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Wives and Midwives: Childbirth and Nutrition in ural Malaysia
By Carol Laderman, 1983
Anthropology, according to Merriam-Webster Online dictionary, is "the science of human beings..." In particular, "the study of human beings in relation to distribution, origin, classification, and relationship of races, physical character, environmental and social relations, and culture..."
In reading and analyzing the assigned book by author Carol Laderman, it is important to realize that in terms of her credentials, she is far more than just an author, or a journalist, writing about interesting cultural subjects. To wit, she is the former chair of the Anthropology Department - and currently the co-director of the M.A. Program in Applied and Urban Anthropology - of City College of New York; she has served as a professor at Yale and Fordham Universities; she has received fellowships from the Guggenheim and ockefeller foundations; she has lectured on her specialty, medical anthropology, nutrition,…
Laderman, Carol (1983). Wives and Midwives: Childbirth and Nutrition in Rural
Malaysia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Non-Pharmacological Pain elief With Childbirth
Dealing with aging dementia patients can be a challenge in and of itself. However, when healthcare providers need to include regulating pain as well, the challenge becomes even greater. Pain management with cognitively impaired patients is a constant problem within geriatric care in modern healthcare facilities (Zwakhalen et al. 2006). The reduced self capacity to report pain in its true degrees then makes pain management a challenge for physicians and healthcare providers (Husebo et al. 2007). Thus, research aims to explore effective measures for observing and reporting pain management within aging dementia patients.
Horgas et al. (2009) is an in-depth examination of the various factors that can be used to report pain within these specific groups of patients. The journal is from the American Geriatrics Society, and thus is clearly peer-reviewed. It is a thorough examination into how dementia patients report their own pain, as…
Horgas, Ann L.; Elliott, Amanda F.; & Marsiske, Michael. (2009). Pain assessment in persons with dementia: Relationship between self-report and behavioral observation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(2009), 126-132.
Husebo, Bettina Sandgathe; Strand, Liv Inger; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Husebo, Stein Borge; Snow, Andrea Lynn; & Ljunggren, Anne Elisabeth. (2007). Mobilization-Observation-Behavior-Intensity-Dementia Pain Scale (MOBID): Development and validation of a nurse-administered pain assessment tool for use in dementia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 34(1), 67-83.
Zwakhalen, Sandra M.G.; Hamers, Jan P.H.; Abu-Saad, Huda; & Berger, Martijn P.F. (2006). Pain in elderly people with severe dementia: A systematic review of behavioral pain assessment tools. BMC Geriatrics, 6(3). Web. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2318/6/3
The author of this reflection and response has been asked to take in the story of the three-time mother mentioned in a story and how the overall birth process varied so extremely from birth to birth. The third and final birth was apparently without any major hitch but the first one was a train wreck and disaster by comparison. The question to be answered, and that answer is quite obvious, is why the earliest birth was so traumatic and problematic and why things got so much better for the future births. While doctors and nurses surely have at least some good intentions when it comes to the facilitation and expediting of baby births, there is something to be said for letting nature handle things as it may and being more patient.
Before getting too much into the reflection angle of this brief essay, the first question to…
Butler, K. (2017). Did having a baby leave you with a horrible, debilitating, embarrassing injury? You’re
not alone. Mother Jones. Retrieved 13 August 2017, from http://www.motherjones.com
However, women also receive labor support even when its starts at a later stage in labor, in settings with companions of their choice, and settings with routine epidural. The supportive care provided to women during labor and birth through the one-to-one nursing includes various processes like provision of physical comfort and information and emotional support. The other processes include assisting women to communicate to caregivers and engaging members of their family as desired by the woman.
As an important part of one-to-one nursing during stages of labor and delivery, continuous support during childbirth enhances the normal labor processes while lessening the use of obstetric interventions. Therefore, this kind of support is an exceptional element of maternity care that provides well-established incentives and has no identified disadvantages.
Enhancement of Spontaneous Vaginal Birth:
Since continuous one-to-one nursing support during childbirth enables women to avoid analgesia or anesthesia and cesarean surgery, it's vital…
Barrett, S.J. & Stark, M.A. (2010). Factors Associated With Labor Support Behaviors of Nurses.
Journal of Perinatal Education, 19(1), 12-18. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820357/
"Chapter 5 -- Care During Labour and Birth." (n.d.). Family-Centered Maternity and Newborn
Care: National Guidelines. Retrieved from Public Health Agency of Canada website: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/dca-dea/publications/fcm-smp/fcmc-smpf-05-eng.php#careduring
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…
The heat is oppressive and because of that heat Holloway had to endure "an overpowering stench" in the birthing room. alking into that room on a day that was probably over 100 degrees Holloway (p. 6) said the building "was like an oven, baking all the secretions [from pregnant and post-partum women] into a rank casserole" (p. 6). Holloway said she felt like she was "drowning in the smell of flesh, body fluids, and leftover food" -- all made more aromatically spicy by the torrid head in the dry season.
The fierce storms that arrive in rainy season have a huge impact on the village and on the story that Holloway is telling. In many countries, the rainy season would be a blessing after a long, hot dry spell. But the rains that arrive in Mali as the rainy season started are terrifying. "I was startled out of my thoughts…
Holloway, Kris. (2007). Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a midwife
In Mali. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
deaths in childbirth were a major problem for the medical community (Ey). The most significant cause for the large number of women dying during this process was the occurrence of puerperal sepsis which was more commonly known as childbed fever. A variety of theories were offered to explain this phenomena but some dated theories surrounding the causes of diseases such as malaria and typhoid made progress toward reaching a cure for childbed fever more difficult. The prevailing thought was that both diseases were caused through contact with water and this fact, added to the lack of indoor plumbing, caused doubt to be raised when Hungarian born Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis first suggested his germ theory and its relationship to childbed fever.
Semmelweis, before Lister introduced his germ killing theory, began insisting that the failure to properly wash one's hands between procedures was the cause of infections and, therefore, the reason why…
Biddle, C. "Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation." AANA Journal (2009): 229-237.
Carter, K. Codell. Childbed Fever: A Scientific Biography of Igna Semmelweis (Revised Edition). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2005.
Cork, D.P. "Remembering Semmelweis: hand hygiene and its importance on today's clinical practice." American Surgeon (2011): 123-125.
Ey, Bridson. "Iatrogenic epidemics of puerperal fever in the 18th and 19th centuries." British Journal of Biomedical Science (1996): 134-139.
In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).
All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…
Akbas, Mert and Akcan, a Baris, "Epidural analgesia and lactation," Eurasian Journal of Medicine 43, (2010): 45-49.
Wilson, M. J, MacArthur, C, and Shennan, a. "Catheterization in labor with high dose vs. mobile Epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial." British Journal of Anesthesia 102, no. 2 (2009): 97-103.
Epstein, Nancy, "The risks of epidural and transforominal steroid injections in the spine: commentary and a comprehensive review of literature," Surgical Neurology International 4, (2013): 74-93.
Gwen Lewis, "Epidurals and child cancer," Journal of Childbirth and Medical Research, (2010): 30.
(Cattelain, 1997; paraphrased) the work of Cattelain additionally states that as of the beginning of "...July, 1997, approximately 66,000 children born to couples of which one is a Hong Kong resident and one is a mainlanders were waiting to come to Hong Kong, and around 2,000-4,000 children who had entered the territory illegally or overstayed visit permits were estimated to be in Hong Kong." (Cattelain, 1997) Marriage between individuals and the resulting bearing of children has proved problematic to the mainland in terms of regulations and it is stated in Cattelain's work that "One of the first issues that the newly created Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has had to dealt with his pitted an individual right against a community's capacity to absorb large numbers of new immigrants at one time." (1997)
VII. asic Law Regulating Children orn Outside of Hong Kong with Parent in Hong Kong
Tu, Edward Jow-Ching (2007 Cross-Border Marriage in Hong Kong and Taiwan. International Marriage Migration in Asia. 2007 Seoul. PAK/IPAR Conference.
Chen, Yu-Hua (2007) the Rise of Cross-Border Marriages and Its Impact on Fertility in Taiwan. Comparative Workshop of low Fertility organized by Asia Research Institute and Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. 22-23 February 2007. National University of Singapore. Online available at http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/showfile.asp?eventfileid=265
Cattelain, Chlo (1997) Family vs. Society: Hong Kong's Battle Over Right of Abode for Mainland-Born Children. HRIC. 30 June 1997. Online available at http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article-revision%5fid=4156&item%5fid=4155
Chan, Bernard (nd) Post-1997 Hong Kong: The Social and Environmental Impact. Asia Financial Group and Asia Insurance Co. Ltd. And the Hong Kong Council of Social Service.
So, in those regards the curriculum is slowly catching up with the times. Personally, I would like to see additions such as a playing of the movie, "The Business of Being Born" at one of the sessions or as homework.
The second way that the curriculum should change within the next three years is to begin allowing more nurses to become certified teachers. Currently, it is easier for a parent to become a coach than it is for a nurse. The reason, according to Bradley, is that the parents have direct experience, whereas nurses only have book-related experience. In fact, Bradley does offer the option for nurses to become a teacher, but additional reading and exam requirements must be met.
Personally, I find it to be in the best interest of Bradley to offer their curriculum with open arms to nurses for one simple reason: the more nurses who know…
Halfon, Saul (2010). Encountering Birth: Negotiating Expertise, Networks, and My STS Self. Science as Culture, 19(1), 61-77.
Hathaway, Marjie; et al. (2007). The Bradley Method Student Workbook. American Academy of Husband Coached Childbirth.
Lake, Rikki (2008). The Business of Being Born. Barranca Productions.
Lieberman, Adrienne (1992). Easing Labor Pain: The Complete Guide to a More Comfortable and Rewarding Birth. The Harvard Common Press, Boston.
The preliminary data suggests that nurses need to adopt a holistic approach toward care as more and more mothers seek out non-pharmacological and natural methods for improving comfort and reducing the pain associated with labor and delivery.
Nurses can also help patients by educating them about their choices during labor, as well as potential unexpected events that occur during labor and delivery. As this study shows, mothers prepared for the unexpected are much more likely to report satisfaction than those who are not.
These findings provide significant insight with regard to nursing education protocols, and open the doors for new approaches to care for patients. Nursing programs of the future should focus on educating staff members regarding alternative therapies that can improve a mother's comfort before, during and after the labor process.
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain:…
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain: A systemic review." Am J. Obstet Gynecol. 191(1): 36-44.
Kannan, S., Jamison, R.N. & Datta, S. (2001, Sep-Oct). "Maternal satisfaction and pain control in women electing natural childbirth." Reg Anesth Pain Med, 26(5): 468-72.
Ketterhagen, D., VandeVusse, L & Berner, M.A. (2002 - Nov, Dec). "Self-hypnosis:
Alternative anesthesia for childbirth." MCN Am J. Matern Child Nurs. 27(6): 335-40.
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .
Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,
Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
Mothers and newborns are often separated shortly after delivery, and preterm infants are isolated from their mothers even more than full-term mothers. Some physicians stress that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotional attachment as a foundation for optimal development in years to come.
The extreme form of the bonding hypothesis-that the newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally-simply is not true. Nonetheless, the weakness of the bonding hypothesis should not be used as an excuse to keep motivated mothers from interacting with their newborns. Such contact brings pleasure to many mothers and in some mother-infant pairs-including pretem infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers from disadvantaged circumstances-early close contact may establish a climate for improved interaction after the mother and infant leave the hospital.
Birt is the complete expulsion or extraction…
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…
Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute
Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Infanticide in Australia
Infanticide is the act or practice of killing newborns or infants. It has been committed or performed in every continent and in every level of culture from the poorest hunters and gatherers to the richest and most advanced classes of people and from the time of our ancestors to modern age (Milner 1998). The act or practice has been so rampant that there is enough evidence on record to show that it has been more the rule than an exception and this evidence reflects that parents themselves kill their infants under distressing and stressful situations. The practice or act was so frequent in England in the 19th century that both the medical and the private communities had to think of ways to control the crime (Milner) described by medical practitioners as savage in a contradiction to human progress.
But infanticide is not a modern creation. It was…
Burleigh, M. (1994). Return to the planet of the apes? - peter singer in Germany. History Today. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/m_mi1373/is_n10444/ai_15912728
Cooray, M. (2004). Human rights in australia. Youth Matrix. http://www.youthmatrix.com/art_philos_humanrights.htm
Hammoud, AAM. (2004). Status of women in islam. Australian Muslim Community. http://al-emaan.org/wrights1.htm
Knight, K. (2004). Australia. The Catholic Encyclopedia, volume II, online edition. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02113b.htm
The history of maternity nursing in many ways echoes that of other types of nursing, although it is arguable that improvements in the quality of nursing care have had an even greater impact that improvements in other arenas of health-care. This paper examines one of the nurses who was instrumental in improving maternal health care through changes and improvements in maternity nursing, Mary Breckenridge, a nurse-midwife who helped to established a neonatal health-care that dramatically reduced the mortality rates of both mothers and infants.
Humans have nursed each other since the beginning of the species - indeed attempts to care for other individuals to help reduce their pain and increase their overall health are seen in a wide range of primates: Nursing is arguably something that is encoded in our very genes. However, modern nursing can realistically trace its roots only to the 19th century, which is where…
A www.birthsource.com www.frontiernursing.org/history
Breast pumping techniques.
Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers.
Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area.
Teaching Strategies Used and ationale
The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions.
Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2008). Breastfeeding: How to pump and store your breast milk. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/birth/828.html
American College of Healthcare Executives (nd). Using adult lifelong learning concepts. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ache.org/pgfd/lifelong.cfm
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (2006). Postpartum exercise: Is your body ready? BabyCenter.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-exercise-is-your-body-ready_196.bc
Beger, D. & Cook, S.A. (1998). Postpartum teaching priorities: the viewpoints of nurses and mothers. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. Mar-Apr;27(2):161-8. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9549701
The author points out that there were more commoners than nobles but the commoners were often at the mercy of nobles and were expected to serve them. Although this was the case, it was also true that commoners had a great deal of control over their lives and in most cases they had enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their family.
One of the most interesting aspects of Aztec civilization is Aztec religious practices. According to an article found in the Journal of the Southwest, the Aztec religious system dominated the way of life for the Aztec people. The research indicates that the religious system of the Aztec people was very much associated with the Aztec Calendar. This calendar was based on the yearly agricultural cycle.
For instance when the winter solstice occurred the Aztec people would participate in fire festivals. The purpose of such…
Ancient Aztec Government. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html
Aztec Society Family. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-society-family.html
Hassig Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control-Book by. University of Oklahoma Press; 1988
James, Susan E. "Some Aspects of the Aztec Religion in the Hopi Kachina Cult." Journal of the Southwest 42.4 (2000): 897.
The political climate within the United tates is one moving away from conventional medical practices and moving toward alternative medicine. With President Obama's healthcare reform bill, it was made clear that costs within healthcare and the liability from certain procedures is unacceptable. Educating nurses in natural birthing techniques saves hospitals the excessive expenses associated with interventions and results in a happier and less likely to complain patient. Very few hospitals within the United tates open support natural birth techniques. In fact, most nurses at the hospital were unaware of different birthing positions, the advantages of walking while in labor, or the advantages of water during labor. This ignorance will only result in a loss of patients who will seek out those hospitals with educated staff. Finally, the demographics within the hospital I observed demand better care. The families entering the labor and delivery floor were educated upper-class families who expected…
Sargent, Carolyn & Stark, Nancy (2009). Childbirth Education and Childbirth Models: Parental Perspectives on Control, Anesthesia, and Technological Intervention in the Birth Process. Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Vol 3.1 (36-51)
Simkin, Penny (2007). Just Another Day in a Woman's Life? Women's Long-Term Perceptions of Their First Birth Experience. Birth. Vol 18.4 (203-210)
Zwelling, Elaine (2006). Childbirth Education in the 1990s and Beyond. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. Vol 25.5 (425-432)
2005 study by Mohala Tucker Besser et al., conducted upon HIV-positive pregnant women who are about to undergo voluntary caesarian section to give birth. Mohala Tucker Besser et al. used a sample population to study whether or not HIV was present within the amniotic fluid of these pregnant women, and discovered that -- contrary to a previous study published in 1987 -- it was not. Additional relevant studies -- including the original 1987 Lancet publication by Mundy Schinazi Gerber et al., and further studies involving viral transmission between mothers and newborns and specific risk factors for HIV transmission in prenatal and perinatal situations -- are examined in conjunction with Mohala Tucker Besser's 2005 study. The finding has implications for preventing HIV transmission between mothers and newborn infants, and confirms the growing clinical consensus that elective caesarian section remains one of the most reliable ways to reduce viral transmission from an…
Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY, Mizokami M, Hirano K, Chen DS. (1996). Least microtransfusion from mother to fetus in elective cesarean delivery. Obstetric Gynecology 87: 244-248.
Magder LS, Mofenson L, Paul ME, Zorrilla CD, Blattner WA, Tuomala RE, LaRussa P, Landesman S, Rich KC. (2005). Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficicency Syndrome 38: 87-95.
Mofenson LM 1997. Mother-child HIV-1 transmission: timing and determinants. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 24: 759-784.
Mohlala BK, Tucker TJ, Besser MJ, Williamson C, Yeats J, Smit L, Anthony J, Puren A. (2005). Investigation of HIV in amniotic fluid from HIV-infected pregnant women at full term. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192: 488-491.
Gen was 25 when she became pregnant, and it was her first pregnancy. She was in a committed relationship but not married, and felt a jumble of emotions including fear. Gen knew that she would want children one day, and longed for the "boundless happiness" that she believed would accompany parenthood (edrappa, 2015). At the same time, Gen was still in graduate school. Her debts were piling up and she and her boyfriend occasionally argued about finances. At first, Gen refrained from telling ob the news. She was worried that the pregnancy would create conflict in their relationship, and then Gen realized that it was only a matter of time before she had to tell him. She was utterly unwilling to have an abortion, partly because she knew that eventually she did want to be a mother but also because she felt the "spark of life," as she put it,…
Rudrappa, S. (2015). Discounted Life. New York University Press [Kindle Edition].
Simmonds, W., Rothman, B.K. & Norman, B.M. (2007). Laboring On. New York: Routledge.
sex and marriage is a relatively clear one, even though marriages can exist without sex and sex can also exist without marriage. When examining the relationship between sex and marriage from a theological standpoint, it becomes important to draw from scripture as well as social tradition to show what the specific connection is between sex, on the one hand, and marriage on the other. Marriage is a political, social, and in many cases an economic institution. The relationship between spouses is one that involves an entire community. Sex is generally a private act, and yet it can have tremendous public consequences when sex leads to childbirth. Although not all marriages define themselves by the birth of children, the traditional patriarchal and especially Judeo-Christian model of marriage certainly does hinge on childbearing. Sex can be framed as a physical celebration of the love and commitment that exists between spouses and can…
Mackin, T. (2007). The primitive Christian understanding of marriage. In Scott & Warren. Perspectives on Marriage. New York: Oxford University Press.
Scott, K. (2007). A spirituality of resistance for marriage. In Scott & Warren. Perspectives on Marriage. New York: Oxford University Press.
NICE Guidelines -- Midwives during postpartum
The ole of Midwife per NICE Guidelines
Pregnancy and childbirth is, in the majority of cases, a normal life event that proceeds to an uncomplicated outcome and can be effectively managed by a skilled midwife attendant. This also extends to assisting new mothers with postpartum care. The midwife is recognized as a responsible and accountable professional who can give the necessary support, care and advice during the postpartum period and provide the necessary care for the infant.
NICE guidelines recommend that new mothers and infants not be separated within the first hour. The midwife should encourage skin-to-skin contact -- before asking about feeding methods. If breastfeeding is the mother's preference, it should be encouraged within the first hour. During the first 24 hours after childbirth, midwives should ensure the woman's well-being and care by documenting blood pressure results and first urine voids within the…
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2012) Postnatal Care Pathway [Online]. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/10988/30144/30144.pdf . [Accessed: 19 September 2012].
interview techniques. DiCocco and Crabtree (2006) discuss different interview strategies. One is the unstructured interview, a technique that originates in anthropology study. This technique is used when the type of information to be gathered is not known, or is only loosely-defined, because the technique is open-ended. Eliciting insights is a key objective of this type of interview.
A second interview strategy is the semi-structured interview. In this technique, the interviewer is able to "delve deeply into social and personal matters" (Ibid). The group interview can be used with this strategy as well. Semi-structured interviews are commonly used to gain information that might be open-ended in nature, in a group setting, or to learn about someone's life experiences. The focus group is a form of semi-structured interview used in marketing.
A third interview strategy is the individual in-depth interview. This technique is used when the research question is focused, and is…
DiCocco, B. & Crabtree, B. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education. Vol. 40 (2006) 314-321.
Finucane, A. & Mercer, S. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness -based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry. Vol. 6 (2006) 14.
Kennedy, T., Regehr, G., Baker, G. & Lingard, L. (2009). Preserving professional credibility: Grounded theory study of medical trainees' requests for clinical support. British Medical Journal. Vol. 338.
Premberg, A., Carlsson, G., Hellstrom, A. & Berg, M. (2010). First-time fathers' experiences of childbirth -- A phenomenological study. Midwifery.
Topic: Should homosexual partners adopt?
a. Format of choice (APA/MLA) to include:
Body of Paper,
b. Typed, double spaced, 3-5 pages (not counting the title and reference pages), 12 pt font
c. Correct spelling, grammar and references
Why Gay and Lesbian Couples Should Adopt
The most recent United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) data reveals a total of 132 million orphans worldwide, 13 million of which have lost both parents. Many more children live in poverty abject enough to spawn child labor systems, with 168 million children worldwidealmost 11 percent of all children around the worldas child laborers (Worldwide Childrens Statistics, 2016). Given these alarming statistics, adoption should widely be promoted as an alternative to surrogacy, artificial insemination, fertility drugs, or even natural childbirth. Homosexual couples, both gays and lesbians, who want to start families need to look more closely at their…
Medical Misunderstandings and Gender:
“The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
“The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a brief psychological study of a woman slowly going mad over the course of an imposed rest cure, prescribed by her physician-husband. The story illustrates the extent to which limited knowledge of the female psyche and a refusal to treat women as intelligent, independent beings ironically produces the types of behaviors the psychological treatment of the era was supposed to prevent. Both women and men are guilty of limiting women’s voices when women attempt to escape the conventional confines of motherhood and domesticity. Although the main character’s love of reading and writing is a constant and sustaining force in her life, she is denied it when it is assumed her illness is due to her refusal to conform to conventional roles.
As noted by history professor Hilary Marland, “The Yellow Wallpaper”…
Pain can be managed without the use of pharmaceutical interventions. Breathing techniques, massage, meditation, yoga, and other exercises can help with pain management and so can hypnosis. I learned that mothers also experience heartburn periodically, so they need to eat smaller, more frequent meals or ask their doctors for appropriate medical interventions.
Even those who are on their second or third births benefitted from the refresher course in labor and delivery, learning techniques of breathing and massage. Both the Lamaze and Bradley methods are helpful, although the latter provides a framework within which mothers concerned about their baby's exposure to chemicals and toxins can enjoy a natural childbirth. Another salient point that I learned from the participation was related to the signs of labor, which manifest differently for different patients. The key is to be aware of which signs are normal, and which may indicate a problem that requires immediate…
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…
To wit, in several SSA countries, the ratio of girls to boys in school is less than 80% (eight girls to every ten boys who have a chance at an education). In Chad, there are 6.4 girls to every 10 boys in primary education; in Guinea-Bissau there are 6.5 girls for every ten boys in school. Child mortality is a horrific problem in SSA: in 30 of the 47 countries the rate of child mortality is at least 1 in ten (for children under 5 years of age). In Sierra Leone, for example 262 out of every 1,000 children die before the age of five (orld Bank data).
Maternal health is a very serious problem in SSA; over thirty countries report more than 500 mothers out of every 100,000 either die during pregnancy or during childbirth. There are some frighteningly stark numbers among those 30 countries; to wit, in Sierra…
Franklin, Thomas. "Reaching the Millennium Development Goals: equality and justice as well as results." Development in Practice 18.3 (2008): 420-423.
United Nations. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008." Retrieved July 11,
2009, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/ .
World Bank. "Data and Research." Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://econ.worldbank.org.
Beatie did not accept biological determinism as the means by which to do gender. On the other hand, Beatie transcends gender altogether. By rejecting and then changing his genitalia and physique, Thomas Beatie passed through his life as a male and was legally and socially identified as such. He married a woman and most of the people he interacted with treated Beatie like they would any other man. When Beatie chose to become pregnant, he further stretched the boundaries between male and female. Beatie both subverts and ascribes to traditional gender roles and norms. Pregnancy is a female domain; had Beatie been born with male reproductive organs he would not have been able to experience childbirth. He and his wife would have been forced to adopt a child or choose a surrogate mother. Yet the fact that Beatie states, "I see myself as my own surrogate" shows that a male…
Beatie, T. (2008). Labor of love. The Advocate. Mar 26, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.advocate.com/exclusive_detail_ektid52947.asp?page=2
Lorber, J. "Night to his day": The social construction of gender.
West, C. & Zimmerman, DH Doing gender.
The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) and the Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (AACN, 1996; Dienemann & Aroian, 1995) operationally define the professional nurse as one who has been prepared with a minimum of a baccalaureate or higher degree in nursing. (Feldman & Greenberg, 2005, p. 219)
These were necessary requirement in the 90's. Now in an ever increasing age of need for more highly educated professional, the Clinical Nurse Leader armed with a Master's degree or better, is more adapted to handle a wide range of situations and create a fulcrum from which to balance all the staff in a given unit.
Clinical Nurse Leader
Kennedy, M.S.. (2004) Introducing the Clinical Nurse Leader. American Journal of Nursing, 104 (10), 22.
This article is a report regarding the decisions calling for a new role for nurses. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing…
Dalton, B., & Wright, L. (1999). Using Community Input for the Curriculum Review Process. Journal of Social Work Education, 35(2), 275.
Feldman, H.R. & Greenberg, M.J. (Eds.). (2005). Educating Nurses for Leadership. New York: Springer.
Kennedy, M.S.. (2004) Introducing the Clinical Nurse Leader. American Journal of Nursing, 104 (10), 22.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K., Dwyer, F.M., & Hoffman, D.F. (2004). Tracking Pediatric Asthma: The Massachusetts Experience Using School Health Records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1439.
These programs include the service of a registered dietician. (Monti, 2006) These and other programs and research adds to the insight and knowledge about prenatal nutrition that offer a valuable resource and knowledge base for the professional nurse.
Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875
Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,
Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.
J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
McCollister, B. (2001) the Social Necessity of Nurturance. Humanist, 61 (1).
Mead, M.N. (2007). You Are What Your Mother Ate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 492+. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182
Monti, Davorka (2003) Not so Common Nutrition Exercises for Your Childhood
Education Classes. International Journal…
Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875
Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,
Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.
J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…
Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103
Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.
Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.
Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
United States, medical pain control through the use of regional anesthetics such as epidural blocks or spinal anesthesia is the most popular from of child delivery (Childbirth). Doctors favor the epidural block because medication does not enter the mother's circulatory system, thus it does not cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of the fetus. There are also many forms of non-medical pain control (Giving birth naturally: Techniques to use). For example, the Alexander Technique focuses on movement and breathing to increase the effectivness of pushing as the baby is delivered. The radley Method focuses on tuning into your body and positions to ease labor pains. Hypnosis attempts to induce relaxation while Lamaze uses distraction techniques during contractions to decrease the perception of pain. Water delivery involves giving birth in a warm tub of water to help a woman relax and to provide buoyancy to help illeviate discomfort and pressue.…
Childbirth. Wikipedia. Retrieved September 10, 2005 from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childbirth#Medical_pain_control
Epidural facts. Retrieved September 10, 2005 from Web site: http://pregnancy.about.com/cs/painmedsinlabor/a/epiduralfacts.htm
Giving birth naturally: Techniques to use. American Pregnancy Association. Retrieved September 10, 2005 from Web site: http://www.americanpregnancy.org/labornbirth/naturaldeliverytechniques.html
In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and ells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-illiam Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…
Bergman, Norman. History of Anesthesia. chua2.fiu.edu. http://ahahq.org/Bulletin/AHA_GB_1991-10.pdf .Retrieved from 14th Jan 2013.
Conquering surgical pain: Four men stake their claims. (2012). Massachusetts General
Blatner, Adam. The discovery and invention of Anesthesia. Blatner.com. http://www.blatner.com/adam/consctransf/historyofmedicine/4-anesthesia/hxanesthes.html . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
Fadden, John. Cultural, Environmental and Genetical influences on drug therapy. Jbpub.com. http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763786076/86076_CH03_FINAL.pdf . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
There are several different elements that should be considered and properly acted upon to facilitate a comprehensive program to reduce the mortality rates for children under five. According to the World Health Organization, "6.9 million children under the age of five died in 2011. More than half of these early child deaths are due to conditions that could be prevented or treated with access to simple, affordable interventions" (No author, 2012).
Therefore, the comprehensive program to address this issue will consist of three different parts. The first is to provide interventions for mothers prior to childbirth, the second is to provide interventions during childbirth, and the third is to provide interventions during the first five years after childbirth. For the first of these interventions, it is crucial that mothers receive immunizations against common child-bearing diseases such as tetanus, receive regular visits from antenatal consultants, and refrain from intoxicants such as…
Moody, S. (2011). "Ready-to-use therapeutic food." USAID from the American People. Retrieved from http://blog.usaid.gov/2011/10/ready-to-use-therapeutic-food/
No author (2012). "Children: reducing mortality." World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs178/en/index.html
In the novel The Stone Diaries by author Carol Shields, a young woman deals with the pressures of being expected to conform to gender binaries in western civilization. The theme of the story is shown early in the text when Shields writes, "Life is an endless recruiting of witnesses. It seems we need to be observed in our postures of extravagance or shame, we need attention paid to us" (36). Daisy's life is a reflection of how she is seen more than how she sees herself it seems which is odd given that her entire existence is a figment of imagination. In the story that Daisy tells, her own mother died during the process of giving birth to the infant Daisy, which may serve as a psychological basis for why death is such an all-consuming passion in her life. The birth was marked by death and so the…
Shields, Carol. The Stone Diaries. New York: Viking, 1994. Print.
The purpose, mission, activities, benefits, and target audience of two professional nursing organizations: The National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners and the American College of Nurse Midwives
A nurse beginning her medical career will likely want to join an organization that can support her throughout her tenure in the profession. On a personal level, professional organizations provide a source of continuing education and networking. On a professional level, organizations such as the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP) and the American College of Nurse Midwives (ACNM) act as advocates for the interests of professionals. They demand that nurses' unique areas of expertise are honored and treated with respect, and that the interests of children and their parents are honored. hen selecting which organization to join, however, a nurse must ask herself this critical, soul-searching question: what area is her primary field of practice? Does the nurse seek…
"About ACNM." American College of Nurse Midwives. [23 May 2012]
"About us." National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. [23 May 2012]
FCC & EEO
Federal Contract Compliance & EEO
Many foreign cultures associate the words United States of America with the vision of freedom and equality. People of many different races, disabilities and creeds have come to the United States seeking the impartiality upon which this country was founded. owever, the road to these favorable conditions of today has not been easy. The relentless pursuit of equality by Americans is written in history more than once. The most famous struggle for equality is Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. When the British began pressuring the American Colonies for more taxes, and generally becoming prejudiced, the colonists began writing poetry, drawing political cartoons, and painting patriotic pictures. The founding fathers gathered to take initiative to pursue their rights as a new country and as individuals. This paper will discuss the EEO compliance requirements necessary to become a Federal contractor as well as focus…
Hall, F.S. 1977. Gaining EEO Compliance with a Stable WorkForce. Personnel Journal. 56:454.
Landau, B.W. 2002. State Employees and Soverign Immunity: Alternatives and Strategies for Enforcing Federal Employment Laws. Harvard J. On Legis. 169(39).
Maltby, L. And Yamada, D. 1996. Beyond Economic Realities: The Case for Amending Federal Employment Discrimination Laws to Include Independent Contractors. Boston College Law Review. 38(2).
Perhaps, the woman did give birth to a healthy child and then died, then this portrait would be in the nature of memorializing the wife of the man in this picture and the mother of his heir preserving for the child a likeness of the child's mother since the mother was no longer living and present in the lives of the family.
This is the only double portrait of its kind painted during the Renaissance period that is known and as related in the foregoing material, women were always pictured from a profile view with their hair severely pulled back away from their face and their gaze averted from the viewer since women were believed to be seductresses of men making them weak or otherwise castrating them with rejection though only casting a gaze in their direction.
The hands of the man are displayed in this portrait and he appears…
Masters. RD (2013) the Portraiture of Women During the Italian Renaissance. The University of Southern Mississippi the Aquila Digital Community. Retrieved from: http://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1170&context=honors_theses
Portrait of a Woman with a Man at a Casement, ca. 1440 -- 44 (2014) Fra Filippo Lippi (Italian, Florentine, (2014) Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/89.15.19
Epidemiology - Person, Place and Time
Epidemiology -- Person, Place, Time
Identify the specific goal you have chosen, describe it in detail, and discuss why you chose to focus on this goal and how it related to population health, both locally and globally.
The specific goal I have chosen is improvement of maternal health. I chose to focus on this goal because reproductive health is an issue for most women whether they live in developed or developing countries -- and because reproductive health is an issue over which the medical and healthcare communities can have relatively high degrees of influence. eproductive health is inextricably related to income at levels of a household, a community, and a nation. The figures representing women who died during pregnancy or childbirth are high (roughly 289,000 globally in 2013), but they are down by about 45% from 1990 levels ("MDG 5," 2014). This is a…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Coeytaux, F., Bingham, D., & Langer, A. (2010). Reducing Maternal Mortality: A Global Imperative. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Retrieved from http://www.arhp.org/publications-and-resources/contraception-journal/february-2011
MDG 5: Improve maternal health. (2014).
Trends in Maternal Mortality 1990-2008 . Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank. (September 2010). Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2010/trends_matmortality90-08.pdf
Trillium erectum, commonly known as Beth Root or Birthroot, is a flowering plant of the lily family that is indigenous to North America. The plant itself blooms in May and the root contains its primary active or medicinal agents (Williams, 1820). However, the leaves of the plant can be eaten. Medicinally, trillium has been used in native North American medicine primarily as an aid during childbirth, such as to induce labor or to minimize bleeding (Pistrang, n.d.). The name Bethroot is simply a bastardization of "birthroot," (Williams, 1820).
Nineteenth century medical science catalogued the herb judiciously, indicating its efficacy as an astringent and cathartic and used to stop hemorrhaging even unrelated to childbirth (Williams, 1820). Writing in the New England Journal of Medicine, Williams (1820) also noted that Trillium causes fewer side effects than other astringent herbs, which can cause constipation. Moreover, Williams (1820) notes the use of Trillium for…
The poem focuses heavily on maternity and the fact that a woman is forced to live life day-by-day, with a different understanding of "good." For God, though, this respect again is usually interpreted as simple obedience. It is God's most basic definition of good, the one individual should not violate another -- that is the ultimate cause for the destruction of the cities, however, and Batey's lack of acknowledgment for this event seems to suggest that neither she nor Lot's wife can truly dismiss this transgression. Still, the single incident does not seem to warrant near-instant and outright destruction in human terms of "good."
It is this perspective that is most fully examined in Batey's poem. "Good in human terms," to Batey, means following the impulses of friendship and allegiance that get one through life, whether they are good or bad. Being good means understanding that mistakes are made, and…
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…
.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://mrgrg-ms.org/
Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.
Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.
Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
There is however no cure. There is currently a lot of research dedicated to the development of more effective interventions as well as treatments for ADHD. These include the use of revolutionary tools such as brain scanners. The management and treatment of ADHD should be given a multidirectional approach.
Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With
ADD & Learning Disabilities
Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD
DSM-IV-T workgroup (1994 ). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition, Text evision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Gross-Tsur, V (1997) Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is methylphenidate safe and effective? - J Pediatr - Apr; 130(4): 670-4.
Hunt, D (2006). Functional oles of Norepinephrine and Dopamine in ADHD . Medscape
Psychiatry & Mental Health.
Lahey, B.B., & Carlson, C.L. (1991). "Validity of the diagnostic category attention deficit
disorder without hyperactivity: a review
Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With
ADD & Learning Disabilities
Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD
The power of the Orisha guides the santero. Alex told me that the attitude of the priests is very humble, because they don't believe that they are doing anything. All their actions are guided by the Orisha and all the credit belongs with the Orisha too.
I asked Alex to expand on two aspects of Santeria that I was particularly interested in because of their uniqueness. First, I asked about spirit possession. Alex told me that spirit possession is a very important concept because it helps the individual communicate directly with the Orishas. An object as well as a person can become imbued with the spirit of an Orisha. When a person becomes possessed by the Orisha, he or she temporarily acts and even looks like that spirit.
Second, I asked about sacrifices. Alex admitted that animal sacrifices do take place but much less often than they used to because…
De La Torre, M.A. (2004). Santeria: The Beliefs and Rituals of a Growing Religion in America. Grand Rapids: Eerdman's.
Leonidas, C. (nd). Introduction to Santeria. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/leonidas_1.html
Leonidas, C. (nd). Santeria and South Florida. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/Leonidas_2/leonidas_2.html
Robinson, B.A. (2009). Christian meta-groups: The Pentecostal group of denominations. Religious Tolerance.org. Retrieved online: http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_pent.htm
The conflict between Sara and her father mirrors that of Ana and her mother. Reb and Carmen both try to control and manipulate their daughters by appealing to traditional cultural values. Gender is at the heart of their struggle, as gender norms are critical to their old-fashioned worldviews. Interestingly, there are traditionalists in both Bread Givers and in Real Women Have Curves who retain their ethnic identities while promoting gender equality. For example, Ana's grandfather relays a tale about a treasure-filled mountain in Mexico. He tells the tale to a captivated Ana before telling her that he wants Ana to "find her gold" too. Ana's father and grandfather support her academic achievements and want her to take advantage of the scholarship. In Bread Givers, Sara meets another traditional Polish-American. Although Hugo is not Jewish, he and Sara bond over their cultural identity and prove that ethnic pride does not need…
Her life has been a hard one. She raises the children, walks half a mile to a well in rural Mexico to fetch water every day. When she leaves three days a week to serve as a domestic in a nearby motel, her oldest daughter, 11, looks after the children.
Maria makes tortillas every morning and boils the water for purification. Her hands are strong, her skin is leathery, the result of a lifetime of hard work and painful experiences. Her husband is working in the fields in California so she doesn't see him very often, but he sends her money through Western Union so she can pay the rent on their little home. He knows a baby is expected but the grape crops in California must be picked when they are ready, so he can't leave to come home and be with his wife. His back is permanently painful…
All the greatest people ever lived have been telling us that for five thousand years and yet you'd be surprised how people are always losing hold of it. There's something way down deep that's eternal about every human being (Wilder, p.68).
Looking at what happens in Act III with reference to that quotation, it is clear that Wilder is trying to say that something about Emily lives on in the town. It is not Emily. By having the Stage Manager offer to take her back to life and demonstrating that Emily literally cannot return to the world of the living, Wilder explodes the idea that Emily can return to the living. He makes it clear that death does mean the end of something. However, it is important to realize that Wilder's play does show some type of life in the cemetery. The cemetery's inhabitants may not be engaging in the…
Naughton, James. (2003). Our Town. Line by Line Productions.
Wilder, Thornton. (1938). Our Town: A Play in Three Acts. New York: Coward McCann, Inc.
If we look at one of the absolutes, such as abortion in cultures in which choice is at least generally available about reproductive options abortion is at least relatively unstigmatized and access to it is legal and there are no significant economic barriers, a woman may still have religious or ethical or emotional reasons why she would perceive abortion negatively.
A woman, for example, who has suffered through a number of miscarriages of wanted pregnancies may find herself for various reasons unable or unwilling to carry a pregnancy to term. In such a case, having an abortion may be the right choice for that woman but may still be very painful.
In general, the ways in which sexuality and fertility shapes a woman's relationship with self -- as well as with family and the larger community -- is largely determined by the degree of choice that she has over having…
Hooks, B. (2000). Feminist theory: From margin to center (2nd ed.). Brooklyn, NY: South End Press.
Kesselman, a., McNair, L.D., & Schniedewind, N. (2008). Women images and realities: A multicultural anthology (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
2. Someone kicks a dog.
esponse: The person should go back and check if the dog is okay! This person may either drunk or extremely cruel and hates dogs. In any case, it is wrong to kick a harmless dog.
3. A woman carries a heavy jug of water on her head while her husband walks in front of her carrying nothing.
esponse: He should stop and help her with the jug of water. Her husband is not being a gentleman. He is not being a very good husband if he makes his wife carry heavy items and walks ahead of her though he not carrying anything, himself.
4. A male guest helps a female host carry dirty dishes into the kitchen.
esponse: The male guest should be thanked by the hostess because he is being courteous and polite by helping her carry out the dirty dishes.
5. A young…
Holloway, Kris (20 July, 2006). "A Morning of Weighing Babies," Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a Midwife in Mali. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press.
Holloway, Kris (20 July, 2006). "The Death of Old Woman Kelema," Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a Midwife in Mali. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press.
Holtz, Carol and Grisdale, Suzanne (2007). "Chapter 16: Global Health in Reproduction and Infants." Global Health Care: Issues and Policies. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Koehler, Fred. "One Step at a Time," Crossing Cultures with the Peace Corps. Retrieved from: http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/stories/stories.cfm?psid=15 (12 November 2009).
In the article "Pregnancy & Treatment," Linda L.M. Worley, past medical director of UAMS Arkansas CAES: Center for Addiction, esearch, Education and Services, and Curtis Lowery (2005), maternal fetal medicine expert, report that a number of medical and child welfare groups, including the American Medical Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Nurses Association, and the March of Dimes, conclude that threatening to arrest pregnant women who drink alcohol beverages will not help them quit drinking. "ather, it will frighten them away from prenatal care and discourage them from speaking honestly to health care providers who may be able to help" (Worley & Lowery, 2005, ¶ 2). Worley and Lowery (2005) recommend that instead of imprisoning pregnant mothers, drug treatment "works and is much less expensive than imprisoning" them. When pregnant mothers are imprisoned, the state may not only incur delivery charges…
Cave, E. (2004). The mother of all crimes: Human rights, criminalization, and the child born alive. Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Chudler, E.H. (2008). Alcohol and the brain. Neuroscience for Kids. Retrieved October 27,
2009 from http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.html
Denny, C.H., Tsai, J., Floyd, R.L. & Green, P.P. (2009). Alcohol use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age - United States, 1991-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. U.S. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved October 27, 2009
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…
From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.
On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.
There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
There are a number of solutions that are medically available for infertility. Fertility treatments for men and women can include chemical solutions, solutions to boost fertility as well as surgical procedures. However, these work on a personal level and do not address the wider and larger issues in society. The most effective and long-term solution to the problem of declining fertility rates is understanding and knowledge, coupled with governmental and institutional application of this knowledge. In other words, this could involve simple precautionary aspects such as the understanding and avoidance of certain chemical substance and toxins in the workplace that can increase the possibility of infertility.
Social and cultural stresses are major factors that impact on fertility rate and research into these factors is needed if the general problem is to be addressed adequately. Governmental and social policies that improve the possibility for increased fertility rates have in…
Velculescu D. et al. (2004) Fertility Declines and Youth Dependency: Implications for the Global Economy. Retrieved October 25, 2008, at http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2004/09globaleconomics_bryant.aspx
Natality is defined as: "The birthrate, which is the ratio of total live births to total population in a particular area over a specified period of time; expressed as childbirths per 1000 people (or population) per year, ( http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Natality )
Fertility in the 20th century
The basic reason for the diverse findings could refer to the following:
most studied have been conducted on a single organization the family-friendly policies are analyzed as a whole and therefore the efficiencies of a single program are neglected employees' answers are given in questioners and the workers have to rely on memory and personal perception most of the studies have no terms of comparison the studies generally measure satisfaction with the offered benefits, instead of job performance the studies only analyze the recipient of family-friendly programs, but should also question his team-mates, who interact with him and are able to measure the impact the studies are conducted over short periods of time the studies do not consider the "individual differences between employees, (the) social support in organizations, (the) job/organizational characteristics and uses of additional organizational level outcomes" (Kossek and Lambert, 2004)
The ethical implications of family-friendly programs are quite…
Anderson, S.E., Coffer, B.S., Byerley, R.T., 2002, Formal Organizational Initiatives and Informal Workplace Practices: Links to Work-Family Conflict and Job Related Outcomes, Journal of Management, Vol. 28, No. 6
Armour, S., October 19, 2003, More Companies Downsize Family-Friendly Programs, U.S.A. Today
Auerbach, H.W., 2006, Fairness at Work - Federal Labour Standards for the 21st Century, Federal Labour Standards Review
Flannery, R.B., May 2000, Violence in America: Coping with Drugs, Distressed Families, Inadequate Schooling and Acts of Hate, Continuum International Publishing Group
To counterpoint that, the third author discusses the many images of childbirth that were created during the enaissance, also handcrafted, which helped celebrate babies coming into the world. It is not impossible to imagine that some of these images, often created to give mothers comfort before and after the birth, could have been created by the very same artists and craftsmen who were creating tools for torture and pain during the same time.
It is interesting to note how different the uses of art and artistic talent were during this time. Today, it seems a juxtaposition for an artist to create tools used to maim and kill another human, but at the time, it was commonplace and even "normal," as these essays indicate.
Musacchio, J.M. The art and ritual of childbirth in enaissance Italy.
Sheridan, a. Discipline and punish: Birth of the prison.
Terry, a. The craft of torture:…
Musacchio, J.M. The art and ritual of childbirth in Renaissance Italy.
Sheridan, a. Discipline and punish: Birth of the prison.
Terry, a. The craft of torture: Bronze sculptures and the punishment of sexual offence.
While pregnancy per se is not a permanent condition, there are long-term consequences of the state. (M kel, 2005) the issue of work/life balance and quality of life can become important factors in the life of the female employee. Many organizations also tend to have the perception that women with children will be less focused and dedicated to their work. (Kidwell, 2001) the idea that the man is the bread winner and the woman the nurturer is still the main stream value. Although women have been in the workforce since the industrial revolution, in the past they exited the workplace after a child was born and returned only much later. In the past few decades however, women are less likely to want to leave the workforce. Many factors have impacted this decision -- higher standard of living, single mothers, lower wages and fewer opportunities to return back after an extended…
Anonymous. (2005). Keeping mum: pregnant employees and employment rights. Human Resource Management International Digest, 13(4), 41-45.
Bragger, J.D., Kutcher, E., Morgan, J., & Firth, P. (2002). The effects of the structured interview on reducing biases against pregnant job applicants. Sex Roles, 46(7/8), 215-226.
Gueutal, H.G., & Taylor, E.M. (1991). Employee pregnancy: The impact on organizations, pregnant employees, and co-workers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 5(459-475).
Halpert, J.A., Wilson, M.L., & Hickman, J.L. (1993). Pregnancy as a source of bias in performance appraisals. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(649-663).
In this section, King also covers almost every religion and sect that she could and the women that they affected. From Protestantism to witches, King peers into the lives of women everywhere. e see that religion played a hefty role in women's lives - regardless of what belief they followed.
The last section of the book, "Virgo et Virago," looks at the women of the elite class. hile this is by no means the largest section of the book, it is the most hopeful and the most pleasurable to read. This final chapter focuses on how women have moved away from the patriarchal society. King lists Christine de Pizan and Gaspara Stampa. In comparison, the previous sections are not as informative or enlightening because the do not have the same attention to detail.
Poor women were not lucky enough to receive an education. However, middle and upper-class women were "initiated…
King, Margaret. Women of the Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1991
Tribe refers to what Ronald Dworkin says later in the book. Dworkin holds that everyone is an originalist now but that they are not seeking what the lawmakers expected but what they meant to say in their law, suggesting perhaps that they may not be writing laws as clearly as could be or that the vagaries of language often make it difficult to do so without some form of originalist mind set. Tribe points out that what both originalists and textual critics are doing is to try to determine what is intended over what is expected, meaning that a law could be written to say one thing but would have unintended consequences just the same. here Tribe differs is in the fact that he does not believe it is possible to discover which provisions are which by a close reading of the text or by legislative history. Tribe also does…
Brennan, William. "Construing the Constitution." 19 University of California-Davis Law Review 2 (1985).
Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court. New York: Vintage, 2001.
Scalia, Antonin. A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1997.