Every culture has its own set of believes and value system. Culture is a phenomenon which is highly misunderstood by the people of the society. Culture is considered as a way of life which includes language, thought, spirituality, social activity, thought and other things as well. But is should also be kept in mind that culture is not limited to the above mentioned things only. The cultures of the societies keep on changing as the time goes on. Values and beliefs prevailing in eighteenth century do not necessarily be practiced in twenty first century. However society represents the group of people where different set of cultures often interact with one another. It reflects that there might be a possibility that when these cultures interact with one another some of the values of one culture might be liked by the people of other cultures and they start adopting the…… [Read More]
The only notable impact of syphilis on Europeans, according to Crosby, was on relations between men and women. To prevent the spread of the venereal disease, European doctors began to recommend that men thoroughly wash their genitals after sexual intercourse.
The most important biological development of the last millennium for Crosby is not the destructive outcome of the Columbian exchange, but the way it sparked a massive population growth in the post-Columbian era. While the indigenous population of the New World drastically decreased as a result of the exchange, for the same period the population of Europeans and Africans who arrived in the New World rapidly increased. The major cause of this development was the post-Columbian New World's capacity to provide food. "The transfer of Old World plants and, especially, Old World animals," Crosby argues, "vastly enhanced America's capacity to feed [the] growing population of alien humans" (166). And later…… [Read More]
Globalization: Impact of the Columbian Exchange
A continental drift occurred millions of years ago, splitting the Americas - which then came to be known as then new world, from the old world made up of Africa and Eurasia (Crosby, 2011). The continental separation lasted long enough to foster divergent evolution, making some bacteria, animals and plants unique to the new world, and others unique to the old world (Crosby, 2011). Human voyagers artificially re-established connections between the two worlds by commingling the "old and new world plants, animals and bacteria," in what came to be known as the Columbian Exchange (Crosby, 2011). During the exchange, Europeans travelled across the Atlantic, to the new world, bringing with them old world plants such as turnips, rice, barley and wheat; domesticated animals such as goats, sheep, cattle and horses; the alphabet, and disease-causing bacteria; and carrying to the old, maize, manioc, sweet and…… [Read More]
Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
eezley, ill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.
Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.
Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Viola, Herman J. And Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 53.
Kirkpatrick Sale, the Conquest of Paradise (New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990), 34.
Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Seeds of Change (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 79.
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 197.
Viola and Margolis, 192.
F. Hodge, "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population…… [Read More]
I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).
American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…… [Read More]
Civilizations of Latin America
Human beings have always expressed themselves through culture; throughout history. The achievements made are a product of continued refinement over the ages. They are an inherited product of a diverse modified and complex evolution from the past through time. The Latin American case is a complex one. There is plenty of diversity exemplified but there are contradictions too. The complication arises from the fact that there is a remarkable cultural diversity in the vast continent; spanning Patagonia to Mesoamerica and from the past to modern day. The Latin American region has been full of controversies, disagreements, legends and mysteries that show the reasons why the continent should exist despite great pressure mounted by the West[footnoteef:1]. In order to understand our existence as unique people, and for a clear coexistence attitude embedded in a social fabric, we must study, live and imagine the cultural orientations of Latin…… [Read More]
The lasting impact of colonial settlement
The colonialism is taken to be a political and economic experience which paved the way for the European to explore, conquer, settle and exploit large areas of the world. The era of modern colonialism started during 1400 A.D with the European discovery of sea route around Africa's southern coast during 1488 and that of America during 1492. They made provisions to transfer the sea power from that of the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic and to the emerging new nation-states at that time which were Portugal, Spain, Dutch epublic, France and that of England. The initiation for discovery, the desire to conquer and settlement led these nations to expand their territories and to colonize over the world, extending the European institutions and culture to other parts of the world. The competition continued among the European nations for colonization across the world. Such colonies…… [Read More]
Why, though, is the name so popular and so utilized to mean change, evolution, choice, and really as an icon of a perilous journey to a new life? And what is the real story of the First Thanksgiving? In brief, the name has remained a popular icon because of the inherent nature of the story -- lively persecuted group befriends new population and thrives. Now, let us simply revise the point-of-view by one cog; instead of viewing the story as a European colonist, imagine if you will, a land that supported numerous bands of hunter-gatherers who took only from the land what they needed, had deep traditions about their interaction with nature, and, just like other societies, had passive and aggressive cultures. New people arrive who do not know how to dress, to hunt, to fish, or even how to build the proper house to stay warm. So, you help…… [Read More]
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…… [Read More]
discovery of the New World and attendant new trade routes can certainly be described as momentous and significant, but the benefits of conquest and contact have been eclipsed by the inhumane, unjust, and hypocritical consequences thereof.
Three major aspects demonstrating Old and New World exchanges.
Discovery of new raw materials creating market demand and shifting patterns of trade, eg. Tobacco, cotton, corn.
Global trans-Atlantic slave trade creating free labor for the owners of the means of production and generating massive humanitarian disasters.
Decimation of indigenous populations throughout the Americas, representing genocide on unprecedented levels, justified by newfound sense of European superiority.
Five (5) specific groups that were affected by this event and two (2) examples for each cohort describing how they were affected.
A. Native Americans
Forced migration and stripping of access to wealth.
Slave labor, brutality
2. Lack of access to wealth, resources, power, fruits of…… [Read More]
Native Art of North and Meso America
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between native North American art and the art of Mesoamerica? Is an exchange of artistic influences seen between these two neighboring regions?
etween 20,000 and 30,000 years ago, the first inhabitants of the Americas arrived in North America. This time was approximately around the time of the last glacial age. The oceans of the world due to water forming into ice were lower than they presently are and a land bridge approximately 1,000 miles wide connecting Siberia to Alaska formed. This is known as the ering land bridge. Some of these new inhabitants settled in North America and others migrated to Central and South America. There were great civilizations flourishing throughout the Americas at different times and in different locations. (Education Department of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 2000, paraphrased)
Meso-America…… [Read More]
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]
Gold has had fans in many places since the dawn of civilization. From the pre-Columbian Americas to Greece, from China to India, gold has served as a symbol of status and also as a tangible means of accumulating and exchanging wealth. In a world in which speculation and virtual currencies reign, gold occupies a more unique position than it has ever before. In Wages of Crime, Naylor reveals the dark underbelly of the world’s most popular precious metal. The chapter “The Underworld of Gold” addresses everything from how gold is mined nefariously in both black and grey market ways, and similarly traded in ways that resemble other types of organized crime. National laws often tax either the import or export of precious metals, driving gold markets to the grey and black zones of the global economy. In a world in which international banking leaves a potentially dangerous paper trail, gold…… [Read More]
role that bail is playing in the criminal justice system and how these amounts are determined. This is accomplished by looking at the Robert lake murder trial, the Roman Polanski rape case and the Carlos Lehder drug trial. Once this occurs, is when we can understand how and why this applied differently in a host of court cases.
One of the core elements of the criminal justice system is bail. This is when someone who stands accused of a crime can be released from police custody, under the promise that they will return to court on the specified date of their trial. In all cases, this involves the person providing some kind of monetary or physical assets in exchange for being released from jail. The basic idea behind granting bail is three fold to include:
It assures that the accused will make their court date.
It maintains the presumption of…… [Read More]
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…… [Read More]
Jamaica is an independent state within the Commonwealth and is the largest island in the Caribbean. It is well-known for its fascinating blend of music and culture and the unique blend of ethnic traditions. Jamaica's history is a culmination of various cultural influences that are part of its history. The country has Arawak Indian, Spanish, African, Indian, Middle Eastern, Chinese and ritish influences that go to make up its unique heritage.
The history of Jamaica can be divided into four general areas. These are the Pre-Columbian, Columbian and Spanish eras; the period under English control and independence. During the Pre-Columbian period the inhabitants of the Island were the Arawaks, The Arawak Indians were also called Tainos. The Spanish were later to paint a picture of the Arawaks as a primitive and disorganized people. However, this perception has been proved incorrect by "recent studies that show their life style…… [Read More]
The most adequate course of action in achieving this desiderate is based on the following steps:
the full and sustained collaboration with the national and international authorities; this will not only gain the trust of the legal representatives, but will also improve the perception of Chiquita in the eyes of its stakeholders (employees, customer, business partners, governmental and non-governmental institutions and so on) the critical and objective analysis of the loses generated by the need to pay the fine and the closing of the Columbian plants communications with the stakeholders, official apologies and explanations for the decisions made; support to institutions striving to resolve the matters of political instability in Columbia and other global regions affected by the problem the search for more adequate locations which could support the development of Chiquita's operations, without placing its managerial team is so severe ethical dilemmas, in which it would have to choose…… [Read More]
A slave was similar to a paid servant. The children of the poor people could be sold as slaves, but it was usually for a determined period of time. The slaves had the right to buy their freedom.
War was a very important activity, because of their conquering ambition and also for religious reasons. Mexicas believed that the gods had sacrificed themselves for the people and their blood had given them life. They thought that the sun lived on blood from human hearts so the purpose of human blood was to feed the sun gods and ensure their continuity and the preserving of life. The sacrifice of animals and humans was part of Aztec religion. To warriors it was the maximum honor to be killed in battle or volunteer for a sacrifice. One main reason to make war on other tribes was to capture prisoners for sacrifice.
In Aztec religion…… [Read More]
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…… [Read More]
health related risks in association with addiction, the two greatest risks for Heroin Injectors is the risk of acquiring HIV or any number of the deadly and permanent Hepatitis viruses. The risks associated with addiction, poor nutrition, dehydration, reduced kidney and liver function as well as a few others increases the risk of an individual acquiring, nearly any communicable disease, yet those who are injecting Heroin also repeatedly directly open their circulatory system to massive deadly diseases like HIV and Hepatitis. ("The Menace of Heroin," 1999, p. 2)
In many places needle sharing has been decreased with awareness and availability campaigns yet it is clear that the sharing of needles still occurs, as the reduced mental functioning of the user, at the height of addictive need and in the throws of the high have a reduced sense of judgment, just as can be said about any mind altering drug. Yet.…… [Read More]
The international drug trade affects countless numbers of people personally, whether due to addiction or to organized crime-related death, or to imprisonment. How ever, the drug trade can also be placed in a broader social, political, and economic context. The international drug trade is a thriving black market industry. Its commodities are not exchanged on the New York Stock Exchange but in shady deals on darkened shipping docks. The international drug trade is, however, a lucrative industry, and its participants reap definite financial benefits.
The drug trade impacts the legitimate global economy by diverting funds towards policing, court costs, and other punitive procedures. Border patrols and other preventative measures also cost taxpayer money that could be diverted elsewhere.
Moreover, the thriving drug industry means that impoverished people are willing to risk the concurrent dangers associated with the trade in order to reap higher wages. For example, Afghani farmers…… [Read More]
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]
A. (RECOPE, S.A), based on Costa Rica. There is also the Columbian nationalized oil conglomerate operating under the name Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (ECOPETROL). oth of Chevron's largest global competitors are nationalized by the nations they operate in, which make pricing and market execution strategies in these specific countries difficult. In addition, there are significant cultural differences between the U.S. And these countries as well. As a result, there continues to be a strong push towards creating more co-ownership of oil refineries, production centers and operations between U.S..-based companies working in the area and national governments. In the case of the razilian government, who approached Chevron about such an arrangement in 2008 specifically for partnership with Petroleo rasileiro S.A., Chevron declined to enter into a nationalized-based alliance with the company and nation and instead sold the assets of their refineries to rasileiro S.A. instead (Wall Street Journal, 2008). In Mexico,…… [Read More]
The purpose of the bowl is to catch the chaff as the coffee begins to roast. In addition some coffee beans may shoot out of the popper and the bowl will catch those beans (Romanoff). It is important that the person doing the roasting does not touch any of the beans that come out of the chute during roasting as they are likely to get burned; coffee beans hold a great deal of heat.
The article further explains that once the machine is on and roasting has begun, the author points out that the individual doing the roasting may need to tilt the popper backwards to stop the beans form falling out of the popper and the hot air moves the beans around (Romanoff). The need to tilt the machine is dependent on the depth of the machine that is used.
It will take about 3 minutes before the beans…… [Read More]
One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."
Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.
In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…… [Read More]
Yanomamo people of Central Brazil are one of the oldest examples of the classic pre-Columbian forest footmen. They are believed to be the most primitive, culturally intact people in existence in the world. They are literally a Stone Age tribe. Cataloged by anthropologists as Neo-Indians with cultural characteristics that date back more than 8000 years. They have never discovered the wheel and the only metal they use is what has been traded to them from the outside. Their numbering system is one, two, and more than two.
The Yanomamo live in almost complete seclusion in the Amazon rain forests of South America. Apart from their periodic warfare, they have managed to build and sustain their unique culture through adaptations to their environment for generations.
There are approximately 23,000 Yanomamo spread among roughly 225 villages in the Amazon Basin. Each village acts autonomously, but has alliances with other villages that carry…… [Read More]
South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)
Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.
a. Stated goals and…… [Read More]
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…… [Read More]
Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (awson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had…… [Read More]
In 1911, Frederick Taylor wrote Principles of Scientific Management and Shop Management, and became the first to clearly introduce the study of people management. Taylor theorized that companies should identify the most efficient way to accomplish a job, train workers to complete each separate task in a specific way and provide equitable rewards for productivity improvements. Although Taylor is often criticized for his scientific approach that emphasized a strict division of labor and repetitive tasks, he is also commended for recognizing the need for cooperation between management and employees, fair rewards for positive work results and training programs. Over the past century, as increased globalization and technology has placed an emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and a highly competitive customer-based service economy, a shift has occurred in organizations from task- to people-orientation. It is imperative for companies to meet the specific needs of their varied constituents --…… [Read More]
Dead (Dia de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday that is also celebrated around the world in other countries where Hispanics are located, such as North America, Brazil, Spain, etc. Its roots are located both in the oman Catholic observance of All Saints and All Souls Days in November and in the pagan customs of the Aztecs who celebrated worship of the Mictecacihuatl, the Queen of the Underworld. In recent times the Day of the Dead has taken on a more nationalistic meaning than the traditional associations of spirituality (Masses and prayers offered for the dead) of oman Catholicism. In fact, Day of the Dead celebrations were unheard of in Mexico before the 1900s. Prior to the evolution of the early 20th century, much of Mexico celebrated only the Catholic All Saints and All Souls Days and resisted any celebration by nationalistic or pagan sects of the Day of the Dead,…… [Read More]
In both Silence and the Mission, violence breaks out among two types of European foreigners: those who would favor religious priorities over economic ones (the priests), and those who would favor economic priorities over religious ones (the European tradesmen in Silence and the Portuguese and Spanish bounty hunters in the Mission. Moreover, according to Pena, like the Jesuits in the Mission, who are alone, isolated, at odds with their church, and sometimes even each other, "Rodrigues' trials are exacerbated by his physical and cultural isolation... Culturally, he must confront being in a nation whose language and customs are mostly alien and threatening to him."
In the Mission, the story begins when a bounty-hunting Spaniard, Rodrigo, kills his younger brother Felipe over a woman they both love, but who loves only Felipe. Languishing in prison afterward, Rodrigo is certain that all is lost until he is visited in his prison cell…… [Read More]
So who is an American and what an America can or cannot do are questions which are critical to the issue of legalizing immigrants. Does being an American mean you cannot show allegiance to any other country? The images of people raising and waving Mexican flag had enraged many but it need not have. It should be accepted that people who come from different countries would forever hold in their hearts a deep respect and love for their homeland. However to put the interests of home country ahead of your adopted country or to work in a way that benefits the home country but not the new country would definitely cause serious concern. It would be definitely foolish to direct or guide the behavior of illegal immigrants regarding countries and allegiance, but they should be expected to not work against the interests of their adopted land. That is fair and…… [Read More]