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The fourth main function of cholesterol is neurological. Cholesterol is "an important part of the myelin sheath which is a neuron consists of fat-containing cells that insulate the axon from electrical activity," (Miezam, n.d.). Fifth, cholesterol aids the body's natural immune defenses.
One of the features of cholesterol is, as a waxy substance, it cannot dissolve in blood. Cholesterol moves through the bloodstream, and are carried through it by lipoproteins. When the cholesterol is derived from food, the molecules are transported from the intestine to the liver by the lipoprotein molecules. At that point, the liver processes the cholesterol into Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), which contains "cholesterol and cholesterol ester among other compounds" and releases VLDL into the blood ("Cholesterol" n.d.). The VLDL may then be stored in fat tissue in the body. Stored in the fat tissue, the VLDL is partially converted into Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), which…… [Read More]
Meat and Cholesterol
Amount of Meat and Cholesterol Level
elationship between Amount of Meat eaten (Times per week) and Cholesterol Number
Human heart is directly affected by the consumption of unhealthy diet. The major problem suffered by all heart patients is the cholesterol number. Intake of meat really matters when it comes to high cholesterol. Heart problems and cholesterol number vary with age; however gender does not make any difference. This study is based on description of relationship between meat intake and cholesterol number. It is assumed that number of meat meals per week is directly proportional to increase or decrease in the cholesterol level. A build up of cholesterol in the arteries can eventually stop blood flow and bring on a heart attack. People from an age group of 25 to 50 years are studied and the results will be analyzed on the basis of age, diet, cholesterol…… [Read More]
High Cholesterol level is widely regarded to be one of the leading causes of coronary heart disease, which in turn, is the number one killer of women and men in the United States and most other developed countries. Statistics show that every year, more than a million Americans have heart attacks, and about a half million people die from heart disease. While cholesterol levels can be controlled by diet-control as well as medication, evidence exists to suggest that genetics play a major role in determining the cholesterol levels in an individual as well as his or her likelihood of having a heart attack.
What is Cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a fatty substance that occurs naturally in the body and performs several vital functions, e.g., the formation of walls surrounding the body's cells and its conversion into certain hormones that control some body functions. Our body makes most of the cholesterol needed.…… [Read More]
This is a positive finding with reliability and validity, in the situation of a compliant population already following a low-cholesterol dietary portfolio. The results of the self-report aspect, i.e. The scaling comparison between the oat bran bread group and the strawberry group indicate that, among this compliant group those who added strawberries were more satisfied and therefore more willing to eat the added anti-oxidant food, as a result of its increased palatability.
Though I agree with the results and application of this study to control for diet, and make sure that dietary variations did not play an extreme role in results, it would be interesting to study this comparative model in a situation where participants were not compliant to another cholesterol-lowering dietary portfolio, utilizing the same blood and urine standards, i.e. To see if the results of physiological reduction and palatability survey ranking would be similar with just this dietary…… [Read More]
Consultant Pharmacists Impact on the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia
What is Cholesterol, and Why is it of Concern?
Guidelines for Treating Hypercholesterolemia
Management of Hypercholesterolemia
Management of Hypercholesterolemia y Different Health Care Workers.
Practical Management of Hypercholesterolemia
Community Pharmacists and the Management of Hypercholesterolemia
Economic Impact of Pharmacists' Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia
This paper will look at the impact of consultant pharmacists on the treatment of hypercholesterolemia by physicians. Pharmacists have now assumed responsibilities outside the dispensing counter and have been active in monitoring and treating (under protocol) patients with high cholesterol levels (as well as other disease states).
A review of the treatment of hypercholesterolemia by physicians by a group of consultant pharmacists who call on physicians offices, and check physicians progress by reference to the achievement of NCEP cholesterol guidelines, has shown that physicians are doing an overall poor job of getting their patients to national cholesterol treatment standards (NCEP…… [Read More]
Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia, Depression
Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia, and Depression: A Case Scenario
Mr. P is a 65-year-old Hispanic male who presents to the clinic with a symptomatology that leads to three broad closely associated diagnoses: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and depression. A review of the clinical presentation, history, physical examination and lab values indicate the following primary concerns: Total cholesterol of 280mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) of 25mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of 189mg/dL, a blood pressure of 168/92, a total cholesterol level of 352mg/dL and indications of xanthelasma palpebrarum.
Of greatest concern to the patient's health are his extreme cholesterol levels and his hypertension as both directly increase the risk of major cardiac events including heart attack, heart failure, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Hypertension may be caused by excessive salt intake, impaired kidneys and damaged blood vessels. In most cases, hypertension is merely age-related without specific underlying causes. For Mr. P, however, his extreme…… [Read More]
Hyperlipidemia, better known to patients as high cholesterol, is a common problem and can refer to any number of physical disorders that result from extra fats (lipids) in the blood. Lipids commonly associated with this disease are cholesterol and triglycerides. These fats will deposit in the walls of blood vessels are restrict blood flow, which can lead to heart attack or stroke. There are no symptoms of hyperlipidemia and the disease is only identified after the fact (following a stroke or heart attack) or through routine testing of blood. There are more than 3 million cases per year of hyperlipidemia (Mayo Clinic, 2017).
Phenotype and Genotype
Familial combined hyperlipidemia lipid phenotype and ApoE E2/E2 genotype have been used to identify the disease; determining the lipoprotein levels is important. The lipoprotein profile should be determined by examining LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, and total cholesterol) following a 9 hour fast. Physicians may…… [Read More]
dosage levels of Cholestease on Serum Cholesterol levels and the side effects associated with them in human beings.
Cholesterol has been a major media issue in recent years, especially the negative effects on the heart and its role in the development of heart disease. There have been many studies that indicate a connection between serum cholesterol heart disease and depression (1-3). Developing new methods to lower serum cholesterol has become a major industry in recent years. Currently the leaders in the industry are American Pharmaceutical giants, Pfizer, Merck, and Warner-Lambert (1), who have developed medications that lower cholesterol.
The Endicon corporation recognizes the potential market in developing a drug that will significantly lower serum cholesterol without the side effects associated with long-term use of the drugs currently on the market. In addition, we recognize the potential of developing a ritish Product, primarily marketed in Great ritain. Endicon has been conducting…… [Read More]
CT scan or MA may result in the clinician oversight of some of the more subtle findings. It is expensive and the availability is limited.
It is possible to evaluate AS via angiogram, bet evaluation of the size of the stenosis tends to be imprecise. Additionally, angiography does not allow a cross-sectional assessment of the stenosis, and in the case of FMD, it is not possible to distinguish the different histological types, although intervention at the time of assessment is a possibility. Doppler sonography is able to measure the amount of blood flow, and is non-invasive. It tends to be highly invasive and is able to demonstrate problems with slow patterns and other issues which are highly suggestive of significant stenosis. Doppler ultrasound tends to be very operator dependent and the exam takes a significant amount of time. Additionally, the exam may be limited by abdominal girth, patient movement and…… [Read More]
At the molecular level, the mutation in the normal ApoA1 is because of a single amino acid substitution at the position 173, cysteine amino acid substitutes or replaces the arginine amino acid. Because of the presence of an extra cysteine, a cysteine bridge is formed that causes great changes in the protein structure. ApoA1 protein does not have a cysteine dimer but cysteine dimer is formed on Apo1 Milano that causes the protein to exist as a homo or a hetro dimer with ApoAII (Futterman and Lemberg 246). It has been reported that he enhanced cholesterol removal efficiency is not because of the presence of extra cysteine. Based on the replacement of arginine by a cysteine residue, the charge of the protein is shifter towards cathode. Because of the mutation, it has been reported that the removal of cholesterol from the inner arterial walls is accelerated and much higher. The…… [Read More]
Risk Factors for Mr. Jablonski
CHD: Mr. J is a classic case for a potential Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) patient. His history shows several risk factors, which can be divided into uncontrollable and controllable risk factors. The uncontrollable factors are his age (48 years old) -- older people are more susceptible to CHD, his sex (male) -- men are more likely to get CHD, and his family history. The controllable risk factors are his obesity, his smoking habit, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, and his high LDL cholesterol.
Hypertension: The risk factors for Mr. J are his age, gender, obesity, excessive salt intake, and his inactive lifestyle.
The risk factors described as 'controllable' can be mitigated by dietary control and medication. If his condition remains untreated Mr. J is a potential candidate for a severe heart disease and possible stroke.
In order to lower his high…… [Read More]
elationship of high cholesterol levels to the development of cardiovascular disease
Diabetes, heart disease, and high cholesterol are all strongly correlated. Even when diabetes is being well-managed, the patient's risks factors increase for comorbidity with these disorders. "High blood pressure has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies report a positive association between hypertension and insulin resistance. When patients have both hypertension and diabetes, which is a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles" (Cardiovascular disease and diabetes, 2014, AHA). Also, in the case of Ms. X, because of her uncontrolled diabetes, her risk for high cholesterol is higher than average even in the absence of obesity and inactivity. "This triad of poor lipid counts often occurs in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is also characteristic of a lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance called atherogenic dyslipidemia, or diabetic dyslipidemia…… [Read More]
"Participants were instructed to drink no more than 3 caffeinated beverages and no more than 2 alcoholic beverages per day" (pg. 2457).
Two features from this study that stand out when compared to the previous study (as read about earlier) was that this study sought to keep the participants weight relatively stable and that the participants were not obese and old, but were young and healthy. The goal of this study was measurably the same as the pervious study, but was set in entirely different circumstances. This is important to individuals seeking entry to the nursing field because it provides ammunition for lifestyle interventions even before the patient may think it is necessary.
The study's primary interest was to ascertain "the contrasts between the carbohydrate and protein diets and between the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets" (pg. 2459). What the study found was that for each diet (when compared to…… [Read More]
The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Cardiac…… [Read More]
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…… [Read More]
The latter two can be enjoyed cooked or cut up fresh, in a salad. If she uses spinach instead of lettuce in the salad, the subject can boost fiber even further and add a little more iron to her diet. Current consumption of iron is just under recommended amounts. High fiber fruits, including apples, oranges and pears, will not add significant calories if consumed in moderation (How Do I Get More Fiber).
The subject's intake of saturated fat and cholesterol were both under acceptable limits. ith respect to other nutrients, the subject's levels of Vitamin C, thiamin, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and selenium were all near acceptable levels. Potassium consumption was a bit lower than recommended; this could be remedied with consumption of oranges, already recommended to boost fiber, or bananas. Vitamin C consumption was more than double recommended amounts, but since this is a water-soluble vitamin, there is no harm…… [Read More]
Subject should also increase fat intake to better balance his diet.
Subject's fiber consumption was so far in excess of DV that negative digestive consequences cannot be ruled out.
Salt intake was more than the DV, but could be easily corrected with some minor dietary changes.
The Food Standards Agency has developed the Eat Well Plate as an easy to follow nutritional guideline.
The Eat Well Plate is a visual display and quick reference for consumers to better balance their diets in compliance with the DV's. Analysis revealed a shortfall in fruits and vegetables as well as bread, rice and pasta - the two largest sections of the plate. Subjects fat consumptions were well below the DV's, but per the Eat Well Plate are the smallest category recommended.
ecommendations for Subject's improved nutritional balance would include increased caloric intake, weighted heavily in the fruits and vegetables, breads, rice and pasta…… [Read More]
The assessment of my family is presented here for the academic purposes. The family comprises of six members that are working at different positions and live in personal home. Each member of family is educated. Based on questionnaire filled by all the family members, the summary is composed that will give an insight about the health of family.
Summary of each functional health pattern for family
The health perception-health function of the family suggests that it has an average health status. The health is not poor and the members are less vulnerable to severe health issues like diabetes and allergies yet there is a mild risk of getting cold and fever since there is low temperature at night and cool breezes during the morning. The family is suggested to have regular checkups and to take vitamins. Nutritional Metabolic Pattern of family shows that it has a healthy diet…… [Read More]
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLAN
Diagnosis and Disease Processes
Using an appropriate patient assessment form (Sample Forms, 2013), D.M. has been found to have uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, uncontrolled hypertension, chronic anemia, and probable hypothyroidism (Sample Forms).
Diabetes Type 2
is most probably on a poorly controlled diet of high cholesterol and high simple sugars. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disease wherein the body is not able to properly use ingested food because of insulin resistance. If more simple or refined sugars are consumed, the less the body is able to process them as nutrients. These tend to stay and float in the blood stream, un-used, and in this condition, they cause trouble in the different parts of the body. These include the end organs, such as the brain, the eyes, the kidneys, the heart, and even the feet. A poorly controlled diet and the lack…… [Read More]
e. those discounting repetitive). In this case, 8 such digits.
Confidence level: The amount of confidence that I have about this data- that it closely approximates actual sample is quite high (95.9%)
3. The age range of 45-54 had the highest amount of women (54%) using the low-cholesterol diet followed by 55 and over (49%), then 35-44 age range (46%) least in the 1-24 age range (29%). It seems that preference for this diet peaks amongst females in the late middle years. With men, there is a slightly different shift with the majority (35%) actually preferring this diet in their older years and regressing as they decrease in age, with a major shift occurring between the 13% in the age interval 16-24 and the 25% of the age interval 25-34. Of the difference between the sexes, women by far (54% at its peak) are more interested in the diet than…… [Read More]
A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means that you have diabetes.
An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating and 2 hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. OGTT is more sensitive than the FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. The OGTT requires you to fast for at least 8 hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.
If your blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking the liquid, you have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, meaning that you are more likely to develop…… [Read More]
However, fruit juices, consumed in moderation, can be a healthy addition to a diet, as long as they are not consumed in lieu of actually eating any whole fruits.
My nutritional analysis revealed that I am not eating a balanced diet. I am consuming too much protein and too little fiber, issues that plague the diets of many Americans. To remedy these problems, I need to increase my intake of fruits, vegetables, and grain products, while reducing my intake of meat products. In addition, because my intake of milk products was also low, I need to look at how to increase my milk intake without increasing protein intake.
Here is the food displayed for jjohn90 on 9/10/2008
Select your serving sizes and specify how many servings you consumed for each. When you are done, click Save & Analyze to save your food entry information and to analyze your food…… [Read More]
The Topic Company: DN.
1) Does the organization treat management and leadership as one in the same? YES or NO
2) Does the organization rely heavily on employee training and development? YES or NO
3) Does the program use employee feedback at the lowest levels in its overall decision making process? YES or NO
4) Do you believe all stakeholders are aware of the organizations goals and objectives and are willing to work towards the achievement of those goals? YES or NO
5) in your opinion is the organization structured in a way that inhibits innovation? YES or NO
6) Are there any other aspects that you believe should be improved within the organization? If so, how?
1) Bulmer, M. And Warwick, D. (1993). Social research in developing countries: surveys and censuses in the Third World. London: outledge.
2) Ebbutt, D. (1998). Evaluation of projects…… [Read More]
Alcohol abuse is a condition that is characterized by a pattern of excessive drinking in spite of negative effects resulting from the use of alcohol on an individual's occupational, legal, educational, medical, and/or social life. Alcoholism results from this destructive pattern of alcohol abuse after a period of time and includes a number of other symptoms including: increased tolerance to alcohol over time; alcohol withdrawal; a pattern of using more alcohol and/or use for a longer time than planned; destructive patterns health, social, and occupational functioning as a result of alcohol use; and failed attempts at reducing its use (APA, 2000). Alcoholism is also known as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction as the terms are used interchangeably in the medical and treatment literature. These terms describe a destructive pattern of chronic alcohol use that results in the development of tolerance to alcohol, needing more alcohol to achieve the same effects…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…… [Read More]
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…… [Read More]
However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002)
The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi ai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)
It is reported that "...High levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (apo) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with the progression of atherosclerosis and a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (CHD). To prevent the development of these diseases, a great deal of research has been focused on determining the relationship between these lipid phenotypes and dietary intake and…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]
Carl must be psychologically prepared to make such changes, however. Thus, as well as taking Carl's blood pressure and submitting a blood sample to have his cholesterol screened (getting his blood glucose level assessed, even though there were no problems in the past with this reading might also be wise), the nurse should try to obtain a full assessment of Carl's lifestyle. When and what does he eat? What are his work habits? His sleep habits? Has anything changed recently in his life? All of these factors could make a potentially meaningful impact upon both the test results and the eventual prescription for Carl to improve his health.
Carl is still very young to run the risk of having a heart attack: the risk of having a heart attack increases dramatically after age 65) so engaging in positive changes now is wise and prudent (Heart health screening, 2013, AHA). It…… [Read More]
Dietary Guidelines: Policy Implementation
As noted by the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF), the dietary guidelines for Americans (last issued in 2015), have tremendous influence upon public policy and how Americans eat, as well as public healthcare. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) are used in setting the standards for the National School Lunch Program, on which many children are dependent for their main source of nutritional calories for the day at low or reduced cost. Physicians are influenced by its guidelines, and ordinary Americans are influenced by the guidelines when they make decisions in the grocery store.
As noted by the RWJF, a number of significant modifications were made in the most recent 2015 guidelines, including limiting the sugar added to the individual’s diet to no more than 10% of daily calories (Goldman, 2015).…… [Read More]
In short, I am eating too much of what is not beneficial, and not enough of what is. In order to address this problem, which could develop into a full-blown health crisis in a few years if I do nothing, I must make drastic changes to the way I eat. For example, one of my first goals must be to increase the amount of fruits and vegetables that I eat each day. According to Canada's Food Guide, my intake of fruits and vegetables should be roughly around 875 ML. I can achieve this goal by drinking 100% juices and eating more salads and leafy vegetables. Similarly, I must increase my amount of milk alternatives by drinking more milk and eating more cheese. Perhaps I can limit my intake of diet soda, replacing it with milk. By changing these eating habits, I will achieve to meet more of the recommendations of…… [Read More]
ole of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions
ole of fatty acid on endothelial functions
Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People
The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it…… [Read More]
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…… [Read More]
This prescription medicine is a hard capsule, which comes in sizes 1 and 3 and in 20 mg and in 10 mg (MIMS, 2010). Manufactured by Clonmel Healrhcare Ltd., its active ingredient is fluvastatin. Size 3 has 20 mg of the active ingredient and with a white body and a blue cap. Size 1 has a white body and a green cap (MIMS).
Lochol is indicated for primary hypercholesterolaemia and mixed dyslipidaemia or high cholesterol (MIMS, 2010). It supports the diet of individuals suffering from high total cholesterol levels and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and their modified diet and other treatments are insufficient or inadequate in managing the condition (MIMS).
Lochol is also prescribed to patients suffering from coronary heart disease and for the adjust prevention of coronary conditions, which can follow coronary transcatheter treatment (MIMS, 2010). These include cardiac death, myocardial infarction, which is not fatal,…… [Read More]
Meat has been considered to be a risk factor for the development of heart conditions due to its large concentration of saturated fats. This study also found there to be a significant relationship between the consumption of meats and the development of heart issues with the risk increasing as the amount of meat consumed increased. These findings did vary across types of meat with red meat being twice as likely to lead to an acute coronary syndrome as white meat.
Blisson, .M. (2010). Eat smart for a healthy heart. Agricultural esearch, 58(6), 12-14.
Bowden, J. (2010). Cholesterol: The real heart of the matter. Better Nutrition, 72(8), 36.
Eshak, E., Iso, H., Date, C., Kikuchi, S., Watanabe, Y., Wada, Y., Wakai, K., & Tamakoshi, A. (2010). Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with educed isk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(8), 1445-1453.…… [Read More]
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]
Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Kingdom.
The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the UK
Science of the problem
Type II diabetes progresses through two stages. The initial stage is referred to as insulin resistance. During this stage, the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the body's cell are unable to respond to insulin. The pancreas increases the production of insulin in the body to compensate for the resistance. The body cells absorb more and more insulin resulting in the pancreas continuously increasing its insulin production. Eventually, the pancreas will shut down the production of insulin because it is unable to keep up with the demand, which results in type II diabetes. The lack of sugar for conversion to energy results in the starvation of cells and there is a buildup of glucose levels in the…… [Read More]
Other rivals will have a more secure market share as well, and new drugs may develop. However, although the rise may not be as astronomical, hopefully from AstraZenica's perspective, Crestor's next phasing into the 'decline' phase of the product life cycle will not be as impressive, either.
CNN. Com. (18 Nov 2004) "Merck, FDA grilled at Senate hearing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://cnnmoney.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=Merck%2C+FDA+grilled+at+Senate+hearing+over+Vioxx+-+Nov.+18%2C+2004&expire=&urlID=12326029&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmoney.cnn.com%2F2004%2F11%2F18%2Fnews%2Ffortune500%2Fmerck%2Findex.htm%3Fcnn
Crestor. (2004) "About Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/
Crestor. (2004) "Side Effects: Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/sideeffects.asp
Drugrecall.com. (2004) "FDA says Crestor ads are false and misleading." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.adrugrecall.com/news/crestor-safety.html
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Pricing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_pricing.htm
Marketing teacher." Product Life Cycle." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_plc.
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Value Chain." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_generic_strategies.htm… [Read More]
Heart Problems Linked to Those Born with HIV
HIV treatment now improves the longevity of infected persons, and researchers have since shifted their focus to the health-related complications that such persons could face later in life. Cardiovascular disease has been found to be one, and perhaps the most significant, of these complications. esearch has, in fact, established that "children born with HIV are more likely to have heart problems later in life, even if they are treated early with antiretroviral drugs" (McNeil Jr., 2014). Whereas almost no child in America is now born with HIV, owing to the availability of preventive drugs, more than 250, 000 children born every year in the developing world are not as lucky, and have to take antiretroviral drugs their entire lives. This text establishes how the "combination of the effects of HIV itself and the antiretroviral drugs used to treat it" increases the likelihood…… [Read More]
Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with specific enzymes in order to lower cholesterol in the body. Lipitor/atorvastatin inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that "converts 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols" like cholesterol ("Lipior," n.d.).
Elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (both LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C and HDL) as well as levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) are known precursors or risk factors in human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. By reducing the amount of cholesterol in plasma as well as in the liver, the drug helps to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipitor is effective in addressing elevated cholesterol due to hereditary hypercholesterolemia, as well as nonfamilial types. Lipitor is indicated for patients with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina.…… [Read More]
New Suppliers of Health Supplements
A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers of a promising antioxidant, coenzyme Q10. A growing body of research suggests this antioxidant is effective in improving cardiovascular function and may also be useful in alleviating the symptoms of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, moderate gingival disease, congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired immune systems. Based on the documented efficacy, high quality and low costs of the health supplement offered by this vendor, this report provides the background and an overview of the supplier, a description of the health supplement, and current applications for coenzyme Q10. A summary of the business trip and meeting with the company's president is followed by recommendations and a brochure illustrating various aspects of the product.
esults of Business Trip to…… [Read More]
Marketing and Branding a Healthcare-elated product
Marketing and Branding Lipitor
Target markets, branding, marketing strategy, execution and product positioning all directly contribute to the market share and profitability of a product. In the marketing and selling of healthcare related products, brands must communicate a viable and realistic solution t a patient's condition to be seen with credibility and trust (Angelmar, Angelmar, Kane, 2007). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the marketing strategies of Lipitor, a best-selling drug of Pfizer Corporation used for treating high cholesterol and its related heart disease effects. This drug generated $10.7B in the company's latest fiscal year according to their annual report and is also considered one of the top-selling drugs throughout the entire pharmaceutical industry. Beginning with an analysis of the Lipitor target market, and progressing through their branding strategies, analysis of product success and recommendations for future marketing strategies, this paper provides…… [Read More]
3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.
4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3…… [Read More]
The patient should drink less, participate in more physical activity and should eat a better diet. The blood pressure and cholesterol both need to come down immediately.
The patient needs to take the recommendations in question 5 or he likely has a very dim future if his BP and cholesterol is not lowered a lot. Blood pressure should be measured after the patient has rested for at least five minutes. He should be instructed in advance of the appointment what not to eat or drink so that the test result is not improperly influenced (e.g. drinking caffeine).
There is no advancement or progression in symptoms but blood pressure is still entirely too high. It needs to drop by at least 30 points to be within a non-hypertension range. Needs to be made clear to patient that while he is feeling fine for now, that will change…… [Read More]
Alzheimer's Disease: An Overview
Disease description and possible misconceptions
Alzheimer's disease is one of, although not the only type, of dementia elderly patients may suffer. The most common form of the illness occurs after age 60. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease before the age of 60 is less common, but the symptoms and worsening of the illness tends to be swifter in nature. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease has a known genetic component. "Certain genes...such as APOE epsilon4 allele" are linked to a greater likelihood of developing Alzheimer's (Jasmin 2010). In older patients, the difference between dementia and Alzheimer's can be difficult to determine. "The only way to know for certain that someone has AD is to examine a sample of their brain tissue after death," to determine if the tissue sample exhibits neurofibrillary tangles, "twisted fragments of protein within nerve cells that clog up the cell;" neuritic plaques, "abnormal clusters of dead and…… [Read More]
Americans spend billions of dollars on weight-loss products and programs every year. Despite this, most people do not lose the amount they would like or, if they do, regain the weight after a short period of time. The problem lies with following specific fads that emphasize one type of eating pattern. The low-carbohydrate diet, which has been popular off-and-on-again since the mid-1800s, exemplifies such a diet program. Studies do show that the low-carbohydrate diet can offer some benefits, but over the long-term does not offer any more advantages than any other diet. Other factors, such as adherence to the diet and lifestyle are more important to the equation.
Americans spent approximately $60 billion in 2009 on weight loss products and programs, including so-called "special" diet foods, appetite suppressants, diet books, exercise memberships, workout videos, and stomach-clamping surgery (World Health Organization, 2010). Yet obesity, especially among children and youth,…… [Read More]
Experimentation with human subjects raises a number of important moral implications. Modern protections for human subjects have their history in the Nuremberg Code, written for the Nuremberg Military Tribunal as a standard for judging the human experiments performed by the Nazis in WWII. The Declaration of Helsinki in 1964 further defined codes for human research, and the United States first implemented regulations for protecting human subjects as late as 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW). That same year the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral esearch began work on the Belmont eport. The report, published in 1978, set out the key ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice that now underlie legislation involving research that on human subjects (United States Department of Health & Human Services). Today, the Department of Health and Human…… [Read More]
This increases the risk of heart disease in adulthood. Those ingesting the highest added sugars had lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein levels are the good cholesterol, while the low-density lipoproteins are the bad cholesterol. There was a 9% difference between those who consumed sugar at the highest levels at 54 mg/dL of HDL levels and those with the lowest levels at 54 mg/dL. Research says that sugary beverages contribute the largest amount of added sugars. Examples are sodas, fruit drinks, coffee and tea (Welsh).
Combining its findings with the sugar content data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture My Pyramid equivalent databases, the survey team found a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adding sugar and replacing the energy requirement from less than 10% to more than 30% (Welsh et al. 2011). The study involved 646 adolescents as volunteers. It found that…… [Read More]
Companies decide to internationalize operations when the local market becomes saturated as a method to continue to grow and increase market share. Internationalization is the process by which companies shift operations from their home country into foreign markets. This process can be accomplished through a number of methods depending on the size, resources and strategy of the company.
Methods of International Operation
Companies will normally expand into international operations by exporting to overseas markets through independent channels or by licensing foreign manufacturers to produce products for overseas markets (Dicken 2003, p. 207). The next step is for a company to establish sales outlets in overseas markets by either buying a local company or setting up a new facility (Dicken 2003, p. 207). The last stage in internationalization is when a company establishes production facilities overseas by either buying another firm or setting up facilities (Dicken 2003, p. 207).…… [Read More]
Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.
Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:
1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved:
Barnard, Neal D. (et al. 2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5): 1588S -- 1596S. etrieved from Pub Med:
Davis, N., Forbes, B., & Wylie-osett, J. (2009). Nutritional Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 76(3), 257-268. etrieved from EBSCOhost
Foster, G.D., Wyatt, H.., Hill, J.O., Makris, a.P., osenbaum, D.L., Brill, C., & ... Klein, S.
(2010). Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2…… [Read More]
Healthy Employee Pay Less for Insurance Premiums?
Statement of the Issue
The objective of this work is to examine whether the healthy employee should contribute less towards their health insurance premium than employees who are less healthy. Employers are more often offering wellness and health promotion programs focused on promoting good health among their employees and employee's families. Driving this movement is the rising cost of health insurance, as well as disability leave and sick leave benefits. Added to these cots are those associated with lost productivity due to employees being off from work. The position of this writer prior to examining this issue is that employers would benefit from reducing health insurance costs for employees who are healthy and who follow a good health program.
Background of the Issue
The position taken and supported in this work in writing is that immediate actions should be taken by expanding public…… [Read More]
In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.
There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…… [Read More]
Morbidity and Mortality Statistics:
Hypertension affects around 1 in 3 Americans and according to the CDC only 52% of people have this condition under control (CDC.gov, 2016). In older men, two-thirds have hypertension, and one-third of white men have hypertension. There are nearly 1000 deaths from hypertension daily in the United States, around 360,000 per year. Hypertension is related to first heart attacks, strokes and chronic heart failure.
The patient also suffers from orthostatic hypotension, which is when blood pressure drops when going from a lying or sitting position to standing. The largest risk for elderly people is the increased risk of falling that this brings. The patient may have fallen because of this condition. It is caused by, or linked to, high blood pressure and prolonged bed rest, as well as other conditions not faced by this patient. Anemia or vitamin B12 deficiency is another potential contributor…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to look at the vitals and other information for a patient. First off, the patient will enumerate all of the patient's medical issues, a man by the name of Mr. Go. Second, the issues that are identified will be mentioned including the medications that will be prescribed as well as the health teachings that would be prudent. Finally, there will be a listing of standards when it comes to managing care for this patient. While Mr. Go is not near death or anything, there are certainly some issues that need to be addressed.
Go is nearly six feet and is over 209 pounds. Any BMI that is over 18.5 is not normal. The man in question is nearly a BMI of 30. As such, the man is clearly overweight ... borderline obese. The question is just how many consequences have…… [Read More]
A key strength of the study was that it was the first to show that major depression predicts increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. One of the key limitations of the study was that it only evaluated the role of depression in middle-aged women and not in men. This limits the external validity of the study. In addition, the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, or the measurement of depressive symptoms as opposed to clinical depression only provided indirect support for the link between depression and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Although a majority of the research agrees that a clear connection exists between depression and metabolic syndrome, several sources disagree. Hildrum, Mykletun, Midthjell and associates (2008) are a key example of research that does not support the connection between depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome. This study used a cross sectional study of participants aged 20-89.…… [Read More]
It is unfortunate that it was published without credit; it would have been even more credible had the author's name been included, so research on the author and their credentials could be established. In addition, the article did not include credible sources, or cite anyone else in concert with the study, but it does appear that the author did do sufficient research, and it is entirely possible that the presenter was the author and did the research.
The title of the article is "Nuts for Health," by CBS News, and their medical analyst, Dr. Emily Senay. The article does agree that some nuts included in the diet are good for the diet, but it specifically mentions macadamia nuts as being too "fatty" to be included in the diet and it offers information on a wide variety of other nuts, too. The article was published online, and among other things, in…… [Read More]
According to the Pfizer press release section of its website, discomfort associated with fibromyaglia, a common chronic pain condition, has been shown to be significantly reduced by a new drug developed by Pfizer called Lyrica, "according to study results presented today at the American Academy of Neurology annual meeting" ("Lyrica Significantly Reduced Pain," 2007, Press Release). Pfizer has also developed a new AIDS drug called Maraviroc, which is likely to considerably improve and extend the life of AIDS patients who take the drug, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburg and Columbia University (Altman & Pollock, 2007).
Both Merck and Schering-Plough, two of Pfizer's greatest rivals, plan to combine forces and develop a medicine to rival Lipitor. "The planned drug, meant to reduce levels of the harmful type of cholesterol in two ways, could hit the market when Lipitor's patent expires in a few years" ("Merck and…… [Read More]
Also no pill will change everything. One must be willing to change their lifestyle as well.
hy do some people still need an antihyperlipidemic agent even though they have reduced their dietary intake of cholesterol and saturated fats?
hy is it better to sue selective beta2 agonists, rather than non-selective beta-adrenergic agonists, for a patient who has both asthma and heart disease?
hy is the combination of a glucocorticoid and a beta2 adrenergic agonist used sometimes in treating asthma? hat is the difference in their mechanisms of action?
http://lungusa.org/asthmato answer: (a) what is a peak flow meter and how is it used in asthma clients? (b) Is low or high humidity in the home better for asthma clients? - hat aspects of weather are triggers for asthma?
Based upon your knowledge of the mechanism of action of the following drug classes, explain the rationale for using the following to…… [Read More]
Food Menu and Nutrition
Food Menu Overview
The objective of this study is to create two food menus as follows: (1) one healthy food menu; and (2) one unhealthy food menu, from a local fast food restaurant. Following the creation of these menus, this work will write a nutritional analysis of the meal created, discuss the reaction of the writer to this information and describe how this will affect the food choices of the writer in the future in terms of food choices from fast food restaurants.
The food choices that one makes when dining at fast food restaurants make a great difference in the amount of nutrition received from dining at fast food restaurants as well as the total calories that are consumed and the other factors that make foods either healthy or unhealthy for consumption. One might assume that dining at a fast food restaurant is in general…… [Read More]