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Another factor which has been proven to be linked to obesity is breast-feeding. Children that are breast-fed are less likely to become obese than bottle-fed infants. ("Further..." 2003) Other reasons cited for the increase in obesity among children is a lack of education (such as mandatory physical education programs) and a lack of safe places to exercise in urban areas. (Michael & Styne 1999)
The best approach to treating childhood obesity is to prevent it by all means possible. Parents must not overfeed infants, which is a common mistake that leads to a lifelong habit. (Moran 1999) "Increasing physical activity and practical nutritional knowledge through education in schools or through extracurricular programs should be an obvious first step that may require legislative action." (Johnsen 2003) if the child is already overweight, a comprehensive weight management program needs to be instated. Setting reasonable and healthy goals, dietary management such as keeping…
Adhib et al. (2004 November) Obesity. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity
Davis, M., Davis, S., Kolar, K., Moll, G., & Northington, L. (2002, November-Decemer) Childhood obesity reduction by school-based programs.
The ABNF Journal. American Family Physician, Retrieved on November 20, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJT/is_6_13/ai_95915535
1999) Facts About Childhood Obesity and Overweightness. Family Economics and Nutrition Review, Winter. Retrieved on November 20, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EUB/is_1_12/ai_57512258
Also the correlation between LVMI and P suggested higher risk for developing cardiovascular complications among the obese children. [Maggio et.al, 2008]
Coronary Heart Diseases
Childhood obesity is implicated as a chief risk factor for developing coronary heart diseases in adult life. As per a prediction by ibbins-Domingo et al., the increased prevalence of childhood obesity among the current population will result in up to 16% increase in the prevalence of CHD by 2035. (involving an addition of up to 100,000 cases.) [David S. Ludwig, 2007] a recent Danish research studied the relationship between childhood obesity and the onset of adulthood CHD. For this study the researchers observed the MI of 276,835 Danish school children taken from the national registers. It was observed that 10,235 men and 4318 women developed CHD and died. Using regression analyses to the data revealed a clear positive correlation between higher MI in childhood and contracting…
1) a Maggio, Y. Aggoun & L. Marchand et.al (2008), ' Associations among Obesity, Blood Pressure, and Left Ventricular Mass', the Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 152, Issue 4, Pages 489-493
2) CDC, "The Obesity Epidemic and United States Students," retrieved Oct 7th 2009, from, http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/pdf/yrbs07_us_obesity.pdf
3) CDC, 'Availability of Less Nutritious Snack Foods and Beverages in Secondary Schools -Selected States, 2002 -- 2008', Retrieved Oct 9th 2009, from, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm58e1005a1.htm
4) Commercial Alert, 'Junk Food Ad Ban Comes into Force in Britain', retrieved Oct 9th 2009, from, http://www.commercialalert.org/issues/health/international-public-health/junk-food-ad-ban-comes-into-force-in-britain
One of the most significant health problems seen in the United States is obesity. ithin this dynamic there are particular issues of special concern for the health care industry and society in general, most notably the exponential increase in obesity found among children. (Strauss, Pollack, 2001, pgs. 2845-2848) and (Troiano, Flegel, 1998, pgs. 497-504) "Childhood obesity has more than doubled over the past 20 years, and it represents the most prevalent nutritional disease among youth in the United States." (Lowry, echsler, Galuska, Fulton, & Kann, 2002, pg. 1)
Though there are many other problems faced by the youth of America today the press on violence and relatively rare though increasing incidences of it far outweighs the press on the issue of childhood obesity, a much more widespread and deadly problem. Obesity is discussed through the overzealous and unrealistic body images of adults and young adults, as represented by…
Astrup, Arne, 2001, Dietary Strategies for Weight Management the Importance of Carbohydrates, Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 58/Suppl. 1, pgs.
Baughcum, Amy E. Leigh A. Chamberlin, Cindy M. Deeks, Scott W. Powers, Robert C.
Whitaker, 2000, Maternal Perceptions of Overweight Preschool Children,
Childhood Obesity in Kentucky
Childhood overweight and obesity has grown at an alarming rate over the last decade. Obesity is linked to media advertising, environmental, social and psychological, food labeling, and parental factors. Causes of childhood obesity have been linked to sedentary lifestyles with limited or no physical activity and unhealthy eating of excessive fatty and sugary foods.
Body mass index (BMI) is a measure used to determine overweight and obesity using height, weight, age, and sex-specific percentile calculations. For children, overweight is defined as BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile for children of the same sex and age (Basics About Childhood Obesity, 2012). Obese is defined as BMI at the 95th percentile or above for children of the same sex and age.
Obese children are experiencing health problems that used to only be seen in adulthood. Overweight and obese children are at risk for cardiovascular disease factors, type…
The conductors of the study relied upon past information indicating that children born with low birth weights have an increased likelihood of suffering from health problems later in life -- many of these health problems are results of obesity. Generally -- the study found -- children born small but who catch up to average children by age two, tend to have higher central fat distributions later in life. The authors assert that this information is valuable because it suggests that reducing factors that lead to premature births may help in reducing the number of obese children.
Rimm, Dr. Sylvia. (2004). Rescuing the Emotional Lives of Overweight Children. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Dr. Rimm argues in her book that many of the social pressures put upon overweight children tend to have emotional results that perpetuate their weight problems. She refers to, throughout her book, many studies that she and others…
With this book the authors attempt to outline a twelve step plan for helping obese children reach more healthy body weights. It is suggested that this goal can be attained in just twelve weeks. First, causes are identified -- such as television, social issues, and industrialization -- then, general and rather obvious solutions are put forward. The authors argue that the parents themselves need to alter the way they eat in order to influence their children; they also need to lead more active lifestyles. This is because it is unlikely that the child will change their behavior independently. Essentially, this book offers nothing particularly new to the problem of childhood obesity and relies very little on actual scientific research or hypotheses.
Willms, J. Douglas. (2004). Early Childhood Obesity: A Call for Early Surveillance and Preventative Measures. Canadian Medical Association, Aug. 3; 171 (3).
Willms, throughout this article, points to results from a study conducted by Canning, Courage and Frizzell which sought to illustrate the importance of early surveillance of childhood obesity. He admits that there are certain limitations when attempting to define obesity for children and adolescents, but maintains that the methods for measuring this used by Canning and associates circumvented most of these issues. Willms further believes that evidence indicating childhood obesity produces health problems later in life is meager at this point and time and will require much more study than has currently been conducted. The article argues that obesity in children needs to be watched closely by experts because the implications for the health care systems of developed world are many and ominous.
(Obesity in Young Children: Impact and Intervention. NICHM esearch Brief. 2004). The report echoes the views of many other critics that there is a decided need for further research to understand how overweight status can impact on children's mental health.
This has led to calls for many professionals to deal with the problem at a school level -- and particularly with regard to the formalization of physical exercise for children. This is seen to be an area that can make a difference in the fight against obesity. Dalton ( 2004) in a study entitled Our Overweight Children: What Parents, Schools, and Communities Can Do to Control the Fatness Epidemic, states that the responsibly in the fight against this serious problem lies with school and state authorities. He states that,
America faces a fast-growing epidemic of childhood obesity that threatens the long-term physical and psychological health of the nation's children. It…
Dalton, S. (2004). Our Overweight Children: What Parents, Schools, and Communities Can Do to Control the Fatness Epidemic. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105943460
Foster, Gary D. et al. "Primary Care Physicians' Attitudes about Obesity and Its Treatment." Retrieved April 1, 2009 from the North American Association for the Study of Obesity; http://www.nature.com/oby/journal/v11/n10/full/oby2003161a.html
Gallo R. F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies are Failing in America. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://ezinearticles.com/?F-as-in-Fat:-How-Obesity -'Policies-are-Failing-in-America&id=286359
Junk food in schools worsens childhood obesity. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://www.nber.org/digest/sep05/w11177.html .
The ole of the School in Fighting Childhood Obesity
According to the Centers for Disease Control, childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past thirty years (2010). The long-term health impacts are significant and include greater risk of cardiovascular disease and bone and joint problems. Obese youth are more likely than youth of normal weight to become overweight adults and therefore at greater risk for the problems faced by obese adults, including heart disease, stroke, several types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Children and adolescents who are obese often experience social and psychological problems. They may be teased, ostracized or bullied by peers because of their weight and suffer poor self-esteem as a result. The problem of childhood obesity is a medical problem and it is a social and cultural one as well. Today's children spend less unstructured time playing outdoors than children of past generations. Families, headed…
Healthy Youth! Childhood Obesity. (2010). National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/
La Merrill, M., & Birnbaum, L.S. (2011). Childhood obesity and environmental chemicals.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 78 (1), 22-48. DOI: 10.1002/msj.20229
Li, J., & Hooker, N.H. (2010). Childhood obesity and schools: Evidence from the natural survey of children's health. Journal of School Health 80 (2), 96-103.
Childhood Obesity 9079
Man has always attributed scientific advancement to an improvement in life style, better cures for life threatening diseases, improved health and decrease in disease related deaths. However, today it is evident that these advancements are equal parts beneficial and harmful. Health risks instead of decreasing have increased, new diseases have emerged and some have become more widespread. One result of man's improved lifestyle is the increase in obesity especially in children. The paper will highlight some basic information regarding 'childhood obesity' and explain the reason behind the selection of the topic as well as the direction of future research and writing on it.
According to WHO 'Obesity' is the gaining or accumulation of "excessive fat" which results in increase in health risks. The organization has also pointed out alarming increase in the number of obese children. Apparently this abnormal fat collection affects the entire metabolism and…
Anderson, P.M. & Butcher, K.F. (2006).Jstor. Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. Vol: 16 (I: 1).Retrieved 28 June, 2012, from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3556549?uid=3738832&uid=2&uid=4&sid=56279574313
CDC (2012). Adolescent and School Health: Childhood Obesity Facts. Retrieved 27 June, 2012, from
Childhood Obesity Dangers Being Linked to Fast Food Diets
Unfortunately, there is a major concern that is threatening the health and well-being of American children around the country -- obesity. Childhood obesity levels have risen dramatically over the past two decades (Ebbeling et al. 473). They are now reaching international levels of disaster. Modern research has been exploring many possible factors for this increase in childhood obesity. One of the major factors that seem to be undeniable is an unhealthy diet, filled with Tran's fats and sugar within the context of fast foods. As more and more children eat a greater amount of fast food, they are being exposed to very serious risk factors that could lead them into obesity during their childhood, which undoubtedly will follow them into their adulthood.
Empirical studies and modern research have only begun to uncover the link between fast food and rising rates of…
Bowman, Shanthy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Pereira, Mark A.; & Ludwig, David. "Effects of Fast-Food Consumption on Energy Intake and Diet Quality among Children in a National Household Survey." American Journal of Pediatrics. 2004. (113) [HIDDEN]
Ebbeling, Cara B.; Pawlak, Dorota, B.; & Ludwig, David S. "Childhood Obesity: Public-Health Crisis, Common Sense Cure." Lancet. 2002, (360) [HIDDEN]
While standing in line at my local McDonald's I was struck by the number of overweight children.
Everywhere I gazed, the children surrounding me were overweight
I wondered why
What is Childhood Obesity?
O is an excess of body fat that negatively affects a child's health and well being
is classified by a child's BMI (Body Mass Index)
What causes Childhood Obesity?
Today's prepackaged food is calorie rich and a significant contributor
High sugar drinks (soda, juice, so called "energy drinks)
Fast Food nation
High calorie snacks
Surprisingly, whole milk was not found to negatively affect a child's weight
Students who are obese, tend to be sedentary
esearchers discovered obese children were 35% less active on school days and 65% less active on weekends compared to non-obese children.
Obese children live in a televisual world, rather than a physical world: TV, computers, video games
Davis B, Carpenter C (December 2008). "Proximity of Fast-Food Restaurants to Schools and Adolescent Obesity." Am J. Public Health 99 (3): 505.
Kimm SY, Obarzanek E (2002). "Childhood obesity: a new pandemic of the new millennium." Pediatrics 110 (5): 1003 -- 7.
Kolata, Gina (2007). Rethinking Thin: The new science of weight loss -- and the myths and realities of dieting. Picador.
A survey of some of the nation's most popular fast-food restaurants revealed numerous high calorie, high fat, and trans fat in children's menu food selections. Helm found the fast-food restaurant Bojangles had an offering that was 841 kcal and had more than 16 grams of fat, with information on trans fat not available. Kentucky Fried Chicken had the offering with the highest level of trans fat. Their children's offering had 510 kcal and 6.5 grams of fat, and a disturbing 7 grams of trans fat. Subway, whose marketing program revolves around Jared, the man who lost weight eating only their sandwiches, had the children's offering with the second highest trans fat found - at 450 kcal and 5.5 grams of fat, it had 3.5 grams of trans fat. Arby's prime offender was 630 kcal and 7 grams of fat, although this offering had no trans fat.
Other high calorie, high…
Helms, L. "Analysis of Fast Food Choices Available for Children." Health Education Monograph 24(2) 2007: pp. 26-31. Education Research Complete EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 7, 2007 http://web.ebscohost.com .
King, B. "Childhood Obesity." Alive: Canadian Journal of Health & Nutrition (299) Sept 2007: pp. 36-38. Alt HealthWatch. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 7, 2007
Healthy People 2020 Objectives include the growing acknowledgment in the areas of research, clinical practice and policy that the early and middle years of childhood make provision of the "physical, cognitive, and social-emotional foundation for lifelong health, learning and well-being." (p.1) Healthy nutrition is among the goals of Healthy People 2020 and included in these nutrition goals are consumption of various foods that are nutrient-dense across all the groups of foods particularly those of fruits, vegetable, whole grains, low-fat/fat-free milk and lean meats as well as other sources of protein. (Healthy People 2020, paraphrased) It is reported within the Healthy People 2020 objectives that all individuals should avoid gaining weight that constitutes an unhealthy gain of weight. The reasons that are given for avoiding unhealthy weight gain includes that people who are of a healthy weight are less likely to develop chronic disease including heart disease, osteoarthritis, some…
Nutrition and Weight Status (2014) Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=29
Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents (2012) New York State Department of Public Health. Retrieved from: https://www.health.ny.gov/prevention/nutrition/resources/obparnts.htm
Summary of Public Health Program Plan and Purposes of Evaluation
Obesity is a growing problem in the United States for both children and adults. Over the past 30 years, obesity has more than doubled among U.S. children ages 2 to 5 and nearly tripled among young people over the age of 6 (Obesity, 2011, NIH). Low-income and minority children are statistically more likely to suffer this condition: although the reasons for this are complex and difficult to determine, a lack of access to healthy, affordable food and places to exercise as well as cultural factors such as chronic food insecurity are implicated as factors. On a personal level, obesity can have devastating psychological and physical consequences for the individual; on a social level, an increase in obesity means that healthcare costs for the chronic conditions associated with obesity, including diabetes and heart disease. Obese children are more likely…
A framework for program evaluation. (2013). CDC. Retrieved:
Week 5: Dissemination of Program Evaluation Results & Creating a Timeline
See PERT chart.
I knew a family with five children. The mother did not like to cook and so for dinner every night, she took her kids to McDonalds. The children ate hamburgers almost every night for most of their childhood. They also ate lots of French fries and drank gallons of Coke, all of which had lots of carbohydrates, sugar and fat in them. But the resulting thing that happened to these five kids showed up as they developed. When they were four or five years of age both the boys and the girls tended to be overweight, but tall and muscular for their age. They were all very active physically, so did not become morbidly obese, but would still be considered obese. When they reached 10, 11 and 12 years of age they began to grow even more than they had as children and were extraordinarily tall and heavy. The oldest…
Belsky, J. (2007). Experiencing the Lifespan. New York: Worth Publishers.
Gavin, M.L. (2005). Kids Health. Nemours Foundation. Retrieved March 7, 2008 at http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/dieting/obesity.html .
Raloff, Janet. (2002). Hormones: Here's the Beef: environmental concerns reemerge over steroids given to livestock. Science News 161, no. 1, January 5, 2002.
Imagine living as an obese child. What are the trends with this phenomenon? Will he or she discover a way of changing his or her lifestyle? These children have a number of issues that arise because of this occurring at such a young age, which one will investigate further.
In the United States, childhood obesity has become a health problem. "The number of adolescents has tripled since 1980 and the prevalence among younger children has more than doubled. 16% of children age 6-19 years are overweight" (ASPE, 2011, para 1). Those that have this problem are predominantly that of minorities. For example, those that are African-American as well as Mexican-American from the ages of 12-19 are more likely to become overweight by 21-23%; however, 14% were those who were non-Hispanic white teenagers. From 1992-2002, "another 15% were at risk of becoming overweight. Those that are 5-18 years old,…
ASPE. (2011). Childhood obesity. Retrieved June 29, 2011, from ASPE: http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/child_obesity/ .
CDC. (2011a). Childhood obesity. Retrieved June 29, 2011, from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/obesity/.
CDC. (2011b). U.S. obesity trends. Retrieved June 29, 2011, from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html .
Spark Action. (2004). Government Leadership in Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved June 29, 2011, from Spark Action: http://sparkaction.org/node/30686 .
Childhood obesity has been a topic of recent research that is being called an epidemic going into adult years and causing health issues.
Anorexia is an issue that is growing in popularity among teens.
Bullying is illegal, but still continues to be a huge problem, especially in schools, and is leading to continued problems outside of school.
Teen drug abuse is a rising issue.
Teen suicide is a problem with depression in teens.
F. Cutting or self-injury.
G. Teens choking themselves to cut off oxygen to the brain to produce a drug like high.
H. High school dropout issues.
J. The effects of divorce on children.
(Faith, 2012) addresses parents and caregivers as "agents of change" and evaluates the strength of evidence that particular parenting strategies can leverage behavior change and reduce positive energy balance in obese youth. This study aims to review core behavior change strategies, evaluate…
Von Marees, N. & . (2012). Cyberbullying: an increasein challenge for schools. School of Psychology International, 33(5), 467-476.
Whitlock, J.L. (2007). The internet and self-injury: What psychotherapists should know. Journal of Clinical Psychology, In Session, 63(11), 1135-1143.
Zabransky, T. (2007). Methamphetamine in the Czech Republic. Journal of Drug Issues, 37(1), 155-180.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has grown into a significant health issue over the past three decades. esearch indicates that 70% of obese youths become obese adults (Gierzynski et al., 2010). The purpose of this longitudinal study is to determine the effects of a health promotion program administered by nurse practitioners to raise awareness of the determinants of good health will have on the general health of a select population particularly as it pertains to obesity and the resultant health issues.
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010) reports childhood obesity has more than tripled over the last 30 years. Incidences of obesity among children ages 6 to 11 rose from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008. Among adolescents ages 12 to 19 the obesity rate increased from 5.0% to 18.1% during the same period.
Obesity is the result of consuming more calories than one expends. It…
Center for Disease Control. (2010, June 3). Childhood obesity. CDC/Healthy youth. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/obesity/index.htm
Gierzynski, A., DePatie, J., Walsh, K., Fournier, K., Lidofsky, B., Waingortin, R.K., & Woodie, J. (2010, November 16) The overall costs of obesity. James M. Jeffords Vermont legislative research service. University of Vermont. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.uvm.edu/~vlrs/Health/Overall%20costs%20of%20obesity.pdf
"Nutrition and weight status." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=29
The main question revolving around childhood obesity is "When does childhood obesity become a child endangerment issue?"(Alexander, 2009)
Definitions of "neglect" and "medical neglect" (parental neglect of a child's medical needs) are not universally consistent. However, there are generalised concepts and standards that are expected of parents towards their child. Failure to meet these standards may legitimately be considered neglect. Clearly not all obese children are neglected -- indeed, parents of obese children may be very devoted to their child (Alexander, 2009). However, there may be concerns about parenting skills such as lack of parental limit-setting or parental supervision. In 1989, a case series report of children with severe obesity in early childhood observed that, in all cases, parental limit-setting around parent -- child interactions, including eating, was impaired; the authors likened severe obesity in early childhood to the "mirror image of environmental deprivation" (Alexander, 2009). However, recent reports on…
Berkowitz, B.A., & Nicola, R.M. (2003). Public health infrastructure systems change: Outcomes from the turning point initiative. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 9, 224-227.
Chrislip, D.D., & Larson, C.E. (1994). Collaborative leadership: How citizens and civic leaders can make a difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Crawford, P.B., Gosliner, W., Anderson, C., Strode, P., Becerra-Jones, Y., Samuels, S., et al. (2004). Counseling Latina mothers of preschool children about weight issues: Suggestions for a new framework. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 387-395.
Garcia, a. (2006). Is health promotion relevant across cultures and the socioeconomic spectrum? Family and Community Health, 29, S20-S27.
" (1999) Moran states that it has been demonstrated in many studies that a "familial aggregation f risk factors for obesity exist and the family "provides the child's major social learning environment." (1999)
Surgical and Pharmacological Treatment
There is very little conclusive research in the area of surgical and pharmacological treatment of child and adolescent obesity. These types of treatments are generally considered by HCPs to be "last resorts" (NIHCM, 2004) the use of gastric bypass surgery has been shown to have a lasting effect on weight loss for up to 10 years with an average weight loss of 50 kg being reporting representing around 59% of the "initial excessive weight." (Ibid) Adolescent weight loss was shown to significantly improve hypertension and sleep apnea. The work of Sugarman et al. found that "five to ten years post-surgery, one third of patients had regained most of their weight while the remaining…
American Dietetic Association and American Diabetes Association.(1995) Exchange lists for weight management. Rev. ed. Chicago and Alexandria, Va.: The Associations, 1995.
Barness L, ed. (1993) Pediatric nutrition handbook. 3d ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1993.
Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Wattigney WA, Harsha DW.(1993) Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993;699:93-103.
Braet C, Mervielde I, Vandereycken W. (1997)Psychological aspects of childhood obesity: a controlled study in a clinical and nonclinical sample. J Pediatr Psychol 1997;22:59-71.
Childhood Obesity and Diabetes
Association Between Childhood Obesity and Diabetes in Urban Neighborhood in Massachusetts
Sampling Technique and Data Collection Procedure
Ethics in esearch
Obesity and Diabetes
The obesity among the African-American children has been increased to an excessive level and it has become the general cause for the occurrence of chronic diseases in the adolescence of children. The current study is aimed to find the association between the obesity in childhood with the occurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in the children. The study has targeted the urban community of African-Americans from the Massachusetts. The cross sectional results of the study have provided evidence that the obese children possess the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus during the lifecycle from the infancy to adolescence. The preventive measure and recommendations with respect to the reduction of childhood obesity are discussed in order to eradicate…
The study found that overweight children or those likely to be overweight tended to incur more medical expenses than non-overweight children (Johnson 2006). Socio-economic and demographic differences between them indicated the differences in expenses. In addition to genetics, TV viewing habits, exercises and family eating habits, economists also considered changes in food prices and the reduction of time in physical education in school and its effects. Overall, the risks of adult mortality and morbidity tended to increase on account of obesity in childhood. Overweight children tended to grow into overweight adults and develop poor health conditions. Adult obesity incurs large expenses, according to the study. These expenses did not include those needed for substance abuse and depression. Long-term consequences tended to become visible only in adulthood (Johnson).
Obese children suffer much more from physical ailments and costs. They also lose self-esteem because of their condition. Studies conducted between 1961…
Buiten, C. And Bonnie Metzger (2000). Childhood obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease. 9 pages. Pediatric Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Bruss, M.B. et al. (2003). Prevention of obesity. 2 pages. Nutrition Research
Newsletter: Frost & Sullivan
Consumer Comments (2004). No quick fix for childhood obesity. 1 page. Consumer Alert: Gale Group
They note first that "parents can help their children develop and maintain healthful eating and physical activity habits, thereby ultimately helping prevent childhood overweight and obesity" (Lindsay et al., 2006, para. 2). Because the role of parents is critical, any problem to address the problem of childhood obesity has to include the parents in an effective manner. Parental influence on the problem differs at different ages of the children, and for some, the problem can begin in infancy: "An unfavorable intrauterine environment, for example, can increase a fetus's future risk of developing adult metabolic abnormalities, including obesity, hypertension, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (Lindsay et al., 2006, para. 7).
A more common caused develops in childhood as a result of the ingestion of too much refined sugar and carbohydrates I the form of candy, sugary cereals, potato chips, and other snack foods, or excessive fat in the form of fast food…
Anderson, P.M. & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, Volume 16, Issue 1. Retrieved July 19, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014370999 .
Berscheid, E. & Walster, E. (1972). Beauty and the best. Psychology Today, 42-46, 74.
Jarvie, G.J., Lahey, B., Graziano, W. Framer, E. (1983). Childhood obesity and social stigma: What we know and what we don't know. Developmental Review, 3:237-273.
Koplan, J.P., Liverman, C.T., & Kraak, V.L. (2005, Spring). Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Nation Must Act Now, or it Will Watch Its Children Grow into Adults with Excessive Levels of Diabetes, Heart Disease, Cancer, and Other Weight-Related Ailments. Issues in Science and Technology. Retrieved July 19, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009414177 .
arriers to provision of healthcare in rural areas include "provider shortages and infrastructure issues." (Hearne, et al. 2004)
Obesity related costs are inclusive of both direct and indirect costs which include 'medical costs and lost productivity' in excess of $117 billion each year. (estimates of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; as cited in Hearne, 2004) in fact, obesity is accounted for approximately $75 billion in medical expenses in 2003 alone with one-half of these costs being financed by Medicaid and Medicare constituting 6% of the HHS 2003 budget. Obesity-related expenditures for all fifty states and the District of Columbia were estimated at $21.3 billion for Medicaid in 2003. Obesity related costs for employers and businesses are inclusive of: (1) lost productivity; (2) paid sick leave; and () the increased costs of health, life and disability insurance. (Hearne et al. 2004 p.6) With the present rate of obesity-related disease…
The State of Health Care: A Few Indicators and Current Issues - Policy Brief (2005) Health Policy Forum. 18 Mar. 2005. Online available at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:AnztNPi0UboJ:www.texashealthinstitute.org/pdf_files/SOHC.pdf+Texas+Bill+73+Obesity+and+Overweight+Council+Wellness&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=14&gl=us.
SB 73 Legislative Session 80(R) 1766 MSE-D. Texas Legislature History
Active Hours Afterschool: Childhood Obesity & the Role of Afterschool Programs as a Solution (nd) Online available at http:www.afterschoolallieance.org/active_hours/Obesity-Afterschool_Solution.pdf.
The State of Health Care: A Few Indicators and Current Issues Policy Brief (2005) Health Policy Forum. 18 Mar 2005. online available at http://www.texashealthinstitute.org/pdf_files/SOHC.pdf .
The mission of XYZ will be to enhance health, eliminate health disparities, and promote the well-being of individuals across the world. The organization will generate positive and sustainable changes in individuals' health by offering an outstanding program of service, research and teaching to:
Educate the future generation comprising of leaders in public health
Disseminate, test, and discover solutions to health problems and threats
Translating research into sound policies and effective solutions
Serve the world through engagement, outreach, education of health professionals, citizens, and an application of solutions to health problems and threats (Sare & Ogilvie, 2010).
XYZ's goals include:
Assure delivery of and access to high quality healthcare services to all people at reasonable costs. This will minimize health threats in the environment.
Minimize health risks associated with personal behaviors
Enhance the quality of healthcare facilities, systems and services
IV. Establish and respond to emerging and new…
Duncan, W.J., & Swayne, L.E. (2013). Strategic management of health care organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Frechtling, J.A. (2007). Logic modeling methods in program evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley.
Knowlton, L.W., & Phillips, C.C. (2013). The logic model guidebook: Better strategies for great results. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Sare, M.V., & Ogilvie, L.A. (2010). Strategic planning for nurses: Change management in health care. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Another issue is the fact that our nation's schools are failing to provide students with healthy foods in our in-school lunch programs. The school programs are making little effort to structure their menus so that the daily nutritional requirements as proscribed by the United States Department of Agriculture are being addressed. Again, funding is cited as the problem but a strong argument can be made that convenience is more properly the issue. Additionally, the placement of vending machines containing snack foods high in carbohydrates and soft drinks high in sugar and fructose is also contributing to the overall problem. The placement of these vending machines is the result of corporate sponsorships by some of the nation's leading food manufacturers and the schools benefit financially from these placements but at what price?
If obesity could have developed as a problem in less than a generation it can be solved in less…
Brownell, J.L. (2009). Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity. The Milbank Quarterly, 185-213.
Butcher, P.M. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. Fuiture of Children, 19-45.
Cawley, J. (2006). Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy. Future of Children, 69-88.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, March 3). U.S. Obesity Trends 1985-2007. Retrieved May 21, 2011, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html
Obesity Budget and Rationale
One often things of pandemics as serious diseases that have the potential to change the global culture. Ironically, a 21st century pandemic that has developed globally, moving from the developed to the underdeveloped world is the result of a sedentary lifestyle, high sugar and fat diet (fast foods) and lack of dietary balance. Physicians, scholars and researchers are thus all in agreement that childhood obesity and the surrounding issues it causes is both a consequence of what we eat and drink and our movement indoors and away from activity (Fumento, 1998). Thus, in almost every community it is important to launch and educational campaign to mitigate these circumstances whenever possible (Childhood Obesity, 2006). The county of Springville, IL is the focus of our current educational program and will last 12-18 months. The county shares some major health concerns of poorer communities nationally: high obesity and resultant…
Childhood Obesity. (2006). Thomson Medstat Research Brief. Retrieved from: http://www.thomson.com .
Childhood Obesity: The Fiscal and Health Costs. Reporting on Health. California Endowment Health and Journalism Fellowships. Cited in:
Health Risks.(2009). SRTS Guide. Cited in:
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
In the last three decades, the rates of childhood obesity have increased by more than three times. This is according to the American Health Trust (2013), which further reports that 30 states have over 30% of their children above the overweight mark. Weight ranges greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, is what is considered overweight or obese by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These weight ranges are considered to increase the likelihood of some health complications such as Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea and liver disease. Both the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the Body Mass Index (BMI) as the screening tool to identify possible weight problems in children.
Overweight and obese children are at a risk of developing serious health complications such as diabetes type 2 and hypertension (CDC, 2015b). Children and adolescents are the ones…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Healthy Weight. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/ on August 29, 2016
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/ on August 29, 2016
Chang, W., Lee, P., Lai, H., Chou, Y. & Chang, L. (2009). Perceptions of exercise in obese school-aged children. Journal of Nursing Research, 17(3), 170-176.
Fahlman, M., Dake, J., Mccaughtry, N., & Martin, J. (2008). A pilot study to examine the effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 216-222.
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Defining Childhood Obesity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015. Web.
Glasper, Alan. "Childhood Obesity Plan: The Government Declares War on Sugar." British Journal of Nursing 25.17 (2016): 984-985. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Jackson, Callum G. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Management and Challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
McHugh, Bronwyn. "The Childhood Obesity Epidemic." Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 22.2 (2016): 94-98. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Childhood Obesity and prevention: Action by parents and children.
Obesity, also known as overweight is defined by WHO (2018:1) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. Obesity or overweight metrics are measured through the use of internationally accepted formula Body Mass Index (BMI). This involves the juxtaposition of body weight in kilograms against the body height in Meters. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual in KGs by the Square of the Height in Meters. Once the result is obtained, the individual can be classified as either normal weight, overweight or obese. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
The audience of immediate interest in this case is the parents and the children both of…
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
In fact, social researchers Michael Gard and Jan Wright (2004) point to studies that show:
today's children, in both developing and industrialized countries, are taller and heavier than in the past, in spite of relatively stable or falling energy intakes among children from industrialized countries. Their fat intakes are falling and the percentage of total energy derived from protein is rising. Lower energy intakes are apparent even among young children and seem to be more pronounced in girls than in boys (olland-Cachera and Bellisle 2002:74) (Gard and Wright, p. 115)."
While there is evidence that is compelling in both research camps, the result is that parents are, today, taking a more concerted role in their children's nutritional needs and paying closer attention to the ways in which their children spend their leisure time. Whether or not childhood obesity is the urgent problem that some experts suggest it is, we…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014370999 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108854352
Gard, M., & Wright, J. (2004). The Obesity Epidemic: Science, Morality, and Ideology. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108854354 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014371031
Lindsay, a.C., Sussner, K.M., Kim, J., & Gortmaker, S. (2006). The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 169+. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014371031 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108854352
Policy-Priority Issue on "Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is considered to a global epidemic demanding prioritizing in policy and health care reform. This is a disorder that has a lot of effects on long-term and acute health, as well as increasing the risk for other illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and particular kinds of cancer. This essay brings up my personal interest in the disorder of childhood obesity, also, the significance to nursing, problem sources, and prioritizing the level of action to best achieve the objective of eliminating obesity in childhood.
Why it is important to me
This paper was important to write because there are quite a few family members of mine that have an extended history of Type II Diabetes. I want to diminish any chances of my children getting any of these conditions down the road. Furthermore, I live in Atlanta, Georgia, which is considered to…
Brownson RC, C.J. (2013). Understanding evidence-based public health policy. Am J. Public Health, 23(6), 45-47.
Brownson RC, J.E. (2012). Bridging the gap: translating research into policy and practice. Prev Med, 49(4), 313-5.
Hawe P, S.A. (2013). Theorising interventions as events in systems. American Journal Community Psychology, 12(7), 34-89.
Jilcott S, A.A. (2013). Applying the RE-AIM framework to assess the public health impact of policy change. Ann Behav Med, 34(2), 105-14.
The largest study of children's health is on course to make discoveries that could improve health for generations to come, according to its planners, including the possibility of new treatments and life-saving prevention strategies. However, proposed flat funding levels could slow the progress of the study. Created by the Children's Health Act of 2000, the National Children's Study will follow the health and development of 100,000 children from before birth until age 21, focusing on the links between environment and health. The study, led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, hopes to identify the root causes of various childhood diseases and disabilities and uncover how a broad array of environmental factors impact development. In addition, the study is predicted to shed light on costly conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity. Planning for the study began in 2000 and eventually gathered…
Krisberg, K. (2005, May). National Study on Children's Health to Provide Wealth of Information. Nation's Health, 35(4), 1-26.
Phelps, J. (2004, March). Childhood Obesity. Environmental Health Perspective, 112(3), A 164.
Shaheen, (1999, March). Obesity and Asthma: Cause for Concern?. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 29(3), 291-293.
Von Kries, R., Hermann, M., Grunert, V.P., & Von Mutius, E. (2001, April). Is obesity a risk factor for childhood asthma?. Allergy, 56(4), 318-323.
obesity is a growing problem that negatively strikes the health of many children in Canada. From a statistical analysis of childhood obesity in Canada in 1996, reports show that 23% to 36% of Canadian children with age ranging from 7 to 13 are considered overweight and obese (Willms, 2004). This rate of obesity continuously increases every year, thus, resulting to the widespread concern of Canada's national healthcare system to solve the problem of obesity.
This study finds the prevalence of obesity, particularly in the childhood years of Canada's children, a major health dilemma. Obesity is a major disease because it is not only a problem of being unhealthfully overweight, but also a health crisis that leads to other serious health ailments such as heart disease and diabetes. With the alarming increase in rate of obese Canadians, this study finds it important to provide the public with sufficient information about obesity.…
Johnston, J.M. (2004). Eating Disorders and Childhood Obesity: Who are the real gluttons?
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (12).
Willms, J.D. (2004). Early Childhood Obesity: A Call for Early Surveillance and Preventive Measures. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (3).
Tremblay, M.S., Willms, J.D. Is the Canadian Childhood Obesity Epidemic Related to Physical Inactivity? International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1100-1105.
childhood obesity in the United States and many of the other estern nations have been growing at an alarming pace. This topic is interesting for many reasons. One such reason is that childhood obesity affects the first world at a much higher rate than developing nations. As society grows more technologically advanced and has mass produced foods then this seems to open many dietary challenges. Although food may be plentiful, the nutritional value is poor in cheaper foods in the United States that are processed and packaged. For example, there are a variety of cheap packaged pastries and soda drinks that are highly portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible which makes them popular among many demographics. This analysis will look at childhood obesity from many angles and try to develop a campaign that can help mitigate this growing trend.
Childhood Obesity Risks
There are many factors that have been identified that…
Baidal, J., & Taveras, E. (2014). Protecting Progress against Childhood Obesity -- The National School Lunch Program. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1862-1865.
Chen, M., Collins, E., Tao, L., & Lu, C. (2013). Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 9251-9264.
Chicago Defender. (2003). Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies. Chicago Defender, 1.
Chung, M., Ma, J., Patel, K., Berger, S., Lau, J., & Lichtenstein, A. (2014). Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 833-849.
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…
Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.
De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.
Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.
Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention.
There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in BMI at the 9-month assessment, but none at the 15-month follow-up (McCallum et al., 2007). However, family reports of enrolled children engaging in more exercise and eating healthier did reach statistical significance at both time points. The authors of this report argue that these findings are too preliminary to draw hard conclusions. Moodie and colleagues (2008) mention that a much larger LEAP study is underway. The short time-span of the intervention may also be a problem, since a 2-year…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics. Table 59. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australia. ABS.gov.AU. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/3101.0Jun%202011?OpenDocument .
BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). (2012). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. BLS.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers.htm .
Manger, William, M., Manger, Lynn S., Minno, Alexander M., Killmeyer, Mike, Holzman, Robert S., Schullinger, John N. et al. (2012). Obesity prevention in young schoolchildren: Results of a pilot study. Journal of School Health, 82(10), 462-468.
McCallum, Z., Wake, M., Gerner, B., Baur, L.A., Gibbons, K., Gold, L. et al. (2007). Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: A randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
Childhood obesity in Turner County, GA is topic for concern, especially in the age ranges of 6-11. County data shows the adult diabetes rate for Turner County is higher than the rate in the state at 3.1% of difference (City-Data, 2016). The adult obesity rate is also higher at 4.8% difference. While evidence from recent sources reveal childhood obesity rates going down in Georgia, the diabetes and obesity data could signal a red flag.
Overall the county seems like it has adequate daycare facilities and a high degree of cohesiveness, with an adequate number of quality recreational areas like parks. This shows there are enough areas for children to go exercise and socialize. However, the number of restaurants and the low number of walkers as a means of transportation to work shows a lack or desire to participate in cardiovascular exercise or activities. Most people in the county…
City-Data,. (2016). Turner County, Georgia detailed profile - houses, real estate, cost of living, wages, work, agriculture, ancestries, and more. City-data.com. Retrieved 30 April 2016, from http://www.city-data.com/county/Turner_County-GA.html
Davila-Payan, C., DeGuzman, M., Johnson, K., Ser-ban, N., & Swann, J. (2015). Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.140229
Kelley, G. & Kelley, K. (2013). Effects of Exercise in the Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses.Journal Of Obesity, 2013, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/783103
Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2015). Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community (9th ed.). Mosby.
Strengths and Barriers to Program Implementation for Childhood Obesity
With any plan to implement a program, there are both strengths and barriers. The program addressed here will be on childhood obesity. The strengths of the program will be community and organizational, while the barriers will be environmental and ethical. By carefully considering and addressing all of these, it can be determined how best to move forward with implementation of the program. That will provide the highest level of success for the program and will raise the value of it in such a way as to provide children and their parents with ways to combat obesity in their families and in their community.
Strengths -- Community and Organizational
The main strengths of the childhood obesity program are community and organizational in nature. When a community comes together, issues like childhood obesity can be mitigated (Ebbeling, Pawlak, & Ludwig, 2002).…
Ebbeling, C.B., Pawlak, D.B., & Ludwig, D.S. (2002). Childhood obesity: Public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet, 360(9331): 473 -- 482.
Janssen, I., Craig, W.M., Boyce, W.F., & Pickett, W. (2004). Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Pediatrics, 113(5): 1187 -- 1194.
Must, A., Jacques, P.F., Dallal, G.E., Bajema, C.J., & Dietz, W.H. (1992). Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327(19): 1350 -- 1355.
Reinehr, T., & Wabitsch, M. (2011). Childhood obesity. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 22(1): 21 -- 25.
Many health issues that children have been faced with in the United States have decreased in intensity and prevalence over the past few decades, but they have been replaced by new problems that could cause even more serious long-term effects. One such, childhood obesity, is troublesome because it is can be the root cause of many more serious problems. Childhood obesity leads to an increased incidence of heart disease, diabetes and other serious health issues. The primary method for combatting childhood obesity is education of both the children and the parents, and nurses are among the most important means of providing that education. This paper examines the seriousness of childhood obesity and how nurses can be advocates of change.
Nurses are guided by a set of principles much like other professionals in health care and other occupations. For nursing, these guidelines answer the who, what, when, where, and…
ANA. (2012). Scope and standards of practice. Nursing World. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/scopeandstandardsofpractice
The National Academy of Sciences. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity. Health in the Balance.
Childhood Obesity in Turner County, GA Ages 6-11
Turner County is one of the regions in Georgia that is affected by childhood obesity and overweight. Generally, childhood obesity is one of the major public health concerns and issues affecting Georgia. Currently, the state is among the top three states with high prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight issues. Despite the numerous measures that have been undertaken to deal with the problem and significant gains that have been made in the process, Georgia still has a high rate of childhood obesity cases. In essence, Turner County is still largely affected by the issue of childhood obesity similar to other counties in Georgia. However, a clear understanding of the extent of childhood obesity in Turner County among children aged 6-11 years requires collecting vital statistics on this population. For this analysis, the researcher has relied on a questionnaire and interview of healthcare…
Davila-Payan et al. (2015, March 12). Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2015/14_0229.htm
Johansson, S. (2014, October 15). Maternal Overweight and Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Infant Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden. British Medical Journal, 349. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6572
Childhood Obesity Questionnaire
Childhood Obesity: Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program
Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program: Childhood Obesity
Childhood is a serious health concern for policymakers in the United States. It is estimated that currently, one in every five children below the ages of 2 and 19 in America is obese. For this reason, numerous policies have been formulated to help in preventing or minimizing the risk of obesity among children. This study assesses the effectiveness of one such policy -- the National School Lunch Program.
Childhood Obesity: Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program
Childhood obesity has become a serious health concern for parents and policymakers in the U.S. over the last few decades. It is estimated that approximately 12.5 million children between the ages of 2 and 19, which translates to approximately 1 in every five children, is obese (Toro, 2011). These…
Leach, R. A. (2004). The Chiropractic Theories: A Textbook of Scientific Research (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Levine, D. M. & Stephan, D. F. (2009). Even You can Learn Statistics: A Guide for Everyone who has Ever been Afraid of Statistics (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ FT Press.
Sukal, M. (2013). Research Methods: Applying Statistics in Research. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint.
Toro, R. (2011). Childhood Obesity. Live Science. Retrieved October 7, 2015 from http://www.livescience.com/17244-childhood-obesity-infographic.html
Childhood Obesity in Turner County (Ages 6-11)
What small group have you selected?
The group selected is a nuclear family comprising of parents and a male child who is obese (William).
What made you select this particular group?
The group was chosen owing to the unhealthy lifestyle of its members. It offers an adequately controllable setting in which to implement and test plan effectiveness. Further, one can deal with this group's numerous issues one-by-one by employing small measurable outcomes. Such an approach reduces key threatening issues gradually.
What portion of the plan would you like to implement in the small group?
The first part of this plan would entail dealing with Imbalanced Nutrition: i.e., more nutrition than the body actually needs. Nutrition is crucial for the human body, and for proper functioning of all bodily systems. Proper nutrition will help maintain appropriate and healthy body weight, provide energy to the…
Pollan, L. (2015, April 14). 5 Healthy-Eating Strategies That Will Outlast Any Trend. Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lori-pollan/5-healthy-eating-strategies-that-will-outlast-any-trend_b_7054008.html
The Training Room. (2013, March 28). The Importance of A Balanced Diet. Retrieved from The training room: http://thetrainingroom.com/importance-nutrition-balanced-diet/
A brief explanation of the public health need you identified.
Childhood obesity is an increasingly prevalent problem in our homes, schools and in the United States as a whole. ith obesity comes a host of health risks including heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and a significantly shorter lifespan. This is why early intervention in critical.
Describe the population whom you plan to target for your public health program and explain why.
Early intervention should take the form of addressing obesity in your elementary school aged children. It is at this age that health behaviors become habit-forming and more difficult to break. Additionally, because it appears that younger people are ever more susceptible to obesity, it is critical to take corrective action now.
Describe potential sources of funding.
Funding will largely be elicited through the combined support of government grant programs aimed at reducing childhood obesity and private companies such as…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Health People 2020. CDC.gov.
Primary Text. (?). Planning a Health Promotion Program. .
Obesity eduction and Public Health Policies
Proposed Public Health Policy
Although the problem of obesity is complex, it is well-established that a lack of physical activity contributes to obesity. Furthermore, children who do not get enough physical activity may be more likely to grow into healthy adults. Despite this, many children do not have a regular physical education class, and, depending on their neighborhood surroundings may not have safe opportunities for physical play. The proposed public health policy would be to fund supervised play in gyms in public schools for thirty minutes prior to the beginning of school and one hour after the end of school on every school day.
The goal of the policy is to ensure that all children have access to safe, supervised exercise facilities on a daily basis. This access would be made available twice daily, because some family schedules may allow for time after school,…
Brownson, R., Chriqui, J., & Stamatakis, K. (2009). Understanding evidence-based public health policy. American Journal of Public Health, 99(9), 1576-83.
Isaacs, S., Swartz, A. (2010). On the front lines of childhood obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 100(11), 2018.
Sealey, J. (2012). No sweat. ABC. Retrieved September 3, 2014 from:
Childhood Obesity and Interventions
There is a strong relationship between childhood obesity and exposure to environmental factors -- most notably socio-economic status. There are exposures that trigger both positive and negative outcomes, and these have to be discussed along with the possible interventions that can be undertaken. Low socio-economic status (E) has been associated with a large number of problematic outcomes where health is concerned, including obesity and related issues in childhood (Kallem, et al., 2013). Despite this correlation, though, there are plenty of children with low E who grow up slim and apparently health, so it is clear that environment is not the only factor (Kallem, et al., 2013). The objective of the study by Kallem, et al. (2013) was to examine the "shift-and-persist" strategy and how (or if) it was what was protecting low E children from obesity in some cases. This strategy involves how a person deals…
Studies have found that racial and ethnic disparities can be just as significant as SES, diet, and exercise issues -- largely because SES and related concerns are often tied to specific racial and ethnic groups more than others (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). Preschool age children who are in minority racial and ethnic categories have a statistically higher prevalence of obesity when all other variables have been controlled for by researchers (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). That is a serious indication that there is more at play in the overall environment, and that study of all factors that could contribute to obesity is needed. That would include analyzing a larger area of environmental factors, because there are many causes for the tripling of obese children and adolescents throughout the last three decades (Dixon, et al., 2012). That much of a change in that short of a time period is a significant problem for society, and can raise the rates of health care for everyone.
If the obesity epidemic in children is not dealt with now, society can expect to see increases in the rates of many chronic diseases, and these diseases will be particularly obvious in populations that already have a disparity in their health (Dixon, et al., 2012). In the study conducted by Dixon, et al. (2012), the associations between SES and social characteristics of the residential environment were considered. Then, these were looked at as compared to diet, physical activity, and BMI (Dixon, et al., 2012). The participants consisted of students in the fifth and sixth grade at a school in New Haven, Connecticut (Dixon, et al., 2012). That was done to narrow down a population in order to determine the environmental factors associated with it (Dixon, et al., 2012). Multilevel modeling was used in order to collect information on the area and the students (Dixon, et al., 2012).
It was discovered that students living within a close walking distance of fast food outlets had higher BMI numbers than those who lived farther away (Dixon, et al., 2012). Additionally, high fast food outlet densities were linked to higher BMIs and more unhealthy eating (Dixon, et al., 2012). When students had close access to gyms, parks, and playgrounds, though, they were more likely to get exercise, helping to offset some of the unhealthy eating patterns (Dixon, et al., 2012). More affluent neighborhoods were also linked to healthier eating behaviors and better exercise regimens, where students who were on the low end of the SES scale ate poorly and got little exercise (Dixon, et al., 2012). One of the ways to help lessen the problems with childhood obesity could be to provide more parks, playgrounds, and other areas where students could get good exercise, and to lower the number of fast food establishments in residential areas.
Program Design on Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity has become a very serious epidemic today, it is estimated that about 16.3% of children all over the world are obese.in the past four decades the rate of obesity for children that are aged between 6 and 11 years has gone up by more than four times.it is a serious pandemic since obese children are likely to suffer health consequences not only in their childhood and adolescence but also throughout their lives as adults. They are at risk for problems of joints and bones, sleep apnea, psychological and social problems, health diseases, type II diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Childhood obesity is an epidemic that cuts across the lines of ethnicity, family income, and race however, there are certain populations that are at a higher risk as compared to others. Some of the populations that are at risk include Latinos, African Americas, Native…
Digate, N.(2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/preventing-childhood-obesity
Segal, E. (2009). Fighting Obesity: What Works, What's Promising. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.sparkpe.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Fighting-Obesity-Report.pdf
Pekruhn, C. (2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity a School Health Policy Guide. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/web-assets/2009/01/preventing-childhood-obesity -
WHO. (2014). What can be Done to Fight the Childhood Obesity Epidemic. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_what_can_be_done/en/
controversy regarding childhood obesity, as this is a pressing matter and as there are more and more cases involving children becoming obese as a result of a series of factors involving poor nutrition, little to no exercise, and a general failure to understand why it is important for them to adopt attitudes that can maintain them healthy. The percentage of children becoming obese has experienced a steady increase in recent years, this standing as proof with regard to how conditions have become critical. The increase of the number of obese children is directly proportional with the advancement of technology and fast food, taking into account that children become more and more attached to technological devices and find it easier and more enjoyable to eat fast food.
Numerous pediatricians, parents, and policy-makers have gotten actively involved in discussing the topic of childhood obesity and in finding strategies they can use with…
Paxon, Christina, "Childhood Obesity," (Brookings Institution Press, 2006)
Vaca Durr, Olga, "It's Not about Childhood Obesity: It Is about Being Healthy for Life," (Inspiring Voices, 12.11.2012)
Doctors of nursing practice have an ethical and professional obligation to disseminate findings that emerge from relevant and timely research. One area of ongoing concern is the near-epidemic levels of childhood obesity that have emerged in recent years due in large part to increasingly sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits among young people. This paper provides an assessment and reflection on the success of the program design for disseminating the results of childhood obesity research, the challenges that were encountered, and the ethical considerations that may warrant additional attention. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
Assessment and eflection
Over the past several weeks, my understanding of the national health-promotion and disease-prevention issue has become far more acute. The extent of the childhood obesity problem in this country became increasingly apparent as study after study confirmed the existence of the problem…
Berkowitz, B. & Borchard, M. (2009, January). Advocating for the prevention of childhood obesity: A call to action for nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(1), 37-41.
Cawley, J. (2006, Spring). Markets and childhood obesity policy. The Future of Children, 16(1),
Hannan, M. (2014, April 1). Setting the standard. National Recreation and Parks
According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010), childhood obesity has more than tripled over the past 30 years. The frequency of obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years rose from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008, while among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years the obesity rate increased from 5.0% to 18.1% during the same period. Obesity results when more calories are consumed than expended, and is influenced by genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Let us take a look at four paradigms associated with this phenomenon.
The functionalist perspective asserts obese are necessary in order to drive others to become healthy and learn what is making people obese. From this perspective the key is not to eliminate this condition, but to utilize this state to explore the psychological and emotional factors that make this situation possible.
Functionalists are concerned with the stability of society…
Center for Disease Control. "Childhood Obesity." CDC/Healthy Youth. 3 June 2010. Web. 28 April 2012.
Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects both children and adolescents. This condition occurs when a child is above the normal weight for their age. The number of overweight children has dramatically increased over the recent years.it is approximated that ten percent of children who are aged between four and five years are over weight twice that twenty years ago. Obesity is more prevalent in girls as compared to boys and in preschoolers who are older ages 4-5 as compared to younger ages 2-3 years. Obesity increases more as the children grow older. For children aged between six and eleven years it is estimated that one in every five children is obese. Over the last two decades this number has doubled as the number has increased more that 50% (Department of Health, 2012). Childhood obesity is quite disturbing since the extra pounds are a beginning of…
American Heart Association, Inc., (2014). Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers. Retrieved January 26, 2013 from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/HealthierKids/ChildhoodObesity/Preventing-Childhood-Obesity-Tips-for-Parents-and-Caretakers_aUCM_456118_Article.jsp
Department of Health, (2012). Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents. Retrieved January 26, 2013 from https://www.health.ny.gov/prevention/nutrition/resources/obparnts.htm
Change4Life: Government Movement to educe Childhood Obesity
Change4Life, a public health program in England, effective since January of 2009 and organized by the Department of Health is the country's first national social marketing campaign to reduce obesity (NHS, 2009, pp. 13). More specifically aimed at families with children under twelve years old, the initiative seeks to reduce childhood obesity and foster healthy and happy children, who in turn grown into happy and healthy adults. In recent years, a rise in obesity numbers and a decrease in physical activity led the Change4Life campaign to challenge the behaviors of English families that lead to excess weight gain (Change4Life, 2009, pp.1). In hoping to eliminate obesity from the earliest stages of life, Change4Life works to not only adjust citizen's weight, but their overall health and well-being through education and easily-accessible information. In essence, this campaign aims to encourage people to lead overall healthier…
Boseley, S. 2011 November 15. Obesity advisory group disbanded by government. The Guardian. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/nov/16 / obesity-advisory-group-disbanded [Accessed on 29 March 2012].
The Bow Group. 2009. Bow Group responds to the Children's Food Campaign: Criticism
of Change4Life. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.bowgroup.org/content/bow-group-responds-childrens-food-campaign-criticism-change4life [Accessed on 29 March 2012].
Change4Life. 2009. Change4Life Evaluation: Summary of Approach. Web. Retrieved
This approach can take the focus off of the child, and instead treats the child's environment as a way of holistically treating his or her condition. Also, if time and the nurse's relationship allows for the use of such an open-ended tool, a great deal of information can be yielded about the family system that cannot by other models.
Chen, J.L, C.H. Yeh, & C. Kennedy. (2007, Jun 22). eight status, self-competence, and coping strategies in Chinese children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 22.3:176-85.
Cochran, Jill. (2008). Empowerment in adolescent obesity: State of the science. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care. 8. 1. Retrieved 19 Mar, 2009 at http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/159/190
Cox, Cheryl L., Julia M. Cowell, Lucy N. Marion, & Elaine H. Miller. (2007, January 19). The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children. Research in Nursing and Health.
13. 4: 237-246. Retrieved March 18, 2009 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/114079089/abstract
Chen, J.L, C.H. Yeh, & C. Kennedy. (2007, Jun 22). Weight status, self-competence, and coping strategies in Chinese children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 22.3:176-85.
Cochran, Jill. (2008). Empowerment in adolescent obesity: State of the science. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care. 8. 1. Retrieved 19 Mar, 2009 at http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/159/190
Cox, Cheryl L., Julia M. Cowell, Lucy N. Marion, & Elaine H. Miller. (2007, January 19). The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children. Research in Nursing and Health.
13. 4: 237-246. Retrieved March 18, 2009 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/114079089/abstract
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
Parents of Obese Children and Charges of Child Abuse: What Is Our
esponse? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
This article provides a discussion on the problems related to childhood obesity and the potential redresses that could be ethically used to help mitigate the growing trend. Some healthcare professionals have also argued that obesity in children is sufficient grounds for some parents to be prosecuted for a form of child abuse in extreme cases. Yet, there are many social and cultural barriers that are present that can prevent parents from being able to understand proper diets or have access to nutritious foods. Some researchers have noted the irony of a country that allows removing obese children from their homes but that does not support healthier children through controlled advertising, legislating a living wage, or making healthy foods affordable (Lang, 2012).
The article notes that states have a mandate to protect…
Hopkins, K. D., & Elliot, L. (2010). How can primary care providers manage pediatric obesity in the real world? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 278-288.
Lang, K. (2012). Parents of Obese Children and Charges Of Child Abuse: What Is Our Response? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
Savinon, C., Taylor, J., Canty-Mitchell, J., & Blood-Siegfried, J. (2012). Childhood obesity: Can electronic medical records customized with clinical practice guidelines improve screening and diagnosis? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 463-471.
Marketing and Childhood Obesity
In the twenty-first century obesity is growing out of control in many counties in the developed world. A combination of a sedentary lifestyle, a high-fat diet, and sugary drinks, have driven up the average human weight to the point in which it is having a serious negative effect on the overall health of a large number of individuals. This is particularly serious with regards to our younger population. Childhood obesity, a condition in which excess body fat negatively affects a child's health, is reaching epidemic proportions in the developed world. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010) childhood obesity has more than tripled over the last 30 years. Incidences of obesity among children ages 6 to 11 has risen from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008. Among adolescents ages 12 to 19 the obesity rate increased from 5% to 18.1percent during the same…
Center for Disease Control. (2010, June 3). Childhood obesity. CDC/Healthy youth. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/obesity/index.htm
Goodman, B. (Dir.). (2001, February 27) The merchants of cool. Frontline, Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved March 26, 2013 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/
Lluch, A., Herbeth, B., Mejean, L, & Siest, G. (2000, November). Dietary intakes, eating style and overweight in the Stanislas family study. International Journal of Obesity. Vol. 24, Issue11, 1493-1499. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=15c2f4f6-9ef7-47d3-8df7-4ec14ae58e1d%40sessionmgr13&hid=3
Nelson, J. & Zeratsky, K. (February 19, 2010). Schools say NO to sugary foods.
Obesity in Americans has been a topic of debate over the last decade. Americans are among the most obese people in the world. Obesity causes a variety of health problems that cost American billions each year. In recent years there has also been an increase in obesity in children. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate obesity in children. The discussion will focus on poor eating habits and lack of exercise as the primary causes of obesity in children. The paper will also focus on ways to prevent childhood obesity.
Obesity in Children
According to an article found in Childhood Education there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in children over the past few decades. The article reports that the increase in obesity has occurred over all ethnic, racial, gender and age groups (Hoot & Lynn-Garbe). In addition nearly 10% of children from the ages of…
Childhood Obesity. American Obesity Association. 27 October 2005 http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/prevention.shtml
Department of Education. 2004. Carol M. White Physical Education Program
Grunbaum, J.A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Lowry, R., et al.. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(SS-2), (2004) 1-95.
Irwin, Carol C., Cynthia W. Symons, and Dianne L. Kerr. "The Dilemmas of Obesity: How Can Physical Educators Help?." JOPERD -- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 74.6 (2003): 33+.
Blacks also have a 320% higher rate of hypertension-related end-stage renal disease than the general population (Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
According to a study of diet-related chronic diseases among black men in Florida, it was found that almost two-thirds of blacks in Florida are estimated to be at risk for health problems related to being overweight. The percent of the total population that is at risk for health problems related to being overweight compared to the State of Florida in shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Percentage of Black/White Population at isk for Overweight Health Problems - Florida vs. The U.S. (Source: Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
The authors of this study point out that many blacks do not eat a sufficient amount of vegetables and other foods that require the recommended levels of nutrition. Clearly, there is more involved in the epidemiology and…
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Collins, C.F. (1996). African-American women's health and social issues. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Diet-Related Chronic Diseases that Disproportionately Affect African-American Men. State of Florida: Health. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from www.5aday.gov/aahealth/aamen/diet/pdfs/FL_state.pdf.
Drevenstedt, G.L. (1998). Race and Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Religious Attendance on Subjective Health. Review of Religious Research, 39(3), 246.
This is an area that receives little attention, but it promises to be fruitful if attention is given to it. The health practitioner will combine attempts to reach this group with administrative policy and in combination; there will be a moderation of the problem at school.
The popular kids at school set the norms of the schools and influence the values within the school. The popular kids are generally not the ones who are obese they may make fun at obese children. An awareness program that allows popular children to observe the impact of their taunts and other unkind comments on their peers may strike within their hearts a desire to become part of the solution rather than the problem. When combined with an administrative approach that encourages more exercise that is physical and coupled with a school climate of support for eating healthy food. This strategy will create changes…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher Kristin F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential
Causes the Future of Children, 16: (1): 19-45.
CDC Fact Sheet: Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meal Programs.
Crosnoe Robert & Muller Chandra (2004) Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and School Context: Examining the Educational Experiences of Adolescents at Risk of Obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (4):393-407.