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Factors Influencing Early Childhood Development
Darling and Steinberg (1993) proposed a model of parenting that integrated several prior models. They discriminated between parenting practice and parenting style, with the former representing domain-specific parenting habits and the latter domain-independent social interactions between parent and child. A critical distinction between parenting practice and style, based on their model, is that style communicates to the child how the parent feels about the child rather than the child's behavior. The natural extension of this model is that a child's sense of self-worth is directly influenced by parenting style.
The parenting styles reviewed by Darling and Steinberg (1993) included authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and neglectful. Of these parenting styles, authoritative was viewed as producing the best developmental outcomes in terms of socialization, academic achievement, and emotional maturation. Using the model proposed by Maccoby and Martin in 1983, parenting styles could be described empirically along…
Burger, Kaspar. (2010). How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 140-165.
Darling, Nancy and Steinberg, Laurence. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487-496.
Tong, Lian, Shinohara, Ryoji, Sugisawa, Yuka, Tanaka, Emiko, Maruyama, Akiko, Sawada, Yuko et al. (2009). Relationship of working mothers' parenting style and consistency to early childhood development: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(10), 2067-2076.
Cognitive behavioral analysis paper on child 2 years old
Analyzing play situations: Applying Piaget's theories to toddlers
The developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, "emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired. A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed" (McLeod 2009). A good example in the life of an adult is when he or she knows how to order a meal in a restaurant, following a particular social script or schema. Children acquire more and more 'scripts' as they age and become capable of processing scripts of greater and greater complexity.
In the first observational situation, the child is seen enacting a script she likely saw a parent or…
McLeod, S.A. (2009). Jean Piaget -- Cognitive theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Hill, Patrick & Daniel Lapsley. (2009). Egocentrism. Education. com. Retrieved from:
Early Childhood Development
esearch on the brain and early childhood development indicates that the first four years of life are a period of particularly rapid development of brain structures and function. According to Larissa Scott (2004) the potential of the brain can be enhanced by presenting the right experiences at the right times, in the right amounts. In the initial stages of life, children's brains can be compared to a sponge soaking up liquids. As the newborn's five senses are stimulated the information gathered causes brain activity. This activity leads to the development of motor, emotional, behavioral, cognitive and social functioning.
Influence of Family and Environment
As the brain collects more information it begins to make connections between old and new knowledge, discarding information that does not sustain relevance to the environment. This sorting and learning process can be regarded as a function of the elimination of unnecessary associations and…
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2007). The timing and quality of early experiences combine to shape brain architecture: Working paper no. 5. Retrieved August 1, 2012, from http://developingchild.harvard.edu/
Perry, B.D. (2000 Nov./Dec.). The developmental hot zone. Early childhood today. Vol. 15, Issue 3, 30-32. Retrieved August 1, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=122&sid=535cc3b2-26a5-4a67-a8ba-c00b86f75f28%40sessionmgr115&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=3797110
Pong, S., Hao, L., & Gardner, E. (2005, December). The roles of parenting styles and social capital in the school performance of immigrant Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Social science quarterly. Vol. 86, Issue 4, 928-950. Retrieved August 1, 2012 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&hid=105&sid=92b749c0-92df-464c-8283-2bf54a532c10%40sessionmgr113
Scott, L.K. (2004, Fall). Early childhood brain development and elementary music curricula: Are they in tune? General music today. Vol. 18, Issue 1, 20-27. Retrieved August1, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=72452c9d-8a7d-4372-9623-1d0ec01f6946%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=122&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=15855764
The primary caregiver during the very early years of the child's life is the mother. Men play a fairly minor part in the early developmental years of the child. "In Malawi most men are traditionally distanced from their children; they rarely hold and play with them. (ibid)
However this situation changes as the child grows up, and there is later more interaction between father and child.
Overall, however, men are generally associated with the provision of financial support while women are seen as the ones responsible for nurturing." (ibid) Early childhood education is largely the responsibility of the mother and community and takes place mostly at home. It is essential non-formal in the rural areas, with the child being taught by the mother and siblings.
However, many of these cultural practices are being modernized. " Most traditional childrearing practices persist to date in some form, although they have been influenced…
Evans J. Childrearing practices in Sub-Saharan Africa. 1994. April 30, 2005. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:BhcaLY5u9HwJ:www.ecdgroup.com/download/cc115bca.pdf+early+childhood+development+malawi+culture&hl=en&start=5&client=firefox-a
Malawi: World Education Forum) May 1, 2005. http://www2.unesco.org/wef/countryreports/malawi/rapport_1_1.html
Mbugua, Tata J. "Early Childhood Care and Education in Kenya." Childhood Education 80.4 (2004): 191+. Questia. 3 May 2005
Myers, G. Towards an analysis of the costs and effectiveness of community-based early childhood education in Kenya. 1992.
Early Childhood Development
oles and esponsibilities of an Early Childhood Professional
Early childhood professionals are often required to wear many hats, particularly because their job description changes almost on a daily basis. As a facilitator of learning, an early childhood professional acts as a guide. Usually, a guide is tasked with leading other people down new paths, and he does so by walking beside them, rather than in front of them (Child Care Education Institute, 2008). His group's safety is his top priority, and he always strives to keep the people under his watch free from harm (Child Care Education Institute, 2008). The same ideology applies to early childhood professionals -- they identify new experiences as well as engagements to impart upon children and then guide them in a direction that is of interest to them. For instance, rather than lead the child through the process of playing, the professional…
Child Care Education Institute. (2008). The Roles and Responsibilities of an Early Childhood Teacher. Child Care Education Institute. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from https://www.cceionline.com/newsletters/August_08.html
NAEYC. (2010). 2010 Standards for Initial Early Childhood Professional Preparation. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Retrieved 16 December 2014 from http://www.naeyc.org/ncate/files/ncate/Stds_1pager.pdf
Humphreys, J.T. (1985). The Child Study Movement and Public School Music Education. Journal of Research in Music Education, 33(2), 79-86.
Maturationist, Constructivist, and Environmentalist Educational Theories
Numerous educational and childhood development theories have impacted school readiness discussions. Among the most notable theories that hold an effect on readiness practices are maturationists', constructivists', and environmentalists' development theories. Maturationists observe that there can be achievement of school readiness practices when all healthy children hold the potential to carry out activities such as counting and alphabet recitation. Encompassment of these activities is in learning of more intricate errands such as arithmetic or reading (Lenz-Taguchi, 2010). On the other hand, the environmentalists' theory ascertains that the environment that children survive in molds their behaviors and learning. In fact, environmentalists believe that development, learning and human behaviors are responses to a child's setting. Some of the principal developers of environmentalist theories include B.Skinner and John Watson. Constructivist readiness perspective is the work of Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget among other theorists. Such theorists believed that development…
Bruno, H.(2008). Leading on purpose: Emotionally intelligent early childhood administration. London: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J.(2008). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. London: Cengage Learning.
Cross, T. (2005). The social and emotional lives of gifted kids: Understanding and guiding their development. New York: Prufrock Press Inc.
Lenz-Taguchi, H.(2010). Theory/practice divide in early childhood education: Introducing an intra-active pedagogy. London: Taylor & Francis.
It becomes even more apparent now that the early childhood milestones are important ones, and are associated with how the child will approach problems and resolve them going forward from a very early point in life, and that the parents' role in that process is important, and large. Kathleen a. Roskos and James F. Christie (2000) say that a child's cognitive ability lends itself to a perspective on play, on those elements of play involving how they approach it, solve the challenges that are presented to them in play, and processing information leads to mental processes that build literacy, and actually build the skills that child will rely upon in reading and writing (Roskos and Christie, 1).
This is the type of behaviors that Messer and Blank observed and remarked upon in their research. It is what Messer understood to be predictable outcomes when children are motivated by through…
Anning, Angela, and Anne Edwards, eds. Promoting Children's Learning from Birth to Five: Developing the New Early Years Professional. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1999. Questia. 23 Oct. 2008
Early Childhood Development Issues
Children with special needs comprise about 20% of all children in the United States. Common special needs include learning disability, communication challenges, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, and developmental disabilities. ithin the school system, students with these kinds of disabilities are likely to benefit from additional educational services, different approaches to teaching, access to a resource room and use of technology (Resources for Children with Special Needs). Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can also benefit from specialized teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is generally used to specifically indicate instruction of students whose special needs reduce their ability to learn independently or in a classroom. Developmentally, though these children often experience a wide range of developmental issues that sometimes have different levels of impact upon the family -- both nuclear and extended (Newacheck et.al.).
One of the…
Green, S. And Shinn. "Parent Attitudes about Special Education." Exceptional Children 61.3 (1994): 269-74. Print.
Heron, K. "Special Children, Challenged Parents." Education and Treatment of CHildren 26.2 (2003): 201-14. Print.
International Disability and Development Consortium. "Guidance Note on Disability and Development." July 2004. Ec.europa.eu. Web. February 2012. .
"Mission and Forums." January 2012. Support for Special Needs. Web. February 2012. .
Behaviorism and Childhood Development: An Educator and Parent's Perspective
"Haven't I told you a hundred times," says a parent to an errant child, "not to put your muddy shoes on the sofa!" Yes, a behaviorist might note, the parent has told the child to do so -- but the parent has not taught the child, only told the child. The act of telling the child not to muddy the sofa in behaviorist would be conveyed, for instance, by rewarding the child for removing his or her shoes after coming in the house, and forcing the child to clean up after his or her transgression. Incrementally, through conditioning over the course of a series of proceses rather than cognitive actions alone the child would be taught in such a fashion.
The behaviorist Hempel (1949) claimed that "all psychological statements that are meaningful . . . are translatable into statements that do…
Arnold, N.S. 1990. Marx's Radical Critique of Capitalist Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hempel, C. 1949. "The Logical Analysis of Psychology." In H. Feigl and W. Sellars (eds.), Readings in Philosophical Analysis (pp. 373-84). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Hempel, C. 1966. Philosophy of Natural Science. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Killeen, P. 1994. "Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement," Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 105-172.
Although it is too soon to offer a definitive assessment of Angela’s attachment styles, her early childhood experiences plus her current social difficulties suggest Angela will probably exhibit ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles towards others at first. Because she has already exhibited struggles making friends, it is most likely she is exhibiting avoidant attachment. Insecure avoidant types withdraw and are generally reluctant to form close connections or attachments because they have experienced unreliable caregiving patterns. Angela could just as easily be demonstrating some resistant behaviors, if she acts out with anger or aggression. However, her evident lack of problematic behavior suggests that Angela has a strong degree of psychological resilience. This is the ideal stage at which to offer Angela additional supports to improve her self-esteem and increase her ability or willingness to trust others.
Temperament could also be an issue, interacting with Angela’s early childhood experiences with unreliable caregivers…
Hardrup, W.H. (n.d.). The peer context in middle childhood. Development During Middle Childhood. Retrieved online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK216783/
McLeod, S. (2008). Mary Ainsworth. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: https://www.simplypsychology.org/mary-ainsworth.html
“Temperament and Personality,” (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://psych.colorado.edu/~colunga/P4684/temperament.pdf
hen asked afterwards to recollect -without looking at their diaries - what they had done on each day, mixed-handers performed better. Likewise, he found that mixed-handers' childhood memories date back further than those of strong-handers.
This, Christman says, is consistent with the theory that mixed-handers -- again, thanks to that larger corpus callosum -- do better at tasks that require interplay between the two sides of the brain (olman 2005) Truly left-handed individuals, according to Christman are rare, only 2 to 3% of the population, and some stereotypes about left-handed individuals are more true of mixed-handers who may be classified as left-handed. It is they who are statistically more at risk," for getting into car accidents, for example. "This seems consistent with the inter-hemispheric model: imagine someone talking on a mobile phone (a left hemisphere task) while driving with the left hand (a right-hemisphere task)" (olman 2005). For teachers, understanding…
Cairney, John, Louis a Schmidt, Scott Veldhuizen, Paul Kurdyak, John Hay, & Brent E.
Faught. (2008). Left- handedness and developmental coordination disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(10), 696-9. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from ProQuest Medical
Library database. (Document ID: 1600713031).
Gabbard, Carl, Susan Hart, & Vickie Gentry. (1995). General motor proficiency and handedness in children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 156(4), 411. Retrieved March 2, 2009 from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 9115450).
education has been given more attention by researchers and educationists since the publication of the rundtland report in the late 1980s. The report introduced the world to sustainable development as a key global concern. Since then even school curricula have made efforts to include such concepts as natural resources and climate change. Interestingly, not enough attention has been given to the manner in which early childhood development may be instrumental in the whole process. This paper discusses the place of early childhood education especially in ensuring sustainable development. It is apparent that early childhood education is part of a whole that is the entire education system and this implies that it has just as much a role to play in tackling the issues of sustainable development especially those that are to be brought to the fore in the educational system.
The role education plays in the endeavor is substantial. A…
Alnahdi, G. (2014). Assistive Technology in Special Education and The Universal. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 20.
Anderson-Inman, L., Knox-Quinn, & Horney, M. (1996).Computer-based study strategies for students with learning disabilities: individual differences associated with adoption level. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 461-484.
Cullen, J., Richards, S.B., & Frank, C. (2008).Using software to enhance the writing skills of students with special needs. Journal of Special Education Technology, 23, 33-44.
Elbro, C, Rasmussen, I., & Spelling, B. (1996). Teaching reading to disabled readers with language disorders: A controlled evaluation of synthetic speech feedback. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 37, 140-155
Traditional Theories of Play
"Children's play in early childhood education is totally free and innocent."
'Play' is an activity that is universal with universal rights for all children; it is seen as a state of innocence, grace, wonder and creativity for the children. The topic of play in early education has been given focus by many people including government institutions and presents the definitions and theories concerning the crucial functions of play in the lives, development, and learning of children. The paper will orient the reader by introducing the purpose of the research, which is to elaborate play complexities by looking at the temporal, spatial, cultural, and theoretical aspects. Furthermore, it gives the underlying reasons for play in the contemporary society since the field is changing rapidly and complex. eview of literature will be done to show how culture has shaped children's kinds of play that they experience, where they…
Chapter 10. (n.d.). Play and the Learning Environment. Retrieved from http://uk.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/53567_ch_10.pdf
Commonwealth of Australia. (2009). Belonging, Being & Becoming the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Australian Government Department of Education. Employment and Workplace.
Kernan, M. (2007). Play As a Context for Early Learning and Development. Australia: NCCA.
Maschinot, B. (2008). The Changing Face of the United States: The Influence of Culture on Child Development. Washington, DC: Zero to Three.
Another important strategy is that of exploring spatial relations. In such activities, children gain a better visual and practical sense of the spatial relations within mathematics. Scholastic's article portrays two girls discussing the appropriate spatial placement of a couch in a dollhouse. Such thinking methods can be influenced utilizing activities asking the children to map their house, their school, or their neighborhood in proportions. This will help open the child's mind to a more organized way of approaching spatial relations.
Using such strategies help lay the foundations of mathematics essential for later higher levels of learning. It is important to introduce elementary topics and concepts as early as possible, without boring young children to loose their interest. Early math lessons should include engaging activities which help keep the child moving and the learning environment active.
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
The next stage was parallel play in which children copy one another or play with the same toy but without necessarily playing together.
Older children in this same age group tended to exhibit associative play in which they interacted actively with other children and cooperative play in which they collaborated in games or in taking on roles with respect to others in the group.
Dramatic Play and Characteristic Gender-Based Differences in Play
Dramatic play provides children with the opportunity to experiment with various identities with which they are familiar and to develop valuable social skills by practicing social interactions and roles. Some of the most important elements of dramatic play involve practicing the behavioral roles and norms associated with gender differences. Typically, boys play actively, physically, and with gross motor movement activities whereas girls are more likely to spend time in play that emphasizes direct communications and verbal interaction. Boys…
Early Childhood Development Issues
Module One of Chen's work Early Intervention in Action... presents a number of different aspects of the experience of families raising children who have multiple disabilities. It is quite different to consider these aspects from a clinical or even educational perspective rooted in theory, versus doing so from the perspective of the impact of this situation on one's family. There seems to be a greater amount of difficulty in raising children with multiple disabilities that can challenge a family in numerous ways. Based on the information in this module, it seems almost certain that one of the most exacting is simply modifying one's schedule and accounting for the different people and places that such a child must interact with and go to, respectively, in order to achieve success in life.
Perhaps the most vital facet of this module is the way that it is able to…
Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 1. Retrieved from ***
Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 2. Retrieved from ***
WIDA (2014). THE EARLY YEARS: Dual language learners. www.wida.us Retrieved from ***
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…
Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.
Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.
Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.
Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) "Studies have shown that on any single day (called "point prevalence" by epidemiologists) about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression." It is true then that this condition affects millions of children a year along with their families. Depression itself is mysterious and most likely a necessary function of our psyche, but for many this state of mind can lead to much disastrous and dangerous conditions.
The purpose of this essay is to present a 10-point program that helps parents understand several factors associated with depressive disorders. This essay will list these 10 ideas and provide a baseline of information that can help provide a firmer grasp on some of the more hidden qualities that are present within a depressive disorder.
elax. Depression is common and can be treated. If…
Hoecker, J. (2010). Depression Treatment for Children: What Works? Mayo Clinic, May 2010. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/depression-treatment/expert-answers/faq-20057888
National Alliance on Mental Illness (nd). Depression in Children and Adolescents Fact Sheet. Viewed 15 Feb 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=88551
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Defining Childhood Obesity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015. Web.
Glasper, Alan. "Childhood Obesity Plan: The Government Declares War on Sugar." British Journal of Nursing 25.17 (2016): 984-985. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Jackson, Callum G. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Management and Challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
McHugh, Bronwyn. "The Childhood Obesity Epidemic." Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 22.2 (2016): 94-98. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…
Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7
Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965
Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…
ACPM. "Report XX of the Council on Scientific Affairs." American College of Preventive Medicine. http://www.acpm.org/pol_compNOTPOLICYbullying.htm
GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER IN YOUNG PEOPLE. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2000), vol.6,pp. 458-466, http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/gidyp.html
Mermaids. "Newspaper Archive http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/newarch.html
Conversely, where the exhibit is actively incorporated into a lesson on the moral basis for sensitivity to animals, the existing educational environment contributes to the formation of a moral conscience even where direction of that kind is lacking at home.
In very much the same way, the preschool and primary grade school environment is conducive to teaching other important moral values that are often postponed until much later, despite the fact that early introduction to those concepts is much more likely to result in their absorption than later introduction. acism, sexism, and other forms of bias that are no longer condoned in American society are also capable of being addressed in the preschool years so that those important lessons take root before contradictory messages are received from the external environment.
Informal Assessment of Social and Emotional Well-being in Children:
All too often, educators and other caregivers perform their professional responsibilities…
Bimonte, R. (2005) "If your class were optional, would anyone attend?" Momentum, 36(4), 6.
Byerly, S. (2001). "Linking classroom teaching to the real world through experiential instruction." Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 697.
Cookson, P. (2005). "The enriched classroom." Education Module, 35(4), 10.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…
Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.
Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
SPIRITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN'S TEMPERAMENT AND SELF-CONTROL: THE CULTURAL INFLUENCE
The objective of this study is to address the cultural contexts relating to spirituality in young children's temperament and self-control.
Child-Well eing Outcomes
Jesus grew in wisdom
Jesus grew in stature
Jesus grew in grace
Einoth's work entitled "uilding Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being" published by World Vision 2010 reports that World Visions biblical bases for the definition of Child Well-eing Outcomes is found in the ible in the ook of Luke, Chapter 2, Verse 52 which states "And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor (grace) with God and with people'. (2010, p. ix) Einoth states that in the tradition of the Jewish people that the body "is the object of special care because it is God's creation and special gift of grace. Growing in stature implies growing caring for…
Einoth, SR (2010) Building Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being. A research project carried out on behalf of the World Vision Institute for Research and Development in co-operation with the Child Development and Rights Team within World Vision International's Children in Ministry Department. Friedrichsdorf/Germany . May 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.worldvision-institut.de/_downloads/allgemein/TheorieUndPraxis_5_StrongFoundations.pdf
Holloday, R. (2007) Cultural Trends Influence Our Children. United Church of God. 28 Apr 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ucg.org/sermon/cultural-trends-influence-our-children/
Sharley, V. (2012) New ways of thinking about the influence of cultural identity, place and spirituality on child development within child placement practice. Adoption and Fostering, 22 Sep 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/New+ways+of+thinking+about+the+influence+of+cultural+identity,+place...-a0310516728
Freud's theories of development have been profoundly influential upon literature and popular culture. Freud's theory of the Oedipal and Electra complexes suggests that all children form a sexual connection with their mother as their first, primary emotional impulse. Gradually, culture comes to channel children's emotions into more appropriate ways, so that after the repressive phase of childhood, adolescents form sexual attachments to people outside the family. Freud's influence upon educational theory is somewhat limited, given his focus upon the 'family romance.' B.F. Skinner, in contrast, took a diametrically opposed view to Freud and instead emphasized the ability of outside, deliberate forces to 'condition' a subject to engage in behaviors, through a series of rewards and punishments.
While to some degree, Skinner's methods are evident in the behavioral management of children in the classroom, Lev Vygotsky is probably the most influential of the major theorists of childhood development on education…
Blake, Barbara & Pope, Tambra. (2008). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1 (1) 59 -- 67. Retrieved: http://jcpe.wmwikis.net/file/view/blake.pdf
Bruno Bettelheim Attacks. (2008). YouTube. Retrieved:
The refrigerator mother. (2010). Neuroskeptic. Retrieved:
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…
Infant Physical, Cognitive and Social Development
One of the most important aspects of a child's physical, cognitive and social development is motor skills development. In this case, an infant is expected to master fine and gross motor skills in order for him/her to effectively explore the surrounding environment/world. Gross motor skills are considered as large muscles movements such as arms and legs whereas fine motor skills are considered are movements of smaller groups of muscles like hand and wrist. Berk & Meyers (2016) have developed a table that provides a list of gross- and fine-motor skills milestones in different stages of an infant's development. As an 11-month old infant, David has relatively developed necessary and anticipated motor skills based on the milestones listed in the table. He has fairly developed nearly all motor skills expected of infants his age and seems to be progressing well in motor skills development. David's…
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…
seminar was revolving more around why childhood education is important and the various credentials that support increased effort in this arena. Even though there were many related topics covered in this seminar, the major objective and goal is the relevance of early childhood education. It has been stated that early childhood development is a time when the child not only develops physically but socially, emotionally and cognitively as well. The infants enter into this world with a certain group of abilities and talents. They have many potentials that need to be worked on and brought out by the parents.
When looking into this subject through the perspective of a psychologist, many different theories can be used For instance; Sigmund Freud talked about the three essays sexuality and the different stages that a child must pass through in the right way. If a child does not successfully finish a stage, he…
Bornstein, D. (2013). Protecting Children from Toxic Stress. New York Times.
Felitti, M., Vincent, J., Anda, M., Robert, F., Nordenberg, M., & Williamson, M. et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245 -- 258.
Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., Snipper, A., & Ramey, C. (1982). Lasting effects of early education: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, --151.
Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: a promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997.
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer a number of questions relating to child psychology and the development thereof as a child ages and grows. The primary source of answers that shall be used for the answers shall be the tenth chapter of the Berger book. However, the text itself offers other sources and there is a wealth of information on the topics to be discussed in the scholarly sphere. While every child is different and thus develops in their own way, there are tried and true patterns and standards that most children are held to based on the development and progress of millions of prior children.
Emotional development is indeed something that is very strong and in motion when it comes to the early childhood time. As a young child grows, this is when their emotional regulation comes into focus and this in…
Berger, K. (2012). The developing person through childhood. New York: Worth Publishers.
Enright, T. (2015). Encouraging Your Child's Socio-Dramatic Play. Child Development Institute. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from https://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-activities/encouraging-your-childs-socio-dramatic-play/
McLeod, S. (2016). Psychosexual Stages - Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychosexual.html
Snow, K. (2016). Bullying in Early Childhood - National Association for the Education of Young Children - NAEYC. Naeyc.org. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from http://www.naeyc.org/blogs/bullying-early-childhood
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
A mixture of innate talents and supportive relationships resulted in achievement and resiliency. Social learning theory suggests that resiliency, and the ability to turn negatives into positives, such as Angelou's use of her difficult life as a source for literary autobiography and poetry, is not biologically based, but depends upon being exposed to social opportunities and the willingness of others to develop the subject's natural gifts.
But this ability to 'mine' her life's challenges may itself be partially due to a biological stress response that is more productive for individuals such as Angelou than other individuals. esilience does not so much imply an invulnerability to stress, but rather an ability to recover from negative events: "Considerable data exists suggesting that young people functioning well under high stress often show higher levels of emotional distress compared to their low stress peers" (Olsson et al. 2003, p.3). In other words, a natural…
Ewart, Craig K., Randall S. Jorgensen, Edith Chen, Sonia Suchday, & Karen a. Matthews.
(2002). Measuring stress resilience and coping in vulnerable youth: The social competence interview. Psychological Assessment, 14 (3), 339 -- 352. Retrieved May 9,
2010 at http://www.psych.ubc.ca/~healthpsych/EdithArticles/PA2002.pdf
Maya Angelou: Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved May 9, 2010 at http://www.biography.com/articles/Maya-Angelou-9185388?print
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…
Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf
Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.
Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/ index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
Differentiating between phenomena of Theory-Theory and Theory of Mind
The 'Theory of Mind' is a cognitive-based science that examines how humans develop and ascribe mental states to people around us and how such mental states are used to foretell one's behavior and actions. It delves into the process of mental abilities and mind reading (Marraffa). 'Theory -- Theory', on the other hand, focuses on the structure of concepts, how they are acquired and applied in real life. Theory-theory points out that concepts are woven around theories and that one must first learn the theories in order to acquire the concepts (eiskopf)
Theory of mind grows over time. The intuitive social skills appear during the infancy stage while the reflective social cognition manifests during the preschool and the preceding toddler stages. Children aged three years understand that different people want and feel different things. Such mental stance is formidable…
Astington, Janet Wilde, and Margaret J. Edward. "The development of theory of mind in early childhood." Social Cognition in Infancy* 5 (2010): 16.
BOND, ALLISON. "How Moving Effects Mental Health in Kids." Huffington Post. The Huffington Post, 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 14 Oct. 2016.
Hartup, Willard W. "Peer relations in early and middle childhood." Handbook of social development. Springer U.S., 1992. 257-281.
Hay, Dale F. "Early peer relations and their impact on children's development." Encyclopedia on early childhood development 1.1 (2005): 1-6.
What contribution to the understanding of early childhood development did this theorist make?
Jean Piaget has been one of the most influential early childhood and developmental psychologists. Focusing primarily on childhood cognitive development, Piaget hypothesized that children used different logical schemas than adults, and also that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they acquire new knowledge from the world around them and incorporate that information into their mental constructs (McLeod, 2018). The four stages of cognitive development Piaget proposed include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Piaget contributed tremendous understanding to how children adapt to new stimuli and changes in their environment, through the assimilation of new concepts into their schemas, the accommodation for potentially conflicting ideas or objects within those same schemas, and through the achievement of cognitive equilibrium as each individual progresses through the various stages of…
Developmental Domains Covered
Purpose of the Screening
Months to 6 Years
This test measures the development of a child in several aspects including physical skills and social skills.
Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test
Birth thru 7 Years
This test screens children for development in several key areas.
Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning
years to 6 years, 11 months
This test screens children in developmental areas.
The impact of change is almost always resisted within group dynamics and the case scenario where a change has been identified in attempt to improve an Early Childhood Program will also meet some resistance when proposing changes. Assessments are an important part of childhood development and there are multiple models that can add knowledge and understanding towards a child's development for both teachers and…
Freideman, S. (2013). Advice for a New Preschool Teacher. NAEYC, 18 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/blogs/sfriedmannaeycorg/2013/07/advice-new-preschool - teacher
Office of Planning Research and Evaluation (2011). Report 2011-23, Understanding and Choosing Assessment and Developmental Screener for Young Children Ages 3-5; Profiles of Selected Measures. June 2011.
childhood is a fascinating time for children, and the adults around them who watch them grow. It is a time of exploration, self construction, and improved understanding. Middle childhood is between the ages of 6 and 8, with some reports extending that age range to as much as 11 years old (CDC 2012). This is the period of the child who is featured in this observation and empirical analysis. She and her two parents live in a suburban neighborhood that can be seen as middle class. She is about six and a half, and has just entered elementary schooling in the context of first grade. As she closes in on her first year of real school, it is clear how the social environment of that school has impacted her overall development.
The observation was carried out in three stages. First, I met her and her mother at a local park,…
Bunce, Guy. (2011). Educational implications of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development on collaborative work in the classroom. Academics. Web. http://www.guybunce.co.uk/writings/academic/vygotsky-and-the-classroom.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Middle childhood. Child Development. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle.html
Harmon, Deborah A. & Jones, Toni Stokes. (2005). Elementary Education: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO.
Karpowitz, Dennis. (2012). Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood. University of Kansas. Web. http://psych.ku.edu/dennisk/CP333/Emotional_Mid_Child.pdf
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?
Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.
The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in…
" Hence, images of children are often used to "reproach the rest of the adult world for its misdemeanours"; and in presenting that picture, children connote "both the future and a moral voice of the 'good self'..."
Burman generalizes that the "universalization of Northern childhood thus mirrors the Northern colonial domination of the South." And interfaced with that dynamic, she continues, is the "Christian symbolism associated with colour ("white-child-angel, black child-devil")... [and] the fact that where "black and white children are portrayed together [in commercials or public service announcements for aid-related agencies] the white figure adopts a protective...and sometimes enveloping...stance towards the black, which...extends beyond the human to the portrayal of animals." And in contemporary aid and development literature, childhood "has been fractured so that only children of the North develop, while children of the South are primarily portrayed as those whose childhoods have been stolen." Children of the North's…
An-Na'Im, Abdullahi, 1994. Cultural Transformation and Normative Consensus on the Best Interests of the Child. in: P. Alston, ed. The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling Culture and Human Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, 62-81.
Burman, Erica, 1999. Appealing and Appalling Children. Psychoanalytic Studies, 1(3), 285-301.
Burman, Erica, 1995. The Abnormal Distribution of Development: policies for Southern women and children. Gender Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 2(1), 21-37.
Freeman, Michael, 1997. The Moral Status of Children: Essays on the Rights of the Child. The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Teens often call the abuse of inhalants "huffing." They may spray aerosol fumes directly into their mouth or nose; inhale the substance inside a paper or plastic bag or on a rag; or from balloons filled with nitrous oxide. There is also a strong correlation between depression and huffing: "Between 2004 and 2006, an estimated 218,000 youths aged 12-17 used inhalants and also experienced depression in the past year," and depressed teens were more than three times as likely to start using inhalants, as "the reverse is also true, showing that teens often started using inhalants before depression began" (Inhalants and huffing, 2010, Parents: The antidrug). Besides exhibiting the symptoms of depression, such as moody or withdrawn behavior, teens who are huffing may smell like the substance they are abusing, appear drunk or uncoordinated, and slur their speech. Missing household products, rags that smell like chemicals that can be abused…
Inhalants. (2010). Teen drug abuse. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at http://www.teendrugabuse.us/inhalants.html
Inhalants and huffing. (2010). Parents: The antidrug. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at http://www.theantidrug.com/drug-information/commonly-abused-drugs/inhalants-huffing/default.aspx
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
The largest study of children's health is on course to make discoveries that could improve health for generations to come, according to its planners, including the possibility of new treatments and life-saving prevention strategies. However, proposed flat funding levels could slow the progress of the study. Created by the Children's Health Act of 2000, the National Children's Study will follow the health and development of 100,000 children from before birth until age 21, focusing on the links between environment and health. The study, led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, hopes to identify the root causes of various childhood diseases and disabilities and uncover how a broad array of environmental factors impact development. In addition, the study is predicted to shed light on costly conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity. Planning for the study began in 2000 and eventually gathered…
Krisberg, K. (2005, May). National Study on Children's Health to Provide Wealth of Information. Nation's Health, 35(4), 1-26.
Phelps, J. (2004, March). Childhood Obesity. Environmental Health Perspective, 112(3), A 164.
Shaheen, (1999, March). Obesity and Asthma: Cause for Concern?. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 29(3), 291-293.
Von Kries, R., Hermann, M., Grunert, V.P., & Von Mutius, E. (2001, April). Is obesity a risk factor for childhood asthma?. Allergy, 56(4), 318-323.
Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.
The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.
Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 26(11), 1097-1113.
Cohen J.A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A.P. & Steer, R.A. (2004), A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A.P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…
Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.
Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175
Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family elations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work esearch. 28 (3): 153+.
Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A eader. outledge.
Jouriles, E., et.al. (2008). "Child Abuse in the Context of Domestic Violence."
Violence and Victims. 23 (2): 221+.
Lincoln, B. (NDI). BrainyQuotes.com. Cited in: BrainyQuote.com:
Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating eactive Attachment Disorder." Working
Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.
Minnis, H., et.al., 92006). "eactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.
NAI. (2010, April). Definitions in Federal Law. etrieved April 25, 2010, from Defining Child
Abuse & Neglect: http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/defining/federal.cfm
"National Child Abuse Statistics." (2009). ChildHelp. Cited in:
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family Relations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work Research. 28 (3): 153+.
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
childhood obesity in the United States and many of the other estern nations have been growing at an alarming pace. This topic is interesting for many reasons. One such reason is that childhood obesity affects the first world at a much higher rate than developing nations. As society grows more technologically advanced and has mass produced foods then this seems to open many dietary challenges. Although food may be plentiful, the nutritional value is poor in cheaper foods in the United States that are processed and packaged. For example, there are a variety of cheap packaged pastries and soda drinks that are highly portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible which makes them popular among many demographics. This analysis will look at childhood obesity from many angles and try to develop a campaign that can help mitigate this growing trend.
Childhood Obesity Risks
There are many factors that have been identified that…
Baidal, J., & Taveras, E. (2014). Protecting Progress against Childhood Obesity -- The National School Lunch Program. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1862-1865.
Chen, M., Collins, E., Tao, L., & Lu, C. (2013). Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 9251-9264.
Chicago Defender. (2003). Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies. Chicago Defender, 1.
Chung, M., Ma, J., Patel, K., Berger, S., Lau, J., & Lichtenstein, A. (2014). Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 833-849.
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Healthier food access. (2014). Health People 2020. Retrieved from:
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…
Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.
De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.
Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.
Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention.
There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in BMI at the 9-month assessment, but none at the 15-month follow-up (McCallum et al., 2007). However, family reports of enrolled children engaging in more exercise and eating healthier did reach statistical significance at both time points. The authors of this report argue that these findings are too preliminary to draw hard conclusions. Moodie and colleagues (2008) mention that a much larger LEAP study is underway. The short time-span of the intervention may also be a problem, since a 2-year…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics. Table 59. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australia. ABS.gov.AU. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/3101.0Jun%202011?OpenDocument .
BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). (2012). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. BLS.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers.htm .
Manger, William, M., Manger, Lynn S., Minno, Alexander M., Killmeyer, Mike, Holzman, Robert S., Schullinger, John N. et al. (2012). Obesity prevention in young schoolchildren: Results of a pilot study. Journal of School Health, 82(10), 462-468.
McCallum, Z., Wake, M., Gerner, B., Baur, L.A., Gibbons, K., Gold, L. et al. (2007). Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: A randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
Policy-Priority Issue on "Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is considered to a global epidemic demanding prioritizing in policy and health care reform. This is a disorder that has a lot of effects on long-term and acute health, as well as increasing the risk for other illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and particular kinds of cancer. This essay brings up my personal interest in the disorder of childhood obesity, also, the significance to nursing, problem sources, and prioritizing the level of action to best achieve the objective of eliminating obesity in childhood.
Why it is important to me
This paper was important to write because there are quite a few family members of mine that have an extended history of Type II Diabetes. I want to diminish any chances of my children getting any of these conditions down the road. Furthermore, I live in Atlanta, Georgia, which is considered to…
Brownson RC, C.J. (2013). Understanding evidence-based public health policy. Am J. Public Health, 23(6), 45-47.
Brownson RC, J.E. (2012). Bridging the gap: translating research into policy and practice. Prev Med, 49(4), 313-5.
Hawe P, S.A. (2013). Theorising interventions as events in systems. American Journal Community Psychology, 12(7), 34-89.
Jilcott S, A.A. (2013). Applying the RE-AIM framework to assess the public health impact of policy change. Ann Behav Med, 34(2), 105-14.
Old Boy at a Children's Museum Play Area
Soren is a 4-year-old boy. He has light blonde hair that is cut short on the sides and is longer on the top. He is a generally smiley child. He likes to interact with his surroundings and likes to run and hop, crouch and spring into action with a cry of delight as though he were taking great amusement in catching the world by surprise.
He is viewed at a play area in a children's museum. The observation begins just before noon and continues until a quarter past 1 pm.
The play area is very crowded and full of children around his own age, with parents standing nearby watching their children. Most of the children are playing on their own, looking at the environment around them, engaging with the activities (puzzles, blocks, interactive equipment, play sets, scooters, and jungle gym equipment). Soren's…