Factors Influencing Early Childhood Development
Darling and Steinberg (1993) proposed a model of parenting that integrated several prior models. They discriminated between parenting practice and parenting style, with the former representing domain-specific parenting habits and the latter domain-independent social interactions between parent and child. A critical distinction between parenting practice and style, based on their model, is that style communicates to the child how the parent feels about the child rather than the child's behavior. The natural extension of this model is that a child's sense of self-worth is directly influenced by parenting style.
The parenting styles reviewed by Darling and Steinberg (1993) included authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and neglectful. Of these parenting styles, authoritative was viewed as producing the best developmental outcomes in terms of socialization, academic achievement, and emotional maturation. Using the model proposed by Maccoby and Martin in 1983, parenting styles could be described empirically along…… [Read More]
Cognitive behavioral analysis paper on child 2 years old
Analyzing play situations: Applying Piaget's theories to toddlers
The developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, "emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired. A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed" (McLeod 2009). A good example in the life of an adult is when he or she knows how to order a meal in a restaurant, following a particular social script or schema. Children acquire more and more 'scripts' as they age and become capable of processing scripts of greater and greater complexity.
In the first observational situation, the child is seen enacting a script she likely saw a parent or…… [Read More]
Early Childhood Development
esearch on the brain and early childhood development indicates that the first four years of life are a period of particularly rapid development of brain structures and function. According to Larissa Scott (2004) the potential of the brain can be enhanced by presenting the right experiences at the right times, in the right amounts. In the initial stages of life, children's brains can be compared to a sponge soaking up liquids. As the newborn's five senses are stimulated the information gathered causes brain activity. This activity leads to the development of motor, emotional, behavioral, cognitive and social functioning.
Influence of Family and Environment
As the brain collects more information it begins to make connections between old and new knowledge, discarding information that does not sustain relevance to the environment. This sorting and learning process can be regarded as a function of the elimination of unnecessary associations and…… [Read More]
Early Childhood Development
oles and esponsibilities of an Early Childhood Professional
Early childhood professionals are often required to wear many hats, particularly because their job description changes almost on a daily basis. As a facilitator of learning, an early childhood professional acts as a guide. Usually, a guide is tasked with leading other people down new paths, and he does so by walking beside them, rather than in front of them (Child Care Education Institute, 2008). His group's safety is his top priority, and he always strives to keep the people under his watch free from harm (Child Care Education Institute, 2008). The same ideology applies to early childhood professionals -- they identify new experiences as well as engagements to impart upon children and then guide them in a direction that is of interest to them. For instance, rather than lead the child through the process of playing, the professional…… [Read More]
The primary caregiver during the very early years of the child's life is the mother. Men play a fairly minor part in the early developmental years of the child. "In Malawi most men are traditionally distanced from their children; they rarely hold and play with them. (ibid)
However this situation changes as the child grows up, and there is later more interaction between father and child.
Overall, however, men are generally associated with the provision of financial support while women are seen as the ones responsible for nurturing." (ibid) Early childhood education is largely the responsibility of the mother and community and takes place mostly at home. It is essential non-formal in the rural areas, with the child being taught by the mother and siblings.
However, many of these cultural practices are being modernized. " Most traditional childrearing practices persist to date in some form, although they have been influenced…… [Read More]
Maturationist, Constructivist, and Environmentalist Educational Theories
Numerous educational and childhood development theories have impacted school readiness discussions. Among the most notable theories that hold an effect on readiness practices are maturationists', constructivists', and environmentalists' development theories. Maturationists observe that there can be achievement of school readiness practices when all healthy children hold the potential to carry out activities such as counting and alphabet recitation. Encompassment of these activities is in learning of more intricate errands such as arithmetic or reading (Lenz-Taguchi, 2010). On the other hand, the environmentalists' theory ascertains that the environment that children survive in molds their behaviors and learning. In fact, environmentalists believe that development, learning and human behaviors are responses to a child's setting. Some of the principal developers of environmentalist theories include B.Skinner and John Watson. Constructivist readiness perspective is the work of Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget among other theorists. Such theorists believed that development…… [Read More]
It becomes even more apparent now that the early childhood milestones are important ones, and are associated with how the child will approach problems and resolve them going forward from a very early point in life, and that the parents' role in that process is important, and large. Kathleen a. Roskos and James F. Christie (2000) say that a child's cognitive ability lends itself to a perspective on play, on those elements of play involving how they approach it, solve the challenges that are presented to them in play, and processing information leads to mental processes that build literacy, and actually build the skills that child will rely upon in reading and writing (Roskos and Christie, 1).
This is the type of behaviors that Messer and Blank observed and remarked upon in their research. It is what Messer understood to be predictable outcomes when children are motivated by through…… [Read More]
Early Childhood Development Issues
Children with special needs comprise about 20% of all children in the United States. Common special needs include learning disability, communication challenges, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, and developmental disabilities. ithin the school system, students with these kinds of disabilities are likely to benefit from additional educational services, different approaches to teaching, access to a resource room and use of technology (Resources for Children with Special Needs). Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can also benefit from specialized teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is generally used to specifically indicate instruction of students whose special needs reduce their ability to learn independently or in a classroom. Developmentally, though these children often experience a wide range of developmental issues that sometimes have different levels of impact upon the family -- both nuclear and extended (Newacheck et.al.).
One of the…… [Read More]
Behaviorism and Childhood Development: An Educator and Parent's Perspective
"Haven't I told you a hundred times," says a parent to an errant child, "not to put your muddy shoes on the sofa!" Yes, a behaviorist might note, the parent has told the child to do so -- but the parent has not taught the child, only told the child. The act of telling the child not to muddy the sofa in behaviorist would be conveyed, for instance, by rewarding the child for removing his or her shoes after coming in the house, and forcing the child to clean up after his or her transgression. Incrementally, through conditioning over the course of a series of proceses rather than cognitive actions alone the child would be taught in such a fashion.
The behaviorist Hempel (1949) claimed that "all psychological statements that are meaningful . . . are translatable into statements that do…… [Read More]
Although it is too soon to offer a definitive assessment of Angela’s attachment styles, her early childhood experiences plus her current social difficulties suggest Angela will probably exhibit ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles towards others at first. Because she has already exhibited struggles making friends, it is most likely she is exhibiting avoidant attachment. Insecure avoidant types withdraw and are generally reluctant to form close connections or attachments because they have experienced unreliable caregiving patterns. Angela could just as easily be demonstrating some resistant behaviors, if she acts out with anger or aggression. However, her evident lack of problematic behavior suggests that Angela has a strong degree of psychological resilience. This is the ideal stage at which to offer Angela additional supports to improve her self-esteem and increase her ability or willingness to trust others.
Temperament could also be an issue, interacting with Angela’s early childhood experiences with unreliable caregivers…… [Read More]
hen asked afterwards to recollect -without looking at their diaries - what they had done on each day, mixed-handers performed better. Likewise, he found that mixed-handers' childhood memories date back further than those of strong-handers.
This, Christman says, is consistent with the theory that mixed-handers -- again, thanks to that larger corpus callosum -- do better at tasks that require interplay between the two sides of the brain (olman 2005) Truly left-handed individuals, according to Christman are rare, only 2 to 3% of the population, and some stereotypes about left-handed individuals are more true of mixed-handers who may be classified as left-handed. It is they who are statistically more at risk," for getting into car accidents, for example. "This seems consistent with the inter-hemispheric model: imagine someone talking on a mobile phone (a left hemisphere task) while driving with the left hand (a right-hemisphere task)" (olman 2005). For teachers, understanding…… [Read More]
education has been given more attention by researchers and educationists since the publication of the rundtland report in the late 1980s. The report introduced the world to sustainable development as a key global concern. Since then even school curricula have made efforts to include such concepts as natural resources and climate change. Interestingly, not enough attention has been given to the manner in which early childhood development may be instrumental in the whole process. This paper discusses the place of early childhood education especially in ensuring sustainable development. It is apparent that early childhood education is part of a whole that is the entire education system and this implies that it has just as much a role to play in tackling the issues of sustainable development especially those that are to be brought to the fore in the educational system.
The role education plays in the endeavor is substantial. A…… [Read More]
Traditional Theories of Play
"Children's play in early childhood education is totally free and innocent."
'Play' is an activity that is universal with universal rights for all children; it is seen as a state of innocence, grace, wonder and creativity for the children. The topic of play in early education has been given focus by many people including government institutions and presents the definitions and theories concerning the crucial functions of play in the lives, development, and learning of children. The paper will orient the reader by introducing the purpose of the research, which is to elaborate play complexities by looking at the temporal, spatial, cultural, and theoretical aspects. Furthermore, it gives the underlying reasons for play in the contemporary society since the field is changing rapidly and complex. eview of literature will be done to show how culture has shaped children's kinds of play that they experience, where they…… [Read More]
Another important strategy is that of exploring spatial relations. In such activities, children gain a better visual and practical sense of the spatial relations within mathematics. Scholastic's article portrays two girls discussing the appropriate spatial placement of a couch in a dollhouse. Such thinking methods can be influenced utilizing activities asking the children to map their house, their school, or their neighborhood in proportions. This will help open the child's mind to a more organized way of approaching spatial relations.
Using such strategies help lay the foundations of mathematics essential for later higher levels of learning. It is important to introduce elementary topics and concepts as early as possible, without boring young children to loose their interest. Early math lessons should include engaging activities which help keep the child moving and the learning environment active.… [Read More]
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…… [Read More]
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…… [Read More]
The next stage was parallel play in which children copy one another or play with the same toy but without necessarily playing together.
Older children in this same age group tended to exhibit associative play in which they interacted actively with other children and cooperative play in which they collaborated in games or in taking on roles with respect to others in the group.
Dramatic Play and Characteristic Gender-Based Differences in Play
Dramatic play provides children with the opportunity to experiment with various identities with which they are familiar and to develop valuable social skills by practicing social interactions and roles. Some of the most important elements of dramatic play involve practicing the behavioral roles and norms associated with gender differences. Typically, boys play actively, physically, and with gross motor movement activities whereas girls are more likely to spend time in play that emphasizes direct communications and verbal interaction. Boys…… [Read More]
Early Childhood Development Issues
Module One of Chen's work Early Intervention in Action... presents a number of different aspects of the experience of families raising children who have multiple disabilities. It is quite different to consider these aspects from a clinical or even educational perspective rooted in theory, versus doing so from the perspective of the impact of this situation on one's family. There seems to be a greater amount of difficulty in raising children with multiple disabilities that can challenge a family in numerous ways. Based on the information in this module, it seems almost certain that one of the most exacting is simply modifying one's schedule and accounting for the different people and places that such a child must interact with and go to, respectively, in order to achieve success in life.
Perhaps the most vital facet of this module is the way that it is able to…… [Read More]
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…… [Read More]
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) "Studies have shown that on any single day (called "point prevalence" by epidemiologists) about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression." It is true then that this condition affects millions of children a year along with their families. Depression itself is mysterious and most likely a necessary function of our psyche, but for many this state of mind can lead to much disastrous and dangerous conditions.
The purpose of this essay is to present a 10-point program that helps parents understand several factors associated with depressive disorders. This essay will list these 10 ideas and provide a baseline of information that can help provide a firmer grasp on some of the more hidden qualities that are present within a depressive disorder.
elax. Depression is common and can be treated. If…… [Read More]
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…… [Read More]
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…… [Read More]
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…… [Read More]
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…… [Read More]
Conversely, where the exhibit is actively incorporated into a lesson on the moral basis for sensitivity to animals, the existing educational environment contributes to the formation of a moral conscience even where direction of that kind is lacking at home.
In very much the same way, the preschool and primary grade school environment is conducive to teaching other important moral values that are often postponed until much later, despite the fact that early introduction to those concepts is much more likely to result in their absorption than later introduction. acism, sexism, and other forms of bias that are no longer condoned in American society are also capable of being addressed in the preschool years so that those important lessons take root before contradictory messages are received from the external environment.
Informal Assessment of Social and Emotional Well-being in Children:
All too often, educators and other caregivers perform their professional responsibilities…… [Read More]
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…… [Read More]
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…… [Read More]
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]
SPIRITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN'S TEMPERAMENT AND SELF-CONTROL: THE CULTURAL INFLUENCE
The objective of this study is to address the cultural contexts relating to spirituality in young children's temperament and self-control.
Child-Well eing Outcomes
Jesus grew in wisdom
Jesus grew in stature
Jesus grew in grace
Einoth's work entitled "uilding Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being" published by World Vision 2010 reports that World Visions biblical bases for the definition of Child Well-eing Outcomes is found in the ible in the ook of Luke, Chapter 2, Verse 52 which states "And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor (grace) with God and with people'. (2010, p. ix) Einoth states that in the tradition of the Jewish people that the body "is the object of special care because it is God's creation and special gift of grace. Growing in stature implies growing caring for…… [Read More]
Freud's theories of development have been profoundly influential upon literature and popular culture. Freud's theory of the Oedipal and Electra complexes suggests that all children form a sexual connection with their mother as their first, primary emotional impulse. Gradually, culture comes to channel children's emotions into more appropriate ways, so that after the repressive phase of childhood, adolescents form sexual attachments to people outside the family. Freud's influence upon educational theory is somewhat limited, given his focus upon the 'family romance.' B.F. Skinner, in contrast, took a diametrically opposed view to Freud and instead emphasized the ability of outside, deliberate forces to 'condition' a subject to engage in behaviors, through a series of rewards and punishments.
While to some degree, Skinner's methods are evident in the behavioral management of children in the classroom, Lev Vygotsky is probably the most influential of the major theorists of childhood development on education…… [Read More]
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…… [Read More]
Infant Physical, Cognitive and Social Development
One of the most important aspects of a child's physical, cognitive and social development is motor skills development. In this case, an infant is expected to master fine and gross motor skills in order for him/her to effectively explore the surrounding environment/world. Gross motor skills are considered as large muscles movements such as arms and legs whereas fine motor skills are considered are movements of smaller groups of muscles like hand and wrist. Berk & Meyers (2016) have developed a table that provides a list of gross- and fine-motor skills milestones in different stages of an infant's development. As an 11-month old infant, David has relatively developed necessary and anticipated motor skills based on the milestones listed in the table. He has fairly developed nearly all motor skills expected of infants his age and seems to be progressing well in motor skills development. David's…… [Read More]
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…… [Read More]
seminar was revolving more around why childhood education is important and the various credentials that support increased effort in this arena. Even though there were many related topics covered in this seminar, the major objective and goal is the relevance of early childhood education. It has been stated that early childhood development is a time when the child not only develops physically but socially, emotionally and cognitively as well. The infants enter into this world with a certain group of abilities and talents. They have many potentials that need to be worked on and brought out by the parents.
When looking into this subject through the perspective of a psychologist, many different theories can be used For instance; Sigmund Freud talked about the three essays sexuality and the different stages that a child must pass through in the right way. If a child does not successfully finish a stage, he…… [Read More]
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer a number of questions relating to child psychology and the development thereof as a child ages and grows. The primary source of answers that shall be used for the answers shall be the tenth chapter of the Berger book. However, the text itself offers other sources and there is a wealth of information on the topics to be discussed in the scholarly sphere. While every child is different and thus develops in their own way, there are tried and true patterns and standards that most children are held to based on the development and progress of millions of prior children.
Emotional development is indeed something that is very strong and in motion when it comes to the early childhood time. As a young child grows, this is when their emotional regulation comes into focus and this in…… [Read More]
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]
A mixture of innate talents and supportive relationships resulted in achievement and resiliency. Social learning theory suggests that resiliency, and the ability to turn negatives into positives, such as Angelou's use of her difficult life as a source for literary autobiography and poetry, is not biologically based, but depends upon being exposed to social opportunities and the willingness of others to develop the subject's natural gifts.
But this ability to 'mine' her life's challenges may itself be partially due to a biological stress response that is more productive for individuals such as Angelou than other individuals. esilience does not so much imply an invulnerability to stress, but rather an ability to recover from negative events: "Considerable data exists suggesting that young people functioning well under high stress often show higher levels of emotional distress compared to their low stress peers" (Olsson et al. 2003, p.3). In other words, a natural…… [Read More]
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…… [Read More]
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…… [Read More]
Differentiating between phenomena of Theory-Theory and Theory of Mind
The 'Theory of Mind' is a cognitive-based science that examines how humans develop and ascribe mental states to people around us and how such mental states are used to foretell one's behavior and actions. It delves into the process of mental abilities and mind reading (Marraffa). 'Theory -- Theory', on the other hand, focuses on the structure of concepts, how they are acquired and applied in real life. Theory-theory points out that concepts are woven around theories and that one must first learn the theories in order to acquire the concepts (eiskopf)
Theory of mind grows over time. The intuitive social skills appear during the infancy stage while the reflective social cognition manifests during the preschool and the preceding toddler stages. Children aged three years understand that different people want and feel different things. Such mental stance is formidable…… [Read More]
What contribution to the understanding of early childhood development did this theorist make?
Jean Piaget has been one of the most influential early childhood and developmental psychologists. Focusing primarily on childhood cognitive development, Piaget hypothesized that children used different logical schemas than adults, and also that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they acquire new knowledge from the world around them and incorporate that information into their mental constructs (McLeod, 2018). The four stages of cognitive development Piaget proposed include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Piaget contributed tremendous understanding to how children adapt to new stimuli and changes in their environment, through the assimilation of new concepts into their schemas, the accommodation for potentially conflicting ideas or objects within those same schemas, and through the achievement of cognitive equilibrium as each individual progresses through the various stages of…… [Read More]
Developmental Domains Covered
Purpose of the Screening
Months to 6 Years
This test measures the development of a child in several aspects including physical skills and social skills.
Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test
Birth thru 7 Years
This test screens children for development in several key areas.
Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning
years to 6 years, 11 months
This test screens children in developmental areas.
The impact of change is almost always resisted within group dynamics and the case scenario where a change has been identified in attempt to improve an Early Childhood Program will also meet some resistance when proposing changes. Assessments are an important part of childhood development and there are multiple models that can add knowledge and understanding towards a child's development for both teachers and…… [Read More]
childhood is a fascinating time for children, and the adults around them who watch them grow. It is a time of exploration, self construction, and improved understanding. Middle childhood is between the ages of 6 and 8, with some reports extending that age range to as much as 11 years old (CDC 2012). This is the period of the child who is featured in this observation and empirical analysis. She and her two parents live in a suburban neighborhood that can be seen as middle class. She is about six and a half, and has just entered elementary schooling in the context of first grade. As she closes in on her first year of real school, it is clear how the social environment of that school has impacted her overall development.
The observation was carried out in three stages. First, I met her and her mother at a local park,…… [Read More]
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?
Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.
The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in…… [Read More]
" Hence, images of children are often used to "reproach the rest of the adult world for its misdemeanours"; and in presenting that picture, children connote "both the future and a moral voice of the 'good self'..."
Burman generalizes that the "universalization of Northern childhood thus mirrors the Northern colonial domination of the South." And interfaced with that dynamic, she continues, is the "Christian symbolism associated with colour ("white-child-angel, black child-devil")... [and] the fact that where "black and white children are portrayed together [in commercials or public service announcements for aid-related agencies] the white figure adopts a protective...and sometimes enveloping...stance towards the black, which...extends beyond the human to the portrayal of animals." And in contemporary aid and development literature, childhood "has been fractured so that only children of the North develop, while children of the South are primarily portrayed as those whose childhoods have been stolen." Children of the North's…… [Read More]
Teens often call the abuse of inhalants "huffing." They may spray aerosol fumes directly into their mouth or nose; inhale the substance inside a paper or plastic bag or on a rag; or from balloons filled with nitrous oxide. There is also a strong correlation between depression and huffing: "Between 2004 and 2006, an estimated 218,000 youths aged 12-17 used inhalants and also experienced depression in the past year," and depressed teens were more than three times as likely to start using inhalants, as "the reverse is also true, showing that teens often started using inhalants before depression began" (Inhalants and huffing, 2010, Parents: The antidrug). Besides exhibiting the symptoms of depression, such as moody or withdrawn behavior, teens who are huffing may smell like the substance they are abusing, appear drunk or uncoordinated, and slur their speech. Missing household products, rags that smell like chemicals that can be abused…… [Read More]
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…… [Read More]
The largest study of children's health is on course to make discoveries that could improve health for generations to come, according to its planners, including the possibility of new treatments and life-saving prevention strategies. However, proposed flat funding levels could slow the progress of the study. Created by the Children's Health Act of 2000, the National Children's Study will follow the health and development of 100,000 children from before birth until age 21, focusing on the links between environment and health. The study, led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, hopes to identify the root causes of various childhood diseases and disabilities and uncover how a broad array of environmental factors impact development. In addition, the study is predicted to shed light on costly conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity. Planning for the study began in 2000 and eventually gathered…… [Read More]
Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.
The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…… [Read More]
" (Dietz, 1998). Obese children are often taller than their non-overweight peers, and are apt to be viewed as more mature. This is an inappropriate expectation that may result in adverse effects on their socialization. (Dietz, 1998). Overweight children and adolescents report negative assumptions made about them by others, including being inactive or lazy, being strong or tougher than others, not having feelings and being unclean. (American Obesity Association, 2000).
This epidemic did not occur overnight. Obesity and overweight are chronic conditions.
This study was concerned with genetics, family dynamics and parenting, and nutrition and dietary intake, all three of which contribute to childhood obesity. Specifically the researcher will attempt to determine what factors are contributing to the nations epidemic rises in obesity among children and what the effects are of the growing girth that is plaguing the nations children. The objective of the research study will be…… [Read More]
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…… [Read More]
EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family elations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work esearch. 28 (3): 153+.
Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A eader. outledge.
Jouriles, E., et.al. (2008). "Child Abuse in the Context of Domestic Violence."
Violence and Victims. 23 (2): 221+.
Lincoln, B. (NDI). BrainyQuotes.com. Cited in: BrainyQuote.com:
Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating eactive Attachment Disorder." Working
Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.
Minnis, H., et.al., 92006). "eactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.
NAI. (2010, April). Definitions in Federal Law. etrieved April 25, 2010, from Defining Child
Abuse & Neglect: http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/defining/federal.cfm
"National Child Abuse Statistics." (2009). ChildHelp. Cited in:
Saisan, J.,…… [Read More]
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…… [Read More]
childhood obesity in the United States and many of the other estern nations have been growing at an alarming pace. This topic is interesting for many reasons. One such reason is that childhood obesity affects the first world at a much higher rate than developing nations. As society grows more technologically advanced and has mass produced foods then this seems to open many dietary challenges. Although food may be plentiful, the nutritional value is poor in cheaper foods in the United States that are processed and packaged. For example, there are a variety of cheap packaged pastries and soda drinks that are highly portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible which makes them popular among many demographics. This analysis will look at childhood obesity from many angles and try to develop a campaign that can help mitigate this growing trend.
Childhood Obesity Risks
There are many factors that have been identified that…… [Read More]
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…… [Read More]
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…… [Read More]
Childhood Obesity Focused on 6 to 11-Year-Olds in Tyler, Texas
Obesity is associated with a condition of calorific imbalance in which the ratio of consumption of calories consumed and the ones expended is skewed such that the amount of the ones spent is much lower than the amount consumed. The condition is influenced by a range of factors that include genetics, behavioral patterns, and environmental influences. In data availed by the Centre for Disease Control, children between the age of 6 to 11 with obesity condition stood at 7% in 1980 and increased to almost 18% in 2012. In 2014, figures from the Obesity Prevalence Map from the CDC showed that all states had obesity prevalence rates of 20% and above. Three of the states reflected an alarming 35% prevalence in their populations. The state of Texas was rated as having 30 to 35% people with obesity. Two states among…… [Read More]
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention.
There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in BMI at the 9-month assessment, but none at the 15-month follow-up (McCallum et al., 2007). However, family reports of enrolled children engaging in more exercise and eating healthier did reach statistical significance at both time points. The authors of this report argue that these findings are too preliminary to draw hard conclusions. Moodie and colleagues (2008) mention that a much larger LEAP study is underway. The short time-span of the intervention may also be a problem, since a 2-year…… [Read More]