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Absolutely nothing interests humans more than humans. For this reason, numerous fields of study have arisen regarding humans. These fields of study include, but are not limited to, anatomy, anthropology, biology, sociology, and psychology. The focus here is the study of psychology, specifically the study of cognitive psychology. The American Psychological Association states that, "Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. The discipline embraces all aspects of human experience-from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. This is true in every conceivable setting from scientific research centers to mental health care services. The understanding of behavior is the enterprise of psychologists" (2012). More specifically, the American Psychological Association defines cognitive psychology as "the study of higher mental processes such as attention, language, use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking" (2012). Thus, cognitive psychology seeks to…
American Psychological Association. (2012). How does the APA define 'psychology'?
Retrieved November 30, 2012 from APA website:
Davenport (2001 April 28) Cognitivism vs. Behaviorism in Learning Theory. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from the Greenspun Family Server website: http://hv.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl-msg_id=0056KI
Cognitive Psychology borrows heavily from the works of Alfred Adler, Albert Ellis, and Aaron Beck. In fact, it is founded on Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology. Freud had insisted that sexual impulses were the chief factor in formation of normal and neurotic personality something that made him part ways with Adler who went ahead and formed a new approach that became the basis for all cognitive psychologies.
Behaviorism formed the basis of the works of most American psychologists from 1920s through to the 1950s. However, during the WWII, there were breakthroughs with regard to communications research and information processing approaches. New concepts and theories were initiated about signal processing and communication (Schacter, 1987). These impacted psychologists of the WWII era. One notable personality during this period was Shannon who came up with Information Theory. The theory postulated that information was communicated by sending signals through myriad stages and that human perception…
Chomsky, N. (1959). Review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Language, 35: 26 -- 58
Rapee, R.M. & Heimberg, R.G. (1997). A Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Anxiety in Social
Phobia. Behavior Research and Therapy, 35(8), 741-756.
Schacter, D.L. (1987). Implicit Memory: History and Current Status.
This is the branch of psychology that is predominantly occupied by the mental process. These would include how people think, perceive ideas and things, recall and also learn. It is related to other disciplines like philosophy, neuroscience and linguistics.
According to Kendra Cherry (2011), cognitive psychology has to do with acquisition, encoding and storage of information in the human brain.
Milestones in development of cognitive psychology
The history of cognitive psychology development into a discipline dates back as far as 1701 when Yale University which by then was considered to be one of the nest in the world by then. This marked the beginning of the cognitive psychology. This was followed by other universities like University of Pennsylvania that opened a cognitive psychology in 1896.
Later on in 1879 there were several experiments to study how the mind works were conducted Wilhelm Wundt had a keen interest in…
Christine Webber, (2010). Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Retrieved April 17, 2011 from http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/depression/cognitivetherapy_000439.htm
Kendra Cherry (2011). What is Cognitive Psychology? Retrieved April 17, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/f/cogpsych.htm
If you fail to reproduce my findings, it is not due to some fault in your apparatus or in the control of your stimulus, but it is due to the fact that your introspection is untrained." (1878-1958)
Structuralism resulted in a reaction that became known as Functionalism which was influenced greatly by the work of William James and the theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalism had as its emphasis intelligence tests, aptitude tests and other such techniques and the use of controlled environments in testing learning and abilities related to problem solving. The focus of the Functionalists was explaining the mental processes more accurately and systematically. The Functionalists school of thought had as its focus the purposes of behavior and consciousness rather than on elements of consciousness itself. In regards to functionalism John . Watson stated: "My psychological quarrel is not with the systematic and structural psychologist alone. The…
Eysenck, Michael W. And Keane, Mark T. (2000) Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook. Taylor & Francis, 2000.
Leahey, Thomas H. (1986) Wundt on Introspection: Reflection on Current Controversy. Education Resources Information Center ERIC.
Logan, G.D. (2009) Cognitive Psychology. Elservier Online available at http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622807/description#description
Wagner, Kendra Van (2009) Structuralism and Functionalism. Psychology Online available at http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/structuralism.htm
There are also instances where the cognition comes in first before emotional response though the two often happen in tandem. For instance, one gets into a coffee shop and sees another person munching a chocolate cake. H recognizes that as a health risk and processes the various risks an associated with eating it, but still goes ahead to ask for a small piece just to taste. The cognition came in first but accompanied closely with the emotional response to the situation here and the result was the emotional response sufficed. It is also worth noting that at times, there can be emotional response without necessarily there being a cognitive process. This is exemplified in an infant who will smile at the face of the mother or any person and also show anger on the face by the time the infant is eight weeks old. Here, the infant is responding to…
Harris, P. (1983) 'Infant cognition', in M.M. Haith and J.J. Campos (eds), Handbook of Child Psychology: Infancy and Developmental Psychobiology (pp. 689-782). New York:
Wiley. Retrieved August 4, 2013 http://www.society-for-philosophy-in-practice.org/journal/pdf/3-3%2019%20Woolfolk%20-%20Cognition%20and%20Emotion.pdf
Kendra Cherry (2011). What is Cognitive Psychology? Retrieved August 4, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/f/cogpsych.htm
Zajonc, R.B. (1984) 'On the primacy of affect', American Psychologist, 39,117-123. Retrieved August 4, 2013
Cognitive psychology is the study of how people perceive, learn, remember, and think about information.
Cognitive psychology was shaped by several milestones but four of its most significant transitions that I will focus on are: Functionalism, Behaviorism, Psychobiology, and Computer Engineering (including Artificial Intelligence (AI)).
Functionalism: Functionalism was a popular approach to the first school of psychology, Structuralism, that sought to understand that structure of the mind and its perceptions by breaking those down into elemental pieces. The perception of a flower, for instance, was studied by analyzing the constituent colors, geometric forms, size relationship, and so forth.
Functionalism, on the other hand, insisted that it was the process of the mind - the way the mind operated these thoughts and perceptions - that was more important than studying the structure of these thoughts. Functionalism, in other words, sought to understand why the mind acted the way it did rather…
Sternberg, R.J. (2006). Cognitive psychology. USA: Thomson / Wadsworth
Wilson, R.A. & Keil, F.C. (1999). The MIT encyclopedia of cognitive sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press.
The term Psychology can be described as the science of behavior as well as mental processes. The immediate goal for it is to understand individuals as well as groups by researching specific cases and established general principle. Cognitive psychology can be said to be sub-discipline of psychology discovering internal mental processes. It is the study of how people remember thinks, solve problem and speak. Previous psychological approaches is different from cognitive psychology in two major ways such as cognitive psychology clearly recognize the presence of internal mental states like desire, belief, ideas and knowledge as well as it allows the application of the scientific method and commonly decline introspection to be a legitimate.
The means of conserving processes of mental has generally pervaded psychology over the few decades that have passed. It is common to get cognitive theories in personality psychology, social psychology, development psychology as well as…
Anderson, J.R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 98 (4), p. 369-406.
Anderson, J.R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, J.R. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications. 2nd Ed. New York: Freeman.
Anderson, J.R. (1996). ACT: A simple theory of complex cognition. American Psychologist, 51 (4), 355-365.
Cognitive therapy psychology is a proven, effective theoretical psychological approach. Its focus on guided self-improvement and underlying assumption that individuals are capable of change fits well with my personal belief system. Identifying and changing negative thoughts and perceptions, and changing underlying behaviors can all be useful techniques in treating a depressive patient using cognitive therapy.
Cognitive theory is based on the idea that previous experiences and perceptions can affect and color current attitudes, emotions and self-perceptions. As such, cognitive therapy helps the client to first identify, and later change negative and unhelpful self-perceptions and thoughts. The therapist works with the client to help change these thoughts, thus later changing habitual responses to stimuli and behavior.
In many ways, cognitive therapy fits neatly with my personal belief system. I believe strongly that humans are fully capable of influencing their own lives and perceptions, and that this ability is absolutely…
British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy. Explanation of theoretical approaches. 23 March 2004. www.bacp.co.uk/seeking_counsellor/seeking_find_counsellor/new/theoretical-approaches.htm
CouncellingResource. An Introduction to Cognitive Therapy & Cognitive Behavioural Approaches. 23 March 2004. http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy
However, just like Maslow, Rogers is just as interested in describing the healthy person. Positive regard is self-esteem, self-worth, and a positive self-image which are achieved through experiencing the positive regard that others show us over our years of growing up; without this, we feel small and helpless. Under Roger's theory, this "small" and "helplessness" is exactly what John is feeling, most likely as a result of the manner in which he was treated growing up. He is feeling anxious and lacks self-discipline because he does not like himself personally, as he feels that he does not meet up to the standards set for him by others. Under Roger's theory, John's actions demonstrate that he does not have a positive image of himself, a result of low self-esteem inflicted on him over the years of receiving negative feedback while he was growing up.
Freud's theory is also a clinical theory,…
The midbrain also referred to as mesencephalon contain the cranial nerves that stimulate the muscles which are responsible for the control of the movement of the eye, the shape of the lens as well as the diameter of the pupil. It is this part that joins the spinal cord and the forebrain. It is the part that is also charged with controlling voluntary movements and moods. It controls the respiratory muscles, the vocal cords, it also controls the pharyngeal, the oral as well as the nasal passage that facilitate resonance. It is the part that enables articulation control as it controls the tongue, palate, lips and mandibles. It is this part that controls the laughing and crying of an individual (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013). In the artificial brain, there would be cells that allow for the articulation of more languages than it is at the moment. The artificial brain will also…
Encyclopedia Britannica, (2013). Midbrain. Retrieved August 11, 2013 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/380850/midbrain
General Psychology, (2013). What Are the Parts of the Brain and Their Functions? Retrieved August 11, 2013 from http://general-psychology.weebly.com/what-are-the-parts-of-the-brain-and-their-functions.html
Serendip, (2013). Brain Structures and their Functions. Retrieved August 11, 2013 from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html
Perception and attention questions
Q1.Explain the relationship between perception and attention. Provide specific examples in your explanation.
Attention is defined as the "selection of information for specialized processing usually in the context of some goal or task" (Attention lecture, n.d., PSY 394). It is impossible to focus on everything within our sensory field; we must be selective, either consciously or unconsciously. Perception can be defined as "the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses" (Psychology class notes: Sensation and perception, 2012, Class notes). Attention applies the principle of selectivity to what we perceive.
It has been noted in several experimental psychology studies on working memory that "individuals with higher scores in such tasks also are better at controlling their attention, in ways such as counteracting the impulse to look toward a suddenly-appearing object or ignoring one's own name…
Attention lecture. (n.d.) PSY 394. Retrieved:
Brain filter found for irrelevant data. (2007). Times of India. Retrieved:
Cognitive psychology is the study of the mental processes that contribute to behavior, including the internal behaviors of thinking and feeling (Kellogg, 1995, p. 4-5). Much of what the mind does can be compared to a computer processing sensory information and responding by moving the muscles of the body; however, the mind also performs other important functions such as assigning meaning to events and objects and reacting emotionally to external and internal stimuli. An important assumption in cognitive psychology is that the mind is a product of biological processes that have emerged during evolutionary history. Given this grounding in empirical science, it should come as no surprise that cognitive psychologists are interested and engaged in the discoveries being made using modern brain imaging technologies (Parsons, 2001). To better understand the roots of cognitive psychology this essay will review several key milestones in the history of this discipline and discuss the…
Kellogg, R.T. (1995). Cognitive Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Parsons, L.M. (2001). Integrating cognitive psychology, neurology and neuroimaging. Acta Psychologica, 107(1-3), 155-81.
Such issues are indispensable in cognitive psychology.
The Emergence of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline
A Proper understanding of the appearance of cognitive psychology as the mandated approach in psychology comes when a person critically studies the history of psychology. Contemporary psychology is apparently young. As in most sciences, it has not firmly developed into one path but divided into many subdivisions. The field has evidenced remarkable shifts in what are significant disciplines and which is the best and precise method and procedure to study behaviors of people.
These remarkable changes are paradigm shifts where "paradigm" means a unified and acceptable method of study. A tally of occasions and events resulted into the emanation of cognitive psychology. Broadbent and a panel of psychologists were to advise engineers within the military on ways of creating a panel that would accrue flying and performance with the buttons and numbers on their dashboards…
Keane, M.T., & Eysenck, M.W. (2005).Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Goldstein, B.E. (2008). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience. Supplement. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
This essay discusses cognitive psychology and a specific scenario within that scientific term. It starts out with an introduction or definition of cognitive psychology, then discusses a specific scenario, and perspectives of the scenario. The body of this essay covers treatments, therapies, and interventions for the scenario, as well as effectiveness of therapies, before summing up the paper with a conclusion.
Cognitive Psychology: Modern Approach to Human Behavior
Cognitive Psychology Advancements
Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology of Planning
B. Psychological Perspectives
C. Treatment, Therapies, Interventions
D. Effectiveness of Therapies
Title: Cognitive Psychology Scenario Essay
Cognitive psychology is a relatively new or modern approach to human behavior whose main focus is how people think. This approach in psychology focuses on how people think because of the belief that thought processes affect peoples behaviors. In essence, an individuals…
Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory
Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.
Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…
Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.
Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.
Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482
Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088
It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).
The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology
Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…
Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language .
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The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…
Bailey, C.E.; (2006) a general theory of psychological relativity and cognitive evolution, Etc., Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 278-289
Besharov, G.; (2004) Second-best considerations in correcting cognitive biases, Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 12-20
Han, S.S.; Catron, T.; Weiss, B.; Marciel, K.K.; (2005) a teacher-consultation approach to social skills training for pre-kindergarten children: Treatment model and short-term outcome effects, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 681-693
Kayluga, S.; (2007) Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 19, pp. 509-539
The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.
The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…
Cropley, A.J. (1999). Creativity and Cognition: Producing Effective Novelty'. Roeper Review, 21(4), 253. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272839
Garfield, J.L. (1990). Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings (1st ed.). New York: Paragon House. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76868168
Glass et al., ( 2008) Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study. Neuroreport, 19(5), pp 569-73.
Hung, D. (2003). Supporting Current Pedagogical Approaches with Neuroscience Research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(2), 129+.
So there has to be some sort of regulatory mechanism whereby we allow information to enter the information-processing system. The fact that we allow information to pass through implies that we have some choice about it, and indeed we do. In other words, attention is strategic (obinson-iegler and obinson-iegler, 2008).
Organized memory structures are called schemas. These are organized bodies of knowledge or set of movements that guide motor activities. Each schema is assumed to cover only a limited range of knowledge. Therefore, a given action sequence must be made up of a number of hierarchically organized schemas. The highest-level schema is called the parent schema and consists of a series of child schemas that are initiated by the parent schema at the appropriate time. Schemas play a huge role in helping us to organize information so that it can be remembered later on (obinson-iegler and obinson-iegler, 2008).
Robinson-Riegler, Gregory and Robinson-Riegler, Bridget. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:
Applying the Science of the Mind (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.
The Cognitive Perspective:
The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.
According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…
REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
253). When asking questions the teacher begins the cognitive process of understanding how the parents think and this is an important step for the educator to gather pertinent information to further analyze the learner's needs with the parents or guardians.
Step three in the LAFF process is for the teachers to focus on the issues throughout the communication process with the parents. The cognitive perspective encourages focusing and problem-solving when focusing on the mental process of how individuals think, perceive, remember, and learn (Sternberg & Mio, 2006). McNaughton and Vostal describe this as the time when a teacher begins the process of "checking for understanding" and once the understanding of the issues has been explored the teacher and parent can move forward on problem-solving solutions (2010, p.254).
The final step of the LAFF process is for the teacher to identify the first step. This part of the cognitive process displays…
McNaughton, D., & Vostal, B. (2010, March). Using active listening to improve collaboration with parents: The LAFF don't CRY strategy. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45(4).
Sternberg, R.J., & Mio, J.S. (2006). Cognitive psychology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Psychology is a diverse discipline encompassing a number of different subject areas. These areas are tied together by the common idea of understanding the psychological processes that drive our behavior. This gives rise to a number of different disciplines, such as motivation, behaviorism and cognitive psychology. These disciplines can then be divided into an even greater variety of sub-disciplines (Tougas, 2010).
These different disciplines have some relation, but there is no one unifying thread throughout this. They are related because of their psychological nature -- they arise in the brain and can be explained by the brain. But ultimately, these are elements of what it means to be human. In that sense, there are similarities but only in a general sense. For the most part, the different psychological disciplines only have these loose ties. This diversity of study can help however. People who study psychology are exposed to a number…
Tougas, J. (2010). Diversity -- the nature of psychology. Examiner.com. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.examiner.com/article/diversity-the-nature-of-psychology
Schacter, D. (1999). The seven sins of memory. American Psychologist. Vol. 54 (3) 182-203.
McLeod, S. (2014). Cognitive dissonance. Simply Psychology. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html
Typical experimental research methods relied upon in the cognitive approach to psychology include measuring patterns of neural activity in response to specific stimuli and of the effect on external behavior of other internal processes such as hormonal activity.
I my opinion, the cognitive approach to understanding psychology is more comprehensive than the strict behavioral approach. Because the behavioral approach limits the analysis to a relatively narrow focus on behavior that is externally observable, it seems to ignore significant causal explanations for those behaviors. Conversely, the cognitive approach does not necessarily discount the value of externally observable behavior within the overall framework of understanding the many contributing influences on human behavior.
Cognitive psychology also seems to have more unexplored potential for future development of the field by virtue of the relatively recent evolution of various new technological applications of medical imaging processes. Specifically, whereas the methods and materials relied…
psychology, it has intended to be a branch of the sciences. For it to be considered science, psychology must not hypothesize without testing. It is unfortunate that the history of psychology is marked with failed hypothesis. For it to be ethical, it has to draw conclusions after a formal laboratory experiment with stringent protocol instead of retrospective studies that result from past occurrences.
Science share basic procedures and expectations, it tests theories and get results, those results can be tested by others and achieve the same results, this is a challenge with psychology. For instance, normal therapeutic treatments involve research, diagnosis and treatment, but many results are scientifically indistinguishable. There is limited distinction between research and treatment.
There are issues that play a fundamental role in evaluation of psychological theories. First, is whether the theory adequately and formally describes the framework that accounts for observed psychological and other empirical data.…
Kline, P. (1984). Psychology and Freudian Theory. Methuen.
Rozeboom, W.W. (1960). The Fallacy of Null Hypothesis Significance Test. Psychological Bulletin, 416-428.
Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two.
Stangor, C. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…
Obedience to Authoity, Confomity, Intellectual Independence, and Ethical Values
Today, ethical issues have become temendously impotant aspects of moden business and business management. One need look no futhe than vey ecent headlines about the deteioation of ethical compliance in the financial sevices and home motgage industies to ealize that unethical pactices ae extemely dangeous to business oganizations as well as to evey component of society capable of being affected by ethical tansgessions. The cuent Ameican economic cisis was caused diectly by the systemic ethical violations within the home motgage and loan industy in conjunction with long-standing unethical pactices thoughout the financial sevices and negotiable secuities makets. In essence, some of the nation's bightest minds spent the last decade o moe devising highly complex methods of violating evey element of the spiit of existing financial sevices industy egulation by inventing motgage-backed secuities and incedibly unethical and dangeous methods of playing both…
references and waking schedule of individuals instead of requiring everyone to keep identical traditional business hours. The same holds true for the value of allowing teleworking opportunities. Even elements such as workstation lighting and layout can play a significant role in promoting maximum output and productivity. That concept would also suggest allowing employees greater flexibility in some of the ways that they perform their work tasks. In addition to maximizing morale and productivity in the workplace, those features would also promote rather than stifle intellectual creativity.
Cognitive Restructuring on Rape Victims
Recently, the growing numbers of research have been focused on psychological trauma which can be caused by physical, sexual and life threatening events. he survivors of traumatic events would exhibit great variation of symptoms, especially, self-blaming, guilt, negative beliefs about self and others, cognitive distortions, and inaccurate thoughts related to their traumatic experiences. Sobel, Resick and Rabalais (2009) proposed a cognitive processing therapy (CP) to reduce the posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and increase the positive thought and accurate cognition of the survivors. In this seminal paper, they reviewed the literature, classified the syndromes before and after the CP, reported the statistical results and suggested a cognitive restructuring method. Cognitions are assessed using coding and analyzing the participants' statements before and after the therapy and the scaling systems used are the Clinician-Administered PSD Scale and PSD Symptom Scale. hey scaled two cognitive processes, accommodation, and assimilation…
The writers suggested that it was possible to observe, record, and reliably code the number and percentage of assimilated, overaccommodated, and accommodated statements that rape survivors produced in their impact statements at the beginning and end of a course of CPT. As hypothesized, there were significant decreases in the overaccommodated and assimilated processes from start to the end of therapy whereas there was an increase in the accommodated processes. Although there was a clear relationship between decreased PTSD and accommodation, this study was not able to make a clear statement about the relationship between assimilation and PTSD. Another limitation of this study is the ethnicity classification because of the limited number of participants.
This study is parallel to the studies of Foa and Rothbaum (2001), and Koss, Jose Figueredo, & Prince (2002) and the results are compatible. However, these two studies employed self-report inventories of cognitive distortions, which limited the response options available to participants and focus on content rather than process. Sobel et al. (2009) developed a more flexible strategy to evaluate the effects of CPT.
Overall, the study by Sobel et al. (2009) is chosen because it is up-to-date, rich in the literature review and very clear to provide results and limitations of the study.
Cognitive and Social Psychology
Cognitive & Social Psychology
The critical period for learning language has been shown by research that examined the fluency of non-native English speakers according to their age upon arrival in the United States. The language ability of the non-native English speakers was measured by their ability on tests of English grammar and vocabulary, but this ability declines from the roughly the age of seven and older.
While it does seem that it would be easier for a student to learn multiple languages in school if they were learning them at the same time, there is some evidence that it may be difficult in other ways. Although the acquisition of language is largely governed by neural maturity in the brain areas that control language and speech, differences also reside in the individuals as well. Some people will have difficulty with language acquisition overall, others will…
The Bowflex ad featuring the 50-year-old grandmother of a five-year-old is quite persuasive. The woman featured on the ad does not look like she is 50-years old and she has a very attractive face, long luxurious hair, and a slim, shapely body. She TV advertisement shows her actively engaged in using the Bowflex and swimming and lounging in a two-piece bikini swimsuit. The primary element of persuasion used in the advertisement is ethos. The woman featured in the ad seems credible, respectable, and certainly exhibits the healthy, fit persona to which she refers and to which she attributes her shapely body. She reasonably talks about loosing weight over a period of time that is believable. While it does seem that her statement that she saw results from using the Bowflex right away may seem a bit exaggerated, the rest of her testimony seems credible. The advertisement works because any 50-year-old woman watching the TV ad would want to look as slim and fit as the woman featured in the ad.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()
The case of the fat lady
Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships
In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…
Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348
Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub
Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271
Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.
Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.
In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…
Felder, R.M. And Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 94, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://eprints.me.psu.ac.th/ILS/info/Understanding_Differences.pdf
Kay, W.K., Francis, L.J., and Robbins, M. (2011). A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks. University of Warwick. Retrieved from: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/41317/1/WRAP_Francis_Psychological_type_and_Apostolic_networks_final_version.pdf
Nardi, D. (2007). The 8 Jungian Cognitive Processes. Retrieved from: http://www.keys2cognition.com/cgjung.htm
Ochsner, K.N. And Gross, J.J. (2005, May). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://icdl.com/graduate/Portal/IMH212/documents/ochsner-gross.pdf
Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.
Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…
Kate, S., Tony, A., Sharon, H., Irina, L. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive
Behavioral Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger
Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.7, 1203-1214.
From: Burns, D.D. (1989). The Feeling Good Handbook: 4 Steps in Cognitive Restructuring.
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…
Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.
Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.
Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17
Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.
Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…
Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm
Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.
Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,
Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm
Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social
support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…
Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.
Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).
Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.
Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women
Three major differences cognitive behavior abilities men women: higher verbal abilities, higher spatial abilities, higher arithmetical abilities
Neuropsychologists and psychologists have widely analyzed the difference in cognitive abilities expressed by members of the male and female genders. The analysis of these professionals has revealed the existence of three major cognitive differences between the genders. The differences include higher verbal abilities in women; higher arithmetic abilities in males and higher spatial abilities in males. However, the possession of superior arithmetic abilities by males has been closely related their possession of top notch spatial abilities. This implies that the differences in cognitive abilities can be condensed or summarized into two.
Close look at the differences in verbal abilities among males and females reveal that women perform best in verbal tests as compared to their male counterparts. Additionally, a woman's language development cycle is faster than…
Ackerman, P.L. (2006). Cognitive sex differences and mathematics and science achievement. American Psychologist, 61(7), 722-723.
Ballinger, T.P., Hudson, E., Karkoviata, L., & Wilcox, N.T. (2011). Saving behavior and cognitive abilities. Experimental Economics, 14 (3), 349-374.
Behavioral activities are more of reactions to stimuli and have less to do with cognitive (or brain) processes and more to do with how one acts in a certain environment. Some behavioral activities would include: 1) sitting quietly while in the classroom or in church; 2) opening the door for somebody to walk in ahead of you; 3) using good manners while at a restaurant; 4) helping an old lady cross the street; and, 5) picking up a child that is crying.
4) the following question requires you to write a short essay consisting of a few paragraphs. Compare and contrast structuralism and functionalism by discussing elements such as their definition, founders, and similarities and differences. Edward B. Tichener formally established and gave a name to structuralism, which was first based on Wilhel Wundt's ideas. Structuralism is the first school of psychology and focuses on breaking down the mental processes…
Cognitive distortions are anomalies present in habitual thoughts that eventually lead to serious psychopathological issues. These problems are typically associated with instances of distorted thinking that emerges as a result of cognitive structures, operations, or products. Cognitive distortions can influence individuals to put across behavior that is in disagreement with the principles that they live by. People who experience cognitive distortions are in some cases probable to resort to behaving immorally or to hurting themselves or someone else. In particular situations cognitive distortions can excuse deviant behavior, as individuals involved are not fully able to control themselves and thus have no power to refrain from doing something wrong.
Doctors can interpret information that their patients provide by making use of their understanding of cognitive distortions. hile some people are inclined to consider cognitive distortions as the reason behind a series of acts, it appears that cognitive distortions can sometimes be…
O'Donohue, William T., and Fisher, Jane E., "General Principles and Empirically Supported Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy," (John Wiley & Sons, 04.02.2009)
"Cognitive Therapy for Depressed Adolescents," (Guilford Press, 1994)
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
Research into the value of critical thinking probably came about when reud became influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of the behavior of early human societies. Later theorists in the field of psychology, such as Hyman Spotnitz, a modern psychoanylist, and William Graham Sumner, expanded reud's theory to include the ability of the human mind to think critically, or to bend one's mind (forgetting the bad and remembering chosen events) to form one's impression of life. Melanie Klein theorized that a child's perception of what is occuring around them determines whether they develop into depressive or schizoid-depressive personalities, or whether, with proper guidance, they develop normally. (Klein, 1966) it is important that research continue in the field of psychology to determine what techniques of critical thinking may aid the disturbed patient.
reud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna reud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP.
reud, S. (1913) Totem and…
Freud, S. (1913) Totem and Taboo. London: Dover Publications (Reprinted in paperback: September 23, 1998).
Persons, S. (Ed.). (1963). Social Darwinism: Selected Essays of William Graham Sumner, Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Scriven, M. And Paul, R. (2004). The Critical Thinking Community, Foundation for Critical Thinking. Dillon Beach, CA.
Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.
The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…
Psychology Movie elation
A ose for Emily
Diagnosing a psychological complication are a daunting task and one that requires immense responsibility of the concerned health professionals who examine the patient and decide the appropriate diagnosis (APA, 2001). Among the many variables that a psychological professional observes, are the patient's past life history. For Emily, an examination of the setting and characters in the plot, and an assessment of some of the themes in Faulkner's short story, A ose for Emily and the occurrences involving Emily's father aids the reader to comprehend the pressures with which Emily tried coping and how she might have suffered from schizophrenia. Emily came from a family of high stature and affluence in their southern community and always had a burden of enormous expectations that people had for her. Her community anticipated her to have a hereditary obligation to uphold traditions, norms that her ancestors had…
APA. (2001). Quick Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
Kinney, A.F. (2000). Faulkner's Narrative Poetics: Style as Vision. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Staton, S.F. (2005). Literary Theories in Praxis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
William, F. (2003). "A Rose for Emily." In The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. 2160-2166. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
It implies as well that most people react to things in a certain way because they want to repeat behaviors that worked well for them in the past (i.e. there was a positive experience created).
Emotions are not too fast (or too mindless, for that matter) for cognitive appraisals. Emotions, no matter how small, lead to cognitive appraisals that help individuals make sense of certain events. Take breaking up with someone, for example. If someone is broken up with, this person could feel a certain amount of sadness and this emotion is elicited by the cognitive appraisal that something good or worthwhile has been lost and cannot be recovered (Scherer, Schorr & Johnstone, 2001). It has been suggested even that emotions can be elicited with an evaluation having taken place by an event in and of itself, physiological processes (e.g. brain activity), facial expressions (or other types of expressions), behaviors…
Scherer, K.R., Schorr, a., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion:
Theory, methods, research. (1st ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Wessler, R.L., Hankin, S., & Stern, J. (2001). Succeeding with difficult clients:
Applications of cognitive appraisal therapy (Practical resources for the mental health professional). (1st ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Academic Press.
The abnormal psychologist is trained to treat people with social and physical disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and delusional disorders. Usually, the disorders have become so aberrant the patients may no longer be able to function in society, or at least function normally. Abnormal psychologists may also study the causes of the abnormalities in some people, and develop research to understand why some people develop these disorders and others do not. They may create behavioral studies, personality tests, case studies, or surveys to help them in their research, and eventually, they may be able to solve the mysteries of what causes much abnormal behavior in the brain.
Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.
Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New…
Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.
Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…
American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15
May 2009 .
Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .
Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Psychology -- Cognitive theoies
Use of the Session Bidging Woksheet in Cognitive Theapy
The pupose of the Session Bidging Woksheet is to assess the client's insight and compehension of the pio theapy session (Beck, 1995). Being awae of the fact that they will be questioned concening the pevious session encouages the client to pepae fo the pesent session by eflecting on the session thoughout the week. If the client cannot emembe thei esponses o the significant concepts fom the pio theapeutic session, the counselo and client come togethe to figue out a way so that they can moe effectively ecall the elements of the pesent session. The Session Bidging Woksheet offes a way of getting this done. This is impotant because seveal studies have shown that inceased memoy and undestanding of theapeutic sessions has a diect impact on teatment outcome (Shephed, Salkovskis, & Mois, 2009). Also this technique equies that…
references. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(2), 141-150.
Whipple, J.L., Lambert, M.J., Vermeersch, D.A., Smart, D.W., Nielsen, S.L., & Hawkins, E.J. (2003). Improving the effects of psychotherapy: The use of early identification of treatment failure and problem solving strategies in routine practice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 59-68.
Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments
Philip anyard explains how Stanley Milgram came to be involved with research regarding the Nazi slaughter of millions of people in Europe during World War II. Milgram's obedience study of course had emotional and cultural meaning for him because he is Jewish. In fact he feels blessed that even though his family roots were in Europe in proximity to where the Holocaust took place, he was born in the U.S. And hence avoided the Nazi madness. What is the value of Milgram's research experiments? That is the crux of this section -- the value of Milgram's research into why people are obedient at pivotal moments -- including moments when human lives are at stake.
What does this particular method allow psychologists to study? In the first place, having someone in a room by himself giving shocks to a person he cannot see, a person…
Banyard, Philip. Just Following Orders? Chapter 2.
Edgar, Helen, and Edgar, Graham. Paying Attention. Chapter 8.
Toates, Frederick. Changing Behaviour. Chapter 4
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.
Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics
To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…
Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.
National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/pub/code/code.asp .
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,
from Colorado State Web site:
Anxiety Attacks and Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from Helpguide.org Web site:
The Impact and Importance of Psychological Testing
Defining Psychological Testing
A test is defined as a method or procedure for critical evaluation or as a means of establishing the quality, truth, or presence of something. (Webster's Dictionary, 2011). According to the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) and the American Psychological Association (APA) (1999), psychological test or psychological testing is a discipline most frequently characterized by the use of behavior samples in order to assess various psychological constructs such as the emotional and cognitive functioning of individuals. The psychological test itself is an instrument most often designed to measure constructs that are not observed, and often involve a series of problems or tasks that the participant or respondent must solve. These tests can resemble questionnaires; however, what makes psychological tests different is that they require the respondents' maximum cognitive performance (AERA,…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and Psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Cohen, r., & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment. McGraw-Hill.
Meeker, W., & Escobar, L. (1998). Statistical methods for reliability data. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from person's responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.
After reviewing the "Vignette Miles "case study, using the five axis of the DSM-IV-T, it is clear as Axis I provides anxiety because he has been distressed after the holidays due to financial set backs. His financial situation has been gradually deteriorating during the past six months, and he has been feeling a great deal of anxiety. Miles demonstrated tolerance, loss of control, and denial. This also included trying often to cut down going out but to no avail. Axis II and Axis III shows no symptoms. However, Axis IV provides marital problems and legal involvement. His work as a tree cutter is seasonal, and his income varies from month to month. The child support payments for his two children have recently been increased, and his new wife of two years has no job. She is unwilling to work outside the home. Miles reports that his marriage is otherwise…
Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47
Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories of Personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Provide a brief statement that clearly defines the term: Schema; and, an explanation of how they are developed.
A schema is a cognitive pattern or structure comprised of beliefs and perceptions. Worldview is a type of schema, which can be formed by cultural cues, family socialization, and identity. Schemas can change over time, and they can be helpful for organizing the complex world. Some schemas are helpful in that they anchor the mind and emotions in the midst of an overwhelming amount of information and stimuli in the environment. However, schemas can easily become maladaptive. Examples of how schemas become maladaptive are most noticeable with regards to stereotyping, biases, and paranoia. Abuse and trauma can significantly and adversely impact an individual's schemata. Conflicting schemata can also lead to experiences of cognitive dissonance or confused identity.
Statement of how the themes that are evident in the client's presenting problems contribute…
Young, J.E. (1998). Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders. 3rd edition.
Cognitive ehavioral Therapy
In comparison with many different types of treatments that are available cognitive behavioral therapy (CT) has been used as a way to address a host of anxiety and depression disorders without the use of prescription medication. This is because; this approach is based on the fact that health care professionals are treating someone by: looking at how their thoughts are influencing the way that they are interacting with others. To fully understand the effectiveness of this kind of treatment requires examining the use of CT to deal with: a variety of issues / disorders, discussing the implications for treatment planning, understanding what aspects should be implemented when conducting a treatment program and the different ways that you can ensure that the therapy is useful at dealing with the objectives for each patient. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the underlying effectiveness of CT…
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good. New York, NY: Avon Books.
Glossoff, H. (2005). Article 2. ACA Code of Ethics.
Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Wilson, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Paranoid/Schizoid personality disorders are difficult to treat via insight-oriented therapeutic approaches, mainly because the patient is prone to doubt the motives of the therapist by virtue of the nature of the symptoms of the disease itself: namely, paranoid delusions that convince the patient that the therapist is part of a larger "conspiracy" against the patient (Shapiro 1999).
Narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, and antisocial disorders are treatable via several insight-oriented, one-on-one psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic approaches conducted by specialists in those types of disorders, as are many obsessive-compulsive and avoidant disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). Alternatively, obsessive- compulsive, dependant, and especially, avoidant disorders are treatable in group settings as well. Avoidant and dependent personality disorders, in particular, may be best-suited to cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches where the roots of the patient's disorder relates to distorted self-perceptions capable of being addressed directly (Coleman, Butcher and Carson 1994).
Where paranoid or schizophrenic personality disorders are associated…
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005).
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Shapiro, D. (1999). Neurotic Styles. New York: Basic Books.