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Cognitive Development may appear to be a unified discipline or organic cooperation among several disciplines; however, the research shows chasms between fields devoted to the study of human development. The four reviewed articles show differing approaches to developmental studies, with varying degrees of effectiveness. The level of effectiveness appears to hinge on the scholar's willingness to use a generous number of approaches to the analysis of human development.
Harris, J.L., Brownell, K.D., & Bargh, J.A. (2009). The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy. Social Issues and Policy Review, 3(1), 211-271.
Harris et al. review the negative effects of food advertising targeted at youth, results of various studies regarding that phenomenon, and then suggest a possible defense model to counteract the powerful impact of food advertisers. They begin by attributing the "obesity epidemic" at least in part to advertising encouraging individuals to eat…… [Read More]
Cognitive, Social, And Emotional Developmental Theories
Understanding the concept of child development is critical when the need to appreciate human interaction is required. This is because childhood memories and environments tend to affect their cognitive, social, and emotional development. In fact, children from different backgrounds tend to depict different adulthood behaviors unlike those with shared experiences. For instance, children born and raised in violent homes may become violent in their adulthood years or timid unlike those raised in happy homes. In addition, children who were neglected or sexually abused may develop feelings of insecurity. Various philosophers like Sigmund Feud and Jean Piaget have advanced numerous theories aimed at fostering the understanding of child development. This study endeavors to explore Piaget's cognitive development theory based on a hypothetical client's case.
Cognitive Development: Scenario 2: Anna and Jojo
Children who have a poor start or childhood problems early on in life have…… [Read More]
Infant 0-2 years Affiliation
Early Childhood (2-7 years) Play
Middle Childhood (7-12 years) Learning
Adolescence (12-19 years) Peer
Source: Thomas (2008)
III. DIFFERENCES ETWEEN PIAGET and VYGOTSKY
According to Dr. Michael Thomas in the work entitled: "Cognitive Language and Development" while Piaget was reliant upon the clinical method of using questions that probed and uncovered the understanding of children, Vygotsky was concerned "with historical and social aspects of human behavior that make human nature unique." (Thomas, 2008) Vygotsky held that a close link existed between the child's language acquisition and thinking development and that "speech carries culture in that it stores the history of social experience and is a 'tool' for thought."(Thomas, 2008) Piaget, on the other hand, "outlined a theory that states that the precursors of thinking and language lie in the elementary actions, perceptions, and imitations of babies." (Thomas, 2008) While Piaget held that…… [Read More]
Scientific inquiry is encouraged, too. "Children are actively involved in formulating hypotheses, designing experiments, collecting and organizing data and drawing their own conclusions." Even though children at the pre-operational stage are egocentric and view the world as if it were solely their own, they still probe for answers and explanations about what they smell, hear, taste, touch, and see. Scientific activities also allow the children to witness cause and effect scenarios that enable them to develop appropriate cognitive skills. Those skills develop naturally in conjunction with verbal and mathematical thinking skills.
The Bank Street Head Start program loosely follows Piaget's theory of early childhood development. Children gradually and naturally incorporate new objects, experiences, and ideas into their cognitive schemas: the process Piaget called assimilation. Children also accommodate their old schemas to suit their learning environment.
The Bank Street Head Start program, which serves children ages three and four, is apparently…… [Read More]
his will present a break from the norm set by most researchers who concentrate on studying the relationship between a child's ability and development, and the actions and environment surrounding the child. For instance, the study conducted by Berger and Adolph just considers how changing the size of the bridge makes a child to adopt a different strategy (using the handrail) in crossing the bridge but does not asses how the child chooses to use the handrail.
One of the major hypotheses in the study is that children are able to use "means-ends" problem solving skills to solve problems and are able to perform at a higher level of cognition than originally believed. We expect to find that most infants and toddlers would be able to grasp the need for a handrail in narrow bridges and would be able to cross successfully. Another hypothesis for our study will be that…… [Read More]
Their research again points to superior cognitive skills in children -- this time in the mathematical realm. However, their research only targeted a small sample of children from the same cultural background. I would like to extend to a cross-cultural sample from actual different countries. If my research supports that of Levine and Huttenlocher, as I predict it to be ramifications include the fact that differences in mathematical ability are likely initiated due to other factors (such as school, teacher, parents) and are not innate. As Levine and Huttenlocher's research shows, abstract mathematical skills emerge as early as 3; verbal mathematical skills emerge later. Differences in mathematical ability (and, by extension, differences in other intellectual abilities) may be a consequence of other factors rather than intrinsic.
Berger, S.E., & Adolph, K.E. (2003). Infants use handrails as tools in a locomotor task. Developmental Psychology, 39(3), 594-605.
Bertelson, P. (1999). Development…… [Read More]
Cognitive Development in Toddlers
The word cognitive development can be said to be the cerebral intensification that commences during birth and carries on all the way through old age (Gleitman, 1981). As Gleitman puts it learning commences as soon as one is born and it starts by looking proceeds to listening as well as interaction. It is therefore growth of gaining skills along with the structures that exist in the brain that brings about the cognitive growth and this can be seen by looking at some theories especially the Jean Piaget's theory.
Based on the cognitive growth theory of Jean Piaget, brainpower seems to be the fundamental mechanism of guaranteeing balance in the association among individuals as well as their vicinity. This can be attained by the proceedings of the emergent individual on the earth. At whichever instant in growth, the surroundings is incorporated in the system of proceedings present,…… [Read More]
He also responds to hearing his first name being spoken and can tell the difference between the sound of his mother and grandmother's voice and the voice of other women.
When he is with other children in the same room, he plays and has a smile on his face. Because he is only 12 months old, he probably would have developed only the most rudimentary of language skills if he did not have Down's syndrome. The boy seemed to develop attachments to certain toys and was clearly uninterested in others. He had a strong preference for plush toys and did not attempt to build towers out of building blocks, as some of the other children did. On one occasion, our subject hit another kid, but we believe he felt threatened and was acting in self-defense because he had a smile on his face. In general, we feel it may be…… [Read More]
As such, the author understands that he operated under his own set of rules during his Level 1 development. While primarily focused upon his own pleasure, the author shows the beginnings of Level 3 development even during stage 1. He understands the interdependence of human beings within a society. This is emphasized during his frequent illnesses, when the author was dependent upon friends and lecturers for his academic survival.
In conclusion, the author proceeds from Stage 1 to 6 in an integrated fashion. He gradually begins to understand the importance of academic commitment without the supervision of authority, as well as the importance of obeying rules for the purpose of personal development. Once his personal development reaches Level 3, the author is able to operate from a platform of complete understanding for his own shortcomings. As such, he is able to connect with others on a deeper level tan would…… [Read More]
In the many different veins of cognitive development research, certain themes and assumptions seem to run throughout. Most of the background beliefs common to the field are truly taken for granted to such an extent that they become largely unspoken and perhaps never even considered. For example, most cognitive research theory assumes without question the theory of human minds which claims that ones fellow humans are not automata but that one can look at their actions and listen to their words and from their gain a relatively accurate image of the mind which is producing these phenomena of movement and speech. This seems obvious to cognitive researchers, but is much in debate among philosophers. Many other such basic assumptions are taken for granted, such as the idea that children actually learn and progress from a relatively blank state, rather than (as Plato and others such as Wordsworth have…… [Read More]
Piaget believed in the child to society association whereby children have the skills to organization information they receive from the society. He felt that children make sense of the world around them with the innate organization skills they possess. As the child grows, his views might undergo a change and his association with society might also alter depending on his age. While in his theory, innate knowledge is important, Piaget never discredited environment's role in the development process:
There are no more such things as societies qua beings than there are isolated individuals. There are only relations.... And the combinations formed by them, always incomplete, cannot be taken as permanent substances (Piaget, 1932, p. 360).
A there is no longer any need to choose between the primacy of the social or that of the intellect: collective intellect is the social equilibrium resulting from the interplay of the operations that enter…… [Read More]
Cognitive development: Information processing theory
Information processing theory might view the human mind as a kind of 'computer' but even this construct allows that the cognitive development stage of the individual can affect how the brain processes information. In contrast to Piaget's theory of development which was derived by studying a relatively narrow range of subjects, information processing theory is more expansive (which is why some people resist calling it a theory at all) and instead uses experimental evidence about the brain and functions such as memory. But the nature of the 'hardware' of the brain will affect perceptions (input) and thus output (responses) will also be affected by developmental stages (Miller 2002: 246).
When a child perceives information for the first time, that information can then be transformed, manipulated, and used in different ways. Information processing theorists study how this 'data' is deployed (Miller 2002:…… [Read More]
Children are complex creatures who develop in various ways at various developmental stages. According to Thompson (2001), children grow in four interrelated areas (body, person, mind, and brain), and these four components involve the complex interplay of many factors: physical size, motor coordination, general health, thinking, language, symbolism, concepts, problem-solving, relationships, social understanding, emotions, neural and synapse. With respect to overall cognitive development in infants and toddlers, while countless environmental factors appear to have a measurable effect, the degree of significance of genetics is still under debate. Abundant recent research covers a wide range of topics related to environmental effects (or lack thereof) on the development of intelligence, learning, memory, and problem-solving in very young children. Some areas studied and analyzed include the effects of audiovisual stimulation, playtime and fun, interactive story-time, father involvement, and socioeconomic status.
Audiovisual stimulation from "Baby Einstein" type DVDs has become a popular…… [Read More]
Patricia H. Miller's book "Theories of Developmental Psychology (fifth edition)," "Vygotsky and the Sociocultural Approach," provides information concerning the Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky and his tendency to place development as a concept during which individuals involved in one's upbringing play an important role in shaping the way that the person develops. The chapter proceeds to describe Vygotsky's development and influential theories that shaped the way he understood development. Miller also goes at presenting a sort of contrast between Vygotsky's views and views that are generally promoted in the estern orld.
The text portrays Vygotsky as a person whose thinking was ahead of his time and whose theories played an important role in theories devised in the contemporary society. Even with this, Vygotsky's theories are also shown as being limited by the fact that the sociocultural approach did not receive wide recognition in the past and because the Soviet psychologists was…… [Read More]
physical, socio-emotional and cognitive development of a child. Give equal consideration to the following factors in your response: Heredity, Culture, Nutrition and Parental Affection.
There is no one factor that conclusively determines the process of child development. Psychologists have long been torn to deciding whether nature or nurture has as greater impact, and today we almost unanimously agree that both have as equal and strong an influence on the physical, socio-emotional and cognitive development of a child.
Take hereditary for instance: the fetus is formed by 456 chromosomes. 23 chromosomes from each of his parents. Since each of these chromosomes contain determining DNA that go into determining the child's physical, intellectual, and mental characteristics (some latent and others overt), it is evident that the child is formed by hereditary. This is particularly so when transmitted handicaps and diseases impact him to make her what she is. There is a distinction…… [Read More]
Children's Drawing Ability and Cognitive Development
There is scarcely a refrigerator door in America in homes with children that does not have one or more pictures attached to it with magnets providing proof positive that these young learners are expressing themselves in healthy ways. Over time, these pictorial representations typically increase in complexity and begin to actually resemble the things they are intended to represent, and most parents accept this progression as a natural part of their children's cognitive development. In other cases, though, young people express themselves through drawings that fail to live up to adult expectations concerning complexity and content and these children may find themselves mistakenly labeled as being learning disabled, suicidal or otherwise troubled.
It does not take a scientist to know that very young children experiment with drawing as a form of play, exploration and communication, and that these expressions tend to increase in complexity,…… [Read More]
" (Naigle, 2005) Naigle states that while viewing the television has been liked to dissatisfaction in female adolescents with their body "there are no strong correlations linking this channel of communication to proactive drives for thinness or eating disorder behaviors like there are with magazine consumption. And within television viewing, different types of programming are more influential than others." (Naigle, 2005) Television has been found to "...distort and make light of serious societal issues." (Naigle, 2005) Naigle states additionally: "Across all the programs there was an average of 3.5 incidents of gender or sexual harassment per episode; 33% of all episodes contained some form of harassment. While harassment is not necessarily a main topic in situational comedies, it is used often for humor. The use of a serious societal issue for humor belittles the impact of the problem and reinforces stereotypes and negative perceptions surrounding the issue. This sends out…… [Read More]
theorist discussing the cognitive development throughout the lifespan is Jean Piaget. The cognitive development of children is of interest to this writer as a budding pediatric psychologist. Piaget's model, while criticized, has stood the test of time and remains the basic model of cognitive development presented in developmental psychology textbooks as well as a being a general framework for research and theory development in the field (Egan, 2012). Piaget's overall stage theory is briefly discussed in this paper.
Piaget's initial research subjects were children from birth to seven (he also studied people through the age of adulthood). In actuality, Piaget's early subjects were his own children; later he studied children of different ages under laboratory situations (Burman, 2008). In essence Piaget's methods were correlational and consisted of mostly a combination of observation and interview. He relied primarily of presenting the child with a task and observing the child solve the…… [Read More]
Developmental Cognitive Psychology and Law
Child development refers to a psychological, biological and emotional developments that occur between birth and adolescent. Biologically, a child refers to an individual between the time of birth and puberty. In other words, a child refers to a person between infancy and adulthood. In many countries, children between 0-year and 18 years are at a developmental stage because they are unable to make a very serious decision by themselves. In the United States, children between age of 4 and 6 are referred as preschoolers, and at this stage, they are generally egocentric and unable to see other children point-of-view. Moreover, they are not intuitive and not able to develop a rational thinking. (Kail, 2011).
Objective of this paper is to use the field of development psychology and legal system determination to justify when the children who shot other children in the case studies are to…… [Read More]
Brain and Deviance/Criminal Behavior
For thousands of years, scholars have debated the duality of good and evil within the human condition, and the choices individuals make regarding actions that could be good are evil. The basic idea of a utilitarian model, is that humans are innately reasonable and able to weight consequences with rational choices -- cost vs. benefits. Kim, et al. (2010) review both control theories and the biology of the brain as a way of understanding criminal deviance. If one understands why crime is committed, the idea is that one could then help society to develop ways in which criminal behavior is minimized. Choice theory says that individuals look for opportunities, then weigh the positives and negatives (punishment, gain, etc.) and choose whether to proceed further based on that choice. Choice, however, may be have a direct relationship between culture and chemistry. Deviance is defined on a relative…… [Read More]
Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.
The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).
hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means
A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…… [Read More]
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…… [Read More]
Operant conditioning could be used to get my roommate to make his bed by providing negative reinforcement every time he fails to make his bed. I could tell him that he is not allowed to use the TV. This should reinforce the idea that he must not fail to make his bed. Classical conditioning could be used to get my roommate to make his bed by providing an unconditioned stimulus -- telling him our neighbor is coming by to use the computer in the mornings from now on. He will naturally react by wanting to tidy the room including his bed.
The hypothesis I would use for testing the effect of Baby Einstein videos on cognitive development would be: Baby Einstein has a positive effect on the cognitive development of toddlers between the ages of 1-3. This would be a longitudinal study, using a randomized sample. A control…… [Read More]
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…… [Read More]
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…… [Read More]
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with distant family relatives who are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry. Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry has developed a process of adaptation, by which he adjusts himself to assimilate to the social environment at Hogwarts.
One of Harry's main cognitive schemas is that he aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. The schema related to his personal identity and abstract concepts like good and evil evolve, revealing the process of child development throughout Potter's early adolescence. He demonstrates a process of accommodation, by…… [Read More]
Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development
Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.
Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences
According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…… [Read More]
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…… [Read More]
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…… [Read More]
The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.
The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…… [Read More]
If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…… [Read More]
Riley's Behavior Analysis
Theories of moral and cognitive development can be used in understanding Riley's case and behavior. According to the Piaget's theory of development, children go through various stages in life. Theories of development reveal that when a student is in high school or the 10th grade, he or she undergoes through a period of personal development through the creation of identities. At this stage, individuals are preparing for adulthood and gaining more independence just as adolescents become experimenters in their lives. Piaget proposed a theory of development where moral reasoning for children develops from what he calls a naive understanding of morality. This naive understanding is usually based on behavior and outcomes. However, as they develop, they can have a more advanced understanding that is based on intentions. This means that Riley is using his independence in the wrong way. The identity crisis as described in the theories…… [Read More]
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…… [Read More]
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…… [Read More]
What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"
There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).
During the first year of life, the…… [Read More]
Children with autism and irritable behavior are an incredibly vulnerable population. The right medications are crucial because the children are the ones who suffer any social or emotional problems based on their conditions. That is why Aman et al. (2008) explored the use of risperidone in children with autism and other forms of irritable behavior. The study aimed to better understand risperidone's cognitive impact on children with severe behavior disturbances to test its efficiency as a potential solution to some of the children's behavioral issues.
isperidone is an antipsychotic that is often administered to this vulnerable population; yet there is surprisingly little discourse on the cognitive impact it may have during treatment of behavioral disorders. The study conducted by Aman et al. (2008) aimed to test whether or not risperidone had a cognitive impact in the short-term during administering of treatment to children. During this age range, cognitive…… [Read More]
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…… [Read More]
Cognitive Development of Infants
Piaget's sensorimotor model provides the stage of cognitive human development showing that human experience consists of four stages of mental or cognitive starting from the first day a child is born to the adulthood. The first stage of human development is referred as the sensorimotor stage that starts at birth and end when a child is 24 months old. After the age of 24 months, a child moves to the operational stage starts when a child is 2 years old through the age of 7. A child moves into the final stage of behavioral and cognitive development at the age of adolescence that spans through adulthood. The objective of this study is to discuss the "six stages of Piaget's sensorimotor development." (Shaffer, & Kipp, 2010 p 253).
Piaget's sensorimotor Development
Piaget identifies the first two years of a child as the "sensorimotor stage of development." (Shaffer,…… [Read More]
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…… [Read More]
As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.
Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.
In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…… [Read More]
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]
Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women
Three major differences cognitive behavior abilities men women: higher verbal abilities, higher spatial abilities, higher arithmetical abilities
Neuropsychologists and psychologists have widely analyzed the difference in cognitive abilities expressed by members of the male and female genders. The analysis of these professionals has revealed the existence of three major cognitive differences between the genders. The differences include higher verbal abilities in women; higher arithmetic abilities in males and higher spatial abilities in males. However, the possession of superior arithmetic abilities by males has been closely related their possession of top notch spatial abilities. This implies that the differences in cognitive abilities can be condensed or summarized into two.
Close look at the differences in verbal abilities among males and females reveal that women perform best in verbal tests as compared to their male counterparts. Additionally, a woman's language development cycle is faster than…… [Read More]
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…… [Read More]
perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .
Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…… [Read More]
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…… [Read More]
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]
Piaget vs. Vygotsky
Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism are both theories in the field of Cognitive Development which focuses on the development of how people attain knowledge about their surroundings and come to understand their world throughout their life span. Both psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, came up with their own theories on cognitive development. Piaget came up with the idea of Cognitive Constructivism, while Vygotsky came up with Social Constructivism, both of which have become the most studied theories in this branch of psychology.
Piaget focused on categorizing children's cognitive development into stages and made note of the different approaches that children at a given stage and age has toward acquiring new knowledge. Vygotsky's focus was on a more social perspective and suggested that children's ability to learn comes from their social and daily interactions with their surroundings and culture. It is this that helps them think and…… [Read More]
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…… [Read More]
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…… [Read More]
One piece of evidence that suggests there is at least some degree of "hardwiring" of language in the human brain is the fact that very similar mistakes are made in certain grammatical forms and syntax structures by early speakers of any language. There seems to be an innate sense of the way words are supposed to be formed and fit together, and instances that do not follow these expected/innate rules require greater learning and effort to surmount. At the same time, there is evidence that much of language is learned through interaction with parents. This means that maternal depression, which tends to reduce activity overall and can specifically reduce interactions with children, can have a detrimental affect on language development by limiting or reducing the exposure of these children to language use and interaction.
At early stages of development, current research suggests that there is little relationship between the language…… [Read More]
Harmonic Accompaniment on the Development of Music Aptitude and Singing Achievement
The rationale of the scrutinize was to investigate the effect of xylophones harmonic accompaniment on the tone realization and tone improvisation of young children[aged eight].It provide the children cognitive development, multiple intelligence emphasis on music and bodily kinesthetic intelligence which will involve auditory, visual and kinesthetic stimuli.
It entails rhythmic development, music amptitude which test the effect of harmonic accompaniment on music development and music amptitude children vocal development and finally the effect of harmonic accompaniment on singing achievement.Even though result based on research on singing achievement between the children which had song instruction with a root melody accompaniment had no significant on tone attainment according to Gordon's (1982)IMMA, there was significance effect on singing achievement between children who received song instruction with root melody accompaniment.Xylophones which comes from a Greek word 'xylon'meaning wooden sound.It is from percussion family…… [Read More]
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…… [Read More]
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…… [Read More]
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…… [Read More]