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Childhood obesity is becoming prevalent with every passing day, almost uniformly in the developed parts of the world. This problem needs to be discussed on important forums so that substantial solutions can be sort for this issue as this is creating a lot of burden on the government as well as the parents of the children who become obese.
Childhood obesity is defined as a condition in which the child has excess amount of body fat that has the tendency to affect the health of a child in a negative way. However, there are no specific methods to determine the obesity of a child directly, physicians and nutritionists often use the index of MI to determine whether or not a child is normal, overweight or obese. As mentioned earlier, obesity in children is becoming more prevalent than ever and is also affecting the well-being and health of the children adversely;…
Hochberg, Z., Feil, R., Constancia, M., Fraga, M., Junien, C., Carel, J.C., et al. (2010).Child health, developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming.Endocrine Reviews, 32(2), 159 -- 224.
Burrowes, JD. (2010).Preventing heart disease today and tomorrow in youth.Nutrition Today 45(1) 33-42.
Leuke, Lesley (2011). Devouring Childhood Obesity Byhelping Children Help Themselves. Journal of Legal Medicine, 32:205 -- 220.
Li, Ji and Hooker, Neal H. (2010). Childhood Obesity and Schools: Evidence from the National Survey of Children's Health. Journal of School Health.
Childhood Obesity Growing
here some oppose the idea of childhood obesity being a disease, there is still a growing epidemic where children's weight exceed the normal weight per height and age and increasing health concerns that must be addressed with a commitment to appropriate action plans to reduce and eliminate childhood obesity.
From 1971-74 to 2009-10 childhood obesity increased from 4% to 18% in ages 6-11 and from 6.1% to 18.4% for ages 12 to 19 (Overweight in Children, 2014).
The last decade has seen an increase of obesity rates in children. Nearly 17% of children 2 to 19 are obese and there is a significant trend reflecting an increase in body mass index (BMI) in males.
According to (Russel, 2012), 15% of Kentucky adolescents are overweight with 17.6% being obese.
Physical activity is limited with obese children.
Obese children have more tendencies to be couch potatoes watching TV and…
Frelick, M. (2013, June 19). AMA declares obesity a disease. Retrieved from Medscape medical news. Conference news.: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/806566
Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. (2011, Oct 17). Retrieved from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/Features/ObesityAndKids
Overweight in Children. (2014, Mar 17). Retrieved from American Heart Association: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/HealthierKids/ChildhoodObesity/Overweight-in-Children_UCM_304054_Article.jsp
Russel, E. (2012, Sep). Kentucky State Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Profile. Retrieved from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/pdf/kentucky-state-profile.pdf
Childhood Hunger and Structional Functionalism
Childhood Hunger and Structural-Functionalism Theory
In this essay, I have discussed about childhood hunger. I have described how poverty, hunger, and lack of education play a major role in childhood hunger. I have tried to link low income, nutrition and education with childhood hunger and their long-term effects. I have tried to correlate and integrate all these topics and have presented a macro-level perspective. In the end, I have applied structural -functionalism theory to childhood hunger.
Hunger can be described as "the compelling need or desire for food coupled with the physiological, painful sensation or state of weakness caused by the need of food" ("Hunger and Food Security in Canada"). It is a common belief that only developing nations face hunger and industrialized nations do not experience hunger as a major issue considering their wealth and prosperity. However, this is a total misinterpretation as a…
Andersen, M.L. & H.F. Taylor. Sociology with Infotrac: Understanding a Diverse Society, Casebound. Belmont: Thomson Learning Inc., 2008. Print.
Berg, J. "Feeding Opportunity: Ending Child Hunger Furthers the Goal of Cutting U.S. Poverty in Half over the Next Decade." American Progress. Center for American Progress, n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. .
Cook, J., and K. Jeng. "Child Food Insecurity: The Economic Impact on our Nation." Feeding America. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. .
Covington, P.. Success in Sociology. Buckhingamshire: Folens Limited, 2008. Print.
Childhood Obesity in America
The authorities can only address the issue of childhood obesity by educating people on the negative effects that the condition imposes, because only then can they get everyone, whether personally affected or not, aboard, and working towards a common childhood obesity-eradication goal (The U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2013). In order to do this, however, the authorities themselves ought to be at the forefront; people need to see the seriousness of the matter through the willingness and commitment of their leaders.
The family unit can rightly be regarded as the innermost fundamental element of a child's life (Jeor, Perumean-Chaney, Sigman-Grant, Williams & Foreyt, 2002). The role of parents and caregivers cannot be overstated when it comes to the determination of what a child eats, and their attitudes towards physical activity (St. Jeor, et al., 2002). Children view their parents as their primary mediators of change, and, in…
AHA. (2014). Overweight in Children. The American Heart Association. Retrieved 20 March 2014 from https://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/HealthierKids/ChildhoodObesity/Overweight-in-Children_UCM_304054_Article.jsp
Bishop, J., Middendorf, R., Babin, T. & Tilson, W. (2005). Childhood Obesity. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 20 March 2014 from http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/child_obesity/index.cfm
CDC. (2014). Childhood Obesity Facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 20 March 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm
Petrou, I. (2008). Fight Childhood Obesity on Multiple Fronts. Clinical Psychiatry News 2008:54 Academic One File. Retrieved 20 March 2014 from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA186942813&v=2.1&u=oran95108&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=8e2afd7ac85f5a91240dfa55d4665b91
Childhood obesity is one of the most discussed health problems in the United States, and is a growing health issue in many places worldwide. The reason that childhood obesity is a worry for healthcare officials will be discussed in this paper, along with statistics that show the current trends. Also, potential solutions to this crisis will also be presented.
How is Obesity defined?
The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) defines obesity using the "body mass index" (BMI) as a guide post. Obesity is defined as BMI "…at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex" (JAMA). In other words, a boy who is 3 years of age of "average height" who weighs "more than 37 pounds would be considered obese" (JAMA). As to "extreme obesity" -- that is calculated as a BMI "…at or above 120% of the 95th percentile for children of…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Obesity and extreme obesity rates decline
Among low-income preschool children. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html .
Jiang, M., and Foster, E.M. (2013). Duration of Breastfeeding and Childhood Obesity: A
Generalized Propensity Score Approach. Health Research and Educational Trust, 48(2), 628-
Childhood Obesity Study
The research study titled, "Parents' perceptions and attitudes on childhood obesity: AQ-methodology study" by Akhtar-Danesh et al. (2010) details the perceptions that parents have toward the cause of obesity, how much obesity affects health, and the obstacles that exist in successfully implementing an obesity prevention program for children. Due to the nature of the research experiment, the test that was used was an appropriate method to attain the necessary information. In this particular experiment, the data collection procedures entailed collecting answers from parents by having them answer twenty questions about their feelings on the three aforementioned topics. The data was a convenience sample collected at a Medical Center in Canada (Akhtar-Danesh, 2010). Their subjects consisted of twenty parents that were already available and able to accurately answer their questions. They were asked their opinions in a face-to-face manner and were allowed to answer in any way that…
Akhtar-Danesh, N., Dehghan, M., Morrison, K.M., & Fonseka, S. (2010). Parents' Perceptions and attitudes on childhood obesity: AQ-methodology study. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 23(2), 67-75.
Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. (12th ed.). Belmont, CA. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
In the 90s, sugar, cookies, snacks and candies were amongst the foods that were most advertised on the TV. Since the 80s, the ads showing high fat and high sodium foods has almost doubled.
Effects of Movie and TV show Characters on Eating habits of American Children
There has been a great increase in the usage of cross promotions by the fast food companies as well. Other than this, one of the most important facts that have been concluded by the researches is that increased television viewing is increasingly linked with several eating disorders in the children. More than U.S. $3 billion are invested by the fats food companies on the ad campaigns specifically targeted at the children. With this, an additional fact highlighted by the studies is that the buying behaviors of the parents are very much influenced by the children. The things that are bought by the parents…
Ebbeling, B.C., Pawlak, B.D., and Ludwig, S.D. (2002). Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 360: 473 -- 82.
Gortmaker, S.L., Peterson, K., Wiecha, J., Sobol, a.M., Dixit, S., Fox, M.K., and Laird, N. (1999). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 153(4):409-18.
Hedley, a.A., Ogden, L.C., Johnson, L.C., Carroll, D.M., Curtin, R.L., and Flegal, M.K. (2006). Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among U.S. Children, Adolescents, and Adults, 1999-2002. JAMA 291:2847-2850.
Kotz., K, and Story, M. (1994). Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: are they consistent with dietary recommendations? J. Am Diet Assoc. 94(11):1296-300.
he study by Akhtar-Danesh, Dehgham, Morrison, and Fonseka (2011) was designed to address the problem of parents' perceptions of the causes of childhood obesity, barriers to prevention, and the impact of obesity on child health. As noted by the authors, childhood obesity is a growing public health concern; rates of childhood obesity more than doubled between 1980 and 2003. Statistics show that obese children are at increased risk of becoming obese adults and thus more likely to experience health problems such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. he problem is important for health care administrators to study because they can play a key role in educating parents to do what is best for their children's health. Young children cannot make decisions for themselves with respect to nutrition and exercise. hey depend on their parents to provide healthy foods and promote a healthy lifestyle.
he purpose of the study was…
The results of the study indicated that parents had varying focus on the causation of obesity and tended to focus on either nutrition or physical activity. This evidence suggested to the authors that future work should focus on applying these findings to other populations and examining the influence of parents' attitudes and beliefs on actual behaviors. The study also suggests that education is necessary to bring into focus both nutrition and physical activity for children, rather than focusing one on or the other.
Akhtar-Danesh, N., Dehghan, M., Morrison, K.M., & Fonseka, S. (2011). Parents' perceptions and attitudes on childhood obesity: AQ-methodology study. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 23(2), 67-75.
Childhood Obesity Research
Obesity is defined by WHO (2011) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. This is measured using the Body Mass Index. This is the juxtaposition of body weight for body height. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual by the Square of the Height in Meters. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
It would be interesting to research on the behaviors of the children who are obese and try to find the factors relating to childhood obesity. Due to the diverse nature of the condition that has to do with the habit as well as the lifestyle and the age of the subjects, it will be interesting to have a variegated…
Polit, H. & Beck, C .T. (2008). Nursing research. New Delhi: Williams and Wilkins.
World Health Organization, (2011). Obesity and Overweight., Retrieved November 5, 2012
from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html .
As the primary operators of community-based health centers nurses are ideally positioned to influence the development of health policies and their implementation. The authors conclude that three key skills are essential for nurses. These include advocacy skills, collaborative leadership skills and social marketing skills for the successful implementation of the prevention and health promotion strategies. Strong advocacy skills coupled with positive action are the key to controlling the obesity epidemic. [obby erkowitz, 2009]
The alarming increase in childhood obesity has serious healthcare and socioeconomic implications. Fast food culture and growing sedentary lifestyle (TV and videogames) have contributed to the obesity epidemic among children. As community care providers, nurses have an important role to play in containing this obesity problem from blowing into an unmanageable crisis. Nurses can help in early identification and effective management of weight problems. y a coordinated approach Nurses can help schools implement physical training and…
1) AACAP, 'Obesity in Children and Teens', Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/obesity_in_children_and_teens
2) Mashid Dehghan, Noori Akhtar Danesh & Anwar T. Merchant, (2005), 'Childhood Obesity, Prevalence and Prevention', Nutrition Journal 2005, 4:24, retrieved Mar 26th 2010, from, http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
3) FAO, 'Carbohydrate Food Intake and Energy Balance' retrieved Mar 26th 2010, from, http://www.fao.org/docrep/w8079e/w8079e0m.htm
4) Julia A Snethen, PhD RN, Jeanne Beauchamp Hewitt, PhD, RN & David H
There has been a correlation established between childhood poverty and social economic status and adult health problems (Miller & Chen, 2013). Despite there being evidence for the correlation, the mechanisms that contribute to the association is not entirely clear. Scientists have previously believed that late in life diseases could be attributable to simply aging. However, a new paradigm is emerging that has begun to view these conditions as more of a cumulative process that can begin early in life. Yet to view this as more of a cumulative process that begins at an early age there must be some kind of biological explanation of how the effects of poverty or low socio-economic status is transmitted through the body. Furthermore, the effects of childhood poverty seem independent of future socioeconomic attainment which seems to indicate that they effects of low socioeconomic status are not reversible in some aspects.
hile the children of the present generation become more profoundly advanced, in ways undreamed of by their parents, the children inevitably lose a sense of personal connection with the human beings who gave them birth. The Overlords or powers of the state and fate have become the children's parents, not their biological parents.
Clarke reflects that on one hand this is somewhat positive in its implications. One could argue that a lessening of familial and national ties facilitates the more peaceful future existence envisioned over the course of the novel. But this also means that the parents Jane and George lose their children in some sense. The children do not love their parents in the same way that their parents love them, because the children have become part of a more generalized and advanced universe. "Jeffrey might have been any boy in the world. e call it Total Breakthrough. There…
Clarke, Arthur C. Childhood's End. New York: Del Rey, 1987.
We loved to backpack through the mountains, and some of the most beautiful mountains of all were here in the southwest. It was going to be a great day.
It took us a while to reach the summit of our climb, and we were both hungry when we did so. As we sat on a flat-top rock that overlooked the entire valley, we both wolfed down the homemade sandwiches we had brought with us. We laughed easily together and at the end of the meal, I reached over and impulsively gave her a kiss. She turned towards me and ruffled my hair, "I'll love you forever," she said, "but let's not go there yet."
"But we will go there sometime?" I asked quietly, and inquisitively.
"For sure," she replied. We both smiled at each and I jumped up from the rock and brushed off the crumbs. Reaching down I grasped…
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
Childhood Obesity and prevention: Action by parents and children.
Obesity, also known as overweight is defined by WHO (2018:1) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. Obesity or overweight metrics are measured through the use of internationally accepted formula Body Mass Index (BMI). This involves the juxtaposition of body weight in kilograms against the body height in Meters. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual in KGs by the Square of the Height in Meters. Once the result is obtained, the individual can be classified as either normal weight, overweight or obese. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
The audience of immediate interest in this case is the parents and the children both of…
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…
Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.
Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.
Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.
Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.
"Try a little," said my mother, hesitating, wondering if I would like it. It was like an explosion of flavor in my mouth. I always thought I didn't like chicken, especially with vegetables, but this was different. It hardly seemed like the same animal, no pun intended, as what I was usually served. Even more wondrous were the little pockets of fried goodness called egg rolls. These were filled with vegetables like shredded cabbage and the spices made the green things delicious, rather than a pain to eat.
We often ordered out as a family during times of great joy and great sadness -- to celebrate, or when things were too hectic for home cooking. Eating Chinese food, even when I ordered the same thing, was never boring. I adored the special equipment needed to consume it -- the chopsticks, the flavor packets of neon yellow mustard and orange sweet…
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) "Studies have shown that on any single day (called "point prevalence" by epidemiologists) about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression." It is true then that this condition affects millions of children a year along with their families. Depression itself is mysterious and most likely a necessary function of our psyche, but for many this state of mind can lead to much disastrous and dangerous conditions.
The purpose of this essay is to present a 10-point program that helps parents understand several factors associated with depressive disorders. This essay will list these 10 ideas and provide a baseline of information that can help provide a firmer grasp on some of the more hidden qualities that are present within a depressive disorder.
elax. Depression is common and can be treated. If…
Hoecker, J. (2010). Depression Treatment for Children: What Works? Mayo Clinic, May 2010. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/depression-treatment/expert-answers/faq-20057888
National Alliance on Mental Illness (nd). Depression in Children and Adolescents Fact Sheet. Viewed 15 Feb 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=88551
In the last three decades, the rates of childhood obesity have increased by more than three times. This is according to the American Health Trust (2013), which further reports that 30 states have over 30% of their children above the overweight mark. Weight ranges greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, is what is considered overweight or obese by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These weight ranges are considered to increase the likelihood of some health complications such as Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea and liver disease. Both the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the Body Mass Index (BMI) as the screening tool to identify possible weight problems in children.
Overweight and obese children are at a risk of developing serious health complications such as diabetes type 2 and hypertension (CDC, 2015b). Children and adolescents are the ones…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Healthy Weight. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/ on August 29, 2016
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/ on August 29, 2016
Chang, W., Lee, P., Lai, H., Chou, Y. & Chang, L. (2009). Perceptions of exercise in obese school-aged children. Journal of Nursing Research, 17(3), 170-176.
Fahlman, M., Dake, J., Mccaughtry, N., & Martin, J. (2008). A pilot study to examine the effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 216-222.
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Defining Childhood Obesity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015. Web.
Glasper, Alan. "Childhood Obesity Plan: The Government Declares War on Sugar." British Journal of Nursing 25.17 (2016): 984-985. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Jackson, Callum G. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Management and Challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
McHugh, Bronwyn. "The Childhood Obesity Epidemic." Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 22.2 (2016): 94-98. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
e was a member of the middle-class, but his father was from the lower class. There were hints of incest in the family, and some have even suggested that itler's father was also his mother's natural father. Furthermore, it is widely reported that itler's father beat him. Therefore, the two men had very different private lives as children.
owever, the men shared common elements in their childhood. For example, itler suffered from lung problems as a child. Guevara had asthma. As a result, both men had to avoid some aspects of physical activity during their childhoods, which may have fueled their intellectual pursuits. Guevara was a voracious reader, while itler turned his attention to the arts.
Porter, Dan. 2002. The Revolutionary Cult of Che Guevara. PilotGuides.com. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/central_america_and_caribbean/cuba_and_haiti/che_guevara.php, accessed 18 September, 2007.
Coetzee, J.M. 2007. Portrait of the Monster as a Young Artist. New York: The New…
However, the men shared common elements in their childhood. For example, Hitler suffered from lung problems as a child. Guevara had asthma. As a result, both men had to avoid some aspects of physical activity during their childhoods, which may have fueled their intellectual pursuits. Guevara was a voracious reader, while Hitler turned his attention to the arts.
Porter, Dan. 2002. The Revolutionary Cult of Che Guevara. PilotGuides.com. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/central_america_and_caribbean/cuba_and_haiti/che_guevara.php , accessed 18 September, 2007.
Coetzee, J.M. 2007. Portrait of the Monster as a Young Artist. New York: The New York Review of Books. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19851,accessed 18 September, 2007.
Because the coffee was still quite hot, I was afraid of burning myself. I left my coffee up on the kitchen counter rather than holding it in my hand, and I again spilled some coffee on the counter, where before I had spilled the grains. Of the already-weak cup of coffee, I lost a great deal of the hard-won beverage to 'spillage' and less than I like ended up in my cup. I felt relieved that I did not spill any coffee on my clothing, as this would have required that I remove a stain from the cloth with a nondominant hand, hardly an easy feat!
The additional 'spillage' factor was an important illustration of why children with special needs who are coping with new tasks that are difficult for them seem clumsy, and can often frustrate adults with the 'mess' they make. The mess is not necessarily the result…
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…
Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7
Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965
Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?
Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.
The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in…
childhood is a fascinating time for children, and the adults around them who watch them grow. It is a time of exploration, self construction, and improved understanding. Middle childhood is between the ages of 6 and 8, with some reports extending that age range to as much as 11 years old (CDC 2012). This is the period of the child who is featured in this observation and empirical analysis. She and her two parents live in a suburban neighborhood that can be seen as middle class. She is about six and a half, and has just entered elementary schooling in the context of first grade. As she closes in on her first year of real school, it is clear how the social environment of that school has impacted her overall development.
The observation was carried out in three stages. First, I met her and her mother at a local park,…
Bunce, Guy. (2011). Educational implications of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development on collaborative work in the classroom. Academics. Web. http://www.guybunce.co.uk/writings/academic/vygotsky-and-the-classroom.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Middle childhood. Child Development. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle.html
Harmon, Deborah A. & Jones, Toni Stokes. (2005). Elementary Education: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO.
Karpowitz, Dennis. (2012). Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood. University of Kansas. Web. http://psych.ku.edu/dennisk/CP333/Emotional_Mid_Child.pdf
Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.
The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.
Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 26(11), 1097-1113.
Cohen J.A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A.P. & Steer, R.A. (2004), A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A.P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.
The largest study of children's health is on course to make discoveries that could improve health for generations to come, according to its planners, including the possibility of new treatments and life-saving prevention strategies. However, proposed flat funding levels could slow the progress of the study. Created by the Children's Health Act of 2000, the National Children's Study will follow the health and development of 100,000 children from before birth until age 21, focusing on the links between environment and health. The study, led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, hopes to identify the root causes of various childhood diseases and disabilities and uncover how a broad array of environmental factors impact development. In addition, the study is predicted to shed light on costly conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity. Planning for the study began in 2000 and eventually gathered…
Krisberg, K. (2005, May). National Study on Children's Health to Provide Wealth of Information. Nation's Health, 35(4), 1-26.
Phelps, J. (2004, March). Childhood Obesity. Environmental Health Perspective, 112(3), A 164.
Shaheen, (1999, March). Obesity and Asthma: Cause for Concern?. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 29(3), 291-293.
Von Kries, R., Hermann, M., Grunert, V.P., & Von Mutius, E. (2001, April). Is obesity a risk factor for childhood asthma?. Allergy, 56(4), 318-323.
" Hence, images of children are often used to "reproach the rest of the adult world for its misdemeanours"; and in presenting that picture, children connote "both the future and a moral voice of the 'good self'..."
Burman generalizes that the "universalization of Northern childhood thus mirrors the Northern colonial domination of the South." And interfaced with that dynamic, she continues, is the "Christian symbolism associated with colour ("white-child-angel, black child-devil")... [and] the fact that where "black and white children are portrayed together [in commercials or public service announcements for aid-related agencies] the white figure adopts a protective...and sometimes enveloping...stance towards the black, which...extends beyond the human to the portrayal of animals." And in contemporary aid and development literature, childhood "has been fractured so that only children of the North develop, while children of the South are primarily portrayed as those whose childhoods have been stolen." Children of the North's…
An-Na'Im, Abdullahi, 1994. Cultural Transformation and Normative Consensus on the Best Interests of the Child. in: P. Alston, ed. The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling Culture and Human Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, 62-81.
Burman, Erica, 1999. Appealing and Appalling Children. Psychoanalytic Studies, 1(3), 285-301.
Burman, Erica, 1995. The Abnormal Distribution of Development: policies for Southern women and children. Gender Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 2(1), 21-37.
Freeman, Michael, 1997. The Moral Status of Children: Essays on the Rights of the Child. The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Teens often call the abuse of inhalants "huffing." They may spray aerosol fumes directly into their mouth or nose; inhale the substance inside a paper or plastic bag or on a rag; or from balloons filled with nitrous oxide. There is also a strong correlation between depression and huffing: "Between 2004 and 2006, an estimated 218,000 youths aged 12-17 used inhalants and also experienced depression in the past year," and depressed teens were more than three times as likely to start using inhalants, as "the reverse is also true, showing that teens often started using inhalants before depression began" (Inhalants and huffing, 2010, Parents: The antidrug). Besides exhibiting the symptoms of depression, such as moody or withdrawn behavior, teens who are huffing may smell like the substance they are abusing, appear drunk or uncoordinated, and slur their speech. Missing household products, rags that smell like chemicals that can be abused…
Inhalants. (2010). Teen drug abuse. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at http://www.teendrugabuse.us/inhalants.html
Inhalants and huffing. (2010). Parents: The antidrug. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at http://www.theantidrug.com/drug-information/commonly-abused-drugs/inhalants-huffing/default.aspx
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
childhood obesity in the United States and many of the other estern nations have been growing at an alarming pace. This topic is interesting for many reasons. One such reason is that childhood obesity affects the first world at a much higher rate than developing nations. As society grows more technologically advanced and has mass produced foods then this seems to open many dietary challenges. Although food may be plentiful, the nutritional value is poor in cheaper foods in the United States that are processed and packaged. For example, there are a variety of cheap packaged pastries and soda drinks that are highly portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible which makes them popular among many demographics. This analysis will look at childhood obesity from many angles and try to develop a campaign that can help mitigate this growing trend.
Childhood Obesity Risks
There are many factors that have been identified that…
Baidal, J., & Taveras, E. (2014). Protecting Progress against Childhood Obesity -- The National School Lunch Program. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1862-1865.
Chen, M., Collins, E., Tao, L., & Lu, C. (2013). Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 9251-9264.
Chicago Defender. (2003). Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies. Chicago Defender, 1.
Chung, M., Ma, J., Patel, K., Berger, S., Lau, J., & Lichtenstein, A. (2014). Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 833-849.
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Healthier food access. (2014). Health People 2020. Retrieved from:
The house I lived in when I was a child lay quietly shaded by forty acres of trees. In the springtime, we would hear the soft tapping of the newly sprouting leaves in the wind. The summer would come with the pervading squeal of tree frogs that could be heard when eating a Popsicle on the deck or answering the phone, when we would have to cover up one ear to help stop the noise. In the autumn, the leaves of these trees would drift lazily down to earth by the dozens. And even in winter, when the leaves were under the snow and it seemed that even the trees great lives were stagnant, their shadows would loom over and calm the glare of the bleach-white snow.
Although everyone lived amongst them, we, the children of the neighborhood, owned the trees and woods. At least that was how…
obesity is a growing problem that negatively strikes the health of many children in Canada. From a statistical analysis of childhood obesity in Canada in 1996, reports show that 23% to 36% of Canadian children with age ranging from 7 to 13 are considered overweight and obese (Willms, 2004). This rate of obesity continuously increases every year, thus, resulting to the widespread concern of Canada's national healthcare system to solve the problem of obesity.
This study finds the prevalence of obesity, particularly in the childhood years of Canada's children, a major health dilemma. Obesity is a major disease because it is not only a problem of being unhealthfully overweight, but also a health crisis that leads to other serious health ailments such as heart disease and diabetes. With the alarming increase in rate of obese Canadians, this study finds it important to provide the public with sufficient information about obesity.…
Johnston, J.M. (2004). Eating Disorders and Childhood Obesity: Who are the real gluttons?
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (12).
Willms, J.D. (2004). Early Childhood Obesity: A Call for Early Surveillance and Preventive Measures. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (3).
Tremblay, M.S., Willms, J.D. Is the Canadian Childhood Obesity Epidemic Related to Physical Inactivity? International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1100-1105.
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention.
There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in BMI at the 9-month assessment, but none at the 15-month follow-up (McCallum et al., 2007). However, family reports of enrolled children engaging in more exercise and eating healthier did reach statistical significance at both time points. The authors of this report argue that these findings are too preliminary to draw hard conclusions. Moodie and colleagues (2008) mention that a much larger LEAP study is underway. The short time-span of the intervention may also be a problem, since a 2-year…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics. Table 59. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australia. ABS.gov.AU. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/3101.0Jun%202011?OpenDocument .
BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). (2012). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. BLS.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers.htm .
Manger, William, M., Manger, Lynn S., Minno, Alexander M., Killmeyer, Mike, Holzman, Robert S., Schullinger, John N. et al. (2012). Obesity prevention in young schoolchildren: Results of a pilot study. Journal of School Health, 82(10), 462-468.
McCallum, Z., Wake, M., Gerner, B., Baur, L.A., Gibbons, K., Gold, L. et al. (2007). Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: A randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
Policy-Priority Issue on "Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is considered to a global epidemic demanding prioritizing in policy and health care reform. This is a disorder that has a lot of effects on long-term and acute health, as well as increasing the risk for other illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and particular kinds of cancer. This essay brings up my personal interest in the disorder of childhood obesity, also, the significance to nursing, problem sources, and prioritizing the level of action to best achieve the objective of eliminating obesity in childhood.
Why it is important to me
This paper was important to write because there are quite a few family members of mine that have an extended history of Type II Diabetes. I want to diminish any chances of my children getting any of these conditions down the road. Furthermore, I live in Atlanta, Georgia, which is considered to…
Brownson RC, C.J. (2013). Understanding evidence-based public health policy. Am J. Public Health, 23(6), 45-47.
Brownson RC, J.E. (2012). Bridging the gap: translating research into policy and practice. Prev Med, 49(4), 313-5.
Hawe P, S.A. (2013). Theorising interventions as events in systems. American Journal Community Psychology, 12(7), 34-89.
Jilcott S, A.A. (2013). Applying the RE-AIM framework to assess the public health impact of policy change. Ann Behav Med, 34(2), 105-14.
EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family elations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work esearch. 28 (3): 153+.
Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A eader. outledge.
Jouriles, E., et.al. (2008). "Child Abuse in the Context of Domestic Violence."
Violence and Victims. 23 (2): 221+.
Lincoln, B. (NDI). BrainyQuotes.com. Cited in: BrainyQuote.com:
Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating eactive Attachment Disorder." Working
Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.
Minnis, H., et.al., 92006). "eactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.
NAI. (2010, April). Definitions in Federal Law. etrieved April 25, 2010, from Defining Child
Abuse & Neglect: http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/defining/federal.cfm
"National Child Abuse Statistics." (2009). ChildHelp. Cited in:
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family Relations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work Research. 28 (3): 153+.
The next stage was parallel play in which children copy one another or play with the same toy but without necessarily playing together.
Older children in this same age group tended to exhibit associative play in which they interacted actively with other children and cooperative play in which they collaborated in games or in taking on roles with respect to others in the group.
Dramatic Play and Characteristic Gender-Based Differences in Play
Dramatic play provides children with the opportunity to experiment with various identities with which they are familiar and to develop valuable social skills by practicing social interactions and roles. Some of the most important elements of dramatic play involve practicing the behavioral roles and norms associated with gender differences. Typically, boys play actively, physically, and with gross motor movement activities whereas girls are more likely to spend time in play that emphasizes direct communications and verbal interaction. Boys…
Childhood type diabetes and obesity
Which three databases will you use?
Search each database, using key words, for relevant research on this subject. What key words did you use in the Search Strategy fields? nclude all attempts and limitations used to refine your search.
Childhood obesity diabetes
Childhood obesity diabetes
Report the number of citations identified from each database in the number of articles found field.
Select one article from a peer-reviewed nursing journal published within the last three years -- or a germinal article which may contain an earlier publication date -- and provide the citation in APA format.
Hayden, M.R., Joginpally, T., Salam, M., & Sowers, J.R. (2011). Childhood and adolescent obesity in cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A clinical vignette and ultrastructure study. Diabetes Management, 1(6), 601-614. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/dmt.11.50
Answer the following questions using your selected research article:
Q1. s this…
I limited the search range for peer-reviewed journals. Also, the journal has a doi; a volume number and serial number; and is authored by research scientists who provided their personal histories and sources of their funding.
Q3. Does this research article generate support for evidence-based practice? If not, state why it does not. Please review the critical appraisal guideline on pg. 466-480.
The authors of the study specifically state that it has implications for evidence-based practice. If adolescent obesity causes permanent changes to the structure of the tissue of sufferers, this has longstanding implications for public policy: it means that adolescents may be unlikely to outlive their parents' generation. Despite numerous improvements in diabetes management, diabetes often suffer severe health consequences. It is imperative that diabetes be thwarted by reducing the likelihood of early-onset obesity, not simply managed in a secondary and tertiary manner after the fact. "This current epidemic-pandemic of CAOO causes a red flag to be raised in order to have primary-care providers become more involved and understand this complex problem. The CAOO pandemic may alter the future course of human disease unless we as primary-care physicians intervene" (Hayden 2011 et al.).
Childhood obesity in Turner County, GA is topic for concern, especially in the age ranges of 6-11. County data shows the adult diabetes rate for Turner County is higher than the rate in the state at 3.1% of difference (City-Data, 2016). The adult obesity rate is also higher at 4.8% difference. While evidence from recent sources reveal childhood obesity rates going down in Georgia, the diabetes and obesity data could signal a red flag.
Overall the county seems like it has adequate daycare facilities and a high degree of cohesiveness, with an adequate number of quality recreational areas like parks. This shows there are enough areas for children to go exercise and socialize. However, the number of restaurants and the low number of walkers as a means of transportation to work shows a lack or desire to participate in cardiovascular exercise or activities. Most people in the county…
City-Data,. (2016). Turner County, Georgia detailed profile - houses, real estate, cost of living, wages, work, agriculture, ancestries, and more. City-data.com. Retrieved 30 April 2016, from http://www.city-data.com/county/Turner_County-GA.html
Davila-Payan, C., DeGuzman, M., Johnson, K., Ser-ban, N., & Swann, J. (2015). Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.140229
Kelley, G. & Kelley, K. (2013). Effects of Exercise in the Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses.Journal Of Obesity, 2013, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/783103
Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2015). Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community (9th ed.). Mosby.
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
It is very likely that many children have been less fortunate than me and that they either became drug addicts themselves or they came to live on the streets as a result of having parents who express more interest in drugs than in their own children.
My experiences are definitely traumatizing and I would not want anyone going through what I endured. Despite this, I managed to find a meaning for everything that has happened to me and I succeeded in using my forces with the purpose of improving my condition. Unlike ordinary people, I would not allow myself to be put down by the conflicts I've seen in my family, by the fact that I was often isolated, or by the emotional violence that I have been subjected to. I will certainly remember the time I spent with my family for most of my life, but the fact that…
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…
Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.
De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.
Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.
Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
Strengths and Barriers to Program Implementation for Childhood Obesity
With any plan to implement a program, there are both strengths and barriers. The program addressed here will be on childhood obesity. The strengths of the program will be community and organizational, while the barriers will be environmental and ethical. By carefully considering and addressing all of these, it can be determined how best to move forward with implementation of the program. That will provide the highest level of success for the program and will raise the value of it in such a way as to provide children and their parents with ways to combat obesity in their families and in their community.
Strengths -- Community and Organizational
The main strengths of the childhood obesity program are community and organizational in nature. When a community comes together, issues like childhood obesity can be mitigated (Ebbeling, Pawlak, & Ludwig, 2002).…
Ebbeling, C.B., Pawlak, D.B., & Ludwig, D.S. (2002). Childhood obesity: Public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet, 360(9331): 473 -- 482.
Janssen, I., Craig, W.M., Boyce, W.F., & Pickett, W. (2004). Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Pediatrics, 113(5): 1187 -- 1194.
Must, A., Jacques, P.F., Dallal, G.E., Bajema, C.J., & Dietz, W.H. (1992). Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327(19): 1350 -- 1355.
Reinehr, T., & Wabitsch, M. (2011). Childhood obesity. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 22(1): 21 -- 25.
Many health issues that children have been faced with in the United States have decreased in intensity and prevalence over the past few decades, but they have been replaced by new problems that could cause even more serious long-term effects. One such, childhood obesity, is troublesome because it is can be the root cause of many more serious problems. Childhood obesity leads to an increased incidence of heart disease, diabetes and other serious health issues. The primary method for combatting childhood obesity is education of both the children and the parents, and nurses are among the most important means of providing that education. This paper examines the seriousness of childhood obesity and how nurses can be advocates of change.
Nurses are guided by a set of principles much like other professionals in health care and other occupations. For nursing, these guidelines answer the who, what, when, where, and…
ANA. (2012). Scope and standards of practice. Nursing World. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/scopeandstandardsofpractice
The National Academy of Sciences. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity. Health in the Balance.
Childhood Obesity in Turner County, GA Ages 6-11
Turner County is one of the regions in Georgia that is affected by childhood obesity and overweight. Generally, childhood obesity is one of the major public health concerns and issues affecting Georgia. Currently, the state is among the top three states with high prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight issues. Despite the numerous measures that have been undertaken to deal with the problem and significant gains that have been made in the process, Georgia still has a high rate of childhood obesity cases. In essence, Turner County is still largely affected by the issue of childhood obesity similar to other counties in Georgia. However, a clear understanding of the extent of childhood obesity in Turner County among children aged 6-11 years requires collecting vital statistics on this population. For this analysis, the researcher has relied on a questionnaire and interview of healthcare…
Davila-Payan et al. (2015, March 12). Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2015/14_0229.htm
Johansson, S. (2014, October 15). Maternal Overweight and Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Infant Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden. British Medical Journal, 349. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6572
Childhood Obesity Questionnaire
Childhood Obesity: Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program
Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program: Childhood Obesity
Childhood is a serious health concern for policymakers in the United States. It is estimated that currently, one in every five children below the ages of 2 and 19 in America is obese. For this reason, numerous policies have been formulated to help in preventing or minimizing the risk of obesity among children. This study assesses the effectiveness of one such policy -- the National School Lunch Program.
Childhood Obesity: Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program
Childhood obesity has become a serious health concern for parents and policymakers in the U.S. over the last few decades. It is estimated that approximately 12.5 million children between the ages of 2 and 19, which translates to approximately 1 in every five children, is obese (Toro, 2011). These…
Leach, R. A. (2004). The Chiropractic Theories: A Textbook of Scientific Research (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Levine, D. M. & Stephan, D. F. (2009). Even You can Learn Statistics: A Guide for Everyone who has Ever been Afraid of Statistics (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ FT Press.
Sukal, M. (2013). Research Methods: Applying Statistics in Research. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint.
Toro, R. (2011). Childhood Obesity. Live Science. Retrieved October 7, 2015 from http://www.livescience.com/17244-childhood-obesity-infographic.html
Childhood and Adult Obesity
The problem of obesity is serious across the globe. Indeed, it has been cited as the second most common cause of preventable deaths and a great public health concern in the U.S.A. The past twenty years have seen a tremendous increase in obesity cases. Although imbalance in energy is a common case of obesity, medical conditions including genetic ailments and medication also play a significant role (Williams, 2011 p. 5-7).
The Effect of Being Obese
There has been a marked increase in the attention that is directed towards obesity. The condition is also widely associated to several other chronic ailments, including hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, osteoarthritis, metabolic syndrome sleep apnoea, sleep apnoea and some forms of cancer. Health expenses are relatively higher for individuals with obesity. It has been estimated that the cost of medical care for people suffering from obesity…
Bhattacharya, J., Bundorf, K., Pace, N. & Sood, N. (2009). Does Health Insurance Make You Fat? NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 26 May 2016 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w15163.pdf
Daily Downey. (2012). The Election, The Uninsured and Obesity. The Downey Obesity Report. Retrieved 26 May 2016 from http://www.downeyobesityreport.com/tag/uninsured/
George Town University. (2002). Childhood Obesity: A Lifelong Threat to Health. Retrieved 26 May 2016 from https://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/obesity/obesity.html
Koplan, J. P., Liverman, C. T. & Kraak, V. I. (Ed.) (2005). Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.). Retrieved 26 May 2016 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83819/
Childhood Obesity in Turner County (Ages 6-11)
What small group have you selected?
The group selected is a nuclear family comprising of parents and a male child who is obese (William).
What made you select this particular group?
The group was chosen owing to the unhealthy lifestyle of its members. It offers an adequately controllable setting in which to implement and test plan effectiveness. Further, one can deal with this group's numerous issues one-by-one by employing small measurable outcomes. Such an approach reduces key threatening issues gradually.
What portion of the plan would you like to implement in the small group?
The first part of this plan would entail dealing with Imbalanced Nutrition: i.e., more nutrition than the body actually needs. Nutrition is crucial for the human body, and for proper functioning of all bodily systems. Proper nutrition will help maintain appropriate and healthy body weight, provide energy to the…
Pollan, L. (2015, April 14). 5 Healthy-Eating Strategies That Will Outlast Any Trend. Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lori-pollan/5-healthy-eating-strategies-that-will-outlast-any-trend_b_7054008.html
The Training Room. (2013, March 28). The Importance of A Balanced Diet. Retrieved from The training room: http://thetrainingroom.com/importance-nutrition-balanced-diet/
Childhood and Adult Obesity
Obesity can be described as a condition when a person has accumulated excess body fat, which might be detrimental for his health. According to statistical records by the World Health Organization (WHO), there are at least 300m obese people in the world and this figure is increasing rapidly. Obesity was not a government concern until the mid-1970s when reports regarding increasing obesity were produced by ray in the U.S. and UK, asking the government and the Medical Research Council to carry out research on obesity. However, the governments then, took no cognizance of this issue, but instead, eventually, it did lead to the establishment of research centres. From 1980s onwards, this matter had evinced interest in doctors who specialised in this field, and the United Nations organized a panel to discuss the issue. The government still chose to remain silent. (ranca et al., 2007)
Branca, F., Nikogosian, H., & Lobstein, T. (2007). The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response: summary. World Health Organization.
James, W. P. T. (2008). WHO recognition of the global obesity epidemic. International Journal of Obesity, 32, S120-S126.
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic (No. 894). World Health Organization.
Childhood Obesity and Interventions
There is a strong relationship between childhood obesity and exposure to environmental factors -- most notably socio-economic status. There are exposures that trigger both positive and negative outcomes, and these have to be discussed along with the possible interventions that can be undertaken. Low socio-economic status (E) has been associated with a large number of problematic outcomes where health is concerned, including obesity and related issues in childhood (Kallem, et al., 2013). Despite this correlation, though, there are plenty of children with low E who grow up slim and apparently health, so it is clear that environment is not the only factor (Kallem, et al., 2013). The objective of the study by Kallem, et al. (2013) was to examine the "shift-and-persist" strategy and how (or if) it was what was protecting low E children from obesity in some cases. This strategy involves how a person deals…
Studies have found that racial and ethnic disparities can be just as significant as SES, diet, and exercise issues -- largely because SES and related concerns are often tied to specific racial and ethnic groups more than others (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). Preschool age children who are in minority racial and ethnic categories have a statistically higher prevalence of obesity when all other variables have been controlled for by researchers (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). That is a serious indication that there is more at play in the overall environment, and that study of all factors that could contribute to obesity is needed. That would include analyzing a larger area of environmental factors, because there are many causes for the tripling of obese children and adolescents throughout the last three decades (Dixon, et al., 2012). That much of a change in that short of a time period is a significant problem for society, and can raise the rates of health care for everyone.
If the obesity epidemic in children is not dealt with now, society can expect to see increases in the rates of many chronic diseases, and these diseases will be particularly obvious in populations that already have a disparity in their health (Dixon, et al., 2012). In the study conducted by Dixon, et al. (2012), the associations between SES and social characteristics of the residential environment were considered. Then, these were looked at as compared to diet, physical activity, and BMI (Dixon, et al., 2012). The participants consisted of students in the fifth and sixth grade at a school in New Haven, Connecticut (Dixon, et al., 2012). That was done to narrow down a population in order to determine the environmental factors associated with it (Dixon, et al., 2012). Multilevel modeling was used in order to collect information on the area and the students (Dixon, et al., 2012).
It was discovered that students living within a close walking distance of fast food outlets had higher BMI numbers than those who lived farther away (Dixon, et al., 2012). Additionally, high fast food outlet densities were linked to higher BMIs and more unhealthy eating (Dixon, et al., 2012). When students had close access to gyms, parks, and playgrounds, though, they were more likely to get exercise, helping to offset some of the unhealthy eating patterns (Dixon, et al., 2012). More affluent neighborhoods were also linked to healthier eating behaviors and better exercise regimens, where students who were on the low end of the SES scale ate poorly and got little exercise (Dixon, et al., 2012). One of the ways to help lessen the problems with childhood obesity could be to provide more parks, playgrounds, and other areas where students could get good exercise, and to lower the number of fast food establishments in residential areas.
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…
Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.
Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Program Design on Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity has become a very serious epidemic today, it is estimated that about 16.3% of children all over the world are obese.in the past four decades the rate of obesity for children that are aged between 6 and 11 years has gone up by more than four times.it is a serious pandemic since obese children are likely to suffer health consequences not only in their childhood and adolescence but also throughout their lives as adults. They are at risk for problems of joints and bones, sleep apnea, psychological and social problems, health diseases, type II diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Childhood obesity is an epidemic that cuts across the lines of ethnicity, family income, and race however, there are certain populations that are at a higher risk as compared to others. Some of the populations that are at risk include Latinos, African Americas, Native…
Digate, N.(2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/preventing-childhood-obesity
Segal, E. (2009). Fighting Obesity: What Works, What's Promising. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.sparkpe.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Fighting-Obesity-Report.pdf
Pekruhn, C. (2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity a School Health Policy Guide. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/web-assets/2009/01/preventing-childhood-obesity -
WHO. (2014). What can be Done to Fight the Childhood Obesity Epidemic. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_what_can_be_done/en/
controversy regarding childhood obesity, as this is a pressing matter and as there are more and more cases involving children becoming obese as a result of a series of factors involving poor nutrition, little to no exercise, and a general failure to understand why it is important for them to adopt attitudes that can maintain them healthy. The percentage of children becoming obese has experienced a steady increase in recent years, this standing as proof with regard to how conditions have become critical. The increase of the number of obese children is directly proportional with the advancement of technology and fast food, taking into account that children become more and more attached to technological devices and find it easier and more enjoyable to eat fast food.
Numerous pediatricians, parents, and policy-makers have gotten actively involved in discussing the topic of childhood obesity and in finding strategies they can use with…
Paxon, Christina, "Childhood Obesity," (Brookings Institution Press, 2006)
Vaca Durr, Olga, "It's Not about Childhood Obesity: It Is about Being Healthy for Life," (Inspiring Voices, 12.11.2012)
infancy early childhood. Include: Explain families affect
Early Childhood and Adulthood
There are a number of key facets and processes that occur during infancy and early childhood that profoundly affect an individual's growth and development. Some of these factors include early childhood education, a variety of parenting styles, as well as familial involvement in cognitive and physical development. All of these factors indicate that parents and surrounding family members play a highly important role in the development of infants and young children.
One of the most eminent ways in which families produce a direct influence on their children is through the establishment and implementation of rituals or routines. The repetitive nature of these daily constructs provides a valuable structuring for activities that has been linked to cognitive and emotional processes in children and infants -- most discernibly when there is a break or a shifting in a particular ritual that…
Spagnola, M., Fiese, B.H. (2007). "Family routines and rituals: a context for development in the lives of young children." Infants and Young Children. 20 (4): 284-299.
SPECIAL EDUCATION & EALY CHILDHOOD
Tasks in Special Education and Early Childhood
Defining Intellectual Disability and Degrees Thereof
Language is a powerful tool or a powerful weapon. The language used to described non-normative populations is often accompanied by a vigorous and often difficult discussion regarding what kinds of words are academically, professionally, and medically describing abnormal populations. One such term with an interesting history is the term "mental retardation." Within the recent years of the 21st century, there has been a shift away from the term mental retardation and more toward the phrase intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has been an influential party with respect to this linguistic, conceptual, and social shift. Dunlap (2009) elaborates upon the definition of mental retardation that the AAIDD proposes, stating that it is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive…
Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116 -- 124.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2008). The Intellectual Disability Construct and Its relation to Human Functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 311 -- 318.
Doctors of nursing practice have an ethical and professional obligation to disseminate findings that emerge from relevant and timely research. One area of ongoing concern is the near-epidemic levels of childhood obesity that have emerged in recent years due in large part to increasingly sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits among young people. This paper provides an assessment and reflection on the success of the program design for disseminating the results of childhood obesity research, the challenges that were encountered, and the ethical considerations that may warrant additional attention. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
Assessment and eflection
Over the past several weeks, my understanding of the national health-promotion and disease-prevention issue has become far more acute. The extent of the childhood obesity problem in this country became increasingly apparent as study after study confirmed the existence of the problem…
Berkowitz, B. & Borchard, M. (2009, January). Advocating for the prevention of childhood obesity: A call to action for nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(1), 37-41.
Cawley, J. (2006, Spring). Markets and childhood obesity policy. The Future of Children, 16(1),
Hannan, M. (2014, April 1). Setting the standard. National Recreation and Parks