Cognitive Psychology Essays (Examples)

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Cognitive and Affective Psychology According

Words: 2587 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25257859

The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.

Question 2

1:

Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.

Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]

References

AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm

Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf

Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
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Cognitive Bias May Exist in

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96408719

If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, C.E.; (2006) a general theory of psychological relativity and cognitive evolution, Etc., Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 278-289

Besharov, G.; (2004) Second-best considerations in correcting cognitive biases, Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 12-20

Han, S.S.; Catron, T.; Weiss, B.; Marciel, K.K.; (2005) a teacher-consultation approach to social skills training for pre-kindergarten children: Treatment model and short-term outcome effects, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 681-693

Kayluga, S.; (2007) Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 19, pp. 509-539
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Cognitive Processes of Cognitive Processes

Words: 1855 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78409228

124).

The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.

3. Conclusion

The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…… [Read More]

References

Cropley, A.J. (1999). Creativity and Cognition: Producing Effective Novelty'. Roeper Review, 21(4), 253. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272839

Garfield, J.L. (1990). Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings (1st ed.). New York: Paragon House. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76868168

Glass et al., ( 2008) Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study. Neuroreport, 19(5), pp 569-73.

Hung, D. (2003). Supporting Current Pedagogical Approaches with Neuroscience Research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(2), 129+.
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Cognitive Science Theoretical Investigation of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69896621

There are several discussion points around these aspects.

Proposal and Methodology of this Paper will dedicate my paper to the problems with the concept of modularity. First will give a definition of massive modularity, explain something about domain-specific and domain-general hypotheses, and give Fodor's view of modularity. Then will show that some domain-specific modules can be found in lower level processing. n the next paragraphs will outline the theory of (Cosmides and Tooby 1992), which argues that there are also modules dedicated to higher level tasks. Then will give an overview of Buller's arguments (2005) against specific modules dedicated to higher level processing, and against modularity. Finally, will argue that the mind isn't strictly modular, but uses domain-general as well as domain-specific processes.

Body and Analysis

s the mind modular? This question has been hotly debated in psychology and cognitive science. Recently, a group of psychologists, called evolutionary psychologists, have…… [Read More]

Is the mind modular? This question has been hotly debated in psychology and cognitive science. Recently, a group of psychologists, called evolutionary psychologists, have made a remarkable contribution to this discussion. They claim that we can derive from evolutionary theory proof that the mind must be modular. They even go one step further: they claim that the mind must be massively modular. The theory of massive modularity holds that the mind is composed entirely of modules, or tiny computers, that evolved in the human prehistory to selectively process information. The various modules worked together to produce complex adaptive behaviors to solve problems faced by our early ancestors. The differentiated brain circuits set these "domain-specific" modules apart from the hypothesis of "domain-general" intelligence, in which most mental tasks are performed by a single flexible mechanism. The difference between massive modularity and domain-general intelligence is one of mechanism: in the first case, there are different circuits dedicated to different tasks; in the second, there is a single immense circuit that accomplishes a multiplicity of tasks.

The modularity hypothesis of the mind goes back to the 19th century movement called phrenology which claimed that individual mental faculties could be associated precisely with specific physical areas of the brain. Someone's level of intelligence, for example, could be "read" from the size of a particular bump on his posterior parietal lobe. Jerry Fodor, drawing from Chomsky and other evidence from linguistics, revived the idea of the modularity of mind in the 1983 publication of his Modularity of Mind. (Fodor, Jerry 1983)

According to Fodor, a module falls somewhere between the behaviorist and cognitive views of lower level processes. Behaviorists tried to replace the mind with reflexes that are encapsulated and cognitively impenetrable by other cognitive domains. Cognitivists saw lower level processes as continuous with higher level
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Psychology-Cognitive Attention in Order for

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95598863

So there has to be some sort of regulatory mechanism whereby we allow information to enter the information-processing system. The fact that we allow information to pass through implies that we have some choice about it, and indeed we do. In other words, attention is strategic (obinson-iegler and obinson-iegler, 2008).

Organized memory structures are called schemas. These are organized bodies of knowledge or set of movements that guide motor activities. Each schema is assumed to cover only a limited range of knowledge. Therefore, a given action sequence must be made up of a number of hierarchically organized schemas. The highest-level schema is called the parent schema and consists of a series of child schemas that are initiated by the parent schema at the appropriate time. Schemas play a huge role in helping us to organize information so that it can be remembered later on (obinson-iegler and obinson-iegler, 2008).

eferences

obinson-iegler,…… [Read More]

References

Robinson-Riegler, Gregory and Robinson-Riegler, Bridget. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:

Applying the Science of the Mind (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
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Psychology - History of Psychology

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59949647



Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.

The Cognitive Perspective:

The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.

According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…… [Read More]

REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Psychology and Education Psychological Studies

Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40420546

253). When asking questions the teacher begins the cognitive process of understanding how the parents think and this is an important step for the educator to gather pertinent information to further analyze the learner's needs with the parents or guardians.

Step three in the LAFF process is for the teachers to focus on the issues throughout the communication process with the parents. The cognitive perspective encourages focusing and problem-solving when focusing on the mental process of how individuals think, perceive, remember, and learn (Sternberg & Mio, 2006). McNaughton and Vostal describe this as the time when a teacher begins the process of "checking for understanding" and once the understanding of the issues has been explored the teacher and parent can move forward on problem-solving solutions (2010, p.254).

The final step of the LAFF process is for the teacher to identify the first step. This part of the cognitive process displays…… [Read More]

References

McNaughton, D., & Vostal, B. (2010, March). Using active listening to improve collaboration with parents: The LAFF don't CRY strategy. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45(4).

Sternberg, R.J., & Mio, J.S. (2006). Cognitive psychology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
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Psychology and Its Many Subdisciplines

Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15723701

Psychology is a diverse discipline encompassing a number of different subject areas. These areas are tied together by the common idea of understanding the psychological processes that drive our behavior. This gives rise to a number of different disciplines, such as motivation, behaviorism and cognitive psychology. These disciplines can then be divided into an even greater variety of sub-disciplines (Tougas, 2010).

These different disciplines have some relation, but there is no one unifying thread throughout this. They are related because of their psychological nature -- they arise in the brain and can be explained by the brain. But ultimately, these are elements of what it means to be human. In that sense, there are similarities but only in a general sense. For the most part, the different psychological disciplines only have these loose ties. This diversity of study can help however. People who study psychology are exposed to a number…… [Read More]

References

Tougas, J. (2010). Diversity -- the nature of psychology. Examiner.com. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.examiner.com/article/diversity-the-nature-of-psychology

Schacter, D. (1999). The seven sins of memory. American Psychologist. Vol. 54 (3) 182-203.

McLeod, S. (2014). Cognitive dissonance. Simply Psychology. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html
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Cognitive and Behaviorist Approach Comparative

Words: 448 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91019994



Typical experimental research methods relied upon in the cognitive approach to psychology include measuring patterns of neural activity in response to specific stimuli and of the effect on external behavior of other internal processes such as hormonal activity.

Personal Preference

I my opinion, the cognitive approach to understanding psychology is more comprehensive than the strict behavioral approach. Because the behavioral approach limits the analysis to a relatively narrow focus on behavior that is externally observable, it seems to ignore significant causal explanations for those behaviors. Conversely, the cognitive approach does not necessarily discount the value of externally observable behavior within the overall framework of understanding the many contributing influences on human behavior.

Cognitive psychology also seems to have more unexplored potential for future development of the field by virtue of the relatively recent evolution of various new technological applications of medical imaging processes. Specifically, whereas the methods and materials relied…… [Read More]

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Psychology it Has Intended to Be a

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77367787

psychology, it has intended to be a branch of the sciences. For it to be considered science, psychology must not hypothesize without testing. It is unfortunate that the history of psychology is marked with failed hypothesis. For it to be ethical, it has to draw conclusions after a formal laboratory experiment with stringent protocol instead of retrospective studies that result from past occurrences.

Science share basic procedures and expectations, it tests theories and get results, those results can be tested by others and achieve the same results, this is a challenge with psychology. For instance, normal therapeutic treatments involve research, diagnosis and treatment, but many results are scientifically indistinguishable. There is limited distinction between research and treatment.

There are issues that play a fundamental role in evaluation of psychological theories. First, is whether the theory adequately and formally describes the framework that accounts for observed psychological and other empirical data.…… [Read More]

References

Kline, P. (1984). Psychology and Freudian Theory. Methuen.

Rozeboom, W.W. (1960). The Fallacy of Null Hypothesis Significance Test. Psychological Bulletin, 416-428.

Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two.

Stangor, C. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
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Psychology Take-Home Alan Alan's Quote Clearly Illustrates

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22326837

Psychology take-Home

Alan

Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.

Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…… [Read More]

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Psychology to Organizations in Many

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32507738



Obedience to Authoity, Confomity, Intellectual Independence, and Ethical Values

Today, ethical issues have become temendously impotant aspects of moden business and business management. One need look no futhe than vey ecent headlines about the deteioation of ethical compliance in the financial sevices and home motgage industies to ealize that unethical pactices ae extemely dangeous to business oganizations as well as to evey component of society capable of being affected by ethical tansgessions. The cuent Ameican economic cisis was caused diectly by the systemic ethical violations within the home motgage and loan industy in conjunction with long-standing unethical pactices thoughout the financial sevices and negotiable secuities makets. In essence, some of the nation's bightest minds spent the last decade o moe devising highly complex methods of violating evey element of the spiit of existing financial sevices industy egulation by inventing motgage-backed secuities and incedibly unethical and dangeous methods of playing both…… [Read More]

references and waking schedule of individuals instead of requiring everyone to keep identical traditional business hours. The same holds true for the value of allowing teleworking opportunities. Even elements such as workstation lighting and layout can play a significant role in promoting maximum output and productivity. That concept would also suggest allowing employees greater flexibility in some of the ways that they perform their work tasks. In addition to maximizing morale and productivity in the workplace, those features would also promote rather than stifle intellectual creativity.
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Psychology Learning Outcome the Best Method for

Words: 5136 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78750258

Psychology

Learning Outcome

The best method for conducting the study would involve the use of a case study. Since this would be a group, setting, the case study method would allow the researcher to conduct in-depth investigations. Case studies offer the researcher an opportunity to use various data gathering sources like interviews, and observations (Halligan & Marshall, 2013). In order for the researcher to conduct an in-depth study of the subjects, the case study would offer an effective method for data gathering. The researcher would manage to immerse him/herself into the group or could make observations as the participants attend their quit smoking classes. Being a participant would allow the other participants to open up to the researcher more easily. Since the classes mostly consist of around 20 people, this makes it a small number and easy for the researcher to deal with. A case study method would ensure that…… [Read More]

References

Everly, J.B., Holtyn, A.F., & Perone, M. (2014). Behavioral functions of stimuli signaling transitions across rich and lean schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, 101(2), 201-214.

Graham, S., & Folkes, V.S. (2014). Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Halligan, P.W., & Marshall, J.C. (2013). Method in madness: Case studies in cognitive neuropsychiatry. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Huitema, B. (2011). The analysis of covariance and alternatives: Statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies (Vol. 608). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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Social Psychology and TV Ads

Words: 706 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3407683

Cognitive and Social Psychology

Cognitive & Social Psychology

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

The critical period for learning language has been shown by research that examined the fluency of non-native English speakers according to their age upon arrival in the United States. The language ability of the non-native English speakers was measured by their ability on tests of English grammar and vocabulary, but this ability declines from the roughly the age of seven and older.

While it does seem that it would be easier for a student to learn multiple languages in school if they were learning them at the same time, there is some evidence that it may be difficult in other ways. Although the acquisition of language is largely governed by neural maturity in the brain areas that control language and speech, differences also reside in the individuals as well. Some people will have difficulty with language acquisition overall, others will…… [Read More]

Question 2.

The Bowflex ad featuring the 50-year-old grandmother of a five-year-old is quite persuasive. The woman featured on the ad does not look like she is 50-years old and she has a very attractive face, long luxurious hair, and a slim, shapely body. She TV advertisement shows her actively engaged in using the Bowflex and swimming and lounging in a two-piece bikini swimsuit. The primary element of persuasion used in the advertisement is ethos. The woman featured in the ad seems credible, respectable, and certainly exhibits the healthy, fit persona to which she refers and to which she attributes her shapely body. She reasonably talks about loosing weight over a period of time that is believable. While it does seem that her statement that she saw results from using the Bowflex right away may seem a bit exaggerated, the rest of her testimony seems credible. The advertisement works because any 50-year-old woman watching the TV ad would want to look as slim and fit as the woman featured in the ad.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0Y5o1FvGXU&list=PLD4284B0B4A0EB5D8&index=3
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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45059162

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()

The case of the fat lady

Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships

In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348

Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub

Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271

Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9470176

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques

Case of the Fat Lady

Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]

References

Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.

Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.

Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
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Cognitive Therapy Provides a Structured Framework for

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76925730

Cognitive therapy provides a structured framework for change. Describe your understanding of how this form of therapy works.

According to Cherry (2012), cognitive behavior therapy, also known as CBT focuses on helping clients to understand the thoughts and feelings that create their behaviors. If such behaviors are problematic, the client is encouraged to work on the way they think and feel about certain situations, which, it is assumed, would then also create change in the behavior. Commonly, phobias, addiction, depression, and anxiety are treated by means of CBT. This type of therapy is generally used to create short-term solutions to very specific problems, which focus on helping people to change by focusing on destructive or disturbing thought patterns that influence their behavior negatively.

The underlying cause for disturbed behaviors is then regarded as thoughts and feelings, more than repressed subconscious disturbances created by the individual's past. As such, these are…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2012). What is Cognitive Behavior Therapy? Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychotherapy/a/cbt.htm

Haggerty, J. (2006). Psychodynamic Therapy. PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/psychodynamic-therapy/
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study Introduction to

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32592810

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study

Introduction to Cognitive Behavioral and ational Emotive Behavior Therapy

In general, ational Emotive Behavior Therapy (EBT) is one form of the broader category of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). In principle, CBT provides a clinical psychotherapeutic approach that combines the most tested and proven aspects of Freudian psychotherapy or classic psychodynamic theory with behavior and cognitive therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). Under the CBT approach, psychodynamic concepts are applied to the types of clinical issues that clearly relate to psychodynamic roots and conflicts whereas behavioral and cognitive concepts are applied to help patients change the way that they perceive and process information and self-perceptions that play roles in their presenting problems. All forms of CBT emphasize retraining the patient to question fundamental assumptions and beliefs that are part of their underlying problems (Hoffman & Smits, 2008).

The EBT approach in particular is based…… [Read More]

References

Butler, A, C., Chapman, J.E., Formanc, E.M., and Beck, A.T. "The empirical status of cognitive-behavioraltherapy: A review of meta-analyses." Clinical Psychology

Review, Vol. 26, No. 1 (2006): 17 -- 31.

Hofmann, S.G. And Smits, J.A. "Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 69, No. 4 (2008): 621 -- 632.

Westbrook, D. And Kirk, J. "The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy:
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Cognitive Processes the Development of

Words: 1624 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46665013

As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.

Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…… [Read More]

References

Felder, R.M. And Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 94, No. 1. Retrieved from:  http://eprints.me.psu.ac.th/ILS/info/Understanding_Differences.pdf 

Kay, W.K., Francis, L.J., and Robbins, M. (2011). A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks. University of Warwick. Retrieved from:  http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/41317/1/WRAP_Francis_Psychological_type_and_Apostolic_networks_final_version.pdf 

Nardi, D. (2007). The 8 Jungian Cognitive Processes. Retrieved from:  http://www.keys2cognition.com/cgjung.htm 

Ochsner, K.N. And Gross, J.J. (2005, May). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://icdl.com/graduate/Portal/IMH212/documents/ochsner-gross.pdf
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Cognitive Restructuring

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26356198

Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.

Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…… [Read More]

References

Kate, S., Tony, A., Sharon, H., Irina, L. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive

Behavioral Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger

Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.7, 1203-1214.

From: Burns, D.D. (1989). The Feeling Good Handbook: 4 Steps in Cognitive Restructuring.
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Cognitive Processes

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69227851

Cognitive Processes

God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.

Types of Cognitive Processes

The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.

Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)

Judgment -- (Thinking…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.

Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.

Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17

Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
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Psychology Personality There Are Six Approaches for

Words: 1094 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50862091

Psychology Personality

There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…… [Read More]

References

Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.

Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
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Cognitive Theories of Development Piaget's

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88820358

This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.

Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]

References:

Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from  http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm 

Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from  http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html 

"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.

Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
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Cognitive Disabilities and Family Cognitive

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83568746



One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.

This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,

Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm

Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social

support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
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Cognitive Testing Tool

Words: 2446 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55190613

Cognitive Ability Testing

Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.

Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…… [Read More]

Reference

Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.

Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).

Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.

Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
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Cognitive Theory Cognition Is the

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29875252

It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).

Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm

2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.

3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439

4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]

References

Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Psychoanalytical

Words: 2924 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38678874

The therapist encourages openness and honesty on the part of the patient. This parent-like role gives the therapist the power to influence the patient positively, and to interpret his self-defeating behavior and distorted beliefs about reality. The patient must be able and willing to profit from it. Since offenders are assumed to suffer from denial, lack of motivation to change, and unwillingness to cooperate with voluntary treatment, individual psychotherapy is generally thought to be ineffective. Suspicion and lack of rapport in the criminal justice context also interfere with effective use of the method. There are few reports on individual psychotherapy with sex offenders against children.

Group psychotherapy gives members the opportunity to share experiences, gain insight, learn to control unacceptable impulses, and find acceptance. Although used more commonly than individual psychotherapy, the effectiveness is unknown. There have been no replicable, controlled studies. One review found that studies were based on…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barbaree, H.E. (1991). Denial and minimization among sex offenders: Assessment and treatment outcome. Forum on Corrections Research, 3, 30-33.

Brake, S.C., & Shannon, D. (1997). Using pretreatment to increase admission in sex offenders.

Conte, J.R. (1985). Clinical dimensions of adult sexual abuse of children. Behavioral Sciences the Law, 3, 341-354.

Cowden, E.L. (1970). The relationship of defensiveness to responses on the Sex Inventory.
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Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies Cognitive-Behavior

Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58151900

The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)

eferences

Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.

Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…… [Read More]

References

Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
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Cognitive Therapy Is a Form

Words: 2526 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17174315



Treatment Process

To treat dysfunctional modes of either thinking or behaving in Cognitive Therapy three general approaches are applied: 1. Deactivation through distraction or reassurance 2, Modification of content or structure 3. The construction of more adaptive modes which "neutralizes' the maladaptive modes. These steps are fundamental in the process as each step is an aspect of the developed sense of self or core belief. To describe each process is also important. The concept of deactivation is essential but usually only partial as the mode of thinking or behaving is likely based in some truth, in other words the core belief has a particle of truth that is held and developed by the individual for adaptation and survival, therefore the therapist may need to reassure those parts of the mode that are based on truth and then distract the individual by reality testing or modification of the whole of the…… [Read More]

References

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hewstone, M. Fencham, F.F. & Foster, J. (2005). Psychology. Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing.

Robertson, D (2010). The philosophy of cognitive-behavioural therapy: Stoicism as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London, UK: Karnac Publishing.

Sanders, D. & Wills, F. (2005) Cognitive therapy: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76443144

Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women

Three major differences cognitive behavior abilities men women: higher verbal abilities, higher spatial abilities, higher arithmetical abilities

Neuropsychologists and psychologists have widely analyzed the difference in cognitive abilities expressed by members of the male and female genders. The analysis of these professionals has revealed the existence of three major cognitive differences between the genders. The differences include higher verbal abilities in women; higher arithmetic abilities in males and higher spatial abilities in males. However, the possession of superior arithmetic abilities by males has been closely related their possession of top notch spatial abilities. This implies that the differences in cognitive abilities can be condensed or summarized into two.

Close look at the differences in verbal abilities among males and females reveal that women perform best in verbal tests as compared to their male counterparts. Additionally, a woman's language development cycle is faster than…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, P.L. (2006). Cognitive sex differences and mathematics and science achievement. American Psychologist, 61(7), 722-723.

Ballinger, T.P., Hudson, E., Karkoviata, L., & Wilcox, N.T. (2011). Saving behavior and cognitive abilities. Experimental Economics, 14 (3), 349-374.
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Psychology the Following Question Requires

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2152189

Behavioral activities are more of reactions to stimuli and have less to do with cognitive (or brain) processes and more to do with how one acts in a certain environment. Some behavioral activities would include: 1) sitting quietly while in the classroom or in church; 2) opening the door for somebody to walk in ahead of you; 3) using good manners while at a restaurant; 4) helping an old lady cross the street; and, 5) picking up a child that is crying.

4) the following question requires you to write a short essay consisting of a few paragraphs. Compare and contrast structuralism and functionalism by discussing elements such as their definition, founders, and similarities and differences. Edward B. Tichener formally established and gave a name to structuralism, which was first based on Wilhel Wundt's ideas. Structuralism is the first school of psychology and focuses on breaking down the mental processes…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Distortions

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11853084

Cognitive distortions are anomalies present in habitual thoughts that eventually lead to serious psychopathological issues. These problems are typically associated with instances of distorted thinking that emerges as a result of cognitive structures, operations, or products. Cognitive distortions can influence individuals to put across behavior that is in disagreement with the principles that they live by. People who experience cognitive distortions are in some cases probable to resort to behaving immorally or to hurting themselves or someone else. In particular situations cognitive distortions can excuse deviant behavior, as individuals involved are not fully able to control themselves and thus have no power to refrain from doing something wrong.

Doctors can interpret information that their patients provide by making use of their understanding of cognitive distortions. hile some people are inclined to consider cognitive distortions as the reason behind a series of acts, it appears that cognitive distortions can sometimes be…… [Read More]

Works cited:

O'Donohue, William T., and Fisher, Jane E., "General Principles and Empirically Supported Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy," (John Wiley & Sons, 04.02.2009)

"Cognitive Therapy for Depressed Adolescents," (Guilford Press, 1994)
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Assessment Developing Intervention

Words: 1218 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6323195

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Assessment - Developing Intervention

Cognitive-behavioral therapy assessment developing intervention

This intervention addresses the case of Chaney Allen as a subject and incorporates group CBT as well as journaling. Allen's case would have been helped by community CBT because in addition to needing help on a personal level, she also needed community support -- both to help in combating her depression and addiction and in order to have emotional resources for raising her children. This Treatment Plan incorporates writing into CBT, in order to help participants process the characteristics of their addiction, change their perceptions and visualize positive choices.

Develop an assessment according to DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. In the analysis, discuss any automatic thoughts and core beliefs that Chaney Allen, possibly could have had.

Treatment Plan:

Initial assessment:

Session 1: Introduction to CBT

During this session, CBT would be explained and an overview of the following sessions would be given.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A, R., McCann, M., Flammino, F., Shoptaw, S., Miotto, K., Reiber, C., et al. (2006). A comparison of contingency management and cognitive-behavioral approaches for stimulant-dependent individual. Addiction, 267-274.

Du, Y.-s., Jiang, W., & Vance, A. (2010). Longer term effect of randomized, controlled group cognitive behavioural therapy for Internet addiction in adolescent students in Shanghai. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 129-134.

Hawkins, M. (2011). CBT-based self-help in treating anxiety. Healthcare and Psychotherapy Journal, 24-27.

Litt, M.D., Kadden, R.M., & Kabela-Cormier, E. (2009). Individualized assessment and treatment program for alcohol dependence: results of an initial study to train coping skills. Addiction, 1837-1838.
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Cognitive Behavioral Theory the Case

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81007973

However, if Margarita indicates that she feels lonely and wishes she had another best friend after the death of her previous best friend, this may provide the means for her to move on from the death and re-establish a level of enthusiasm for life in general.

Her anger seems to stem from a Napoleonic type complex where she feels insecure about physical looks and her personality. Such beliefs cause her to feel uneasy socially and at a loss to feel comfortable or interactive with peers and colleagues. So far, this attitude has not affected her job performance however, an introverted attitude will be noticed given the responsibilities inherent in her position and will cause problems professionally. The county should provide therapy for hiring her with a mental disorder as she is mentally unfit to perform the social demands inherent to her position. This is the problem of the county hiring…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Branch, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New York, NY: Wiley.

Frankel, V. (2004). Man's Search for Meaning. New York, NY: Ridder

Martin, B. (2011). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/

Roth, D. (2010). Making Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Work. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85016672

Persons with generalized anxiety disorder often worry excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipate disaster." People with GD are accustomed to approaching life as "worriers," and the disorder can be difficult to treat. They often become highly, negatively emotionally aroused when mentally imagining future events; effective treatment must deal with these stress-inducing mental images. While the idea of "generalized anxiety" may sound like a mild problem, experts have concluded that the social, emotional, and financial costs to a patient can be severe. Michael Dugas and Naomi Koerner have identified four root psychological contributors to GD that can be effectively approached with cognitive-behavioral based therapies: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, poor problem solving, and cognitive avoidance. (Dugas and Koerner)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) refers to a condition in which individuals are highly susceptible to worry as a result of negative beliefs about uncertainty in life. These…… [Read More]

According to New York-Presbyterian's Mental Health Glossary (http://nyp.org/health/mentalhealth-glossary.html), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is "a mental disorder that causes its sufferers chronic and exaggerated worry and tension that seem to have no substantial cause. Persons with generalized anxiety disorder often worry excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipate disaster." People with GAD are accustomed to approaching life as "worriers," and the disorder can be difficult to treat. They often become highly, negatively emotionally aroused when mentally imagining future events; effective treatment must deal with these stress-inducing mental images. While the idea of "generalized anxiety" may sound like a mild problem, experts have concluded that the social, emotional, and financial costs to a patient can be severe. Michael Dugas and Naomi Koerner have identified four root psychological contributors to GAD that can be effectively approached with cognitive-behavioral based therapies: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, poor problem solving, and cognitive avoidance. (Dugas and Koerner)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) refers to a condition in which individuals are highly susceptible to worry as a result of negative beliefs about uncertainty in life. These individuals have developed a belief system centered around the idea that uncertainty about any aspect of life is bad and should be avoided. Daily self-monitoring, an important component of CBT, shows a strong correlation between increased or decreased worry and increased or decreased IU. The development of IU is thought to be the result of information processing biases in these individuals; CBT is a promising treatment for people with information processing biases, since it attempts to target specific faulty thought patterns and replace them with more positive responses. (Dugas and Koerner)

In addition, individuals with GAD have a tendency to believe that worry is helpful and positive. As opposed to people who avoid worry or see it as destructive or a waste of energy, people with positive beliefs about worry view it as
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Focuses on

Words: 843 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49308699

By acknowledging the validity of his emotions, Jake would learn not to be afraid of them and learn that he could express anger and embrace conflict without losing close relationships. He could be intimate with other people and express anger without the anger leading to violence.

Q5: Cognitive behavioral therapy questions the client's false assumptions about himself and the world, such as Herb's feeling that his divorce was his fault. Herb is living in the past, and dwelling on things he cannot change. The behavioral therapist would focus on Herb's core assumptions: "why was the divorce your fault? Why would things be better if she returned?" Cognitive behavioral therapy's focus on the present would make it extremely useful for Herb's inability to move his life forward. It focuses on actions and setting goals for behavior, which is useful if a client is mired in too much self-examination.

Q6.1: There is…… [Read More]

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Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions

Words: 1116 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73466531

In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.

Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…… [Read More]

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Psychology and Critical Thinking Critical

Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62833268

(Scriven, 2004)

Research into the value of critical thinking probably came about when reud became influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of the behavior of early human societies. Later theorists in the field of psychology, such as Hyman Spotnitz, a modern psychoanylist, and William Graham Sumner, expanded reud's theory to include the ability of the human mind to think critically, or to bend one's mind (forgetting the bad and remembering chosen events) to form one's impression of life. Melanie Klein theorized that a child's perception of what is occuring around them determines whether they develop into depressive or schizoid-depressive personalities, or whether, with proper guidance, they develop normally. (Klein, 1966) it is important that research continue in the field of psychology to determine what techniques of critical thinking may aid the disturbed patient.

reud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna reud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP.

reud, S. (1913) Totem and…… [Read More]

Freud, S. (1913) Totem and Taboo. London: Dover Publications (Reprinted in paperback: September 23, 1998).

Persons, S. (Ed.). (1963). Social Darwinism: Selected Essays of William Graham Sumner, Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Scriven, M. And Paul, R. (2004). The Critical Thinking Community, Foundation for Critical Thinking. Dillon Beach, CA.
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Psychology Chapter 5 Of the Abnormal Child

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85306710

Psychology

Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.

The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…… [Read More]

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Psychology Movie Relation

Words: 1364 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11166389

Psychology Movie elation

A ose for Emily

Diagnosing a psychological complication are a daunting task and one that requires immense responsibility of the concerned health professionals who examine the patient and decide the appropriate diagnosis (APA, 2001). Among the many variables that a psychological professional observes, are the patient's past life history. For Emily, an examination of the setting and characters in the plot, and an assessment of some of the themes in Faulkner's short story, A ose for Emily and the occurrences involving Emily's father aids the reader to comprehend the pressures with which Emily tried coping and how she might have suffered from schizophrenia. Emily came from a family of high stature and affluence in their southern community and always had a burden of enormous expectations that people had for her. Her community anticipated her to have a hereditary obligation to uphold traditions, norms that her ancestors had…… [Read More]

References

APA. (2001). Quick Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

Kinney, A.F. (2000). Faulkner's Narrative Poetics: Style as Vision. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Staton, S.F. (2005). Literary Theories in Praxis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

William, F. (2003). "A Rose for Emily." In The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. 2160-2166. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
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Cognitive and Perceptual Appraisals

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90097382

It implies as well that most people react to things in a certain way because they want to repeat behaviors that worked well for them in the past (i.e. there was a positive experience created).

Emotions are not too fast (or too mindless, for that matter) for cognitive appraisals. Emotions, no matter how small, lead to cognitive appraisals that help individuals make sense of certain events. Take breaking up with someone, for example. If someone is broken up with, this person could feel a certain amount of sadness and this emotion is elicited by the cognitive appraisal that something good or worthwhile has been lost and cannot be recovered (Scherer, Schorr & Johnstone, 2001). It has been suggested even that emotions can be elicited with an evaluation having taken place by an event in and of itself, physiological processes (e.g. brain activity), facial expressions (or other types of expressions), behaviors…… [Read More]

References

Scherer, K.R., Schorr, a., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion:

Theory, methods, research. (1st ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Wessler, R.L., Hankin, S., & Stern, J. (2001). Succeeding with difficult clients:

Applications of cognitive appraisal therapy (Practical resources for the mental health professional). (1st ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Academic Press.
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Psychology Abnormal Psychology Normal Psychology

Words: 344 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3051205

The abnormal psychologist is trained to treat people with social and physical disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and delusional disorders. Usually, the disorders have become so aberrant the patients may no longer be able to function in society, or at least function normally. Abnormal psychologists may also study the causes of the abnormalities in some people, and develop research to understand why some people develop these disorders and others do not. They may create behavioral studies, personality tests, case studies, or surveys to help them in their research, and eventually, they may be able to solve the mysteries of what causes much abnormal behavior in the brain.

eferences

Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.

Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New…… [Read More]

References

Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.

Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New York: Addison-Wesley.
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Cognitive Counseling This Is a

Words: 5805 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29574321

Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).

Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).

Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15

May 2009 .

Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .

Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.