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Chinese History Through Literature
The country of China is one of the worlds oldest and for many centuries the country went heavily unchanged although the power moved from one familial dynasty to another. By 1919, the population of China was fundamentally fed up by the oppressive government and demanded reforms. The attempts made by the last emperor were too little too late and by October of that year, the rebellion of the masses led to the complete overthrow of the government. By the 1940s, this government too had failed to do right by the people and another rebellion, this one by Communists took control of China. Following the introduction of Communism and the overtaking of the government by Chairman Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), China became a nation controlled by a totalitarian government. Even in the modern time, the people of China are still heavily monitored and…… [Read More]
Chinese History 1100-1500
The Yuan Dynasty only lasted for a little less than a century in China, but has captured the imagination of western historians mainly because it was during this period of Mongol ascendancy that China was first "discovered" by Europe. In part this was a natural consequence of the Mongol invasions, which would extend out of Asia into eastern Europe, sacking the German city of Breslau in 1241 and advancing towards Vienna until news of the death of Ogedei Khan (who was himself the designated political heir of Genghis Khan) leading ultimately to Mongol withdrawal from Europe. To a certain degree, the establishment thirty years later of the Mongol-run Yuan Dynasty in China by Genghis Khan's grandson Kublai represented part of the larger geopolitical effects across all Asian and Europe resulting from the Mongol's establishment of the largest land-empire in history. But the idea of Europe's "discovery" of…… [Read More]
The usual rebellions broke out, sweeping a Chinese of most humble origins into the seat of highest power. In 1368 the Mongol dynasty yielded its place to the native dynasty of the Ming.
uxton L.H.D., China, the Land and the People, Oxford, 1929.
Cowan H.H., and Hall J.W., Outline History of China, New York, 1926.
Giles H.A., the Civilization of China, New York, 1911.
Williams E.T., a Short History of China, New York, 1928.
Werner ET.C., China of the Chinese, London, 1919.
Williams E.T., China: Yesterday and Today, New York, 1927.
Cowan H.H., and Hall J.W., Outline History of China, New York, 1926.
Cameron Meribeth E., Mahoney Thomas H.D., and McReynolds George E., China, Japan and the Powers, New York, 1952.
Williams S.W., the Middle Kingdom, 2 vols., New York, 1891.
Woodhead H.G.W., the China Year ook, Shanghai and London, 1912, and annually.
Chinese Ministry…… [Read More]
Discuss the features of a dynasty in decline and explain why the Sung Dynasty avoided the standard problems that plagued other dynasties before and after
The standard profile of a Chinese dynasty in decline, as exemplified first in the Five Dynasties that ruled China following the breakup of the Tang Empire in 907 as well as the dynasties that existed after the Sung surrendered to Mongol rule, was a state of internal and then of external dissolution. A dynasty in decline was often subject to an onslaught of outside foreign attacks, which caused its immediate termination. But this foreign attack was only effective after economic, internal dissolution had occurred between the powerful landowning classes and their enraged yet politically disenfranchised and ignored tenant peasants. At the court and city, a dynasty in decline was often marked by aristocratic rather than merit-based administration.
But the Sung Dynasty that ended…… [Read More]
"In the period from the late Tang to the end of the Song there was an especially broad distribution of kiln sites and ware types, which supported local economies. International trade in export ceramics, mostly for household use, extended from Southeast Asia, India, and Africa to the Near East and to Japan, where Chinese tea bowls for monastic use were highly prized" (Thorp, and Vinograd 233).
Among the main reasons for which certain Chinese Dynasties expressed unwillingness about engaging in foreign affairs was the fact that leadership of the Empire was often disputed between groups in the country. ith civil warfare being one of their most significant concerns, leaders were less interested in spending money on maintain relationships with foreign countries. Many Chinese were underprivileged during such times, given that they were either deprived of their basic needs because they were required to engage in warfare, or because their leaders…… [Read More]
The Shang dynasty marked one of the earliest recorded periods of history in ancient China, for which substantial archeological evidence exists. Although Chinese culture did not necessarily flourish during the Shang, a system of writing was first developed, its characters etched on the so-called oracle bones. The Shang dynasty was a bronze-based society that extended from 1700 to 1027 BCE. The form of government practiced during the Shang was largely based on an alliance of numerous city-states, which would pledge their allegiance to the rulers in power. However, although there were ruling parties, there was no established capital city. Fluctuating political power meant that the capital city shifted continuously, depending on intergenerational or political need. Familial ties and hereditary decent were the main means of establishing succession; often male rulers would pass on their lineage to their younger brothers. Although life was by no means easy during the…… [Read More]
He also wanted the hinese to realize that other socialist revolutions were occurring in European countries. He, for example, believed that Germany's defeat in WWI was caused not so much by Allied military prowess, as it was by the rise of German socialism. In order to make ommunism more palatable to the hinese, he tried to relate Marxist terms to the hinese experience. For example, he attempted to classify hina as also being composed of proletarians despite it not having ever implemented apitalism before. He attempted to do this by showing that the Western capitalist states had been exploiting hinese citizens much like the way they exploited their own working classes. With this and other unique interpretations of Marxist ideology, Li Dazhao encouraged his student followers to spread its message to the hinese people, particularly the peasant class. He thus worked diligently to gain widespread support for a ommunist revolution…… [Read More]
His fourth and final argument was in regard to how the post-revolutionary government was to be created. He argued that any vestiges of the old government had to first be removed. Then he emphasized that the new regime had to follow the American model.
Zou Rong's rhetorical strategies were used to achieve support for his arguments favoring revolution. It involved getting the people to become emotionally invested in it. For example, he asked his countrymen to ponder over whether the Yangzhou and Jiading massacres were really the only ones committed by the Manchus. He argued that it was quite possible for more massacres to have taken place throughout China, since the Manchus had unleashed their armies upon the land. Another question he asked his countrymen about was whether the people slaughtered by the Manchus were not their Han ancestors. If they were, and he asserts they were, he asked whether…… [Read More]
The most important accomplishments of the Yangshao include silk production, the erection of walled cities, and unpainted pottery made on wheels. Unlike Yangshao pottery, Longshan creations were simple polished black but because of the use of the wheel their design and durability represent technological progress in neolithic China. The erection of packed earth city walls with moats surrounding some of them shows that Longshan society became more urban in character and in need of protection against nearby villages. Cities also suggest social hierarchies, role distinction and possibly income disparity. One of the hallmarks of Yangshao culture was the organized, systematic cultivation of silkworms for the production of one of the products that would soon characterize Chinese culture and economy.
The Shang represent one of the first known Chinese dynasties, and therefore demonstrate the step-by-step development of ancient Chinese society from more simple to more complex social, political, and economic structures.…… [Read More]
These events may have happened in our history, but we are still feeling the effects unconsciously and consciously now. China is often in the news with regards to family size, family structure, parenting, eugenics, and birth control. These could be evidence of past cultural atrocities.
This is a graphic yet necessary read. There is a cultural fascination with men who come to power such as Mao Zedong or Adolf Hitler. It is useful to know what kind people these men were and understand their rise to power. Those who do not know history are doomed to repeat it. This book was enlightening about communism and Chinese culture. American culture in general turns its nose up to communism. We are instilled to hate communism and fight communism from spreading to our country. Hungry Ghosts offers an insider perspective to the reign of Mao Zedong. Survivors of his regime speak directly about…… [Read More]
Sun Yat-sen commends the current commitment of the Empire to the education of Chinese individuals in estern languages and in technical crafts that have resulted in the improvement of the modern Chinese navy, but such education alone, with its still overly focused stress on the classics and Chinese inclusiveness is not enough to fully catapult China into the modern world.
Sun Yat-sen points to his unique ability to broach both estern and Chinese understanding, because of his education. His philosophy stresses the meshing the ideals of the modern estern sages with Chinese traditions to facilitate Chinese advancement. His advice seems reasonable to the modern ear. But all advice is reasonable in retrospect, of course, with the retrospective knowledge of Chinese history and the knowledge of the costs of Chinese intransigence and closure that eventually resulted in further conflicts with the est.
Spence, Jonathan and Michael Lestz. (Editors.) the…… [Read More]
This also shows how women became more active in the national political process, no matter their stance or beliefs. While the more traditional facts about communist China under Mao Zedong are explicated, there are some less horrific details about communist life of which the average American may not be aware. Sexual equality did grow. Food was distributed fairly. These are not the typical details of communist China we learn about in America.
Chang herself has several occupations as the story focuses upon her life and her struggles. She is a member of ed Guard at the age of 14. She works as a steelworker and an electrician. These kinds of positions are still considered unusual for women in American culture as well as in many other cultures around the world. During the Cultural evolution, there arose opportunities for women to progress socially and politically. This rings true for the Civil…… [Read More]
He wants readers to examine the behaviors of their minds and thoughts. We should practice observing how our minds behave so as to understand the nature of ourselves more deeply and accurately, but also to help us function through trauma as well as everyday life. Too often we are lost in our own thoughts; we do not take time to observe our thoughts outside of their content.
There are several stories of themes surrounding community and identity with or through community. This is a theme western readers may expect with literature from eastern cultures. While American culture is relatively more narcissistic and selfish, Chinese culture is more relatively selfless, and group oriented.
The titles of the stories are simple and some are quite poetic. Hsun's style is delicate and penetrates the reader's senses. It is a tribute to his ability that he is able to write such tender stories about…… [Read More]
There are a number of factors that contributed to the rise of the Mongols in China. Chief among these is that after the Mongols invaded China, they were able to establish strong political control over the area. This was an extension of the Mongol system of governance that had been utilized in many of the lands conquered by the Mongol empire. Marco Polo, who visited Khanbalik during the reign of Kublai Khan, described the system of governance that the Mongols had imposed on China. They "appointed twelve…barons to supervise all decisions concerning the movement of the armies…" Polo noted that this council led to a high quality of decision-making with respect to resource deployment, and allowed for a stronger overall military presence in China as a result. Polo also noted that this tactic allowed the military leaders to identify the stronger soldiers and units, and cull the weak…… [Read More]
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…… [Read More]
Compare and contrast Mao's ideal of China to the variety sought by Deng Xiaoping. hat advantages and disadvantages did the Maoist system have? hat advantages did the Dengist system have?
Chairman Mao and Deng Xiaoping were two of the most influential leaders of modern Chinese history. Both men believed that they were acting in the best interest of their citizens but had vastly different ways of pursuing this goal. Each man was a member of the Chinese Communist party and built and government system based on Marxist teachings. However the two men had different ideas about what it meant to have a Communist regime and the types of policies which would best suit the needs of the people.
Chairman Mao led China during the period of Communist revolution. He completely revitalized the political, economic, cultural, and sociological system of the country. Mao's policies were concerned with the social…… [Read More]
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…… [Read More]
Zhu Yuanzhang: First Ming Dynasty Emperor
Zhu Yuanzhang was founder of the Ming Dynasty, the one dynasty that endured for so long (1368-1644), considering the fact that it was established by a commoner. The reason Ming Dynasty and its first emperor Yuanzhang occupy special place in Chinese history is because this was one of the only lonely two dynasties to have been formed by a landless peasant. It is not everyday that commoner emerges from nowhere, overthrown powerful rulers of the time, establishes his own dynasty that endures for three long centuries. But Yuanzhang managed to achieve this colossal feat and thus his name went down in Chinese history as a competent emperor, second commoner only after Liu Bang of Han Dynasty to rule China.
Yuanzhang's rise to fame and power was simply unprecedented in history. Born to a very poor family in Anhui province in 1328, Yuanzhang was orphaned…… [Read More]
The problem was intensified by the fact that greater mobilization of Chinese workforce required greater amounts of food. While there were many factors, in a micro and macro level, that caused and intensified famines, the major cause was the "shock therapy" of the Leap initiated by Mao. Chinese population, the largest in the world, could not quickly adapt to drastic changes. The havoc wrecked by the Leap continued until Chinese leaders realized the seriousness of the problem and reversed some of the recent changes.
China entered a period of slow recovery in the years 1961-64, when moderation and gradualism largely became the rule, but the Chinese state moved back and forth between radicalism and moderation until the end of the Maoist era. The years 1964-66 were characterized by launching of the Third Front, a Maoist program of envisioning a massive provincial construction. As Naughton (2007) chronicles the economic development in…… [Read More]
" However, as strange as these ideas may be to a modern reader or historian, that is all the more reason to demand the rigorous perspective demanded by Cohen. If objectivity is impossible, then looking at historical events from as many interpretations as possible provides a potential solution.
Cohen's embrace of folklore, and of piecing together a patchwork quilt of perspectives is useful in unpacking the influence of people outside of the ruling class, and exposing hidden influences upon Chinese history in terms of the impact of the religion of ordinary people, particularly women, denied an education or access to the centers of power. However, even for a historian outside of the field of East sian studies, Cohen's ideas are useful in terms of how to approach history, particularly historical events that have become especially fraught with meaning in modern culture, beyond their immediate impact. Cohen is most sure-footed when…… [Read More]
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…… [Read More]
That is, the notion of rivalry and envy is not inherently connected to rational ideas about good and evil. These ethical value judgments are quite secondary to the matter of human conflict and its role in the affairs of both love and power. As Giovetti (2012) points out, "Feng Yi Ting (running until June 7 and stopping in New York at the Lincoln Center Festival, also under Redden's directorship, in July) is characterised by an emotional neutrality that leaves the audiences to decide for themselves how they feel." (Giovetti, p. 1)
In many ways, this is a distinctly eastern way of approaching conflict, providing its details as a history rather than an allegory. And once again, as with the kung fu movies that made so great an impression on me as a child, the play would using certain visual strategies to supplement these themes. They demonstrate the same spare simplicity…… [Read More]
In addition, the ceremony also contained firecrackers which were symbolic of purification and joy. The food that was served at a marriage ceremony was also symbolic. For example, fruit and longevity noodles were symbolic of harmony, happiness, and prosperity.
Indeed the marriage arrangement was detailed and extravagant (for the wealthy) during the Qing dynasty. Now that we understand the marital arrangement let us focus on the role of the ideal wife during Qing's Dynasty.
The role of the ideal wife (Qing Dynasty)
Once the transfer was complete, the wife was totally immersed in pleasing her husband and his family. All kinship ties to the wife's family were broken and when she visited her family, she was considered a guest not a relative. Smith (1994) asserts that this was a cause of distress for many new wives because they were usually amongst strangers and the mother in law had a great…… [Read More]
Internal affairs included the cultivation of healthy relations with the extended family and the management of household finances. It also entailed the nourishment and regulation of the family's children, particularly the sons.
In many ways, women were understood to not have lives if they did not have either a husband. Yang betrays this understanding when he implores his wife to not choose an otherwise honorable suicide after his own death, explaining quite matter-of-factly "Among women, there are those who die with their husbands. This is because the husband is [the wife's] master, and there are no children to maintain: there would be no purpose in living."
Yang elaborates that, in situations where the husband is dead and there are still children, if the wife "…dies, then she is abandoning her husband and master's ancestral sacrifices, letting his work degenerate…"
Whether dead or alive, the husband is always a woman's raison…… [Read More]
The fact that China tried to cut off exports of tea to the British -- unless the British would stop bringing in opium to China -- shows again that laws and morality in China were of higher importance than the economy. The war that ensued in 1839 (the first "Opium ar") because the Chinese attempted to blockade the factories and keep the foreigners out. The British also won the second "Opium ar" in China and the law changed in China to allow opium as a legitimate trading item. It took a war to get the Chinese in the right frame of mind to change the law.
This is a key to the argument put forward in this paper. The Chinese didn't seem at all bothered when their trading partners were banned from coming into the country due to laws and morality. So the economy has been hampered, so what? The…… [Read More]
history of China's importance to the U.S., from Nixon's visit to China in 1972 to the present, which contributed to the implementation of Obama's 'U.S. Pivot to Asia Strategy'?
The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way in which relations among states and international actors are perceived. From this point-of-view, the end of this period marked the beginning of an era in which the political coordinates for international relations were uncertain and lacked a particular direction. The demise of the Soviet Union left the United States as the overall winner in the bipolar struggle. However, the entire state system was thrown into a state of…… [Read More]
Economic Development of China and Korea
China and Korea, not exactly highly developed countries, but carry a mystique about them that intrigues everyone in the United States. Two countries, on the verge of emerging into their full economic potential, is at the present time, attracting plenty of media attention. as their economic bankruptcy influenced by the attack on America? The purpose of this essay is to discuss and compare the differences and similarities of the two countries, including education, culture, religion, traditions, way of living and history, and emphasizing the economic development of these two fascinating countries.
Korea had its beginning, about two thousand years ago, when two nations were in a battle, creating a small independent population area, which we now know it today as the nation, Korea. Korea actually evolved spontaneously, with no planning or organization. Although Korea developed it's own identity and uniqueness, it is the envy…… [Read More]
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Ch'en, Kenneth K.S. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. New Jersey: Princeton University
Press, 1907-1964. In this text, Professor Kenneth Ch'en writes a historical account of the development of Buddhism and how it modified as it grew. Buddhism is a unique religion in that it has been adapted to incorporate the cultural attitudes of the various countries in which it is found. Within China, Buddhism took an especially strong hold because it was able to incorporate the philosophical ideas of people like Confucius.
Ch'en's main argument of the piece seems to be that Buddhism is different from other religions. This is what makes the book a useful tool for academic research. There is not one set of dogmatic rules that have to be accepted, but rather many different versions of the religion. In this text, Ch'en has identified all of the social,…… [Read More]
Contact with Western regions and the Middle East led to a flourishing of equestrian culture in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). This era in Chinese history is often referred to as a "Golden Age," for arts and architecture reached a pinnacle. Porcelain was invented during the Tang Dynasty, and painted portraits began to gain favor among the nobility. Sculpture and painting both reflected a love of horses in motif and energy. Colors used in Tang Dynasty art were bright, usually blues and greens.
Ceramics blossomed during the Tang Dynasty, especially small earthenware figurines. Models of animals, guardian spirits, and women became particularly prolific; many of these figures were colored with yellow, green, and white glazes. Horses, both with and without riders, can be recognized as quintessentially Tang, as can figures of camels and oxen. The female form was also a popular subject in Tang sculpture. Voluptuous and sensual renderings…… [Read More]
The Paradox of the Chinese-American Community in San Francisco -- a New Province of an Ancient Land is Created Upon American Shores
What does it mean to be Chinese-American? Perhaps, to answer this question it is best to ask what it means to be Chinese. To be Chinese in China means to speak with a Mandarin, Cantonese, or another dialect particular to one's region and location in that vast land. It is to be either of rural or urban location in one's manners and customs and birth. It is, in other words, to have a distinctly territorial and ethnic identity within a highly complex and evolving country that is still coming to terms with the legacy of Maoism. China today is still building an economy on a worldwide scale that delicately balances its past traditions with the needs of the global marketplace.
To be a Chinese-American, however, is…… [Read More]
Immigration, Spatial, And Cultural Aspects of the Canadian Pacific Railway
At the turn of the 19th century, Chinese emigration began in Canada. The Chinese saw Canada as a place for new and prosperous opportunities in order to send money and goods back to their relatives in China. Voyagers from Hong Kong to Canada would take three weeks on water. Often they left China after being poverty or destitution.
From the 1880's up till the 1920's the kind of labor the Chinese were involved in was the raw work of a beginning industrial economy. The Chinese workers were either semiskilled or skilled and worked in the British Columbia salmon canneries and sawmills. hile some worked in the factories and sawmills, still others worked farming, clearing land, or becoming shopkeepers, peddlers, or even restaurateurs. The Chinese immigrants who were unskilled, typically found work in the laundry trade.
Before the 1920's however, Chinese…… [Read More]
ecause of rhetoric that was rampant through the region, the result was "a skewed perception among some Chinese intellectuals that Indian must have been a race of violent and uncouth barbarians" (Mather, 1992). The once positive relationship between the two regions was tarnished, as evident by the "Discourse on Triple Destruction" which illuminates the barbarian traits that the Indian people have (Mather, 1992). This laid, along with the foundational elements Scripture of Lao-tzu Converting the arbarians, for a negative perception of India and allowed for huddism to flourish on Chinese terms.
uddhism in China was taught as "radical dualism," with teachings that focused on sudden enlightenment on salvation through grace rather than through ascetic practices" making it more appealing to a larger population of Chinese (Whyte, 2008). The Consul General of China asserts that "in Northeast Asia and some Southeast Asian countries, the historical influence of Chinese culture could be…… [Read More]
Chinese Tourism for Hotels
Just as the 4ps are no longer sufficient to capture the sophisticated buyer of regular goods, the inquiring traveler is part of a larger network of service consumers who has a need more. And that's why the now recognized 7ps can play a major role in reaching out to tourist customers who come from different cultures or otherwise have an expectation of being part of something special that recognizes their passing needs (Khanna, 2011).
It is for this reason that many hotels that have an interest in the massively growing Chinese tourism sector have already turned their attention to this unique, well-informed, and rather well prepared community of buyers (Chen, L., 2011). As with any other customer, Chinese visitors want to be greeted with a sense of detail that at least tips its hat to the fact that both parties to the transaction respect what the…… [Read More]
Chinese Earth Metals
In the recent months, the Chinese government has stopped the export of earth metals to several other countries, including Japan and, in October of 2010, the United States as well. Over the last few years, there has been a subterranean conflict between the two Asian nations over the topic of earth metals and their distribution throughout the world. This is a very serious situation. China has a near-monopoly on the production of rare earth metals which are used to produce everything from compact batteries to military hardware (Fernando). ithout the access to these materials, it is nigh on impossible to continue the production of modern technological products. Japan, as a major manufacturer of technologies like cellular phones and satellites, the inability to acquire earth metals will have the potential to hinder and retard the continued production and progress of these technologies.
The squabble between Japan and China…… [Read More]
The Evolution of the Chinese Film Industry
Contemporary Chinese Film Poster (Chinese Films)
For literally thousands of years, the Culture of China has inspired people and been a source of awe and excitement for people all over the world. The Chinese culture is rather unique and elegant with elements that are not commonly found in other cultures. Part of the cultures attraction is undoubtedly because it is one of the oldest cultures in the world and had has thousands and thousands of years to evolve into what it is today. It has drawn so much interest that it is integrating with other cultures. Although much of the ancient traditions have been somewhat overcome by various estern influences and modernization, traces of various aspects of the previous cultures still manage to stand the test of time and can still be seen today.
Many changes have occurred in the Chinese…… [Read More]
Chinese Jade Burial Suits
During all my travels throughout ancient China, one of the more peculiar beliefs I came across was the notion that jade holds mystical powers, capable of preventing the body from decaying. I am currently in Chang'an, the capital of the dynasty, which is known in the present day as Xi'an. The year is 192 CE. The people of the estern Han Dynasty universally agree that this supposedly magical material is the essence of mountains, and because it prevents the decomposition of the physical form, it may in fact ensure rebirth. Now, as of the present day, very few of these jade burial suits still actually exist, and it may seem ambiguous as to whether or not they were a passing fad or a momentary excess amongst emperors. However, upon my investigation of the long-forgotten past, I have found that this practice of burying the dead with…… [Read More]
Histories of the orld in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)
The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage
'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'
The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and…… [Read More]
These problems persist to this day, but were especially prevalent in the 1980s; Chinese immigrants were brought into the country illegally by smugglers that often sold them into slavery in the underworld of American society, or that delivered them penniless, starving, and often barely alive (or not alive at all) to fend for themselves (Kyle & Koslowski 2001; Chen 1999). Horror stories became a reason to avoid emigrating to the United States, but both legal and illegal immigration from China to America continued to rise during this decade.
An ongoing problem that would-be Chinese immigrants have faced, including through the 1990s and into the current decades, is the control of both internal and external migration by the Chinese government (Au & Henderson 2005). This, coupled with an immigration policy that many still view as restrictive of Chinese immigration (though on amore subtle and therefore more insidious level than the previous…… [Read More]
In ancient China, the science of mathematics was subsumed under the larger practice of suan chu, or the "art of calculation." The Chinese are believed to be one of the first civilizations to develop and use the decimal numeral system. Their early mathematical studies have influenced science among neighboring Asian countries and beyond.
This paper examines the history of mathematical knowledge in China. It looks at the early Chinese achievements in the field of mathematics, including the decimal system, calculation of pi, the use of counting aids and the application of mathematical principles to everyday life. It also examines the influence of Indian and later, European mathematical knowledge into Chinese mathematics.
Unlike the ancient Greeks who prized knowledge for its own sake, much of the scientific studies conducted in ancient China were spurred by practical everyday needs. Because of its geographic location, China was prone to…… [Read More]
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
Many…… [Read More]
Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles
When dealing with businessmen globally, it's critical to be aware of the cultural beliefs and values that shape their negotiation style and business behavior. This is imperative for successful and positive business relationship because not all cultural foster similar beliefs and hence there can vast differences in negotiation styles. These differences become more pronounced as we move from west to east because while most western countries may have few things similar in terms of culture and education, the same is not true for eastern countries. In this paper we shall compare the negotiation style of Chinese and Canadians. This will help us understand what a business person from the west need to know about the Chinese business communication style in order to be successful in their relationship with them.
Negotiation refers to the process where two or more parties communicate with each other in order…… [Read More]
Chinese-Americans form one of the most professional and most well educated sections of American population yet they are still portrayed as 'unwanted' ethnic minority by electronic and print media. The stereotyping of Chinese-Americans goes back to the days when trade cards were used for advertising and is still a part of media depiction of this community. Stereotypes may not always be negative in nature, but they are certainly based on generalizations, which may or may not fit every individual of a certain community. However in our media, we notice that some communities are always presented in one fixed way and change is rarely accepted or allowed to creep in which says a great deal about biases prevailing in media circles. James Chan in his article " ough on ats" traces the history of this type of stereotyping of Chinese-Americans and shows that most of the times, media presents…… [Read More]
History of Multi-Cultural America
Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America - Ronald Takaki
What was the result of the 1903 Supreme Court Lone Wolf Decision and the 190 Burke Act? The Lone Wolf Decision came about partly in response to a law passed by Congress in 1902. That law "accelerated the transfer of lands from Indians to whites," according to Takaki (237). The provisions of the 1902 law required that those who inherited the land must sell all allotted lands at public auctions - once the original owners had passed away. Basically, this meant that unless an Indian had the money to purchase their own family lands, they would lose what had been their property. The President (Theodore Roosevelt) was informed that this new law would ensure that all Indian lands will pass into the hands of settlers within a short few years.
But, notwithstanding this injustice, when Chief…… [Read More]
The new powerful leader who emerged from that struggle starting in 618 was Li Shimin. Some of the more notable accomplishments of Li Shimin involved restoring stable government, developing technological advances, and by utilizing the "free labor and military service of millions of peasants" he helped bring in enormous tax revenues to the point that the government was "more affluent than it had ever been."
Meantime during the time that the Tang dynasty was emerging as the power source, Buddhism helped to stimulate closer contact with other countries and cultures. According to Ping Yao, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Nan Nu, Chinese Buddhism became "instrumental in the development of mothers' identity and in the conceptualization of ideal maternal virtues" (Yao, 2008, p. 57). By examining the epitaphs that are left from the Tang dynasty, Ping Yao has determined that children whose mothers were strong Buddhists mostly complied with their mothers'…… [Read More]
In a mirror of the earlier scene where the police officer kicked the dead triad, the elevator doors attempt to close on his body, symbolizing the complete destruction of Chan's identity and humanity, as nothing is left but a piece of meat slumped on the floor. This scene effectively concludes the point made earlier by Wong's death, namely, that action films, and subsequently, the action film audience, simultaneously seek to find meaning in death while remaining dependent on the lack of meaning inherent in the deaths of most characters in action films. Infernal Affairs confronts the audience with this contradiction by melding these two disparate tendencies into the single scene of Chan's death.
Violence and death are integral Infernal Affairs' storytelling, and the film's use of violence continues a trend that began with the Hong Kong action films of the 1980s. However, rather than aestheticize violence along the lines of…… [Read More]
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
3300…… [Read More]
71). Because of this, with few exceptions, the Japanese eat nearly everything with chopsticks. Many Japanese do not want to eat sandwiches with their hands, and in Japan, sandwiches are cut into small pieces and served with toothpicks (Grew, p. 266). Chopsticks play an important role from a child's earliest days in Japan to teach the importance of not eating with the hands. Around 100 days after its birth, a small ceremony is held where the child is introduced to solid food. Soft food suitable for a small baby is prepared and placed in front of the child. The mother uses never-before-used chopsticks to give the baby morsels of the solid food (endry, p. 36).
But while the Japanese culture was using chopsticks as part of a cultural interest in cleanliness, in China, chopsticks became a symbol of their cultural value on belonging to a group rather than standing out…… [Read More]
History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing
The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.
Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.
Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…… [Read More]
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…… [Read More]
Indeed, the trajectory of the narrative involves exacting revenge on those who prevented her marriage from taking place.
Although the Bride's marital aspirations might suggest that she holds a conservative sensibility, this is far from the case and she is ultimately more aggressive than Jen. While Jen also exhibits physical prowess, her sacrificial gesture at the film's conclusion signifies how she maintains a strong reverence for the Confucian moral code, assimilating her within the wuxia genre. Physically, the Bride resembles a dominatrix; she is taller than many of the characters and fights in a relentlessly savage manner (even going so far as to bite her adversary in one scene.) in contrast, Jen is more diminutive and her face and eyes are softer and less predatory. Where the Bride looks much more imposing than an average person, Jen has an average size that is not dissimilar from the other characters. Indeed,…… [Read More]
Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)
Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms…… [Read More]
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…… [Read More]
Chinese' Food and the Model Minority study in ethnic cuisine and culture, marginalization and commercialization, and the paradox of exoticism.
The anthropological theme studied for this work was that of the ethnic compromises and paradoxes inherent in creating a "Chinese" restaurant in America, for Americans. In every English speaking country from England to Canada, Chinese food is a huge business. For many immigrants it is one of the only businesses ready and willing to take them in. Most Chinese restaurants strive to present themselves as cultural representations where the American connoisseur can have a legitimate cross-cultural experience. The more I researched the actual traditions of Chinese and Asian cuisine and the way in which Western prejudices and expectations shape the presentation of this experience, the more it became apparent that --like so many other cultural phenomena-- the cultural relevance of the Chinese-food experience is far from untainted. Repeated immersion at…… [Read More]
In spite of the fact that it never became as popular as Daoism, Confucianism was important because it was responsible for a series of reforms in the moral and political systems of China. It was only during the ruling of Dong Zhongshu that Confucianism became appreciated as China's main school of thought. The philosophy slowly but surely experienced progress and came to be one of the main systems guiding China's politics. In addition to assisting politics, society, and economics, Confucianism also provided the Chinese with the opportunity to adopt a new and improved way of life. ith the ru school being supported by the state, it became clear that Confucianism had become the principal philosophy in the territory.
Confucianism was particularly impressive because it brought together elements found in Legalism and in Daoism. The ideology emphasized the importance of morality and it also assisted the state in implementing its laws…… [Read More]
In addition, repeating ACSI can provide trend data (Hall, 2002, p. 23+), important to government agencies, but also to new industries. Hall notes that, "Besides the ability of the ACSI to maintain a pulse on customer satisfaction, the ACSI is an index, not just a survey. This means it groups all participants and provides an integrated score, or index" (2002, p. 23+).
Schay et al. reported that the United States federal Office of Personnel Management uses a similar instrument that measures nine core dimensions underlying customer satisfaction. "These dimensions were distilled from 139 dimensions identified in the management, marketing, and organizational psychology literature. The dimensions are empirically related to organizational effectiveness and relevant to all service sectors" (Schay et al., 2000, p. 30), and therefore would need to be developed specifically for each industry.
hile ACSI is the dominant measuring tool in much of U.S. consumer satisfaction research, the Kano…… [Read More]
She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.
The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.
It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…… [Read More]
History Of Human Resource Management in the Public Sector
efore business was conducted in the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of commerce that exists today, large firms in the public domain were able to keep a much more direct eye on their employees. This historic reality involved much more personal and face-to-face interactions within much smaller operating environments. There were far less multibillion dollar corporations, and thus workforces were typically much less segmented and estranged . This made labor pools much easier to supervise and monitor. Consequently, periodic progress and performance reports were the primary human resource management tools utilized during much of the 20th Century . Recently, however, the globalization of public sector business has forced companies to restructure their human resource management systems. eing that performance-screening devices (that have been dated back to the Chinese Empire in 1115 .C.) started to show their age, firms must now…… [Read More]
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]
It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).
Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…… [Read More]
After a long search and review of different systems, the committee decided to send their men to train at the Gracie Jiu-Jitsu Academy in Torrance, California (National Guard, 2012; lanton, 2008; Curtez, 2012). In time, it found the razilian Jiu-Jitsu taught in this Academy as meeting almost every aspect requirement of a military combatives program long sought by them. It was easy to learn, competitive and proven effective in hand-to-hand encounters. It detailed the techniques to be taught and in the proper order. It would first teach the basics of razilian Jiu-Jitsu ground fighting. Then it would proceed to throws and takedowns of judo and wrestling. This would be followed by the strikes of oxing and Muay Thai. All these initial steps could combine with a training phase on marksmanship and weapons towards a totally integrated system of close quarters combat. The committee saw that one could pass smoothly between…… [Read More]