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The truth about Columbus, Vizenor asserts, is that he was "an untrue concoction, the ruse of his own representation. He is the overstated adventurer, to be sure," and moreover Columbus is the "master of neocolonial celebrations in a constitutional democracy" (Vizenor, 225). The author of this article in the peer-reviewed journal Boundary 2 quotes from the book The Devastation of the Indies (by Bartolome de Las Casas):
"Here those Christians perpetrated their first ravages and oppressions against the native peoples. This was the first land in the New
orld to be destroyed and depopulated by the Christians, and here they began their subjection of the women and children, taking them away from the Indians to use them and ill-use them, eating the food they provided with their sweat and toil" (Vizenor, 226).
In conclusion, the references in this paper clearly make the point that Christopher Columbus was not a…… [Read More]
Christopher Columbus, Mariner by S. Morison.
Samuel Morison turned a personal life interest into a passion as he studied the life and journeys of Christopher Columbus. Morison believed that given the expedition which Columbus undertook, and the misinformation on which he based his journey that Columbus qualifies as one of the greatest explorers and sailors of all time (Morison, p. 4). hile the modern view of Columbus has been rewritten and disfigured by multi-culturalists into that of a greedy, slave mongering tyrannical despot, I agree that Christopher Columbus' journey, and his exploits arose from his deep convictions, and these actions qualify him as one of the greatest explorers of all time. His discovery of a new continent opened the doors to an entirely new world from which the entire globe still benefits over five centuries later.
The records of Genoa indicate that Christopher Columbus was the son of Domenico Colombo…… [Read More]
Europeans were interested in exploration before Columbus' journey because they were eager to establish new trade routes. Over the preceding centuries, sophisticated trade routes had developed around the world. There was the Silk oad that took goods between China and Europe. The Middle East was linked with India, Southeast Asia and with the east coast of Africa. However, because of the failure of Christians to dominate the Middle East in the Crusades, Muslim lands were often hostile to European traders. This spurred exploration in search of new trade routes, and new resources. Europeans had been exposed to many Eastern goods -- silk and spices were in particular demand -- but the political dimensions of long-distance trade made the acquisition of Eastern goods an uncertain proposition. One of the major reasons for exploration was the emerging idea that the world was round and therefore by sailing westward across the…… [Read More]
When Christopher Columbus set foot on Hispaniola, he encountered a civilization entirely different from his own. Although Columbus seems to be in awe and even respectful of the indigenous people, he is ultimately arrogant and ignorant in the assumption that converting to Christianity would make their lives better. In fact, Columbus’s statements are ironic given he seems to admire the generosity, kindness, and trusting nature of the people while simultaneously wanting them to become more like him and other Europeans. Although these excerpts of Columbus’s diary do not indicate any use of force, he can still be considered a conqueror in his patronizing attitude towards other people. Because Columbus conquers the spirit of the people, taking advantage of their kindness and trust, he can be considered a conqueror of the New World even if he did not use military force in Hispaniola.
Conquering usually connotes the use of force or…… [Read More]
legend of Christopher Columbus has lasted for five decades and he still remains a very controversial and mysterious figure who has been described severally as one of the world's greatest mariners of all times, a mystic, a visionary genius, an inexperienced entrepreneur, an unsuccessful administrator, and a wicked and selfish imperialist[footnoteRef:1]. He was a master admiral and navigator of Italian origin whose four main transatlantic voyages of 1492-1493, 1493-1496, 1498-1500 and 1502-1503, led to the advent of European exploration, exploitation, and subsequent colonization of Americans. For long, he is known as the discoverer of what is now known as the new world, though some Vikings like Leif Eriksson visited North America about five centuries before this time.[footnoteRef:2] [1: Library Congress, "1492: An Ongoing Voyage," Library Congress, March 2016, www.loc.gov] [2: Valerie, I. J. Flint, "Christopher Columbus; Italian explorer," ENCYCLOPAEDIA RITANNICA, March 2016, www.britannica.com]
Christopher Columbus, in the company of his…… [Read More]
Thus, Columbus was granted three ships, and King and Queen of Spain became Columbus' patrons in this voyage.
Queen Isabella was a smart woman, having decided side by side with Ferdinand in different matters about Spain, concerning internal affairs and inter-European countries negotiations. This established the strong position, and not just the supporting role she played to her husband. Even with doubts and little knowledge about Columbus, she stood by her word and commitment to Columbus.
Perhaps because of her belief, and maybe her intuition proved her right, Columbus was able to come back and show the evidences of rich new lands he was able to discover, despite the navigational errors he committed. The faith she had is enough to guide Columbus in his journey way home.
About Isabella I of Spain. About.com. 19 December 2006. http://womenshistory.about.com/cs/medrenqueens/p/p_isabella_i.htm
Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Empire. European Voyages of Exploration. 19 December…… [Read More]
Irving's book "A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus" cannot be considered as an adequate authentic source because he put the book together speedily and impulsively, in the process sacrificing the deliberation needed for creating an accurate, reliable, and original work, as preferred by historians. Irving was even persuaded from time to time, perhaps to recompense for the impracticality of undertaking comprehensive and far-reaching research, to fully let his thoughts wander. As a consequence, perhaps, he reenacts imaginative scenes, not just from what the prevailing account and records evidently indicated had happened, but from what an acquaintance and understanding of the period of discovery directed Irving to believe might have happened (Hedges, 1956). On the other hand, the sources used by Irving for his book project can be deemed adequate. Alexander Everett, the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Spain at the time summoned Irving to…… [Read More]
The key word in this passage is "pleasure" which indicates that Columbus's tone of voice is one of excitement and unbounded delight, due to "discovering" the many islands during his first voyage in 1492 which he was convinced held untold treasures like gold and silver which would help fill the coffers of the Spanish monarchy, thus guaranteeing that Spain would rule and dominate not only the lands but also the people by converting them to Christianity.
In contrast, Columbus's second letter addressed to the King and Queen of Spain sometime in 1493 is much more to the point and lacks any and all references to Columbus's highly subjective tone of voice regarding the lands and the possible riches they might hold. For example, Columbus mentions that the island of Espanola contains land "safer and better for farming and trading," a sign that Columbus is now only focusing his tone on…… [Read More]
Who was Columbus?
This essay attempts to answer the question, "Who was Columbus?" through a comparative analysis of documents discussing the historical context in which Christopher Columbus and his discovery of the "New World" (or Americas) were analyzed. The following discussion argues that Columbus is portrayed differently by different sectors of the society, but is primarily elucidated by members of the scholarly community of early American history. The documents discussed in this paper are Timothy Foote's "Where Columbus Was Coming From" and Joel Achenbach's "Debating Columbus in a New World."
Foote's historical analysis puts Columbus' character in the context of socio-historical changes and dynamics happening in Europe during his (Columbus') time. The author puts into background the development of the Renaissance period and the Dark Ages, two vital events in the history of Western civilization that ultimately determined the kind of society European nations are during these periods.…… [Read More]
This can be seen in the Catholics who were so tightly bound to the Vatican in Rome (17). The textbook points out that this wasn't just the case for Catholics, the Protestants in the New orld were also closely tied to their Protestant religion in England.
The relationship that the colonists had with the Native Americans was an important one because the European colonists needed the Native Americans to help them build their New orld; in short, the Europeans needed the Indian workforce (Ruckman 17). Sadly, Indians became slaves who were bought and sold, or they were forced (indentured) workers (17). Ruckman notes that the colonists needed major work done and the Indian workforce was not enough to meet the demands of a growing society, which is why slaves for Africa were being imported -- roughly beginning around the year 1502 (17).
Spain came to the New orld in 1492…… [Read More]
For decades, school children have been taught the misinformation that Christopher Columbus “discovered” America. As consciousness develops and society becomes more aware of the realities of history, it becomes less and less acceptable to celebrate false heroes like corrupt politicians, confederate generals and cruel explorers. Christopher Columbus fits the last category. A close examination of history demonstrates that he brought much despair and horrors to indigenous people near the Americas. The fact that The United States still has a day in his honor is bizarre and absurd. This essay will discuss the numerous compelling reasons why Columbus Day should be abolished, and ideally replaced with something that appropriately honors indigenous people.
One of the most compelling reasons to abolish Columbus Day was the fact that Christopher Columbus was a non-American, non-native, who never actually touched any of the soil of the continental United States. It might even be accurate…… [Read More]
Ivan Van Sertima's They Came Before Columbus: Critical eview
Born in a small village in Guyana South America in 1935, Ivan Van Sertima has established himself as an unrelenting scholar in the field of African history (ashidi, 2003). Educated at London University Van Sertima is now considered a literary critic, anthropologist and linguist (ashidi, 2003). Among his better known works include "They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America." This work follows the trail of the African as Sertima puts it through "every corner of the new world" and attempts to "set the record straight" regarding African presence in Ancient America (ashidi, 2003). His ideas in fact help reshape or reconstruct the place African's hold in world history, suggesting that Africans have more influence than one might initially believe. Many refer to They Came Before Columbus as a "groundbreaking, historical work an literary hallmark" with ideas…… [Read More]
Columbus -- Discovery or Invasion?
The lens through which world events are viewed is pivotal to one's immediate perspective and to later interpretations of circumstance. The activities of Christopher Columbus have point and counterpoint points-of-view that naturally reflect both Native American and European (and American) perspectives. Inarguably, the first epic voyage accomplished by Columbus revealed territories and cultures that differed starkly from the European experience. Framed in this way, Columbus made a discovery, an event that people naturally tend to celebrate -- within the framework of their own society. However, implicit in the word discovery is that of a first encounter or an accomplishment, absent any previous or similar activity. Referring to Columbus' discovery of a new land is an absolute rejection of global context. Rather, when Columbus' activities are viewed from a global perspective, the consequences of Columbus' journey to new lands were the result of an invasion, not…… [Read More]
gamut of subjects related to American history. The underlying themes of the course included race, class, gender, and power. Books such as Lies My Teacher Told Me and Zinn's People's History of the United States present a more rounded overview and analysis of historical events than what is typically offered in public school textbooks or in popular media. Modern resources ranging from newspaper and magazine articles to film and documentary productions help to round out the student's understanding of American history. The course shows that history is written by the victors, which paints a skewed and heavily biased version of events. The time has come to revise American history textbooks with a more truthful portrayal of how historical events unfolded. History has shaped, and his shaped by, sociological factors like race, class, gender, and power.
Race remains one of the most important topics in American history, culture, society, and identity.…… [Read More]
Collision of Two Worlds
Christopher Columbus, Hernan Cortes and Bernal Diaz all wrote very positive and glowing reports about the New World, which seem to have been in conflict with some of the harsh realities that they certainly encountered when they came to the New World. However, the fact that their glowing reports omitted some of the harsher aspects of their "discoveries" does not imply that any of these men were being dishonest. On the contrary, what it does do is highlight the role that these men played in their respective positions. They were not explorers, though they have come to be known as explorers to modern people. Instead, these men were each tasked to complete very specific tasks for the governments for whom they worked. Columbus was given the task of finding an overseas trade route with the East. Cortes went to discover the wealth of the Aztec empire.…… [Read More]
Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a non-estern civilization's Indian bounty of spices.
Columbus' eradication of another civilization is the most extreme form of estern civilization's prioritization of distinction, in contrast to Buddhism's stress upon the collapse of such distinction. The most obvious negative legacy of Columbus, for all of his striving and inquiry, is the current racial divisions of our own society and the damaged material and cultural state of Native Americans. Although a change of attitude cannot heal these distinctions alone, adopting at least some of the Buddhist spirit of the acceptance of the 'Other' as one with the self or 'non-self' might be an important first step in creating common ground in our nation. Our nation was founded not simply in democracy, but upon European…… [Read More]
he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).
IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…… [Read More]
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…… [Read More]
The lack of public support is one of the key factors that resulted to the failure of the U.S. There were false claims that the American government acted against people's aspirations and that the American youth protested against the war. Early initiatives of the United States under Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Truman obtained a lot of support. Only two members of the United States congress voted against giving Johnson the opportunity of waging the war in Vietnam
It was difficult to identify the enemy as Viet Cong merged with locals and only ambushed often at night. American terror campaigns hit their target, but failed to make the North Vietnamese surrender. A small portion of America considered their government as evil as even Walter Cronkite a CBS newscaster raised concern on the effectiveness of pursuing the war
In January 1973, President Nixon signed a truce that officially ended the resentments. Communist forces…… [Read More]
European Voyages of Exploration of the 15th and 16th Centuries
For several centuries following Columbus's historic discovery the North American Continent, pain enjoyed riches from overseas that allowed it to be the most influential country in Europe. Originally inspired by a combination of a quest to prove that he could reach the Far East by sailing west and the desire to reap the rewards of precious metals and spices, Columbus left Portugal for pain, after failing to achieve the support he needed from the king to finance his first voyage (Hayes & Clark, 1966). With the eventual support of Queen Isabella in pain, he managed to stumble onto North and outh America while looking for the Indies. Initially, the silver, gold, and spices imported from the first panish conquests in the Americas enabled pain to become the most powerful nation in Europe.
That happenstance was fortunate for pain, at least…… [Read More]
The Columbus Day has been a national holiday in the U.S. since 1937 meant to commemorate the arrival of the Italian born explorer, Christopher Columbus in the New World in October 12, 1492 opening up the region to the European word and development into what would be the current U.S. and surrounding nations. It is documented that the firs Columbus Day celebration took place in 1792 when Tammany hall held an event to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the landing of the Columbus exploration team. This celebration sparked several others across the nation in the following years where people who were proud of Columbus origin, his faith, and his catholic community started holding celebrations in his honor. Most of these were initially religious ceremonies and some forms of parades to celebrate the achievements of the explorer. It was in 1937 when President oosevelt proclaimed Columbus day a national holiday…… [Read More]
start of the 16th century. This was largely because society began to develop its initial modern practices during this time. Many things throughout this time had a large impact on the world, and still affect us today. Three things, however, can be singled out as being most important. The American Revolution, the founding of America by Christopher Columbus, and the reformation of the Catholic Church were all instrumental in affecting our world.
In the political arena, the American Revolution was extremely important. The revolution was not a single isolated event; rather, it encompassed occurrences from the 1660's all the way into the late 1700s. Many acts were passed during this time, including regulations on navigation, printed materials, and many everyday items. The Boston Tea Party also occurred during this time, as well as the Boston Massacre. Many battles were fought during the American Revolution which finally led to the drafting…… [Read More]
The misappropriation of Native American imagery, iconography, cultural ideology, and fashion is nothing new. After all, a slew of professional sports teams continue to run with Indian names and logos in spite of the controversy in doing so. A few sports teams, like the Atlanta Braves Major League Baseball franchise, boast insidious "tomahawk" chants during their games.
The latest trend in Native misappropriation is not much more tasteful than a Cleveland Indians jersey in the fashion world. Several manifestations of the disturbing trend have emerged in consumer culture. One is that commercial manufacturers Forever 21 and Urban Outfitters have been selling lines of clothing and jewelry that is culturally insensitive as well as illegal. A second trend, exposed by bloggers around the Internet, is the lewd use of Native-style feathered headdresses. These recent trends are highly disturbing in that consumers by now ought to know better. Especially hipsters, a…… [Read More]
I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).
American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…… [Read More]
European World View
In the 15th Century, the knowledge that the Europeans had of the world was so limited since most of them had never been outside Europe and their view of the outside world was in relation to Europe itself. Indeed, the European map of the world had only Europe, Asia and the top part of Africa as the only continents that existed in the world. The map also depicted only one ocean, "the Ocean Sea" to be existent in the world (Schmiechen James, 1999). There was a wide belief that the world was flat, though a few Europeans had the knowledge that it was not flat but the challenge was to know how big it was.
The lack of knowledge about the outside world gave room for rumors to fill in the gaps. From the European art, it is apparent that there was a gross misconception of what…… [Read More]
There are sources claiming that the population of natives had fallen from several million to several tens of thousands. The sources cannot be verified in the present, since there are no notable documents to confirm either assumption. hat is certain is that the Taino population from Hispaniola had been severely diminished as a result on their interaction with the Europeans.
hile Columbus continued to visit the Caribbean in hope that he would find the famous kingdoms that he have heard about, his brother Bartolome became governor of the island. Still, similar to his brother, Bartolome did not seem to control the situation, as no major advancements have been performed during his governing. One of the biggest mistakes that the Europeans had done during their first years on Hispaniola had been that they did not want their community to have anything to do to the native one. The locals had not…… [Read More]
18th century a number of races and nationalities were in the process of settling North America. The variety of ethnicities and cultures included, but were not limited to: Native Americans, Spanish, English, French, Germans and Jews, yet eventually the dominant races in North America were the English, Anglo-Saxons and Spanish. Interestingly enough, both groups featured a historical background that was likely much more religious than the other groups that faded into historical oblivion.
During the time when all the groups were attempting to establish footholds in the Americas a bible was in use by both the English and the Spanish that stated "and God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth" (Genesis 1,…… [Read More]
Eurocentrism and History Of Amerindians
Eurocentrism and the History of Amerindians
hen Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic and reached the Americas, he was convinced that he actually reached India. Because of his conviction, Columbus dubbed the peoples of the Americas "Indians." It was the beginning of European and later Euro-American myth-making in describing Native Amerindians and the shared histories of peoples who have lived in the American continent for the last five hundred centuries. Columbus was not the first person to come up with myths about Native Americans, but he led an expedition which paved the way for the conquest and exploitation of the Americas (its people and the land). Since Europeans and Euro-Americans who conquered the New orld unjustly murdered and enslaved the indigenous Americans and pillaged their land, historians for the last several centuries, strongly influenced by the values of the society that nurtured them, grappled with…… [Read More]
This is an important historical communication, noted seventy years after Vespucci's discovery. Columbus indeed landed in the est Indies (San Salvador in the Bahamas), and on Gutierrez' map the cartographer wrote: "This fourth part of the world remained unknown to all geographers until the year 1497, at which time it was discovered by Americus Vespusius serving the King of Castile, whereupon it also obtained a name from the discoverer."
Hieronymus Cock, a Flemish artist, engraved the map in a collaborative effort with Gutierrez, Hebert explains; in fact Cock is believed to be one of the "most important engravers and printmakers in Europe in the sixteenth century."
Maps not only communicated important information - and still do - but, according to an article in the journal Americas, they are witnesses. Authors J.B. Harley and D. oodward write that maps "...may be called the light or eye of history" (the quote they…… [Read More]
The Maritime Revolution occurred at the turn of the 1500s and began in full swing around 1550. It was started by many nation states within Europe at roughly the same time. Spain and England were the two early contributors to the Maritime Revolution, and many other European states soon followed. The Tudors of England and Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand of Spain were the main drivers behind this revolution. For the first time, Spain had complete control over its government following the union of Ferdinand and Isabella, in the wake of peace they turned their sites to new conquests the expansion of Spanish control. As a result, the Maritime Revolution occurred as Europe hastened to explore the world to discover unknown territories and new outlets for commerce. Spain was the first to sponsor such expeditions with the most famous being Christopher Columbus and his discovery of the Americas. Columbus's predecessors…… [Read More]
Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights regarding the Politics of the Amazon
In today's society, there is a tremendous need for global initiatives to support biodiversity, conservation and the protection of nature, as well as the culture of local inhabitants, especially those living in the Amazon. In recent years, many governments and coalitions have partnered with communities and native leaders to protect biodiversity and culture.
Grass-roots organizations and scientific discoveries have increased awareness about these issues, which include democratic participation by indigenous people, intellectual property rights, and cultural and ethnic identity. Within the context of globalization, the world is shrinking, and the dominant cultures, those of Europe and the United States, are penetrating the local world, including the indigenous groups in the Amazon basin. This paper will discuss the Andean indigenous interest and rights regarding the politics of the Amazon.
Global interest in ecological issues began in the mid-1980's.…… [Read More]
Despeate to find the gold Columbus had assumed was hidden on the island to pay back his investos, he odeed all Indians to poduce a cetain amount of gold evey thee months in etun fo a coppe token they wee foced to hang fom thei necks. Any Indian subsequently found without such a token would have his hands cut off and be left to bleed to death. Unfotunately fo the Indians, Columbus was wong about the gold deposits he expected to find; as a esult, most of the Indians wee simply hunted down with dogs and mudeed afte failing to meet thei gold quotas.
In the Ameican West, the situation was just as bad and equally obscued in moden-day histoical efeences. Geneally, Ameican histoy of the settlement of the Westen Teitoies focuses on the hadships encounteed by the Settles and of thei skimishes with Ameican Indians. Moeove, most of those…… [Read More]
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…… [Read More]
A new "revisionist" movement, sometimes epitomized by historians like Howard Zinn, seeks to correct these historical errors and treat the Amerindian cultures in a more balanced, less Eurocentric, fashion (See, for example: Troura; Restall).
The crux of this piece, Zinn's Chapter 1 of a People's History of the United States, focuses on the great civilizations which populated Meso and South America long before the Spanish arrived. The Toltec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca were the predominant cultures who had reigned in the area at least 3500 BCE, with most of the advanced and classical periods of their civilizations from 200-1200, and experiencing a decline from 1200 to the Spanish Conquest. While our understanding of the nature of the Amerindian classical civilizations is skewed due to so much material being destroyed by the Spanish, we do know that for several hundred years before Cortes landed there had been a great deal of…… [Read More]
The resulting quandary becomes one, therefore, that textbooks are being written and history taught in this manner so as to show and instruct people how they should act and strive to become - a rather false vision. What this accomplishes is nothing more then to relay to the student what is deemed acceptable to everyone and what is not - a general consensus filled with errors and inadequacies. When it comes to a student remembering historical lessons they normally do not remember what is being taught to them unless they are emotionally involved (Lies, 301). The lingering question for society to ponder is why are students being taught this manner for doing so results in our students not knowing the true history of their country. Although a sad commentary Loewen firmly believes it is an accurate one, given responses to questions he has asked his students throughout the years. As…… [Read More]
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…… [Read More]
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]
Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left
One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled…… [Read More]
preliminary analysis of a piece of art titled "The Birth of Venus." "
Artist: Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510)
Genre: history painting; Mythological
Medium: Tempera on canvas
Movement: art of the Early enaissance
Location: Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
The Birth of Venus Analysis
The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli is an ingenious piece of art. It remains a great piece of art after 500 years since its creation. It is still one of the highest prized art masterpieces of all time. The difficulty in interpreting its meaning is, perhaps one of the reasons why the piece of art has been a subject of discussion among many analysts of works of art. The painting is a portrayal of a nude and relatively large female standing gracefully on a wide and big seashell. The female seems to show up on land, coming from the sea (The Birth of Venus). To the left…… [Read More]
Soon after, an Aztec general murders several Spaniards from Cortez's band and prove that Cortez and his companions are frauds. Cortez takes Montezuma prisoner and compels him in surrendering the entire empire. The Aztec people choose to disobey their master and than kill Montezuma after he attempts to calm the spirits of the rebellion.
Hearing the news of Cortez's success in Mexico, Velasquez sends an army to arrest the deserter, but most of the men sent to capture Cortez join him after a clash between Cortez's forces and Velasquez's men.
Following several days of skirmish, Cortez enters the capital of the Aztecs once again, with the cost of thousands of lives of native people. After two years of attacks from the Spaniards and their allies, on the 13th of August, 1521, the Aztec king of Guatemoc surrenders his country before Hernan Cortez.
For the following seven years, Cortez remained in…… [Read More]
There are many examples in the literature of the intention and purpose of the early colonists to eradicate the Indian population. The genocidal intentions against the indigenous population of America do not however begin with the English colonists, but starts with Columbus. The following quotation refers to his second voyage to the New World.
Columbus took the title "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" and proceeded to unleash a reign of terror unlike anything seen before or since. When he was finished, eight million Arawaks -- virtually the entire native population of Hispaniola -- had been exterminated by torture, murder, forced labor, starvation, disease and despair.
Genocide of the American Indian Peoples)
Historian David Stannard also states quite categorically that "the destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world." (Genocide of the American Indian Peoples) The…… [Read More]
Indians'Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans, (Salisbury, 1996) details how many of the characterizations that have been presented about the Native American cultures in the United States have been incorrect. The author explains that historians have treated the coming of the Europeans to North America as the beginning of history about the people in North America, whereas, in realty, the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the onslaught of other Europeans who followed was merely a blip in the history of North America. Native Americans and their complex cultures and nations had occupied the North American continent for centuries preceding Columbus' arrival and historians have done these cultures a major disservice by minimizing their existence.
The article also suggests that the fact that historians have either minimized or ignored the contributions of the Native Americans brings into question the accuracy and validity of these historians' assessment…… [Read More]
Peppers in the Mexican Culture
Chili peppers are a member of the Capsicum food group; the principal pigment is chlorophylls a and b (chlorophylls are "a complex macrocyclic compounds with an extensive system of conjugated double bonds") (Roth, 2014). There are 27 different species of Capsicum. The hot taste comes from alkaloid chemicals (capsaicinoids -- capsaicin C18H27NO3).
On January 1, 1493, Christopher Columbus was exploring the north coast of what is today Haiti when he found a plant that he figured must be related to the black pepper. He wrote in his log: "This pepper that local Indians use as seasoning grows everywhere here and is more valuable than black pepper or melegueta pepper" (Roth, p. 1). Columbus brought chili peppers to Europe and they were widely dispersed into Asia. Benefits: rich in vitamins A and C; carotene is an antioxidant that helps reduce cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood…… [Read More]
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…… [Read More]
"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…… [Read More]
Unlike the more committed New England settlers who were fueled by a desire to practice their faith and farm and to create a 'shining city on a hill,' settlements in the southern regions of North America were made up of single men, unused to labor and farming as well as taking orders. Despite certain famous incidents from this period of history, such as the friendship established between Powhatan and Pocahontas with Captain illiam Smith, settlements like Jamestown floundered (Davis & Mintz 52). The Puritans, for all of the criticism leveled upon them, fared better, perhaps because they brought a form of government and a structured ideology to sustain them as a people, although the struggles that beset this community (not the least of which was the Salem 'witch scare') in terms of tilling unfamiliar soil and surviving a harsh climate cannot be underestimated.
Eventually, all of the colonies began prosper.…… [Read More]
He understood exploration and discovery was creating a new world order, and that the old way of doing things would not work in this big new world. He understood the future implications of law and global relations, and helped create the theories that would lead to national law and international understanding. History books and many historians do not always recognize him, but the Catholic Church recognizes him as an influential and vital advocate of theology, education, and global change.
In conclusion, Francisco de Vitoria is legendary for his creation of international law, his development of the University of Salamanca, and his treatment of many other theological issues. In 1926, The Dutch Association of Grotius honored the University of Salamanca with a gold medal to commemorate Francisco de Vitoria as the founder of international law. There is also a Spanish Asociacion Francisco de Vitoria that studies Vitoria and his ideas at…… [Read More]
Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Dance
The Cheyenne people are Native Americans of the Algonquian language family. They are of the Great Plains culture area. The name Cheyenne means 'people of an alien speech,' and was given to them by the Sioux.
The Cheyenne call themselves Tsetschestahase or Tsistsistas, which means 'beautiful people' or 'our people.'
Originally farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the land that is now central Minnesota, however, during the late 17th century, the Cheyenne were driven out of the area by the Sioux and Ojibwa tribes.
Gradually they migrated westward and settled in the area that is now North Dakota, but were forced to move south when the Ojibwa destroyed their settlement in 1770.
When the Cheyenne reached the lack Hills of South Dakota, they changed from farming and hunting and living in permanent villages to a nomadic life following the uffalo herds.
When the horse was…… [Read More]
This historian continues, "A sugar-loaf could weigh anything between one pound and 20 pounds, but whatever it weighed it was worth that weight in silver" (Toussaint-Samat 555). By the sixteenth century, it was discovered that sugar cane grew amazingly well in the New World Christopher Columbus had discovered, especially in the Caribbean areas. Toussaint-Samat notes, "in 1506 one Pedro d'Arrance took sugar cane to Hispaniola, now the Dominican epublic. It grew there so profusely that by 1518 the island had eight sugar plantations" (Toussaint-Samat 556). Sugar grew in popularity as it became more readily available, and it also began to drop in price, so the middle class could afford it. As early as 1600, one early historian notes, "That which was once a remedy now serves us as food'" (Toussaint-Samat 557). Sugar cane became another form of currency, and entire economies were built on it before it dropped in price…… [Read More]
The apparent point here is that land traditionally belonging to native tribes will be used to mine in the interest of the developed world. It makes me feel both sad and powerless. I do not have all the information, but stories like this always make me feel that those with the greatest physical, technological, or financial power, or all three, tend to have more power than even those with the right to a certain piece of land or way of living.
The second point confirms the previous observation, that the consistent support of those in power has resulted in the approval of the project without any regard for the rights of those who have possessed the land for far longer. Again, this gives me a sense of powerlessness when faced with decisions by politicians who have only their own interest at heart.
This is far longer than the mere…… [Read More]
Business Ethics in Precapitalist America
The American evolution was kindled by a growing dissatisfaction with the way colonial merchants were being treated by the English ruling class (Collins, 2011). In response to the Ottoman Empire's capture of Constantinople and the levying of onerous tariffs on trade goods coming from Western Europe, the Spanish Monarchy funded an exploratory venture that took Christopher Columbus west to map out a new trade route to Asia. The goal was gold at any cost, even at the expense of human life. One of the new markets that Columbus helped to establish was the Atlantic slave trade, with 'goods' moving east instead of west.
Over the next several centuries many of the Europeans arriving on the eastern shores of North America were indentured servants (Collins, 2011). When the number of European servants became insufficient to meet the demands of colonial merchants and farmers, more…… [Read More]
Defining the American Dream
People have talked about a concept called the American Dream for many years, but the definition is difficult to pin down. The reason for this is that as the situations in the country change, so does the view people have of what the American Dream represents. The purpose of this paper is to define what the American Dream is from history, the generally accepted meaning of the term, and how that definition may have changed over the past couple of years.
History shows that the concept of the American Dream began with the "discovery" of the Americas. hether the explorer was Leif Erickson or Christopher Columbus, all of the people who have come to these shores have dreamed of something better. As a matter of fact;
"The idea of an American Dream is older than the United States, dating back to the 1600s, when…… [Read More]
unlike the way the 'race for the moon' became the driving force of American scientific exploration during the 1950's and 1960's, the race to control the trade routes to the far reaches of the globe and to expand its technological knowledge of navigation became the driving force of Spanish foreign and domestic policy during the period of world history from the 15th to the 17th centuries. This period is also commonly called "The Age of Discovery" by European historians. The economic impact of Spain's forays into the New orld or worlds ultimately changed the face of European knowledge of the world and the economic structure of Europe. Both the residents of Spain and Europe as a whole, however, experienced both positive and negative effects of this exploration. However, the effects upon Europe were on the whole largely beneficial, because of the increased exposure to new goods and the expansion of…… [Read More]
biases present in our culture that encourage those whose primary culture is rooted in Western civilization to view their culture as the most significant and important one. It calls this view "Eurocentric," and gives many, many examples of how Eurocentric bias has been presented in textbooks about world history.
The author gives examples of how people are indoctrinated to accept an Eurocentrist view using examples from movies as well as those who seem to attempt to view Columbus more clearly. For instance, when Christopher Columbus is criticized for the wrongs he did, such as his arrival at Hispaniola resulting in the deaths of 8 million natives during the following 21 years, the implication is that these effects are somewhere in the past. In reality, it never stopped. Native peoples in the Americas are still persecuted to this day. Thus the careful re-representation of history has been taking place for centuries.…… [Read More]
It is known as The Bermuda Triangle, The Devil's Triangle, and some call it the Hoodoo Sea, but whichever name you choose, the Triangle remains a mysterious triangle of ocean that has seen the disappearance of numerous unexplained losses of shops, small boats, and aircraft. This triangle encompasses an area of ocean located off the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida. The apexes of the triangle are pinpointed to be Bermuda, Miami, Fla., and San Juan, Puerto Rico (Navy Historical Center 2001). hile the U.S. Board of Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle as an official name or keep an official file on the triangular area, the name Bermuda Triangle was established with a 1952 article that appeared in Fate magazine (Loxton 2003) and it continues to remain unexplained how disappearances have occurred over time.
Some scientists believe that violent, unexpected storms or downward air currents destroyed…… [Read More]
St. Croix has the largest amount of land under cultivation. Sugarcane was once the most important crop but its importance has declined. Manufacturing is most developed on St. Croix, where rum, refined petroleum and watches are produced.
Tourism is the islands' leading industry. St. Thomas and St. John are the chief tourist centers. Among attractions are the pleasant climate, beautiful scenery, and water sports. Another attraction is the free port, which sells at bargain prices goods imported from all over the world.
Famous People from the Islands
Kelsey Grammer (born 1955), actor was born in St. Thomas. Kelsey grew famous with roles in 'Cheers' and 'Frasier'. He trained at the Juilliard School located in New York City.
Hanik Milligan was born 1979 in St. Croix, is an American football safety for the National Football League. He was originally drafted by the San Diego Chargers in the sixth round of the…… [Read More]
Both of these perspectives are, from Hart's perspective, too extreme: he wants a legal theory which would be free from moral evaluations or moral commitments (unlike Finnis' approach), while remaining a descriptive theory of the practice rather than a participation in it (unlike Dworkin's approach). Hart was trying to keep a difficult middle position (Hacker, 1977-page 31). He argued that a legal theory should be constructed around the perspective of someone who accepted the legal system, but the theory itself (or, to put the matter differently, the theorist herself) need not, and should not, endorse the system (as one which is generally just or which creates binding moral obligations). In other words, the theory simultaneously:
(1) attempts to take into account the participant's perspective; and (2) manages to choose among possible participants' perspectives without having to make moral judgments; while
(3) keeping sufficient distance from the participants' perspective to allow…… [Read More]
First, evil in Sleepy Hollow is more equating with a satirical view that, in this case, evil is a more benign humor, bumbling, caustic in disrupting the town, and, as it was in Ancient Greek and oman drama, simply more of an irritant than planned destruction. Focusing again on the time period, our first introduction to this theme is one of Dutch New York against Urban New England. The Dutch community is sylvan, nostalgically conceived, changeless, and an Eden for its inhabitants. Ichabod arrives as a Yankee whose spoiling of this Eden simply cannot be tolerated -- and even more, by marrying the daughter of a wealthy and high-ranking community member, becoming part of Eden himself. This simply could not happen to a community that is so "European in nature."
Sleepy Hollow, as a town is clearly Dutch, with Dutch values, culture, and mores, or for riving, "population, manners, and…… [Read More]
The United States Sugar Industry
How many sodas and candy bars are drunk and eaten in the United States each day? This report will focus on one of the main ingredients in those sweet treats and the related industry here in the United States that produces it. "Sucrose -- what we call 'sugar' -- is an organic chemical of the carbohydrate family. It can be extracted from a great variety of plant sources, for it occurs in all green plants." (Mintz, 19) Sugar falls under the classification of an 'edible crystalline substance' that we taste as sweet. The world produces approximately 160 thousand metric tons of sugar annually with Brazil, India and the European Union consistently listed as the largest producers.
The bulk of commercial sugar production comes from the two sources of sugar beets and sugarcane; other sources include sorghum, date palms, and sugar maple. As a…… [Read More]
I've never "seen" a million dollars, but that doesn't mean it doesn't exist.
A couple of the other physics concepts can be difficult to comprehend, as well. For example, one concept is that things can exist in more than one space at a time, but people do not choose to see them, and so, when they look at them they disappear. This section of the film might turn away a lot of viewers, because much of the discussion may be over their heads and the might find it boring. These ideas are some of the most "out there" of the film, and the hardest for the mathematicians to really get across. The talk of what is real and what a person sees vs. what they remember was understandable, but many of the other concepts may just be too odd for people to wrap their heads around. For example, the atom…… [Read More]