Words: 2969 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47358258
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Many states don't want to lower their standards, including Minnesota, New Hampshire and Hawaii, and legislators have seriously debated withdrawing from NCLB, even though it would mean they would lose federal money that is tied to it. However, as the first national suit points out, no funding except the promised NCLB funding is supposed to be tied to it; the Education Department has apparently been making its own interpretation in that regard, however, and denying funding improperly (Schrag 2004, 38+).

A change in plaintiff

Lawsuits concerning educational issues are not new; what is new is that it is not parents suing school districts for failing to educate their children (ashington Times 2002, A01). Some of those suits are without merit and are dismissed, such as one by an Ohio student and her mother who sued a school district and 11 teachers for $6 million because the school's grading practices "punished…

Works Cited

First national suit over education law./" CNN. (2005, April 20). CNN. 16 May 2005

Medved, Robert a. "If it's Broke, Who Will Fix it?" School Administrator May 2004: 52. Questia. 16 May 2005 /.

Paul, Dierdre Glenn. "The Train Has Left: The No Child Left Behind Act Leaves Black and Latino Literacy Learners Waiting at the Station There Have Been Many Critiques of the No Child Left Behind Act, but Absent from Them Have Been the Effects This U.S. Law Has on Black and Latino Students." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 47.8 (2004): 648+. Questia. 16 May 2005

No Child Left Behind Data
Words: 2255 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 56259650
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State education agencies and local school districts needs to work to incorporate the major provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2004a). The evaluator feels it is imperative that as teacher preparation programs, along with state and local education agencies, address the training, recruitment, and retention of highly qualified teachers and conduct counseling sessions for every American classroom.

Teacher education programs can prepare future teachers to work in true collaborative arrangements with a variety of community stakeholders and families by helping teachers and school administrators understand the mandates, timelines, and overall missions of other public human services agencies. This type of information is critical and could be easily incorporated into the general and special education teacher preparation curricula, including field experiences in schools as well as in community human service agencies (such as mental health centers or juvenile justice).

As more educators are trained and…


Kolbe L, J. (2006) A framework for School Health Programs in the 21st Century. Journal of School Health. Pg 75:226-228.

Lechtenberger, D.A., & Mullins, F.E. (Fall, 2004). Promoting better family-school community partnerships for all of America's children. Beyond Behavior, 14(1), 17-22.

Lewis, T.J., Powers, L.J., Kelk, M.J., & Newcomer, L. (2002) Reducing problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of school-wide positive behavior supports. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 181-190.

Miles, P., Burns, E.J., Osher, T. W, Walker, J.S., & National Wraparound Initiative Advisory Group. (2006). The Wraparound process users guide: A handbook for families. Portland, OR: Portland State University, National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health.

Poverty on Children There Is One Reference
Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95268409
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poverty on children. There is one reference used for this paper.

There are a number of factors which can influence children in the world today. It is important to look at the role poverty plays in the lives of many children.

Effects of Poverty

According to an article by Brooks-Gunn, poverty has a number of ill effects of children. These children have a greater incidence of lead poisoning due to insufficient housing, are more likely to have low birth weights which may contribute to higher infant mortality, and decreased cognitive levels, leading these children to drop out of school thus continuing the cycle of living in poverty.

There are pathways which can improve a child's chance for a better life including "health and nutrition, home environment, parental interactions with children, parental mental health and neighborhood conditions (Brooks-Gunn)." It has been shown if these pathways are implemented at an early age,…


Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. The Effects of Poverty on Children. The Future of Children. (accessed 04 January, 2004). ).

Child Abuse From All Angles
Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44047446
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The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.

Sexual Abuse

The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…


Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.

Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.

Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at 

Child Abuse Statistics. Available at

Children Here by Alex Kotlowitz
Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 67577128
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There are no suggestions from him on how these boys, their mother, and their five siblings can turn their lives around without simply expecting the government to intervene. And what about their mother? How can a woman have seven children with a drug addict and not realize at some point that she herself is condemning her children to a life of poverty, violence and constant struggle? Of course she wants her children to have the same things as any child deserves to have - a safe, happy childhood where there's always enough to eat and they don't have to worry about ducking their heads whenever they play outdoors - but what has she done to make that happen? Kotlowitz does nothing to address these questions or point the finger of blame at the parents of Lafayette, Pharaoh and their siblings for being a large part of the problem in the…

Child Protection States of Japan
Words: 3482 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69519954
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Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.

Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…


BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008.

Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008.

Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008.,1305105,00.html 

Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Children Child Abuse and Neglect
Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10365146
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Describe how teachers may use assistive technology effectively with students with cerebral palsy or other physical disabilities.

Children with cerebral palsy can be aided with assistive technology that allows them to communicate more effectively, such as manual communication boards. This form of technology allows the student to speak in class and participate, just like his or her peers.

Question 3: Describe some of the possible effects of substance abuse by the mother during pregnancy. How do these effects impact the child's development?

Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause delayed intellectual development, as well as many other physical health problems that affect the child's appearance and social functioning. It has been hypothesized that drug addiction can cause children to be more hyperactive, and have attention-deficit problems. Although this correlation is not certain, it is noteworthy that substance abuse is often linked to premature and low-weight births, which in and of itself can…

Children Fatherless Homes Parenting The Effects
Words: 2533 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39424929
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0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).

Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.

Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.

The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.

Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.

According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…


Effects of Fatherlessness (U.S. Data) [Online]  er/econ/nodad.htm

ANCPR Alliance for Non-Custodial Parents

Child Sponsorship Is an Effective
Words: 3010 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7163791
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Of course, besides child sponsorship programs, many other programs must be developed in a poor region, programs that address more fundamental issues of poverty. Child sponsorship only does its part in supporting the development of a region, country, and of the international community. It is not the most fundamental form of aid for development, but it does its part, which can be quite significant at the level of a community. Through this method, more and more communities can benefit from the child sponsorship program, in the same time participating in other international aid programs. "Sponsorship is not the only way to help poor people, but it is one important way" (Endersby, 2006).

What made child sponsorship very debated in the past decades is the involvement of specific religious organizations into such programs. This can put some pressure on the child in a specific religious or lifestyle sense, but such practices…


Brehm, Vicky, and Gale, Julie, NGO funding and policy bulletin, Bulletin no.3, November 2000, available at ;

Child Sponsorship, Frequently Asked Questions, available at;

Endersby, Alastair, Sponsoring a child, January 19, 2006, available at;

Preslar, Andy, a Child-Centered Approach to Child Sponsorship, June 2003, available at ;

Children Here By Alex Kotlowitz
Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8776865
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The social workers should have known what was happening by monitoring on a regular basis. Providing job training and daycare for LaJoe, coming to the house every month to talk to her about changing her circumstances and mandating that she attend counseling are all monitoring methods that should have been in place and were not.

If only one change could be made to the social welfare system for the benefit of the families that are on it I would change the case loads of the social workers. Currently social workers have so many cases that there is no way for them to get involved with the families and help them help themselves out of the system. They are barely able to file the reports and deal with the problems that arise. If I could change one thing I would provide enough funding that each social worker only had 30 cases…

Had she been on the reformed system she would have gotten completely off of welfare in a year or two and would have broken the family cycle of dependence on the system.


Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other America (Paperback) Anchor; Reissue edition (January 5, 1992)

Child Characteristics Parenting Stress and
Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85104789
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Only after this a further section returns to the fact of the lack of research involving father involvement and how this is influenced by child characteristics.

Once the document turns to the investigation and methods to be used, the presentation of information becomes more logical and academically stronger. The research questions are for example pertinently mentioned in "The Present Study" section. The questions directly pertain to the issue previously indicated, i.e. The parenting involvement of fathers, and how this is influenced by children and various aspects in their character.

In the "Method" section, I noticed that participants were mainly homogeneous in terms of race and age. No specific reason was given for this, but I presume it is for the purpose of consistency, as cultural values and social status would probably influence the parenting paradigm. In this way, I believe the study provides a valuable springboard for futher studies in…

Child Abuse in the United
Words: 2728 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62744955
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Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).

The eligious Theory

The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…


Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.

Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.

Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Child as They Flourish Into
Words: 1846 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11439813
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Also, children who do not graduate from school are also at risk for negative and risky behavior during adolescence that can transcend into adulthood. These behaviors include delinquency, drug abuse and violence as well as long-term adjustment issues.

Essentially, children in foster care are at greater risk for not succeeding in school and do have more emotional issues than children of the general population. There must be the utmost emphasis on helping them to succeed. One study conducted suggested the difference between success and failure for a child could be determined with only a few steps and relatively minimal effort on the part of care givers and educational institutions. These include making sure transcripts transfer in a timely manner, a strong working relationship between educators and social workers, the care giver (foster parent) involvement in the education process, and social workers being involved in the direction of the child's education.…

Works Cited

Anne Havalchak, C.R. (2009). Foster Care Experiences and Educational. Social Work Journal, 3-7.

Fernandez, E. (2008). Unravelling Emotional, Behavioural. British Journal of Social Work, 14-16.

Sullivan, M.J. (2009). School change, academic progress, and behavior problems in a sample of foster youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 7.

Poverty in Young and Middle Adulthood
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An explanation of how poverty impacts the experience of individuals in young and middle adulthood?

The vicious poverty cycle in young adults and middle-aged persons suggests the passage of lifelong impediments and problems from generation to generation. A few transmitted plagues include: lack of schooling/education, disease transmission, child labor for aiding parents in raising the family and no basic personal hygiene. Extremely low family earnings and adult joblessness give rise to an atmosphere that makes it virtually impossible for children from such households to attend school. Meanwhile those who are able to attend school fail to understand that hard work and dedication will be able to change their lives for the better, since they witness their parents regularly failing at this task (Dario, 2015).

The following experiences are also linked to poverty in young adults and middle-aged persons: Drug and alcohol misuse -- right from African slum-dwellers to American adults,…

Poverty and Obesity Introduction the
Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 444834
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The hypothesis to be tested is to what extent children and their families are influenced by the marketing techniques of food companies. This hypothesis will be tested through qualitative methods including primarily ethnographic observation and open-ended interviews.


Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.

Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.

Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.

Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.

Morland K. et al. 2002 "The Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment on esidents' Diets: The Atherosclerosis isk…


Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.

Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.

Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.

Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.

Children There Written by Alex Kotlowitz a
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Children There

ritten by Alex Kotlowitz, a reporter for the all Street Journal, the book There Are No Children There follows two boys' activities around the Henry Horner Homes, a low-income public housing project in Chicago, Illinois. The book covers the time period from the summer of 1987 through September, 1989, and follows the protagonists, Lafeyette Rivers (nearly 12 years old) and Pharoah Rivers (nine years old). This is not an ordinary American neighborhood. It is a heavy gang area, a war zone where shootings are commonplace, drugs are a catalyst for crime and death seems to lurk around every corner. This paper will review the book chronologically through five chapters then provide a closer critique of LaJoe Rivers, the mother of the protagonists.

The average American comes home from work in the evening, opens a refreshing cold drink, gets comfortable on the couch and turns on the evening news.…

Works Cited

Bushey, Claire. "Saying goodbye to Henry Horner Homes." Chi-Town Daily News. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from .

Grace, Julie. "There Are No Children Here." Time Magazine. Retrieved February 16, 2011,

from,8816,981434,00.html . (1994).

Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other

Poverty Reduction Occur on a Local Scale
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Poverty Reduction occur on a Local Scale or must it be in a roader Scope to be Meaningful? Discuss with Reference to Specific Examples.

One of the biggest issues that a host of governments and international organizations are wrestling with (i.e. The UN) is how to effectively eliminate poverty. This is because, a number of different programs have been implemented in the past that were suppose to have a dramatic impact on reducing levels. Yet, in reality they are having limited effects at addressing the underlying causes. Instead, most of the money that is intended to tackle these challenges is squandered through: government bureaucracy and corrupt leaders.

A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tanzania. After gaining independence in the 1961, the country began to experience 6% economic growth. This caused many international aid organizations and donors to provide increased amounts of funding for…


2011 World Hunger and Property Facts, 2011, World Hunger. Available from: [31 May 2011].

Aid and Fairer Trade, 2010, UN. Available from: [31 May 2011].

Macro Economic Development, 2011, Aid Indonesia. Available from: [31 May 2011].

Microfinance in Cambodia, 2011, CMA. Available from: [31 May 2011].

Children's Literature to Dispel the
Words: 4810 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86965496
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In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:

& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;

the proposed…


Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.

Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: 

Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from 

Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary

Poverty When Discussing Poverty Not All Are
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When discussing poverty, not all are in agreement as to exactly what it means. There are various camps when it comes to defining poverty. Essentially, the definitions break down into either relative poverty or absolute poverty or more likely, something in between. Absolute poverty is categorized as not having the means to afford the absolute essentials. elative poverty is a more liberal idea, based on one's ability to afford things, in comparison to others ability to afford the same things. Clearly, being unable to put food on the table is within the definition of poverty. However, when one begins looking at the type of food that one can afford to place on the table the lines become more indistinguishable. Based on two different surveys, "the evidence from these different sources of public opinion indicates that the public favours a relative or social inclusion approach to the definition of poverty"…


Armitage, A. (2003). Social Welfare in Canada 4th Edition. Toronto; Oxford University Press

Canadian Council On Social Development. (2000). The Canadian Fact Book on Poverty-The

Definitions of Poverty. Chapter 2.

4 Social Workers. (2008). Barriers to Employment.