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Cognitive Development may appear to be a unified discipline or organic cooperation among several disciplines; however, the research shows chasms between fields devoted to the study of human development. The four reviewed articles show differing approaches to developmental studies, with varying degrees of effectiveness. The level of effectiveness appears to hinge on the scholar's willingness to use a generous number of approaches to the analysis of human development.
Harris, J.L., Brownell, K.D., & Bargh, J.A. (2009). The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy. Social Issues and Policy Review, 3(1), 211-271.
Harris et al. review the negative effects of food advertising targeted at youth, results of various studies regarding that phenomenon, and then suggest a possible defense model to counteract the powerful impact of food advertisers. They begin by attributing the "obesity epidemic" at least in part to advertising encouraging individuals to eat…
Harris, J.L., Brownell, K.D., & Bargh, J.A. (2009). The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy. Social Issues and Policy Review, 3(1), 211-271.
Lieberman, M.C. (2005). Principles, Processes and Puzzles of Social Cognition: An Introduction for the Special Issue on Social Cognitive Neuroscience. NeuroImage, 745-756.
Olson, K.R., & Dweck, C.S. (2008). A Blueprint for Social Cognitive Development. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(3), 193-202.
Rutland, A., Cameron, L., Milne, A., & McGeorge, P. (2005). Social Norms and Self-Presentation: Children's Implicit and Explicit Intergroup Attitudes. Child Development, 76, 451-466.
Cognitive, Social, And Emotional Developmental Theories
Understanding the concept of child development is critical when the need to appreciate human interaction is required. This is because childhood memories and environments tend to affect their cognitive, social, and emotional development. In fact, children from different backgrounds tend to depict different adulthood behaviors unlike those with shared experiences. For instance, children born and raised in violent homes may become violent in their adulthood years or timid unlike those raised in happy homes. In addition, children who were neglected or sexually abused may develop feelings of insecurity. Various philosophers like Sigmund Feud and Jean Piaget have advanced numerous theories aimed at fostering the understanding of child development. This study endeavors to explore Piaget's cognitive development theory based on a hypothetical client's case.
Cognitive Development: Scenario 2: Anna and Jojo
Children who have a poor start or childhood problems early on in life have…
Shaffer, D.R. (2009). Social and personality development (6th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth
Infant 0-2 years Affiliation
Early Childhood (2-7 years) Play
Middle Childhood (7-12 years) Learning
Adolescence (12-19 years) Peer
Source: Thomas (2008)
III. DIFFERENCES ETWEEN PIAGET and VYGOTSKY
According to Dr. Michael Thomas in the work entitled: "Cognitive Language and Development" while Piaget was reliant upon the clinical method of using questions that probed and uncovered the understanding of children, Vygotsky was concerned "with historical and social aspects of human behavior that make human nature unique." (Thomas, 2008) Vygotsky held that a close link existed between the child's language acquisition and thinking development and that "speech carries culture in that it stores the history of social experience and is a 'tool' for thought."(Thomas, 2008) Piaget, on the other hand, "outlined a theory that states that the precursors of thinking and language lie in the elementary actions, perceptions, and imitations of babies." (Thomas, 2008) While Piaget held that…
Dahl, Bettina (nd) a Synthesis of Different Psychological Learning Theories? Piaget and Vygotsky. Norwegian Center for Mathematics Education
DeVries, Rheta (nd) Vygotsky, Piaget, and Education: A Reciprocal Assimilation of Theories and Educational Practices. Regents' Center for Early Developmental Education.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. Online available at http://www.people.ex.ac.uk/PErnest/pome17/pdf/bdahl.pdf
Piaget, J. (1962) Comments on Vygotsky's critical remarks concerning 'The Language and Thought of the Child', and 'Judgment and Reasoning in the Child' (Cambridge Massachusetts, the M.I.T.).
Scientific inquiry is encouraged, too. "Children are actively involved in formulating hypotheses, designing experiments, collecting and organizing data and drawing their own conclusions." Even though children at the pre-operational stage are egocentric and view the world as if it were solely their own, they still probe for answers and explanations about what they smell, hear, taste, touch, and see. Scientific activities also allow the children to witness cause and effect scenarios that enable them to develop appropriate cognitive skills. Those skills develop naturally in conjunction with verbal and mathematical thinking skills.
The Bank Street Head Start program loosely follows Piaget's theory of early childhood development. Children gradually and naturally incorporate new objects, experiences, and ideas into their cognitive schemas: the process Piaget called assimilation. Children also accommodate their old schemas to suit their learning environment.
The Bank Street Head Start program, which serves children ages three and four, is apparently…
his will present a break from the norm set by most researchers who concentrate on studying the relationship between a child's ability and development, and the actions and environment surrounding the child. For instance, the study conducted by Berger and Adolph just considers how changing the size of the bridge makes a child to adopt a different strategy (using the handrail) in crossing the bridge but does not asses how the child chooses to use the handrail.
One of the major hypotheses in the study is that children are able to use "means-ends" problem solving skills to solve problems and are able to perform at a higher level of cognition than originally believed. We expect to find that most infants and toddlers would be able to grasp the need for a handrail in narrow bridges and would be able to cross successfully. Another hypothesis for our study will be that…
The purpose of the proposed study is to examine toddlers through replication of the study conducted by Berger and Adolph. Specifically, we will investigate infant's abilities and cognitive understanding in crossing the bridge and handrail use. Also, to examine children's decisions to use a handrail when given narrow bridges. Specifically, in addition to the assessments made in the original study, we are interested in examining toddler's problem-solving ability by also including further assessments of the ways in which children choose to use the tools available to them during a difficult locomotor task. This will present a break from the norm set by most researchers who concentrate on studying the relationship between a child's ability and development, and the actions and environment surrounding the child. For instance, the study conducted by Berger and Adolph just considers how changing the size of the bridge makes a child to adopt a different strategy (using the handrail) in crossing the bridge but does not asses how the child chooses to use the handrail.
One of the major hypotheses in the study is that children are able to use "means-ends" problem solving skills to solve problems and are able to perform at a higher level of cognition than originally believed. We expect to find that most infants and toddlers would be able to grasp the need for a handrail in narrow bridges and would be able to cross successfully. Another hypothesis for our study will be that toddlers will make more attempts to cross the bridge when the handrail is present and given wider bridge.
In order to examine toddlers, we conducted a replication of the original study by Berger and Adolph (2003). The independent variables in the present study were the width of the bridge (12, 24, 36, and 48) and handrail presence (yes or no). The dependent variables of interest for the study were: 1) number of attempts the child made at crossing the bridge, 2) whether or not the child used the handrail, 3) number of times the child used the handrail, 4) amount of time the child took to cross the bridge, 5) number of steps the child took in crossing the bridge, 6) the influence of the adult on the child, 7) what type of toy was used to coax the child to cross the bridge, 8) amount of time given to the child by the adult to cross the bridge, and 9) latency or the amount of time the child waited before attempting to cross the bridge. The hypothesis was that the toddlers will more readily attempt crossing the bridge if given a wider space and they will attempt the narrower bridges more often if a handrail is present. Archival videos from the original study were used in the data coding for the dependent variables.
Their research again points to superior cognitive skills in children -- this time in the mathematical realm. However, their research only targeted a small sample of children from the same cultural background. I would like to extend to a cross-cultural sample from actual different countries. If my research supports that of Levine and Huttenlocher, as I predict it to be ramifications include the fact that differences in mathematical ability are likely initiated due to other factors (such as school, teacher, parents) and are not innate. As Levine and Huttenlocher's research shows, abstract mathematical skills emerge as early as 3; verbal mathematical skills emerge later. Differences in mathematical ability (and, by extension, differences in other intellectual abilities) may be a consequence of other factors rather than intrinsic.
Berger, S.E., & Adolph, K.E. (2003). Infants use handrails as tools in a locomotor task. Developmental Psychology, 39(3), 594-605.
Bertelson, P. (1999). Development…
Berger, S.E., & Adolph, K.E. (2003). Infants use handrails as tools in a locomotor task. Developmental Psychology, 39(3), 594-605.
Bertelson, P. (1999). Development of Phenomenological Consciousness in early childhood Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psy. Vol. 19, No. 2, 196-216
Haga, M., Peterson, A.V., & Sigmundson, H. (2007). Interrelationship among selected measures of motor skills Child: care, health and development, 34, 2, 245 -- 248
Harms, W. (1998). Preschoolers show ability to grasp simple mathematics. The Univ. Of Chicago Chronicle, 17.
Cognitive Development in Toddlers
The word cognitive development can be said to be the cerebral intensification that commences during birth and carries on all the way through old age (Gleitman, 1981). As Gleitman puts it learning commences as soon as one is born and it starts by looking proceeds to listening as well as interaction. It is therefore growth of gaining skills along with the structures that exist in the brain that brings about the cognitive growth and this can be seen by looking at some theories especially the Jean Piaget's theory.
Based on the cognitive growth theory of Jean Piaget, brainpower seems to be the fundamental mechanism of guaranteeing balance in the association among individuals as well as their vicinity. This can be attained by the proceedings of the emergent individual on the earth. At whichever instant in growth, the surroundings is incorporated in the system of proceedings present,…
Adolph, K.E. (1997). Learning in the development of infant locomotion.
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 62 (3,
Serial No. 251).
Bjorklund, D . F. (Ed.). (1990).C hildren'ss trategies:C ontemporaryv iews of cognitive development Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
He also responds to hearing his first name being spoken and can tell the difference between the sound of his mother and grandmother's voice and the voice of other women.
When he is with other children in the same room, he plays and has a smile on his face. Because he is only 12 months old, he probably would have developed only the most rudimentary of language skills if he did not have Down's syndrome. The boy seemed to develop attachments to certain toys and was clearly uninterested in others. He had a strong preference for plush toys and did not attempt to build towers out of building blocks, as some of the other children did. On one occasion, our subject hit another kid, but we believe he felt threatened and was acting in self-defense because he had a smile on his face. In general, we feel it may be…
As such, the author understands that he operated under his own set of rules during his Level 1 development. While primarily focused upon his own pleasure, the author shows the beginnings of Level 3 development even during stage 1. He understands the interdependence of human beings within a society. This is emphasized during his frequent illnesses, when the author was dependent upon friends and lecturers for his academic survival.
In conclusion, the author proceeds from Stage 1 to 6 in an integrated fashion. He gradually begins to understand the importance of academic commitment without the supervision of authority, as well as the importance of obeying rules for the purpose of personal development. Once his personal development reaches Level 3, the author is able to operate from a platform of complete understanding for his own shortcomings. As such, he is able to connect with others on a deeper level tan would…
Daeg de Mott, Dianne K. (2007). Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning. Encyclopedia of childhood and Adolescence. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0003/ai_2602000337
Education Encyclopedia. (2007). Lawrence Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Judgment, Moral Education. http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2150/Kohlberg-Lawrence-1927-1987.html
Van Wagner, Kendra (2007). Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development. About.com. http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/kohlberg.htm
In the many different veins of cognitive development research, certain themes and assumptions seem to run throughout. Most of the background beliefs common to the field are truly taken for granted to such an extent that they become largely unspoken and perhaps never even considered. For example, most cognitive research theory assumes without question the theory of human minds which claims that ones fellow humans are not automata but that one can look at their actions and listen to their words and from their gain a relatively accurate image of the mind which is producing these phenomena of movement and speech. This seems obvious to cognitive researchers, but is much in debate among philosophers. Many other such basic assumptions are taken for granted, such as the idea that children actually learn and progress from a relatively blank state, rather than (as Plato and others such as Wordsworth have…
Piaget believed in the child to society association whereby children have the skills to organization information they receive from the society. He felt that children make sense of the world around them with the innate organization skills they possess. As the child grows, his views might undergo a change and his association with society might also alter depending on his age. While in his theory, innate knowledge is important, Piaget never discredited environment's role in the development process:
There are no more such things as societies qua beings than there are isolated individuals. There are only relations.... And the combinations formed by them, always incomplete, cannot be taken as permanent substances (Piaget, 1932, p. 360).
A there is no longer any need to choose between the primacy of the social or that of the intellect: collective intellect is the social equilibrium resulting from the interplay of the operations that enter…
Piaget, J.(1932) the moral judgment of the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Piaget, J. (1970) Structuralism. New York: Basic Books
Vygotsky, L.S. (1987) the collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: Vol.1, Problems of general psychology. Including the volume Thinking and speech. New York: Plenum. (N. Minick, Trans.)
Fodor, J. (1983). The modularity of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Cognitive development: Information processing theory
Information processing theory might view the human mind as a kind of 'computer' but even this construct allows that the cognitive development stage of the individual can affect how the brain processes information. In contrast to Piaget's theory of development which was derived by studying a relatively narrow range of subjects, information processing theory is more expansive (which is why some people resist calling it a theory at all) and instead uses experimental evidence about the brain and functions such as memory. But the nature of the 'hardware' of the brain will affect perceptions (input) and thus output (responses) will also be affected by developmental stages (Miller 2002: 246).
When a child perceives information for the first time, that information can then be transformed, manipulated, and used in different ways. Information processing theorists study how this 'data' is deployed (Miller 2002:…
Miller, P. (2002). Theories of developmental psychology. (5th Ed). Worth Publishing.
Children are complex creatures who develop in various ways at various developmental stages. According to Thompson (2001), children grow in four interrelated areas (body, person, mind, and brain), and these four components involve the complex interplay of many factors: physical size, motor coordination, general health, thinking, language, symbolism, concepts, problem-solving, relationships, social understanding, emotions, neural and synapse. With respect to overall cognitive development in infants and toddlers, while countless environmental factors appear to have a measurable effect, the degree of significance of genetics is still under debate. Abundant recent research covers a wide range of topics related to environmental effects (or lack thereof) on the development of intelligence, learning, memory, and problem-solving in very young children. Some areas studied and analyzed include the effects of audiovisual stimulation, playtime and fun, interactive story-time, father involvement, and socioeconomic status.
Audiovisual stimulation from "Baby Einstein" type DVDs has become a popular…
Akiba, D. (2009). Educating Your Child While You Drive: Assessing the Efficacy of Early Childhood Audiovisual Materials. Childhood Education, 86 (2), 113+.
Bradley, R., & Corwyn, R. (2002). Socioeconomic Status and Child Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371+.
Cameron, E.L., & al, e. (2008). "Let Me Show You a Trick!": A Toddler's Use of Humor to Explore, Interpret, and Negotiate Her Familial Environment. ournal of Research in Childhood Education. Volume: 23. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 2008. Page Number: 5+, 23 (1), 5+.
Casby, M. (2003). The Development of Play in Infants, Toddlers and Young Children. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 24 (4), 163+.
Patricia H. Miller's book "Theories of Developmental Psychology (fifth edition)," "Vygotsky and the Sociocultural Approach," provides information concerning the Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky and his tendency to place development as a concept during which individuals involved in one's upbringing play an important role in shaping the way that the person develops. The chapter proceeds to describe Vygotsky's development and influential theories that shaped the way he understood development. Miller also goes at presenting a sort of contrast between Vygotsky's views and views that are generally promoted in the estern orld.
The text portrays Vygotsky as a person whose thinking was ahead of his time and whose theories played an important role in theories devised in the contemporary society. Even with this, Vygotsky's theories are also shown as being limited by the fact that the sociocultural approach did not receive wide recognition in the past and because the Soviet psychologists was…
Miller, Patricia H. "Theories of Developmental Psychology (fifth edition)"
physical, socio-emotional and cognitive development of a child. Give equal consideration to the following factors in your response: Heredity, Culture, Nutrition and Parental Affection.
There is no one factor that conclusively determines the process of child development. Psychologists have long been torn to deciding whether nature or nurture has as greater impact, and today we almost unanimously agree that both have as equal and strong an influence on the physical, socio-emotional and cognitive development of a child.
Take hereditary for instance: the fetus is formed by 456 chromosomes. 23 chromosomes from each of his parents. Since each of these chromosomes contain determining DNA that go into determining the child's physical, intellectual, and mental characteristics (some latent and others overt), it is evident that the child is formed by hereditary. This is particularly so when transmitted handicaps and diseases impact him to make her what she is. There is a distinction…
Berger, K.S. (2000). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth Publishers.
Maselko, et al. (2010) Mother's Affection at 8 Months Predicts Emotional Distress in Adulthood; Journal of Epidemiology and Health; 10.11-36
Miko, I. (2008) Genetic dominance: genotype-phenotype relationships. Nature Education 1(1)
Novella J. Ruffin (2010) Understanding Growth and Development Patterns of Infants, http://www.livestrong.com/article/535729-importance-of-parental-affection/#ixzz270Ols3vK
Children's Drawing Ability and Cognitive Development
There is scarcely a refrigerator door in America in homes with children that does not have one or more pictures attached to it with magnets providing proof positive that these young learners are expressing themselves in healthy ways. Over time, these pictorial representations typically increase in complexity and begin to actually resemble the things they are intended to represent, and most parents accept this progression as a natural part of their children's cognitive development. In other cases, though, young people express themselves through drawings that fail to live up to adult expectations concerning complexity and content and these children may find themselves mistakenly labeled as being learning disabled, suicidal or otherwise troubled.
It does not take a scientist to know that very young children experiment with drawing as a form of play, exploration and communication, and that these expressions tend to increase in complexity,…
Braswell, G.S. & Callanan, M.A. (2003). Learning to draw recognizable graphic representations during mother-child interactions. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(4), 471-472.
Clark, G.A. (1993, Winter). Judging children's drawings as measures of art abilities. Studies in Art Education, 34(2), 72-81.
Eisner, E.W. & Day, M.D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ.
" (Naigle, 2005) Naigle states that while viewing the television has been liked to dissatisfaction in female adolescents with their body "there are no strong correlations linking this channel of communication to proactive drives for thinness or eating disorder behaviors like there are with magazine consumption. And within television viewing, different types of programming are more influential than others." (Naigle, 2005) Television has been found to "...distort and make light of serious societal issues." (Naigle, 2005) Naigle states additionally: "Across all the programs there was an average of 3.5 incidents of gender or sexual harassment per episode; 33% of all episodes contained some form of harassment. While harassment is not necessarily a main topic in situational comedies, it is used often for humor. The use of a serious societal issue for humor belittles the impact of the problem and reinforces stereotypes and negative perceptions surrounding the issue. This sends out…
Durham, M.G. (1998). Dilemmas of desire: Representations of adolescent sexuality in two teen-magazines. Youth & Society, 29(3), 369-389.
Durham, M.G. (1999). Girls, media and the negotiation of sexuality: A study of race, class, and gender in adolescent peer groups. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(2), 193-216
Gentile, DA and Sesma, A (2003) Developmental Approaches to Understanding Media Effects on Individuals. 16 Oct 2003. Online available at http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~dgentile/106027_02.pdf
Naigle, Debbie (2005) Literature Review of Media Messages to Adolescent Females. Feb. 2005. Educational Communications and Technology. Feb. 2005. Online available at http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/naigle/index.htm
theorist discussing the cognitive development throughout the lifespan is Jean Piaget. The cognitive development of children is of interest to this writer as a budding pediatric psychologist. Piaget's model, while criticized, has stood the test of time and remains the basic model of cognitive development presented in developmental psychology textbooks as well as a being a general framework for research and theory development in the field (Egan, 2012). Piaget's overall stage theory is briefly discussed in this paper.
Piaget's initial research subjects were children from birth to seven (he also studied people through the age of adulthood). In actuality, Piaget's early subjects were his own children; later he studied children of different ages under laboratory situations (Burman, 2008). In essence Piaget's methods were correlational and consisted of mostly a combination of observation and interview. He relied primarily of presenting the child with a task and observing the child solve the…
Berk, L.E. (2011). Infants, children, and adolescents (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Burman, J.T. (2008). Experimenting in relation to Piaget: Education is a chaperoned process of adaptation. Perspectives on Science, 16(2), 160 -- 195.
Egan, K. (2012). Education and psychology: Plato, Piaget and scientific psychology. New York:
Developmental Cognitive Psychology and Law
Child development refers to a psychological, biological and emotional developments that occur between birth and adolescent. Biologically, a child refers to an individual between the time of birth and puberty. In other words, a child refers to a person between infancy and adulthood. In many countries, children between 0-year and 18 years are at a developmental stage because they are unable to make a very serious decision by themselves. In the United States, children between age of 4 and 6 are referred as preschoolers, and at this stage, they are generally egocentric and unable to see other children point-of-view. Moreover, they are not intuitive and not able to develop a rational thinking. (Kail, 2011).
Objective of this paper is to use the field of development psychology and legal system determination to justify when the children who shot other children in the case studies are to…
Berger, K.S. (2014). The Developing Person. through Childhood and Adolescence Worth Publishers.
Kail, R. V. (2011). Children and Their Development (6th Edition) (Mydevelopmentlab Series). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Schechter, D.S. & Willheim, E. (2009). Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America, 18(3), 665-687.
Brain and Deviance/Criminal Behavior
For thousands of years, scholars have debated the duality of good and evil within the human condition, and the choices individuals make regarding actions that could be good are evil. The basic idea of a utilitarian model, is that humans are innately reasonable and able to weight consequences with rational choices -- cost vs. benefits. Kim, et al. (2010) review both control theories and the biology of the brain as a way of understanding criminal deviance. If one understands why crime is committed, the idea is that one could then help society to develop ways in which criminal behavior is minimized. Choice theory says that individuals look for opportunities, then weigh the positives and negatives (punishment, gain, etc.) and choose whether to proceed further based on that choice. Choice, however, may be have a direct relationship between culture and chemistry. Deviance is defined on a relative…
Beaver, J. (2009). Biosocial Criminology: A Primer. Ames, IA: Kendall Hunt.
Kim, B., et al. (2012). Social Deviance Activates the Brain's Error-Monitoring
System. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience. 12 (1): 65-73.
Wright, J., et al. (2008). Criminals in the Making. Los Angeles: Sage.
Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.
The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).
hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means
A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…
Aleven, Vincent and Koeginger, Kenneth. "An Effective Metacognitive Strategy: Learning by Doing and Explaining with A Computer-Based Cognitive Tutor." Cognitive Science, 26 (2002): 147-179. Print.
Casey, Betty, Jones, Rebecca, and Hare, Todd. "The Adolescent Brain." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124 (2008): 111-126. Print.
Hill, Patrick and Lapsley, Daniel. "Egocentrism." Education.com, http://www.education.com/reference/article/egocentrism/ . Accessed 23 August 2016.
Hurst, Melissa. "Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories." Study.com, http://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys - cognitive-development-theories.html. Accessed 23 August 2016.
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…
Operant conditioning could be used to get my roommate to make his bed by providing negative reinforcement every time he fails to make his bed. I could tell him that he is not allowed to use the TV. This should reinforce the idea that he must not fail to make his bed. Classical conditioning could be used to get my roommate to make his bed by providing an unconditioned stimulus -- telling him our neighbor is coming by to use the computer in the mornings from now on. He will naturally react by wanting to tidy the room including his bed.
The hypothesis I would use for testing the effect of Baby Einstein videos on cognitive development would be: Baby Einstein has a positive effect on the cognitive development of toddlers between the ages of 1-3. This would be a longitudinal study, using a randomized sample. A control…
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Using piaget's theory of cognitive development to understand the construction of healing narratives. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 177-186.
Goswami, U. (2001). Cognitive development: No stages please -- we're british. British Journal of Psychology, 92(00071269), 257-77.
Hinde, E., & Perry, N. (2007). Elementary teachers' application of jean piaget's theories of cognitive development during social studies curriculum debates in arizona. The Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 63.
Leppo, M., Davis, D., & Crim, B. (2000). The basics of exercising the mind and body. Childhood Education, 76(3), 142-147.
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…
Gentile, D.A. And Sesma, A. (2003) Developmental Approaches to Understanding Media Effects on Individuals. Online available at http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~dgentile/106027_02.pdf
Nevins, Tara (2004) The Effects of Media Violence on Adolescent Health. Physicians for Global Survival, Canada, Summer 2004. Online available at http://pgs.wemanageyour.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/effectsofmediaviolence_final.pdf
Anderson, C. et al. (2003) The Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. VOL. 4, NO. 3, December 2003. Online available at http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with distant family relatives who are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry. Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry has developed a process of adaptation, by which he adjusts himself to assimilate to the social environment at Hogwarts.
One of Harry's main cognitive schemas is that he aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. The schema related to his personal identity and abstract concepts like good and evil evolve, revealing the process of child development throughout Potter's early adolescence. He demonstrates a process of accommodation, by…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
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Sutton-Smith, B. (1966). Piaget on play: A critique. Psychological Review 73(1): 104-110.
Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development
Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.
Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences
According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…
Cherry G. 2004. An Overview of Jerome Brunner His Theory of Constructivism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Class_Websites/761_Spring_04/Assets/course_docs/ID_Theory_Reps_Sp04/Bruner-Cherry.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Seta, C.E., Seta, J., Paulus, P., & Andrews, E.A. 2001. Study Guide for Psychology, Third Canadian edition, by Baron, R., Earhard, B., & Ozier, M. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc. [Print].
William, R.T. Social Cognitive Theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner., [Online]. 41, 117-123. Available at: http://www.takamatsu-u.ac.jp/library/06_gakunaisyupan/kiyo/no41/41_117-123_williams.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…
Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm
Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.
Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…
Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.
Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).
Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.
Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.
The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…
Cropley, A.J. (1999). Creativity and Cognition: Producing Effective Novelty'. Roeper Review, 21(4), 253. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272839
Garfield, J.L. (1990). Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings (1st ed.). New York: Paragon House. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76868168
Glass et al., ( 2008) Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study. Neuroreport, 19(5), pp 569-73.
Hung, D. (2003). Supporting Current Pedagogical Approaches with Neuroscience Research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(2), 129+.
If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…
Bailey, C.E.; (2006) a general theory of psychological relativity and cognitive evolution, Etc., Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 278-289
Besharov, G.; (2004) Second-best considerations in correcting cognitive biases, Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 12-20
Han, S.S.; Catron, T.; Weiss, B.; Marciel, K.K.; (2005) a teacher-consultation approach to social skills training for pre-kindergarten children: Treatment model and short-term outcome effects, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 681-693
Kayluga, S.; (2007) Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 19, pp. 509-539
Riley's Behavior Analysis
Theories of moral and cognitive development can be used in understanding Riley's case and behavior. According to the Piaget's theory of development, children go through various stages in life. Theories of development reveal that when a student is in high school or the 10th grade, he or she undergoes through a period of personal development through the creation of identities. At this stage, individuals are preparing for adulthood and gaining more independence just as adolescents become experimenters in their lives. Piaget proposed a theory of development where moral reasoning for children develops from what he calls a naive understanding of morality. This naive understanding is usually based on behavior and outcomes. However, as they develop, they can have a more advanced understanding that is based on intentions. This means that Riley is using his independence in the wrong way. The identity crisis as described in the theories…
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"
There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).
During the first year of life, the…
Bornstein, M.H. & Lamb, M.E. Development in Infancy: An Introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1992
Bruer, J.T. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. NY: Free Press, 1999.
Campbell, F.A. & Ramey, C.T. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 1995, 32(4): 742-772.
Dawson, G & Fishcer, K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. NY: Guilford, 1994.
Children with autism and irritable behavior are an incredibly vulnerable population. The right medications are crucial because the children are the ones who suffer any social or emotional problems based on their conditions. That is why Aman et al. (2008) explored the use of risperidone in children with autism and other forms of irritable behavior. The study aimed to better understand risperidone's cognitive impact on children with severe behavior disturbances to test its efficiency as a potential solution to some of the children's behavioral issues.
isperidone is an antipsychotic that is often administered to this vulnerable population; yet there is surprisingly little discourse on the cognitive impact it may have during treatment of behavioral disorders. The study conducted by Aman et al. (2008) aimed to test whether or not risperidone had a cognitive impact in the short-term during administering of treatment to children. During this age range, cognitive…
Aman, Michael, Hollway, Jill, McDougle, Christopher, Scahill, Lawrence, Tierny, Elaine, McCracken, James, Arnold, Eugene, Vitello, Benedetto, Ritz, Louise, Gavaletz, Allison, Cronin, Pegeen, Sweizy, Naomi, Wheeler, Courtney, Koening, Kathleen, Ghuman, Jaswinder, & Posey, David L. (2008). Cognitive effects of risperidone in children with autism and irritable behavior. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 18(3), 227-236.
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…
Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.
Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175
Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
Cognitive Development of Infants
Piaget's sensorimotor model provides the stage of cognitive human development showing that human experience consists of four stages of mental or cognitive starting from the first day a child is born to the adulthood. The first stage of human development is referred as the sensorimotor stage that starts at birth and end when a child is 24 months old. After the age of 24 months, a child moves to the operational stage starts when a child is 2 years old through the age of 7. A child moves into the final stage of behavioral and cognitive development at the age of adolescence that spans through adulthood. The objective of this study is to discuss the "six stages of Piaget's sensorimotor development." (Shaffer, & Kipp, 2010 p 253).
Piaget's sensorimotor Development
Piaget identifies the first two years of a child as the "sensorimotor stage of development." (Shaffer,…
Shaffer, D.D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence: Childhood and Adolescence. Cengage Learning
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…
Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354
Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218
Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.
Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.
In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…
Felder, R.M. And Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 94, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://eprints.me.psu.ac.th/ILS/info/Understanding_Differences.pdf
Kay, W.K., Francis, L.J., and Robbins, M. (2011). A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks. University of Warwick. Retrieved from: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/41317/1/WRAP_Francis_Psychological_type_and_Apostolic_networks_final_version.pdf
Nardi, D. (2007). The 8 Jungian Cognitive Processes. Retrieved from: http://www.keys2cognition.com/cgjung.htm
Ochsner, K.N. And Gross, J.J. (2005, May). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://icdl.com/graduate/Portal/IMH212/documents/ochsner-gross.pdf
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women
Three major differences cognitive behavior abilities men women: higher verbal abilities, higher spatial abilities, higher arithmetical abilities
Neuropsychologists and psychologists have widely analyzed the difference in cognitive abilities expressed by members of the male and female genders. The analysis of these professionals has revealed the existence of three major cognitive differences between the genders. The differences include higher verbal abilities in women; higher arithmetic abilities in males and higher spatial abilities in males. However, the possession of superior arithmetic abilities by males has been closely related their possession of top notch spatial abilities. This implies that the differences in cognitive abilities can be condensed or summarized into two.
Close look at the differences in verbal abilities among males and females reveal that women perform best in verbal tests as compared to their male counterparts. Additionally, a woman's language development cycle is faster than…
Ackerman, P.L. (2006). Cognitive sex differences and mathematics and science achievement. American Psychologist, 61(7), 722-723.
Ballinger, T.P., Hudson, E., Karkoviata, L., & Wilcox, N.T. (2011). Saving behavior and cognitive abilities. Experimental Economics, 14 (3), 349-374.
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…
American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15
May 2009 .
Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .
Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…
Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377
Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48
Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .
Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…
Santrock, John W. (2006). "Life-Span Development (10th ed.)" McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Smith, Leslie, (2002). "Critical Readings on Piaget." Routledge.
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…
Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Piaget vs. Vygotsky
Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism are both theories in the field of Cognitive Development which focuses on the development of how people attain knowledge about their surroundings and come to understand their world throughout their life span. Both psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, came up with their own theories on cognitive development. Piaget came up with the idea of Cognitive Constructivism, while Vygotsky came up with Social Constructivism, both of which have become the most studied theories in this branch of psychology.
Piaget focused on categorizing children's cognitive development into stages and made note of the different approaches that children at a given stage and age has toward acquiring new knowledge. Vygotsky's focus was on a more social perspective and suggested that children's ability to learn comes from their social and daily interactions with their surroundings and culture. It is this that helps them think and…
Martin, J. & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging the social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology. 1(4): 375-388.
Palincsar, A.S. (1998). Social contructivist persepctives on teaching and learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49: 345-375.
Davies, D. (2004). Child Development. Second Edition. Guilford Press.
Kall, R.V. & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2010). Human development: A life-span view. Wadsworth Publishing.
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
Harmonic Accompaniment on the Development of Music Aptitude and Singing Achievement
The rationale of the scrutinize was to investigate the effect of xylophones harmonic accompaniment on the tone realization and tone improvisation of young children[aged eight].It provide the children cognitive development, multiple intelligence emphasis on music and bodily kinesthetic intelligence which will involve auditory, visual and kinesthetic stimuli.
It entails rhythmic development, music amptitude which test the effect of harmonic accompaniment on music development and music amptitude children vocal development and finally the effect of harmonic accompaniment on singing achievement.Even though result based on research on singing achievement between the children which had song instruction with a root melody accompaniment had no significant on tone attainment according to Gordon's (1982)IMMA, there was significance effect on singing achievement between children who received song instruction with root melody accompaniment.Xylophones which comes from a Greek word 'xylon'meaning wooden sound.It is from percussion family…
ATHERTON JS (2010) Learning and Teaching; Piaget's developmental theory [Online] UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Accessed: 27 January 2011
Azzara, C.D. (1999). An aural approach to improvisation. Music Educators Journal, 86(3), 21 -- 25.
Gardner, Howard (1983; 1993) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Gordon, E.E. (1979). Primary Measures of Music Audiation. Chicago: GIA Publications.
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…
Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…
Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
Unrecognized Genius of Jean Piaget
Kegan reflects on the work of Jean Piaget, emphasizing the importance of his work. He first looks at Kegan's most famous study, in which he fills two identically shaped beakers with equal amounts of water. He then asks the child whether or not they are of equal volume, and when the child agrees, he pours the contents into a thinner beaker. The child then has to decide which has more, and usually opts for the taller and thinner beaker. Kegan is pointing out the relative adaptive balance that is being made by the child. Children have their own perceptions of the physical world, and often have difficulty discerning relative differences in shapes and forms, among other things. Kegan purports that, "For the preoperational child, it is never just one's perceptions that change; rather, the world itself, as a consequence, changes" (29).
Kegan then goes on…
Kegan, Arthur. The Evolving Self. Massachusetts: Harvard UP. 1982.