Cognitive Development Essays (Examples)

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Cognitive Theories of Development Piaget's

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88820358

This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.

Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]

References:

Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from  http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm 

Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from  http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html 

"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.

Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
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Cognitive Testing Tool

Words: 2446 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55190613

Cognitive Ability Testing

Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.

Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…… [Read More]

Reference

Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.

Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).

Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.

Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
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Cognitive Processes of Cognitive Processes

Words: 1855 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78409228

124).

The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.

3. Conclusion

The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…… [Read More]

References

Cropley, A.J. (1999). Creativity and Cognition: Producing Effective Novelty'. Roeper Review, 21(4), 253. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272839

Garfield, J.L. (1990). Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings (1st ed.). New York: Paragon House. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76868168

Glass et al., ( 2008) Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study. Neuroreport, 19(5), pp 569-73.

Hung, D. (2003). Supporting Current Pedagogical Approaches with Neuroscience Research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(2), 129+.
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Cognitive Bias May Exist in

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96408719

If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, C.E.; (2006) a general theory of psychological relativity and cognitive evolution, Etc., Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 278-289

Besharov, G.; (2004) Second-best considerations in correcting cognitive biases, Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 12-20

Han, S.S.; Catron, T.; Weiss, B.; Marciel, K.K.; (2005) a teacher-consultation approach to social skills training for pre-kindergarten children: Treatment model and short-term outcome effects, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 681-693

Kayluga, S.; (2007) Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 19, pp. 509-539
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Cognitive and Behavioral Development of an Adolescent

Words: 822 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25197724

Riley's Behavior Analysis

Theories of moral and cognitive development can be used in understanding Riley's case and behavior. According to the Piaget's theory of development, children go through various stages in life. Theories of development reveal that when a student is in high school or the 10th grade, he or she undergoes through a period of personal development through the creation of identities. At this stage, individuals are preparing for adulthood and gaining more independence just as adolescents become experimenters in their lives. Piaget proposed a theory of development where moral reasoning for children develops from what he calls a naive understanding of morality. This naive understanding is usually based on behavior and outcomes. However, as they develop, they can have a more advanced understanding that is based on intentions. This means that Riley is using his independence in the wrong way. The identity crisis as described in the theories…… [Read More]

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Development of 18-Month-Old Child

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20300054

Developmental Checklist

Intelligence in Infancy

Cognitive:

The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.

Social/emotional:

The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.

Physical:

The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html

CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin:  http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp 

Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm

Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
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Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Starting Age

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19195806

Cognitive Changes

Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.

Developmental and cognitive changes

The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).

Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.

Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.

Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...

Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
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Development Theory Brought Forth by

Words: 4380 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5101601

For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).

Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…… [Read More]

References

Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.

Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.

Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.

Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
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Development Thru Early Middle or Late Adulthood

Words: 1809 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33383822

Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:

In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view

Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young

Adult Development.

Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
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Development of the Brain in 1st 2 Years of Life

Words: 774 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56682709

Brain Development

What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"

There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).

During the first year of life, the…… [Read More]

References

Bornstein, M.H. & Lamb, M.E. Development in Infancy: An Introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1992

Bruer, J.T. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. NY: Free Press, 1999.

Campbell, F.A. & Ramey, C.T. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 1995, 32(4): 742-772.

Dawson, G & Fishcer, K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. NY: Guilford, 1994.
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Cognitive Effects of Risperidone in Children With Autism and Irritable Behavior

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69775772

Autistic Children

Children with autism and irritable behavior are an incredibly vulnerable population. The right medications are crucial because the children are the ones who suffer any social or emotional problems based on their conditions. That is why Aman et al. (2008) explored the use of risperidone in children with autism and other forms of irritable behavior. The study aimed to better understand risperidone's cognitive impact on children with severe behavior disturbances to test its efficiency as a potential solution to some of the children's behavioral issues.

isperidone is an antipsychotic that is often administered to this vulnerable population; yet there is surprisingly little discourse on the cognitive impact it may have during treatment of behavioral disorders. The study conducted by Aman et al. (2008) aimed to test whether or not risperidone had a cognitive impact in the short-term during administering of treatment to children. During this age range, cognitive…… [Read More]

References

Aman, Michael, Hollway, Jill, McDougle, Christopher, Scahill, Lawrence, Tierny, Elaine, McCracken, James, Arnold, Eugene, Vitello, Benedetto, Ritz, Louise, Gavaletz, Allison, Cronin, Pegeen, Sweizy, Naomi, Wheeler, Courtney, Koening, Kathleen, Ghuman, Jaswinder, & Posey, David L. (2008). Cognitive effects of risperidone in children with autism and irritable behavior. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 18(3), 227-236.
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Development in Early Childhood Play Years

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19394624

Early Childhood: Play Years

Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.

Biology and Language

Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…… [Read More]

References

Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.

Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175

Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
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Infants Cognitive Intellectual Development

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73662154

Cognitive Development of Infants

Piaget's sensorimotor model provides the stage of cognitive human development showing that human experience consists of four stages of mental or cognitive starting from the first day a child is born to the adulthood. The first stage of human development is referred as the sensorimotor stage that starts at birth and end when a child is 24 months old. After the age of 24 months, a child moves to the operational stage starts when a child is 2 years old through the age of 7. A child moves into the final stage of behavioral and cognitive development at the age of adolescence that spans through adulthood. The objective of this study is to discuss the "six stages of Piaget's sensorimotor development." (Shaffer, & Kipp, 2010 p 253).

Piaget's sensorimotor Development

Piaget identifies the first two years of a child as the "sensorimotor stage of development." (Shaffer,…… [Read More]

Reference

Shaffer, D.D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence: Childhood and Adolescence. Cengage Learning
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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9470176

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques

Case of the Fat Lady

Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]

References

Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.

Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.

Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
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Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease

Words: 3403 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5754060

Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease

The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.

Literature eview: Cognitive Effects

The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…… [Read More]

References

Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354

Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 

Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218

Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
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Cognitive Processes the Development of

Words: 1624 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46665013

As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.

Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…… [Read More]

References

Felder, R.M. And Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 94, No. 1. Retrieved from:  http://eprints.me.psu.ac.th/ILS/info/Understanding_Differences.pdf 

Kay, W.K., Francis, L.J., and Robbins, M. (2011). A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks. University of Warwick. Retrieved from:  http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/41317/1/WRAP_Francis_Psychological_type_and_Apostolic_networks_final_version.pdf 

Nardi, D. (2007). The 8 Jungian Cognitive Processes. Retrieved from:  http://www.keys2cognition.com/cgjung.htm 

Ochsner, K.N. And Gross, J.J. (2005, May). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://icdl.com/graduate/Portal/IMH212/documents/ochsner-gross.pdf
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Cognitive Therapy Provides a Structured Framework for

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76925730

Cognitive therapy provides a structured framework for change. Describe your understanding of how this form of therapy works.

According to Cherry (2012), cognitive behavior therapy, also known as CBT focuses on helping clients to understand the thoughts and feelings that create their behaviors. If such behaviors are problematic, the client is encouraged to work on the way they think and feel about certain situations, which, it is assumed, would then also create change in the behavior. Commonly, phobias, addiction, depression, and anxiety are treated by means of CBT. This type of therapy is generally used to create short-term solutions to very specific problems, which focus on helping people to change by focusing on destructive or disturbing thought patterns that influence their behavior negatively.

The underlying cause for disturbed behaviors is then regarded as thoughts and feelings, more than repressed subconscious disturbances created by the individual's past. As such, these are…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2012). What is Cognitive Behavior Therapy? Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychotherapy/a/cbt.htm

Haggerty, J. (2006). Psychodynamic Therapy. PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/psychodynamic-therapy/
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]

References

Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Psychoanalytical

Words: 2924 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38678874

The therapist encourages openness and honesty on the part of the patient. This parent-like role gives the therapist the power to influence the patient positively, and to interpret his self-defeating behavior and distorted beliefs about reality. The patient must be able and willing to profit from it. Since offenders are assumed to suffer from denial, lack of motivation to change, and unwillingness to cooperate with voluntary treatment, individual psychotherapy is generally thought to be ineffective. Suspicion and lack of rapport in the criminal justice context also interfere with effective use of the method. There are few reports on individual psychotherapy with sex offenders against children.

Group psychotherapy gives members the opportunity to share experiences, gain insight, learn to control unacceptable impulses, and find acceptance. Although used more commonly than individual psychotherapy, the effectiveness is unknown. There have been no replicable, controlled studies. One review found that studies were based on…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barbaree, H.E. (1991). Denial and minimization among sex offenders: Assessment and treatment outcome. Forum on Corrections Research, 3, 30-33.

Brake, S.C., & Shannon, D. (1997). Using pretreatment to increase admission in sex offenders.

Conte, J.R. (1985). Clinical dimensions of adult sexual abuse of children. Behavioral Sciences the Law, 3, 341-354.

Cowden, E.L. (1970). The relationship of defensiveness to responses on the Sex Inventory.
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Cognitive Therapy Is a Form

Words: 2526 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17174315



Treatment Process

To treat dysfunctional modes of either thinking or behaving in Cognitive Therapy three general approaches are applied: 1. Deactivation through distraction or reassurance 2, Modification of content or structure 3. The construction of more adaptive modes which "neutralizes' the maladaptive modes. These steps are fundamental in the process as each step is an aspect of the developed sense of self or core belief. To describe each process is also important. The concept of deactivation is essential but usually only partial as the mode of thinking or behaving is likely based in some truth, in other words the core belief has a particle of truth that is held and developed by the individual for adaptation and survival, therefore the therapist may need to reassure those parts of the mode that are based on truth and then distract the individual by reality testing or modification of the whole of the…… [Read More]

References

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hewstone, M. Fencham, F.F. & Foster, J. (2005). Psychology. Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing.

Robertson, D (2010). The philosophy of cognitive-behavioural therapy: Stoicism as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London, UK: Karnac Publishing.

Sanders, D. & Wills, F. (2005) Cognitive therapy: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Cognitive Theory Cognition Is the

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29875252

It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).

Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm

2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.

3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439

4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
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Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76443144

Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women

Three major differences cognitive behavior abilities men women: higher verbal abilities, higher spatial abilities, higher arithmetical abilities

Neuropsychologists and psychologists have widely analyzed the difference in cognitive abilities expressed by members of the male and female genders. The analysis of these professionals has revealed the existence of three major cognitive differences between the genders. The differences include higher verbal abilities in women; higher arithmetic abilities in males and higher spatial abilities in males. However, the possession of superior arithmetic abilities by males has been closely related their possession of top notch spatial abilities. This implies that the differences in cognitive abilities can be condensed or summarized into two.

Close look at the differences in verbal abilities among males and females reveal that women perform best in verbal tests as compared to their male counterparts. Additionally, a woman's language development cycle is faster than…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, P.L. (2006). Cognitive sex differences and mathematics and science achievement. American Psychologist, 61(7), 722-723.

Ballinger, T.P., Hudson, E., Karkoviata, L., & Wilcox, N.T. (2011). Saving behavior and cognitive abilities. Experimental Economics, 14 (3), 349-374.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85016672

Persons with generalized anxiety disorder often worry excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipate disaster." People with GD are accustomed to approaching life as "worriers," and the disorder can be difficult to treat. They often become highly, negatively emotionally aroused when mentally imagining future events; effective treatment must deal with these stress-inducing mental images. While the idea of "generalized anxiety" may sound like a mild problem, experts have concluded that the social, emotional, and financial costs to a patient can be severe. Michael Dugas and Naomi Koerner have identified four root psychological contributors to GD that can be effectively approached with cognitive-behavioral based therapies: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, poor problem solving, and cognitive avoidance. (Dugas and Koerner)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) refers to a condition in which individuals are highly susceptible to worry as a result of negative beliefs about uncertainty in life. These…… [Read More]

According to New York-Presbyterian's Mental Health Glossary (http://nyp.org/health/mentalhealth-glossary.html), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is "a mental disorder that causes its sufferers chronic and exaggerated worry and tension that seem to have no substantial cause. Persons with generalized anxiety disorder often worry excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipate disaster." People with GAD are accustomed to approaching life as "worriers," and the disorder can be difficult to treat. They often become highly, negatively emotionally aroused when mentally imagining future events; effective treatment must deal with these stress-inducing mental images. While the idea of "generalized anxiety" may sound like a mild problem, experts have concluded that the social, emotional, and financial costs to a patient can be severe. Michael Dugas and Naomi Koerner have identified four root psychological contributors to GAD that can be effectively approached with cognitive-behavioral based therapies: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, poor problem solving, and cognitive avoidance. (Dugas and Koerner)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) refers to a condition in which individuals are highly susceptible to worry as a result of negative beliefs about uncertainty in life. These individuals have developed a belief system centered around the idea that uncertainty about any aspect of life is bad and should be avoided. Daily self-monitoring, an important component of CBT, shows a strong correlation between increased or decreased worry and increased or decreased IU. The development of IU is thought to be the result of information processing biases in these individuals; CBT is a promising treatment for people with information processing biases, since it attempts to target specific faulty thought patterns and replace them with more positive responses. (Dugas and Koerner)

In addition, individuals with GAD have a tendency to believe that worry is helpful and positive. As opposed to people who avoid worry or see it as destructive or a waste of energy, people with positive beliefs about worry view it as
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Focuses on

Words: 843 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49308699

By acknowledging the validity of his emotions, Jake would learn not to be afraid of them and learn that he could express anger and embrace conflict without losing close relationships. He could be intimate with other people and express anger without the anger leading to violence.

Q5: Cognitive behavioral therapy questions the client's false assumptions about himself and the world, such as Herb's feeling that his divorce was his fault. Herb is living in the past, and dwelling on things he cannot change. The behavioral therapist would focus on Herb's core assumptions: "why was the divorce your fault? Why would things be better if she returned?" Cognitive behavioral therapy's focus on the present would make it extremely useful for Herb's inability to move his life forward. It focuses on actions and setting goals for behavior, which is useful if a client is mired in too much self-examination.

Q6.1: There is…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Counseling This Is a

Words: 5805 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29574321

Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).

Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).

Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15

May 2009 .

Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .

Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
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Cognitive Modification the Needs of

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82252365

"

Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)

These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.

Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…… [Read More]

References

Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377

Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48

Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
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Cognitive Learning Theory Presents a

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62422328

Through both observation and formal instruction, a child acquires new knowledge that determines how he/she behaves. Furthermore, the child's behavior is strengthened or transformed by the outcomes of his/her actions and the reaction of other people (Aldinger & Whitman, 2003).

Cognitive Behavioral Theory:

As the second theory of cognitive learning perspective, the behavioral theory explains the role of knowing in determining and foretelling an individual's behavioral pattern. The cognitive behavioral theory implies that people tend to formulate self-concepts that influence the behavior they display. The formulated self-concepts can either be positive or negative depending on the individual's environment resulting in either good or bad behavior respectively. This theory also explains individuals' learning and behavior through the cognitive triad i.e. The self, the world, and the future.

Cognitive Model of Learning:

The first step in the cognitive model of learning is comprehension, which depends on an individual's prior knowledge and reading…… [Read More]

References:

Aldinger, C. & Whitman, C.V. (2003, April 22). Skills for Health. Retrieved August 30, 2011,

from  http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/media/en/sch_skills4health_03.pdf 

"Chapter 5 -- Learning Theories." The Learning Domain. Retrieved August 30, 2011, from  http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_5.pdf 

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Social Learning Theory: An Overview of Bandura's Social Learning Theory.
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Piaget's Theory of Development

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43553699

perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .

Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Santrock, John W. (2006). "Life-Span Development (10th ed.)" McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Smith, Leslie, (2002). "Critical Readings on Piaget." Routledge.
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Adolesents Development of Adolescents it

Words: 2058 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33357353



Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.

Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…… [Read More]

References

Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
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Children's Development Early Childhood Language

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89179616

esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at  http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html 

This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.

Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at  http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html 

This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
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Piaget vs Vygotsky Cognitive Constructivism and Social

Words: 1213 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64721030

Piaget vs. Vygotsky

Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism are both theories in the field of Cognitive Development which focuses on the development of how people attain knowledge about their surroundings and come to understand their world throughout their life span. Both psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, came up with their own theories on cognitive development. Piaget came up with the idea of Cognitive Constructivism, while Vygotsky came up with Social Constructivism, both of which have become the most studied theories in this branch of psychology.

Piaget focused on categorizing children's cognitive development into stages and made note of the different approaches that children at a given stage and age has toward acquiring new knowledge. Vygotsky's focus was on a more social perspective and suggested that children's ability to learn comes from their social and daily interactions with their surroundings and culture. It is this that helps them think and…… [Read More]

References:

Martin, J. & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging the social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology. 1(4): 375-388.

Palincsar, A.S. (1998). Social contructivist persepctives on teaching and learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49: 345-375.

Davies, D. (2004). Child Development. Second Edition. Guilford Press.

Kall, R.V. & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2010). Human development: A life-span view. Wadsworth Publishing.
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How Counseling Services Benefit People-Based on Theories of Human Development

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8557938

(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)

Psychosocial Theory

Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)

VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories

The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf

Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from:  http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/ 

Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm

Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
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Understanding Human Development From a Piagetian Perspective

Words: 2528 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52130111

Health -- Nursing

Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development

Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development

Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development

The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…… [Read More]

References

Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning

Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning

Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning

Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press