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We have over 109 essays for "Chronic Lower Back Pain"

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Manipulative Thrust Techniques in Lower

Words: 3037 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 594913



The practice of manipulative thrust therapy can be dangerous and cases of injuries and tragic events have been recorded. Cases of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) have been recorded in people that had the cervical spine manipulation technique done and research on the cases from 1966 to 1993 concluded 30% could be attributed to the procedure (Cleland 2007). VADs are spontaneous and can be normally present at the initial onset of headaches or neck pain. This represents the conclusion that the VAD was present before the technique is performed on a patient complaining of neck pain. The debate over the truth is still being waged. Even authors have joined the debate but they are touted as biased and do not support the evidenced based in research (User's Guide 2008).

Other debates rage as well. The risks of the manipulative thrusts therapies are actually no worse the risks from NSAIDs and cervical…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. "Activator turns 35." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2001. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .

Anonymous. "Study Finds "Manual Therapy" Effective for Shoulder Dysfunction/Pain." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2004. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .

Anonymous. "Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2006. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .

Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001 Vol. 47-163-24 April 2010
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Tapentadol IR for Acute Pain

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 89930672

Therefore, the research offers reliable data supporting the emerging medication.

The sample included 878 patients with low back pain or pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Patients were randomly assigned to Tapentadol or control drug oxycodone and took their medications for 90 days Doses for Tapentadol were flexible with either 50 or 100 mg offered every 4 to 6 hours, up to a maximum of 600 mg/day. Instances of nausea, vomiting, and constipation were significantly lower in the Tapentadol group vs. The oxycodone group. Doses were flexible and mimicked real life administrations of the medications.

However, the control group was given 10 mg or 15 mg of oxycodone IR every four to six hours. The lack of standardization of doses and the flexible administration of the drugs compromise the reliability and validity of the study. Nurses should also take note that rates of other side-effects such as drowsiness…… [Read More]

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Pain and Spinal Disorder at

Words: 3131 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72284695

The problems at the work place were detected over a long period of time and are a part of the history of development. The development of technology was very rapid which must also have brought in the needed changes in the workplace functions and norms. Unfortunately the basic structure of health protection came to be discussed only in the beginning of 1960s. The occupational medicine became a separate field of study since then and the occupational health service was born. The motto which the service wanted to achieve was an ergonomic system that could fit the job and the worker and simultaneously identify and eliminate health hazards. (Wilkinson, 50) There were many statues passed that created safety at the workplace. The greatest step in this regard was the OSHA regulations.

OSHA Implications

The OSHA act of 1970 was the single piece of legislation that gave an impetus to the work…… [Read More]

Reference:

N.A. Comparative table of pain distribution. ( http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical/may98/4-5-p1/8204f3.GIF )

References

Charlton, Samuel G; O'brien, Thomas G. Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, NJ. 2002.

Harrington, Lisa. H. The Safety Zone.  http://www.inboundlogistics.com/articles/features/0506_feature01.shtml
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Ankylosing Spondylitis

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39367523

Ankylosing Spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that attacks young males. It may lead to the fusion of the spine (Sarker, 2016). The fusion can result in the spin being rigid thereby making the patient develop a hunched back. Subsequently, the patient may have breathing problems because of the posture. Other inflammatory signs may show up in other parts of the body such as the eyes (Sieper & Braun, 2010).

Etiology and Incidences

Ankylosing's etiology is still unknown but there are pointers to a genetic risk and component. esearchers have highlighted the association it has with the HLA B27 gene. They have proposed ineffective mechanisms but they are seen to be less apparent as is the case with reactive arthritis.

The prevalence of Ankylosing spondylitis in the general population is low (0.1% to 1.4%). It is more prevalent among Caucasians than in members of other races. Those suffering from chronic…… [Read More]

References

Ebringer, A., & Ebringer, A. (2012). Muscle Changes in Ankylosing Spondylitis. Ankylosing spondylitis and Klebsiella, 45-50. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-4300-0_6

Gaidukova, I. Z., & Rebrov, A. P. (2016). THE RISK OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE DEVELOPMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (BECHTEREW'S DISEASE) AND PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS: A 10-YEAR PROSPECTIVE FOLLOW-UP STUDY. The Clinician, 10(3), 26-31. doi:10.17650/1818-8338-2016-10-3-26-31

Moon, K., & Kim, Y. (2014). Medical Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Hip & Pelvis, 26(3), 129. doi:10.5371/hp.2014.26.3.129

Sarker, H. (2016). Case-45 Back Pain and Stiffness (Ankylosing Spondylitis). Short & Long Cases in Clinical Medicine, 354-357. doi:10.5005/jp/books/12920_46
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Hydrocodone as a Painkiller

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85063708

Hydrocodone: An overview of a highly addictive drug

If you have ever had a cough and taken over-the-counter medications, you know sometimes Tylenol and gargling with salt water is not enough to alleviate the discomfort and the nagging unpleasantness of a lingering cough. Hydrocodone is often prescribed as a temporary pain remedy for relief in combination with other drugs to reduce pain and coughing. The drug is present in a number of medications, almost inevitably compounded with other drugs to relieve pain. Hydrocodone is classified as an opiate as well as an antitussive which inhibits cough. "Hydrocodone relieves pain by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. Hydrocodone relieves cough by decreasing activity in the part of the brain that causes coughing" ("Hydrocodone Combination Products," Medline Plus). However, despite its potential benefits the drug also has an addictive potential which cannot be disregarded. The potential palliative…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"The Effects of Hydrocodone Use." Coalition Against Drug Abuse. Web. 29 Dec 2014.

"Hydrocodone Combination Products." Medline Plus. Oct 2014. Web. 29 Dec 2014.

Liebelson, Dana. "Defying Medical Board, FDA Approves Painkiller That Could Be the Next

OxyContin." Mother Jones. 13 Nov 2013. Web. 29 Dec 2014.
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Musculosketal Studies Lower Extremity Overuse

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12490574

Running on pavement that is cantilevered, such as on a road that is designed to 'run off' rainwater, is more apt to be a culprit in developing patellofemoral pain, regardless of the individual's foot type, while running downhill may exacerbate the tendency of an individual to develop IB syndrome. Improper running shoes for the individual's foot type can also exacerbate both conditions -- inflexible new running shoes again heightening the chance of developing IB syndrome (Hunter, Dolan & Davis, 1995, p.31).

Stress fractures are another common orthopedic plague. They are small fractures of the bone that develop over time, again often from overuse activities like running. Medical literature suggests that certain foot types are more apt to develop stress fractures in certain places than other areas of the body. For example, some believe that flat-footedness may actually guard against overuse injuries in certain places. One clinical study of fifty healthy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burns et al. (2005) Journal of American Podiatry Medicine.

Chuckpaiwong, J. Nunley, N. Mall, R. Queen. (2007). The effect of foot type on in-shoe plantar pressure during walking and running. Gait & Posture. 28 (3) 405-411 B.

Flat feet and running. (2008). Runner's rescue. Retrieved January 2, 2008 at  http://www.runnersrescue.com/Flat_Feet_and_Running.htm 

Hunter, Skip, Michael G. Dolan, & John M. Davis. (1995). Foot orthotics in therapy and sport.
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Macpherson Thorpe and Thomas 2006 Reported an

Words: 2481 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 58109216

MacPherson, Thorpe, and Thomas (2006) reported an interesting qualitative study on the use of acupuncture in the treatment of low back pain. They report the results of a qualitative study nested within a large quantitative study (there were actually tow qualitative studies performed but the current study only addresses one of them). The quantitative study design was one of a large randomized controlled trial that compared acupuncture against typical general practitioner care. The study was carried out York between the years 1999 and 2003. The acupuncture treatment for the study was founded on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using six acupuncturists who all had a minimum of three years of post-qualification clinical experience. The acupuncturists were encouraged by the researchers to provide their typical treatment so that the study would evaluate the effect of routine care for lower back pain, each acupuncturist making meticulous notes of the aspects…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, A. (2006). Point specificity of acupuncture in the light of recent myofascial pain.

Acupuncture Medicine, 24(3), 118-122.

MacPherson, H., Thorpe, L., & Thomas, K. (2006). Beyond needling therapeutic processes in acupuncture care: A qualitative study nested within a low-back pain trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12, 873-880.
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Thermo Therapy

Words: 3365 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52189201

Thermo Therapy

Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.

For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…… [Read More]

References

Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6

Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99

Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21

Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
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Human Resources Fed Ex Case

Words: 853 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 41026738

For all employees with chronic health problems such as arthritis, asthma, and diabetes, FedEx offered a disease management program to give them guidance. The emphasis is on health improvement and wellness maintenance, rather than treating on treating disease alone. Wellness promotion strategies reduce employee demand for higher-cost health-care services, improve productivity and reduce sick days. Employees get a sense that the company cares about them, which fosters loyalty. An employee will feel more favorably towards a company that supports him or her during a time of sickness with physical therapy and adequate services, so the employee does not have to worry him or herself 'sick' over wondering where he or she will get care.

FedEx offers a telephone hotline staffed by nurses 24-7 so employees can call with health-related questions. As it is a service-based, delivery organization FedEx is in operation around the clock, particularly during the holidays, and this…… [Read More]

References

Benefits. (2010). U.S. jobs. Google. Retrieved August 2, 2010 at http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/benefits/#hw
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Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be

Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37868620

Fibromyalgia

One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
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Manual Therapy Is Regarded as

Words: 1862 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21085628

It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)

Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…… [Read More]

References

Aure, Olav Frode; Hoel Nilsen, Jens; Vasseljen, Ottar. (15 March, 2003) "Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up" Spine. Vol: 28; No: 6; pp: 525-531.

Beeton, Karen. (2003) "Manual Therapy Masterclasses"

Elsevier Health Sciences.

BMJ: Manual therapy beats out traditional treatment." (August, 2003) Journal of the American
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Business Plan for a Sleep

Words: 8375 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 84888867

Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)

Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."

Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…… [Read More]

References

Inspiration! Sleep Study Results & Analysis (2006) Q&a with Ron Richard, senior vice president of strategic marketing initiatives at ResMed HME Business April 2006. Online at  http://www.hme-business.com/articles/55305/ 

Johnson, Duane, PhD (2008) Are you Really Managing Your Sleep Lab? The Business of Sleep. Focus Journal May/June 2008. Online at  http://www.foocus.com/pdfs/Articles/MayJune08/Duane.pdf 

Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neider GL. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):159-169

MacFarlene, James (2009) the Painful Pursuit of Sleep. Sleep Review Journal Jan/Feb 2009. Online available at  http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2009-01_07.asp
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Psychological Factors in Health Traditional

Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80328946

Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.

orks Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."

Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.

Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael

T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
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Independent & Dependent Variable

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 90193856

Ameen Masoudi

Combination Therapeutic Exercises with Manipulation for Reliving

Pain and Increasing Range of Motion for Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain

The lumbar spine is composed of the vertebrae as well as the ligaments beside the discs, nerves and muscles. This area is a common source of pain. This is one of reasons why people visit their physicians. Around seventy percent of people who live in advanced countries will have lower back pain at some point. Each year, approximately half of adult population present with low back pain and five percent of these patients see a clinician when a new episode occurs. Out of this population, ten percent still cannot work and twenty percent have persistent pain for a year.

Rationale:

There is no study combining these two interventions so we may have superior results if we combined both therapeutic and manipulation because therapeutic exercise and manipulation are the most…… [Read More]

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Homeopathic Remedies Jenny Is a

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50618584

e recommended the remedy Natrum muriaticum, as it applies readily to Roy's symptoms, including his responsiveness to massage, his suppressed emotion, and his tendency to keep his feelings concealed from those around him. e asked that Roy not alter anything about his exercise regime during the course of treatment. Six months after Roy started taking the remedy, he returned to us for follow-up. Roy's posture was noticeably improved and he sat upright in spite of having returned from a business trip just that morning. hen asked, Roy stated that he had been increasingly aware of his negative emotions and was making a conscious effort to consciously own up to his feelings by being more assertive at work, and by simply admitting to himself that he was angry. Roy's back problems had waned; although last week he had a sudden relapse, he could readily attribute the setback to a stressful incident…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Homeopathy Index." Vitacost.com. Online at http://www.vitacost.com/science/hn/Index/Homeo.htm.
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Health care and care techniques

Words: 2211 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72347786

Benchmark-esearch Critique and PICOT statement

This article is a research critique on the paper titled 'Home Telehealth for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis' by J. Franek. The research paper under review was published by the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series.

Although there isn't a direct statement that refers to Problem statement, there is a title that highlights the "Objective of the Analysis." There is an excerpt of the objectives below. The discussion in the objective statement is only centred on the evaluation steps. There is evidence in the literature that the effects of COPD were openly revealed as being core elements of the problem statement in the first place.

"For patients experiencing multiple comorbidities, it is essential to observe routine self-management support. Such support consists of the necessary education to enlighten parents to pick out the symptoms in good time. They will consequently manage their…… [Read More]

References

Bernocchi, P., Scalveni, S., Galli, T., Volterani, M., & Vitacca, M. (2016). A multidisciplinary telehealth program in patients with combined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials.

Brown, J. (2014). Improving care for COPD. North East Quality Observatory System.

Irzarry, R., Peng, R., & Leek, J. (2013, August 28). Evidence-based Data Analysis: Treading a New Path for Reproducible Research. Retrieved from Simply Statistics:  http://simplystatistics.org/2013/08/28/evidence-based-data-analysis-treading-a-new-path-for-reproducible-research-part-2/ 

Riva, J., Malik, K., Burnie, S., Endicott, A., & Busse, J. (2012). What is your research question? An introduction to the PICOT format for clinicians. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association, 167-171.
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Herniated Disc Spinal Disc Herniation Also Called

Words: 1161 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98690804

Herniated Disc

Spinal Disc Herniation, also called slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition that affects the spine. This may be caused by trauma, injury, or idiopathic causes that are combinations of issues. Physiologically, an injury causes a tear in the outer ring of the intervertebral disc, more specifically in the fibrous ring that surrounds the disc. This injury then allows the softer, central portion of the disc to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. This tear sometimes causes the release of inflammatory chemicals causing intense pain, even with there is no severe root compression. In addition, herniated discs are almost always postero-lateral because of the way the ligaments are attached to the spinal cord (Postacchini, 1999).

Most minor herniations heal within several weeks using anti-inflammatory treatment for pain and swelling. However, severe herniations, the so-called slipped disc, even though it is not accurate from a medical…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Herniated Disc. (2012) MedlinePlus. Retrieved from:  http://www.nlm.nih.gov 

/medlineplus/ency/article/000442.htm

Baldwin, J., et.al., (2011). Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disk Disorders. Medscape Reference.

Retrieved from:  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/827016-overview
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Ergonomics the Guidelines Niosh Reasons

Words: 3769 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45208298

The literature review was finally released in a document called "Scientific Support Documentation for the evised 1991 NIOSH Lifting Equation: Technical Contract eports, May 8, 1991." (Applications Manual for the evised NIOSH Lifting Equation) This is an update and contains information on the physiological, biomechanical, psychophysical, and epidemiological aspects of manual lifting. This led to the recommendation by the ad hoc committee of the criteria for defining the lifting capacity of healthy workers. Since the basis of the previous calculation changed, the new criteria were used to formulate the revised lifting equation. (Applications Manual for the evised NIOSH Lifting Equation)

At the same time, it should be clear that the NIOSH lifting equation is only one of the tools in the effort for prevention of work-related low back pain and related disability. It should also be realized that lifting is only one of the reasons for work-related low back pain…… [Read More]

References

Analysis Tools for Ergonomists" Retrieved at http://hsc.usf.edu/~tbernard/ergotools/. Accessed 18 August, 2005

Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation" Retrieved at http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/cdcRecommends/showarticle.asp?a_artid=P0000427&TopNum=50&CallPg=AdvAccessed 18 August, 2005

Ergonomics: OSHA Drops the Other Shoe" (30 April, 2002) Retrieved at  http://www.jacksonlewis.com/legalupdates/article.cfm?aid=82Accessed  20 August, 2005

Faville, Barb; Shulenberger, Chris. (16 November, 2004) "Applying Manual Material-
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Popularity of Chinese Traditional Acupuncture in the

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10532342

popularity of Chinese Traditional acupuncture in the United Kingdom.

Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that treats people by insertion and handling of solid, usually thin needles into the body. Through its beginnings, acupuncture has been deep-rooted in the notions of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its general theory is based on the idea that bodily functions are synchronized by the flow of an energy-like entity called qi. Acupuncture tries to right inequities in the flow of qi by stimulus of anatomical locations on or under the skin called acupuncture points, most of which are linked by channels known as meridians. Scientific study has not found any bodily or organic correlate of qi, meridians and acupuncture points, and some modern practitioners needle the body without using an academic structure, instead choosing points because of their tenderness to pressure (Acupuncture: An Introduction, 2011).

Contributing Factors

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is becoming…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Acupuncture: An Introduction.2011. [online]. Available at:

http://nccam.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/introduction.htm

BAcC responds to NICE guidelines re acupuncture for back pain on the NHS. 2009. [online].

Available at:  http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/the-news/press-statements/312.html
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Vicodin and Its Addictive Nature

Words: 2516 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42266741

Addictive Nature of Vicodin

According to statistics provided by the Department of Health and Human Services, an estimated one and one-half million people in the United States started taking prescription painkillers for "non-medical" purposes in 1998, three times as many as in 1990. One of the most heavily abused painkillers is Vicodin.

Properly used, Vicodin is one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications, especially for those suffering from lower back pain, arthritis, post-operative distress, malignant cancer or sports injuries. It is not time-released, and therefore provides almost instant relief. Vicodin is a compound of two drugs: acetaminophen (found in Tylenol) and hydrocodone bitartrate. Both are painkillers, but together they are far more effective than either one individually.

Twenty tons of Vicodin are produced annually, and it is marketed under a plethora of brand names including Anexsia, Bancap-HC, Ceta-Plus, Co-Gesic, Dolacet, Hydrocet, Hydrogesic, Hy-Phen, Lorcet, Lortab, Margesic-H, Maxidone, Norco and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Addicted to Vicodin." Extra, The Waismann Institute in the News #08. March 15, 2001. http://www.methadone-detox.com/vicodin_addiction_extra.html[November 10, 2002].

Associated Press article, Naples News, Wednesday, Nov. 21, 2001. "Deaths from abuse of OxyContin, hydrocodone skyrocketing. http://www.naplesnews.come/01/11/florida/d713145a.htm[November 10, 2002].

Costello, Daniel. "Clean and Sober in 48 Hours?." LA Times, October 28, 2002.

Indiana Prevention Resource Center at Indiana University, findings reported in Time article, March 19, 2001.  http://www.jointogether.org/plugin.jtml?siteID=iprc&p=1&Tab=News&Object_ID=266437 .[November 10, 2002].
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Flexibility Training

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2632254

flexibility training has to offer in everyday life of people by helping them to function more effectively. Moreover I shall discuss constructing a class specifically for this kind of training and also shed some light on the ways music can help motivate and improve the performance of the people undergoing the flexibility training.

BENEFITS OF FLEXIBILITY TAINING:

Flexibility comprises full range motion of the various joints of the body and encompasses all components of the musculoskeletal system and specific neuromuscular pathways of the body. Flexibility varies from person to person depending on his age, gender, body temperature and the type of joint to be moved. It helps in the reduction of low back pain and injury (Bach, Green, & Jensen) and also helps improve the posture and muscle symmetry. (Corbin, C.B., & Noble, L). In addition to all this it decreases severity due to injury, delays the onset of muscular…… [Read More]

References:

1) Bach, B.K., Green, D.S., & Jensen, G. M- Article Title: A comparison of muscular tightness in runners and non-runners and the relation of muscular tightness to low back pain in runners. Publication Year: 1985.Journal Title: Journal of Orthopedic Sports Physical Therapy. Volume: 6.Page Number: 315+.

2) Corbin, C.B., & Noble, L-Article Title: Flexibility: A major component of physical fitness. Publication Year: 1980.Journal Title: The Journal of Physical Education and Recreation. Volume: 51.Page Numbers: 23-24, 57-60.

3) Anonymous-Flexibility training. Posted on: 15/11/2005.Available from: http://www.mamashealth.com/exercise/flextrain.asp [Accessed on: 16/11/2005]

4) Lee Crust-Ergogenic aids. Posted on: 2005. Available from:  http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/0951.htm  [Accessed on: 16/11/2005]
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Non-Cardiac Chest Pain Background- Chest Pain Is

Words: 1987 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 97434616

Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Unexplained Chest Pain Can be Due To Stress. (2009, February 9). Retrieved from Science Daily:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209094551.htm 

Cunha, J. (2011, March). Chest Pain - Overview, Causes, Symptoms. Retrieved from eMedicineHealth:  http://www.emedicinehealth.com/chest_pain/article_em.htm 

Hershcovici, T., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., & Fass, R. (2011). Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: An Update. CML Gastroenterology, 30(2), 37-54.

Jerlock, M., Gaston-Johansson, F., & Danielson, E. (2005). Living with unexplained chest pain. Issues in Clinical Nursing, 14(2), 956-64.
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Acute Abdominal Pain -- Assessment Nurses Are

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83494389

Acute Abdominal Pain -- Assessment

Nurses are very often the first medical aid providers that most patients see. In today's interprofessional healthcare set up, a nurse's approach in collecting a patient's history and diagnosing if the pain is acute or non-acute would assuredly help in providing the patient with appropriate treatment. It is therefore primary that nurses be fully equipped to diagnose the various ailments and start on the care to be provided. Nurses are also the first information gatherers and it is vital that they acquire the patient's past medical history. The importance of a structured approach in gathering this information is very vital as it forms the basis of analysis and also influences the care provided. Abdominal pain is one of the most common ailments that people complain of and seek medical care for. In most cases the pain's primary cause of pain may be ascertained almost immediately…… [Read More]

Biliary Colic: Biliary colic is a result of intermittent cystic duct or bile duct obstruction caused by gall stones. Typically affecting overweight women, pain in this case is usually colicky and localized in the right upper quadrant and in the epigastrium radiating towards the back. Vomiting is an associated symptom and the onset of pain is sudden and severe and it resolves as fast and spontaneously or after administering opiate analgesic.

Bowel Obstruction: Both the large and small intestines can get obstructed. Large intestine obstruction is caused by impacted faeces, tumors or volvulus (a case of the intestine twisting around itself). Obstructions in the small intestines are largely due to Crohn's disease, tumors, swallowed foreign objects or adhesions (Longmore et al. 2004.)The patient may experience colicky pain, vomiting, and will display a distended abdomen. It is also possible that some patients may become constipated as they might not be able to pass stools or gas due to the obstruction (Longmore et al. 2004). An X-ray can display the accurate position of the obstruction and help in finding speedy care.

Cholecystitis: An acute or chronic inflammation of the gall bladder, this is predominantly caused by
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Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31344353

Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).

It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…… [Read More]

References

Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.

Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin

Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.

Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
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Rsd Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy AKA CRPS or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome CRPS

Words: 4914 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18797249

History of RSD

The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.

Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.

Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.

Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.
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Fibromyalgia the Objective of This Study Is

Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91428457

Fibromyalgia

The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.

Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.

Causes of Fibromyalgia

While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.

Occurrence of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 

Fibromyalgia - Fibromyositis; Fibrositis (2012) Summary of Cochrane Review. PubMed Health. Retrieved from:
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HSMS Gap analysis Hazard identification and Risk assessments

Words: 14774 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45172476

HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments

Description of APM Terminals

Legal Environment

Review of the Health and Safety Management System

Description

Gap Analysis

Hazard Identification

Physical Hazards

Health and Welfare Hazards

Risk Assessment

Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding

Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise

Action Plans

Action Plan 1 - Management System

Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks

Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist

Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.

The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]

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Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications

Words: 18188 Length: 66 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2190458



Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

Chapter Introduction

This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.

Hypnosis

In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]

bibliography. (2010).  http://science.jrank.org  / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.

Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.

Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.

Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.

Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
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Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising

HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING

THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN

CREATING DEMAND

DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING

CAUSE F DEATH

PRFIT

UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS

LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS

LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC

RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS

In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems.  http://www.recalleddrugs.com
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Human Factors of Night Vision Goggles

Words: 3255 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 81095109

Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline Cognitive Levels

Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels

In modern combat missions, the desire to operate at night is paramount because of the heightened enemy prowess against aggressors. As a result, technology has fostered the possibility of developing systems that would minimize the challenges associated with darkness. A common example of this technology is the Night Vision Goggles (NVG). However, because of physical and physiological challenges associated with NVG technology, pilots have often been dissatisfied with their careers. This situation has often forced many of them to leave their current workplaces in search for the ones that address cognitive and psychological problems associated with the use of the gadget. This research proposal will prove that NVG causes fatigue and lowers the quality of cognitive judgments required in piloting. While identifying the problems associated with NVG technology in piloting, this study will…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, R.E. (2012). Awareness and Detection of Traffic and Obstacles Using Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems. NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, 1-69

Brickner, M.S. (1980). Helicopter Flights with Night-Vision Goggles- Human Factors Aspects. Ames Research Center; 1-40

Chen Y, Wickramasinghe V and Zimcik D. (2007). Adaptive mount approaches for helicopter seat vibration control. In: Proceedings of ICAST 17 (4) 211-241

Craig, G, et al. (2006). Night Vision Goggle External Lighting Effects. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 50: 86-90 DOI: 10.1177/154193120605000119
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Interstitial Cystitis in Addition to the Therapeutic

Words: 4522 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89702040

Interstitial Cystitis

In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.

Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).

Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…… [Read More]

References

Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.

Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.

Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.

Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.
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Headache One in Eight Americans Suffers From

Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61889194

Headache

One in eight Americans suffers from headaches (Pain, Academy of General Dentistry). As much as eighty percent of all headaches are caused by muscle tension, which may be related to bite problems. Headaches also can be caused by clenching jaw muscles for long periods of time. Signs that may indicate a headache from a dental origin include:

Pain behind the eyes

Sore jaw muscles or "tired" muscles upon awaking

Teeth grinding

Clicking or popping jaw joints

Head and/or scalp is painful to the touch

Earaches or ringing

Neck, shoulder or back pain

Dizziness

There are a variety of treatments that will help alleviate orofacial symptoms. One device is called an orthotic, or splint, that is worn over the teeth until the bite can be stabilized. Often permanent correction is practiced such as reshaping teeth (coronoplasty), building crowns or bonding, orthodontics, or surgery that installs a permanent appliance for the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Forssell, H., Kalso, E., Koskela, P., Vehmanen, R. Puukka, P. And Alanen, P. (1999,

December). Occlusal treatments in temporomandibular disorders: a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Pain 83 (3): 549-60. Retrieved May 17, 2003 from National Library of Medicine web site:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/ query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10568864&dopt=Abstract" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for

Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23652968

S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available:  http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
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Against Euthanasia

Words: 3770 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6685658

Against Euthanasia

Death has always been shrouded in mystery, the constant litanies of myth, science, curiosity, magic, fear, and of course, religion. Just as myths have always wound down to the pragmatic, the real, and core accurate factual reporting - summarily losing the romantic, whimsical, and magical elements - so has the inevitability of human death.

Death is the central theme to life, vitality, order of society, and even powers - through the use of fossil fuels - our industry! When one, therefore, examines death objectively, he or she finds that death is a catalytic contract propelling the core beliefs and motivations of a group of people.

This evaluation seeks to isolate one aspect of death - euthanasia and a person's right to choose the time, place, and circumstance of their death without interference from legal, moral, religious, family, or other groups of social or punitive nature - and defend…… [Read More]

1974 The Euthanasia Society in New York renamed the Society for the Right to Die. The first hospice American hospice opens in New Haven, Conn.

1975 Deeply religious Van Dusens commit suicide. Henry P. Van Dusen, 77, and his wife, Elizabeth, 80, leaders of the Christian ecumenical movement, choose to die rather than suffer from disabling conditions. Their note reads, "We still feel this is the best way and the right way to go."

1975 Dutch Voluntary Euthanasia Society (NVVE) launches its Members' Aid Service to give advice
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Fibromyalgia More Than 50 of

Words: 5095 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36644521

(Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, p. 8)

esults from this study relate a moderate quality evidence that aerobic-only exercise training at recommended intensity levels produces positive effects "global well-being (SMD 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13 to 0.75) and physical function (SMD 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.95) and possibly on pain (SMD 0.94, 95% CI -0.15 to 2.03) and tender points (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.79)." esults noted that flexibility and strength and flexibility remain under assessed. (Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, pp. 11-13)

According to criteria Melnyk Fineout-Overholt (2005) present, this study is a Level II study. From the Cochrane review, the following relates what research notes regarding the effect of exercise for FMS:

moderate intensity aerobic training for 12 weeks may improve overall well-being slightly and physical function.; moderate intensity aerobic exercise probably leads to little or no difference in pain…… [Read More]

References

Antai-Otong, Deborah, MS, APRN, BC, FAAN. (2005). "Depression and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS): Pharmacologic Considerations." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Volume: 4, Issue 3, 146+. Retrieved April 29, 2008, at  http://www.questia.com/read/5011211783?title=Depression%20and%20Fibromyalgia% Syndrome%20(FMS)%3a%20Pharmacologic%20Considerations

Busch AJ, Barber KAR, Overend TJ, Peloso PMJ, Schachter CL. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003786. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003786.pub2.

Burckhardt, Carol S. Mannerkorpi, Hedenberg, Kaisa, Lars and Bjelle, Anders. (1994). A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Education and Physical Training for Women with Fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology; 11:4, 714-719

Costa1, D. Da., Abrahamowicz, M., Lowensteyn, I., Bernatsky, S., Dritsa1, M., Fitzcharles, a., and Dobki, P.L.. Advance Access Rheumatology; 19 July 2005, 44:1422
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Arthritic Conditions Found Within the Joints of

Words: 2815 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 670936

Arthritic conditions found within the joints of the body: their causes, treatment, current research, and what effect they have on athletic participation.

Types of Arthritis

Osteoarthritis

heumatoid Arthritis

Psoriatic Arthritis

Causes of Arthritis

Treatments Available

Current esearch

Arthritis and Athletic Activities

Learning Outcome

Arthritis is said to be the number one cause of disability in the United States, with more individuals disabled with arthritis than by both heart disease and strokes (Lewis 2000).

Arthritis is also a disease that is plagued with misunderstanding. The Center for Disease Control warns that it is these misunderstandings that result in the disease doing so much harm (Lewis 2000).

Some of the common misunderstandings involve recognizing that there are different types of arthritis and that arthritis is not only a disease of the aged. Arthritis is also often not taken seriously enough in its early stages, preventing individuals from seeking medical help that could…… [Read More]

References

AAOS: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2000). Arthritis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

The Arthritis & Glucosamine Resource Center. (2002). Treating and Preventing Sports Injuries & Secondary Arthritis.  http://www.arthritis-glucosamine.net/arthritis/sports-injuries-arthritis.html 

Arthritis Foundation. (2002). Progress and Opportunities in Rheumatoid Arthritis.  http://www.arthritis.org/research/research_program/RA/default.asp 

Lewis, C. (May-June 2000). Arthritis: Timely Treatments for an Ageless Disease. FDA Consumer, 34:3.
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Affect of Tylenol Overdose on the Cardiopulmonary System

Words: 2649 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63499844

Tylenol Overdose

Health Sciences 101

The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers.

A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary effects. This essay will provide an overview of APAP, its uses, and safety issues, with an emphasis on the cardiopulmonary system.

Mechanisms of APAP Activity

The analgesic and antipyretic activity of APAP was thought to be similar to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because it was believed to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis2,3. This assumption has not withstood the test of time, for either APAP or other popular OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The main evidence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Tylenol (TN): Substance summary (SID 7847284). PubChem 2011. Accessed 5 Nov 2011 at  http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=7847284 

2. Hamza M, Dionne RA. Mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics beyond cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2009; 2(1):1-14.

3. Kaufman G. Basic pharmacology of non-opioid analgesics. Nurs Stand 2010; 24(30):55-61.

4. Chan AT, Manson JE, Albert CM, Chae CU, Rexrode KM, Curhan GC, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006; 113(12):1578-1587.
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Diathermy Uses Benefits and Risks as One

Words: 2031 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38505994

Diathermy: Uses, Benefits, And isks

As one of the oldest treatment modalites, the therapeutic effects of heat have been experienced for several hundred years. In order to use heat in the treatment of deep muscle injury, diathermy treatment is the therapy of choice. Diathermy uses high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heating results in pain relief, increased blood flow, and increased flexibility. esearch has demonstrated evidence both for and against the effectiveness of diathermy treatment. Attention must be given, however, to risk factors predisposing some patients to serious adverse effects due to diathermy treatment.

Diathermy: Uses, benefits, and risks

Diathermy refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heat increases the flow of blood to the area, which in turn, speeds up recovery. The term diathermy is a derivative of the Greek words therma, meaning heat, and dia, meaning through. Therefore,…… [Read More]

References

Frick, L. (2001). Diathermy. Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine.  http://www.findarticles.com/g2603/0003/2603000326/p1/article.jhtml .

Peres, S., Draper, D., Knight, K., Ricard, M. (2002). Pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged long-duration stretching increase dorsiflexion range of motion more than identical stretching without diathermy. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(1), 43-50.

Draper, D., Miner, L., Knight, K., Ricard, M. (2002). The carry-over effects of diathermy and stretching in developing hamstring flexibility. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(1), 37-42.

Diathermy. http://www.orthoteers.co.uk/Nrujp~ij331m/Orthdiathermy.htm
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GAD and Anxiety Disorders

Words: 3244 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84131793

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Background/Definition/Epidemiology

Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…… [Read More]

References

Asmundson, G. J., Fetzner, M. G., DeBoer, L. B., Powers, M. B., Otto, M. W., & Smits, J. A. (2013). LET'S GET PHYSICAL: A CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF EXERCISE FOR ANXIETY AND ITS DISORDERS. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 362-373. doi:10.1002/da.22043

Butnoriene, J., Bunevicius, A., Saudargiene, A., Nemeroff, C. B., Norkus, A., Ciceniene, V., & Bunevicius, R. (2015). Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 190, 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.122

Chokroverty, S. (2013). Sleep Disorders Medicine: Basic Science, Technical Considerations, and Clinical Aspects. Elsevier Science.

Dodhia, S., Hosanagar, A., Fitzgerald, D. A., Labuschagne, I., Wood, A. G., Nathan, P. J., & Phan, K. L. (2014). Modulation of Resting-State Amygdala-Frontal Functional Connectivity by Oxytocin in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2061-2069. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.53
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Noise Vibration and Thermal Stress Risk

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61697060

Noise

Excessive noise in the workplace is associated with several negative health outcomes. In the workplace, exposure to excessive noise can be commonplace, but such chronic exposure can have lasting consequences. OSHA (2015) notes that noise exposure is one of the most common occupational hazards, with some 30 million workers being exposed to high noise levels at some point in any given year. The organization's statistics shows that since 2004, 125,000 workers have suffered significant, permanent hearing loss. Short-term effects can also include loss of hearing or diminished hearing and tinnitus. Long-term exposure to high noise levels can result in psychological stress, reduced productivity and reduced communication.. When hearing loss occurs, this increase workplace risk because of the way that hearing loss inhibits concentration, communication and the ability to hear warning signals. The effects of hearing loss are also felt outside of work, making this an overall quality of life…… [Read More]

References

Brauch, R. (2015). Vibration hazards in the workplace: The basics of risk assessment. Occupational Health and Safety. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from  https://ohsonline.com/Articles/2015/02/02/Vibration-Hazards.aspx?Page=1 

NIOSH (no date). Heat stress. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from  http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/heatstress/ 

OSHA (2015). Occupational noise exposure. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from  https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/noisehearingconservation/
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Health Nutrition Diet and Exercise

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82950739

Health

The idea of sitting being the new smoking is that evidence is mounting that sitting is unhealthy. In particular, being seated all day at work is an unhealthy practice. Constant sitting has a number of negative health outcomes, including back pain, reduced longevity, obesity and a number of other conditions.

NEAT is "non-exercise activity thermogenesis. This is energy that one needs to perform basic, everyday tasks such as doing dishes, standing in line or grocery shopping. When you are seated, you are not burning NEAT calories as efficiently, because the body has been signalled to basically stop using calories; in other words too much sitting conditions the body to being even more sedentary. NEAT helps to control weight because NEAT activities result in many more calories being burned in a day. Someone whose job entails them to be on their foot and relatively active can burn 1000 calories more…… [Read More]

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Acute Renal Failure Is a Serious Medical

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2579717

Acute renal failure is a serious medical condition. The gravity of the condition is manifested itself in the fact that the survival rate for renal failure has not improved for more than forty years. It occurs in 5% of all hospitalized patients and dialysis treatment is required in approximately .5 of cases. Dialysis is required to sustain "fluid and electrolyte balances, minimize nitrogenous waste production and sustain nutrition Infection accounts for 75% of deaths in patients with acute renal failure, and cardiorespiratory complications are the second most common cause of death" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000). Pathophysiology can vary depending upon the type: "patients who develop AKI can be oliguric or nonoliguric, have a rapid or slow rise in creatinine levels, and may have qualitative differences in urine solute concentrations and cellular content.... Oliguria is defined as a daily urine volume of less than 400 mL/d and has a worse prognosis,…… [Read More]

References

Epstein, Murray. (1997). Alcohol's impact on kidney function. Alcohol Research and Health21. 1 (1997): 84-91.

Malay, Agrawal & Richard Swartz. (2000). Acute Renal Failure. American Family

Physician. Retrieved October 29, 2011 at  http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000401/2077.html 

Page, Timothy F. & Robert S. Woodward. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of Medicare's coverage of immunosuppression medications for kidney transplant recipients.
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Occupational Stress in a Public

Words: 5453 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 35693330

The stress alarm, therefore, can actually assist the employee to improve her performance and is necessary especially, if positive perceptions regarding the challenges of the work environment exist. The response to the stress under the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, provided that the exceptions held by the employee are positive, is healthy and necessary for survival and productivity. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). Under this theory, emotional and physical health within the individual is sustained through a positive expectation for the outcomes, compliance with the expectations, or through resisting the stress altogether. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). A summary chart outlining these different theories on stress and their potential effects on the organization follows.

A Comparison of Theories of Stress and How They Affect Organizational Operations

Theory

Basic Concept

Basic eaction

Effect on the Organization

Fight or Flight

The stress produces physiological…… [Read More]

References

Afzalur, R. (1996). Stress, strain, and their moderators: An empirical comparison of entrepreneurs and managers. The Journal of Small Business Management, 34, 1-12.

Cooper, C.L. ed. (2002). Theories of organizational stress. New York, NY: Oxford University

Press,

Inc.
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Familial Spastic Paraplegia

Words: 489 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91910752

Familial Spastic Paraplegia, FSP, is also known as hereditary spastic paraplegia, HSP. Because it is a rare disorder, it is often misdiagnosed and therefore make the actual frequency rate difficult to determine. However, it is estimated that there are fewer than 10,000 cases in the United States and approximately three persons per 100,000 in Europe (Hereditary pg). Moreover, estimates indicate that about ten percent of people with familial spastic paraplegia have complicated FSP (Hereditary pg). The life expectancy for patients with uncomplicated FSP is typically unchanged, while life expectancy for those with complicated FSP are difficult to generalize since each individual has unique symptoms (Hereditary pg). Uncomplicated FSP can occur from infancy through late adulthood, yet "most patients experience the onset of symptoms in the second through fourth decades of life" (Hereditary pg).

Familial Spastic Paraplegia is not a single disease, but rather refers to a group of "clinically and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Familial Spastic Paralysis." NINDS Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Information

Page. Reviewed: March 21, 2003  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/hereditarysp.htm  accessed 12-01-2003).

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia." E-Medicine. February 28, 2003.  http://www.emedicine.com/pmr/topic45.htm .(accessed 12-01-2003).

What is FSP/HSP?" The Center for Human Genetics at Duke University Medical
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managing coronary heart disease

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41343563

Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease

Outline of Coronary Heart Disease

The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.

CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…… [Read More]

References

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, (2017). Heart disease and stroke are the top two causes of death -- and among the leading causes of disability -- in Australia. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  https://baker.edu.au/health-hub/fact-sheets/cardiovascular-disease?gclid=Cj0KEQjwt6fHBRDtm9O8xPPHq4gBEiQAdxotvNmN_YV05am6ts6wLgbbEPubE3I2Z6wwGSNl0AaycX0aAnFy8P8HAQ 

Cleveland Clinic, (2017). Coronary Artery Disease Symptoms. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/cad-symptoms 

Mayo Clinic, (2017). Coronary Heart Disease: Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314 

Southern Cross, (2017). Coronary heart disease - causes, symptoms, prevention. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/coronary-heart-disease-causes-symptoms-prevention
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Maggot Debridement Therapy Is Maggot

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 94862551

Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).

(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).

(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Courtenay, M., Churdh, J.D.T., and Ryan, T.J. (2000). Larva therapy in wound management.

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 93, 72-74.

Fenn-Smith, P. (2008). Case Study: Maggot Debridement Therapy. Wound Practice and Research, 16(4), 169-170.

Paul, Aaron G., Ahmad, Nazi W., Lee, H.L., Ariff, Ashraff M., Saranum, Masri, Naicker,
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Authors Communicate There Are a Number of

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45112597

Authors Communicate

There are a number of points of interest regarding "Massage therapy in post-operative rehabilitation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy - a pilot study." On the whole this is an extremely well-organized article, which is one of its primary strengths. The different sections and phases of the research are well documented. There are a variety of tables that elucidate several components related to the literature review, the results, and the particulars of the subjects considered in the research. However, there is more than one area of the study in which the researchers could have benefited from the use of more substantial effort and a more thorough methodology, which is certainly reflected in the results and the conclusion.

The central weakness of this study is the fact that all of the results were based on research performed on just six subjects. To the credit of the researchers they…… [Read More]

References

O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
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Management of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Words: 3435 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 7686776

Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3

Patients…… [Read More]

References

1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
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Security Consulting Firm

Words: 3345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26764992

Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure

Advanced Pathophysiology

egents Online Degree Program

Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure

Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.

M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…… [Read More]

References

Ahern J, Kruger DF, Gatcomb P, Petit W, Tamborlane W.,(1989). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): the trial coordinators perspective. Diabetes Educ 15:236 -- 281

Bassilios N, Launay-Vacher V, Khoury N, et al. (2001) Gabapentin neurotoxicity in a chronic haemodialysis patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant.

Blum RA, Comstock TJ, Sica DA, et al.(1994). Pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in subjects with various degrees of renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther;56(2):154-159

Brawek B, Loffler M, Dooley DJ, Weyerbrock A, Feuerstein TJ.(2008) Differential modulation of K (+)-evoked (3)H-neurotransmitter release from human neocortex by gabapentin and pregabalin. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol.:376(5):301-307
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Demographic Perception Survey of Patients With Atypical

Words: 2504 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 2311782

Demographic Perception Survey of Patients with Atypical CP Who Present to Cardiac Care Doctors and Patient Outcomes

This study intends to examine gender differences in individuals who present to cardiac doctors with chest pain and specifically, atypical chest pain in women. The work of Debra L. Issac (2000) states that over the past ten years "there has been increasing awareness of both the importance of CAD in women and of the significant differences between men and women who have the disease. Potential gender biases, both within the medical community and within the general population of women themselves also have been identified. These gender differences and biases have the potential to influence investigation and management of suspected or confirmed CAD in women, and should be taken into consideration when faced with a woman with potential cardiovascular disease." (p.157)

Issac also states that chest pain in women is "common and often non-ischemic.…… [Read More]

References

Cayley, WE (2005) Diagnosing the Case of Chest Pain. American Family Physician. 15 Nob 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1115/p2012.html 

Gotzsche PC, Nielsen M. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (1):CD001877, 2011.

Issac, DL (2000) Women with Ischemic Heart Disease. Presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 2000. Retrieved from:  http://www.stacommunications.com/journals/cme/images/cmepdf/oct01/womencv.pdf 

Khan, JJ, Albarran, JW, Lopez, V, and Chair, SY (2010) Gender Differences on Chest Pain Perception associated with Acute Myocardial infarction in Chinese patients: A Questionnaire Survey. J Clin Nurs. 2010 Oct, 19 (19-20)2720-0. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed /20846222
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Opium in China With That

Words: 3088 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84650441

mericas Coalition Puts Marijuana Legalization Up for Discussion. Retrieved from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/18/world/americas/nations-in-americas-urged-to-consider-legalizing-pot.html?_r=0

Bakalar, N. (2006). Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,. The Mayo Clinic .

Lawrence Genen, M.M. (2012). Cannabis Compound buse. Medscape Reference .

National Instritute of Health. (2012, December). DrugFacts: Marijuana. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug buse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana

Considering the magnitude of the worldwide illicit drug trade and its impact on the United States, take a position on merican enforcement policy in the world. nalyze the impact that merican drug enforcement has had on the international drug trade. Has it been effective?

bstract

The countries in which drug plants such as poppy (for opium and heroin) and cannabis (for marijuana), such drugs are smuggled into them. International drug trafficking is a billion-dollar business that grows each year.

Review

Drugs trafficked on an international scale include heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine etc. It has been…… [Read More]

Abuse, N.I. (2009, September). DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse:  http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction  ic, T.M. (2011, August 23). Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic:  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intervention/MH00127/METHOD=print 

Preidt, R. (2013, May 16). Adult Children of Substance Abusers More Prone to Depression. Retrieved from Mediline Plus- U.S. National Library for Medicine:  http://www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/news/fullstory_136922.html

Services, U.D. (n.d.). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from SAMHSA:  http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07-4292/SMA07-4292.pdf
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Primary and Secondary Assessment

Words: 2293 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84681736

Secondary Assessment

Tracy Folsom is a 28-year-old female who was brought to the Emergency Department by her neighbor. The neighbor stated that Miss Folsom was found lying semi-conscious in the shower. The patient was received in the ED by the on call nurse. The nurse's performance with Miss Folsom's management is reviewed in this article.

Emergency evaluation of a patient is supposed be in a systematic manner. A systemic approach prevents the examiner from missing out important clues that may point to a patient's diagnosis. This approach is divided into primary and secondary.

As part of the Primary Assessment, the patient's Airway, Breathing, Circulation and degree of Disability was evaluated, as per protocol. Miss. Folsom's airway was patent, breathing was shallow, and her skin color was pink, indicating good perfusion. She was obeying commands and pupils were equal in size and reactive to light. It is also helpful to state…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Canadian Medical Association. (2007, July). Putting patients first ®: patient-centred collaborative care a discussion paper. Retrieved from http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/surgery/documents/CollaborativeCareBackgrounderRevised.pdf

Dean, R & Mulligan, J, 2009, 'Initial management of patients in an emergency situation', Nursing Standard, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 35-41, (Academic Search Complete).

Gilbert, G., Souza, P., & Pletz, B. (2009). Patient assessment routine medical care primary and secondary survey. San Mateo County EMS Agency, 1-5. Retrieved from  http://smchealth.org/sites/default/files/docs/243322118Patient_Assessment.pdf 

Institute of Medicine. (2001) Crossing the quality chasm. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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Stress Effects Memory in Adults

Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14283461

The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.

The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.

Implication of the esults

If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…… [Read More]

References

Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.

Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null

Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.

Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.
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Performance of the Company Annual Reports Statements

Words: 3293 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96968599

Performance of the Company

Annual reports

Statements of corporate goals

SWOT analysis of United Health Group

9A PESTEL Analysis

In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of the United Health Group through a SWOT and PESTEL analysis. The analysis is aimed at the identification of an internal problem within the company's environment and then prescribing a suitable solution to it. The identified problem is poor Ergonomics. This is then explored and then recommendations provided.

The creation of a better health care system has been one of the key drivers of change in the American social, economic and political reform agenda. Quality health care to al citizens has been a piped dream for many. In this paper we presents an analysis of the effectiveness of United Healthcare in the provision of quality health care. Our focus is on its environmental analysis with the aim of isolating the genesis of the…… [Read More]

References

Amick, B., Robertson, M., Moore, A, DeRango, K and Mendez, CC .The Impact of Two Ergonomic Interventions on Health and Productivity: A Quasi-Experimental Field Study

Amick III, BC, Robertson M, DeRango K, et a (2003) Effect of office ergonomics intervention on reducing musculoskeletal symptoms. Spine 2003;28:2706-2711.

Amick., B., Roberson, M., DeRango, K ., Palacios, N., Rooney, T and Bazzani, L (2002).The Health Consequences of an Office Ergonomics Training Coupled with an Ergonomically Designed Chair: Preliminary Results.Proceedings of the Conference WWDU 2002 World Wide Work - May 22-25, 2002 - Berchtesgaden pg 371-373

Bergqvist U.(1995) Visual display terminal work -- a perspective on long -- term changes and discomforts. Int J. Ind Ergon.;16:201 -- 9.
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Organization Assessment Good Shepherd Medical

Words: 1323 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8650987



For example, because different etiologies require corresponding therapeutic designs and mechanisms (Spector, 2000; Steefel, 2002), specific support group makeup must consider the need to develop different strategies and methodologies for the following types of patients at a minimum if support groups are to provide equal benefit to all patients:

Elderly Patients and Lifelong Laborers - This group typically presents with psychological issues in the realm of a direct link between their sense of purpose and self-worth and their ability to continue to function productively in their community. Their need for acute medical and ancillary services, particularly in the Longview/East Texas community are often precipitated by chronic physical deterioration from a lifetime of relatively hard labor. Therefore, support group rehabilitation services must address the issues of self-esteem as a function of vocational productivity and lifestyle changes necessitated by medical conditions.

Prime-of-Life Victims of Traumatic Injury - This group typically presents with…… [Read More]

References

Clark, C., Robinson, T. (2000). "Multiculturalism as a Concept in Nursing" Journal of the Black Nurses Association, 11(2), 39-43.

Spector, R. (2000). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004). Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.)

St. Louis: Mosby.
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Relational Bullying Contextual Information the

Words: 4428 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 27208689



2. Stonewalling, or what many people, referred to as "silent treatment" occurs when the bully or group simply ignores the victim completely. This can be extremely distressing to adolescents. This often occurs with group exclusion.

3. A common form of relational bullying is the spreading of rumors and gossip about the victim. This is a direct attempt to ruin the victim's relationships and exclude them from contact with their peers and even with adults.

4. Taunting occurs when the bully insults or verbally abuses the victim directly. Taunting often continues even when the victim physically breaks down.

5. Conditional friendships occur when the bully places demands on the victim in order for the victim to be allowed in the group were with peers.

The effects of relational bullying are often more psychologically damaging than the effects of more physical forms of bullying. In addition, relational and physical bullying are often…… [Read More]

References

Beck, a.T., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Brown, B. (2004). Adolescent's relationships with peers. In Lerner, R. & Steinberg, L. (eds.),

Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley.

Burrows, L. (2011). Don't try to bully gershon ben keren. Jewish Advocate, 202, 2.
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Persistence of Memory

Words: 2251 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75468558

Persistence of Memory

Between the horrors of World War I and the misery and death of World War II, writers and artists searched for answers and ways to find some peace of mind. With the introduction of Sigmund Freud's theory of the subconscious, a group of painters hoped that they could find these answers within the genius of their own minds. Perhaps, under the layers of rational thought and visions of the real world in front of them, they could reunite conscious and unconscious realms of experience so completely that the world of dream and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world of existence in "an absolute reality, a surreality." As Freud once noted: "A dream that is not interpreted is like a letter that is not opened." Surrealism offered the opportunity to push the envelop and find the truth. Thus, rose the very nontraditional artistic movement of…… [Read More]

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Lucidly Stated to Orbit Around Leventhal's Self-Regulation

Words: 2231 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 83336630

lucidly stated to orbit around Leventhal's self-regulation theory which suggests that the actions which can help better explain behavioral changes are founded in the patient's unique view of their illness, and how they in turn regulate their behavior and the extent to which they engage in risk management. According to Burns and Grove (2009), this is a substantive theory.

The framework is presented in a somewhat lose manner, largely proposing that emotional and cognitive process help one in solidifying their perceptions of their illnesses and thus, impact the mode of action during a health crisis and the way in which the individual behave. As no strict framework is presented, concepts such as the identification of the illness, the presumed causes, the prospective consequences, the length of time of the disease, and the presumed control over the disease are all factors which can impact and influence the ability or perceived ability…… [Read More]

References

Nih.gov. (2014). Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Retrieved from nih.gov:  http://www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg25-27.html

S., C., Frasure-Smith, N., Dupuis, J., Juneau, M., & Guertin, M. (2012). Randomized controlled trial of tailored nursing interventions to improve cardiac rehabilitation enrollment. Nursing Research, 61(2):111-20.
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Intervention Plan for Carlos

Words: 3420 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98342039

The following multimodal evaluation procedure is recommended for Carlos:
Semi-Structured Clinical Interview

The foremost component of an informal evaluation of traumatized individuals entails semi-structured interviewing, in which the following details of the patient ought to be garnered:

• Demographic facts

• Employment history

• Medical history

• Educational history

• Social history and • Several specific facts.

Such an interview must be closely founded on minor and major trauma disorder facets (James, 2008). Particular questions to be posed to Carlos are linked to:

• Trauma nature and level of exposure

• Definite trauma integral to PTS (post-traumatic stress) symptoms

• Intrusive thoughts, recollections, emotions, imagery, responsiveness/awareness freezing, avoidance response and other similar symptoms

• Related elements of anxiety, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, anger or violent behavior

• Pre-morbid family and social life, and adjustment

• Familial history of psychological ailments. Essentially, therapists must seek comprehensive information on individual PTS symptomatology elements,…… [Read More]