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We have over 33 essays for "Columbian Exchange"

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Evolution of Religion in America

Words: 2499 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19386729

I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).

American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Benedict, Ruth. (2007). Zuni Mythology. Martino Publishing.

Coffey, J. And P. Lim. (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism.

Cowley, G. (Fall/Winter 1991). "The Great Disease Migration." Newsweek. Cited in:

www.newsweek.com
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Analyzing Civilizations of Latin America

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96852312

Civilizations of Latin America

Human beings have always expressed themselves through culture; throughout history. The achievements made are a product of continued refinement over the ages. They are an inherited product of a diverse modified and complex evolution from the past through time. The Latin American case is a complex one. There is plenty of diversity exemplified but there are contradictions too. The complication arises from the fact that there is a remarkable cultural diversity in the vast continent; spanning Patagonia to Mesoamerica and from the past to modern day. The Latin American region has been full of controversies, disagreements, legends and mysteries that show the reasons why the continent should exist despite great pressure mounted by the West[footnoteef:1]. In order to understand our existence as unique people, and for a clear coexistence attitude embedded in a social fabric, we must study, live and imagine the cultural orientations of Latin…… [Read More]

References

Kahn, J.S. El concepto de cultura: Textos fundamentales. Anagrama. (1974)

Nanda, Serena. Antropologia cultural. Adaptaciones socioculturales. Mexico. 1987

Navarrete Orta, Lu's. Literatura e ideas en la Historia hispanoamericana. Cuadernos Lagoven. 1991

Zea, Leopoldo. La esencia de lo americano. Mexico. 1971
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Colonial Settlement

Words: 1684 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31043661

Colonial Settlement

The lasting impact of colonial settlement

The colonialism is taken to be a political and economic experience which paved the way for the European to explore, conquer, settle and exploit large areas of the world. The era of modern colonialism started during 1400 A.D with the European discovery of sea route around Africa's southern coast during 1488 and that of America during 1492. They made provisions to transfer the sea power from that of the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic and to the emerging new nation-states at that time which were Portugal, Spain, Dutch epublic, France and that of England. The initiation for discovery, the desire to conquer and settlement led these nations to expand their territories and to colonize over the world, extending the European institutions and culture to other parts of the world. The competition continued among the European nations for colonization across the world. Such colonies…… [Read More]

References

Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763. Retrieved from  http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/colonial.html 

Accessed 21 September, 2005

Exploration. Retrieved from  http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/movement/exp.cfm 

Accessed 21 September, 2005
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Mayflower in Human History Many

Words: 2199 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 97728011



Why, though, is the name so popular and so utilized to mean change, evolution, choice, and really as an icon of a perilous journey to a new life? And what is the real story of the First Thanksgiving? In brief, the name has remained a popular icon because of the inherent nature of the story -- lively persecuted group befriends new population and thrives. Now, let us simply revise the point-of-view by one cog; instead of viewing the story as a European colonist, imagine if you will, a land that supported numerous bands of hunter-gatherers who took only from the land what they needed, had deep traditions about their interaction with nature, and, just like other societies, had passive and aggressive cultures. New people arrive who do not know how to dress, to hunt, to fish, or even how to build the proper house to stay warm. So, you help…… [Read More]

REFERENCES CONSLUTED

Adkins, R. (2005). "Mayflower: The Voyage That Changed the World." Geographical.

77(9): 78.

Arenstam, P., et.al. (2007). Mayflower 1620: A New Look at a Pilgrim Voyage. National Geographic Books.

Bush, S. (2000). "America's Origin Myth: Remembering Plymouth Rock." American Library
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Presumption Often Promulgated by Scholars

Words: 4661 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43906482

They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Achebe, C 2000, Home and Exile, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Adams, W 2006, The Future of Sustainability: Re-THinking Environment and Development in the 21st Century, viewed December 2011, http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf

Aristotle VII, 'Politics', pp. 1339a 29-30.

Bartlovich, C, Mannur, A (eds.) 2001, Marxism, Modernity and Post-Colonial Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.
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Adam Smith Globalization America

Words: 1752 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63007170

discovery of the New World and attendant new trade routes can certainly be described as momentous and significant, but the benefits of conquest and contact have been eclipsed by the inhumane, unjust, and hypocritical consequences thereof.

Three major aspects demonstrating Old and New World exchanges.

Discovery of new raw materials creating market demand and shifting patterns of trade, eg. Tobacco, cotton, corn.

Global trans-Atlantic slave trade creating free labor for the owners of the means of production and generating massive humanitarian disasters.

Decimation of indigenous populations throughout the Americas, representing genocide on unprecedented levels, justified by newfound sense of European superiority.

Five (5) specific groups that were affected by this event and two (2) examples for each cohort describing how they were affected.

A. Native Americans

Diseases

Forced migration and stripping of access to wealth.

B. Africans

Slave labor, brutality

2. Lack of access to wealth, resources, power, fruits of…… [Read More]

References

Forman-Barzilai, F. (2008). Adam Smith as a globalization theorist. Critical Review 14(4): 391-419.

Grolle, J. (2013). The "Columbian Exchange': How discovering the Americas transformed the world. Der Spiegel International. Retrieved online:  http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/a-923220.html 

London, C.R. (2013). When did globalization start? The Ecoomist. Sept 23, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/09/economic-history-1 

Muthu, S. (2008). Adam Smith's critique of international trading companies. Political Theory 36(2): 185-212.
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Native Art of North and Meso America

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57549790

Native Art of North and Meso America

The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between native North American art and the art of Mesoamerica? Is an exchange of artistic influences seen between these two neighboring regions?

etween 20,000 and 30,000 years ago, the first inhabitants of the Americas arrived in North America. This time was approximately around the time of the last glacial age. The oceans of the world due to water forming into ice were lower than they presently are and a land bridge approximately 1,000 miles wide connecting Siberia to Alaska formed. This is known as the ering land bridge. Some of these new inhabitants settled in North America and others migrated to Central and South America. There were great civilizations flourishing throughout the Americas at different times and in different locations. (Education Department of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 2000, paraphrased)

Meso-America…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Art of the Americas: Information for Educators (2000) Education Department of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Retrieved from:  http://deyoung.famsf.org/files/ArtoftheAmericasEducatorGuide.pdf 

Messenger, LC (2010) The Southeastern Woodlands: Mississippian Cahokia -- Late Prehistoric Metropolis on the Mississippi. Making Archaeology Teaching Relevant in the XXI Century (MATRIX). Retrieved from:  http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/naa/naa_web/mod13D.html 

Sorenson, JL (2012) Mesoamericans in Pre-Columbian North America. Meal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Brigham Young University. Retrieved from: http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/publications/books/?bookid=71&chapid=829

Thornton, R. (2010) The Mesoamerican connection: the Toltecs, artisans, scholars, priests and fearsome warriors. The Examiner. 22 Apr 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.examiner.com/article/the-mesoamerican-connection-the-toltecs-artisans-scholars-priests-and-fearsome-warriors
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Karim Snoussi Christoph Korner Roman

Words: 2005 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65963980

The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.

The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.

Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association

of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.

Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
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gold'smuggling and the gold black market

Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66823173

Gold has had fans in many places since the dawn of civilization. From the pre-Columbian Americas to Greece, from China to India, gold has served as a symbol of status and also as a tangible means of accumulating and exchanging wealth. In a world in which speculation and virtual currencies reign, gold occupies a more unique position than it has ever before. In Wages of Crime, Naylor reveals the dark underbelly of the world’s most popular precious metal. The chapter “The Underworld of Gold” addresses everything from how gold is mined nefariously in both black and grey market ways, and similarly traded in ways that resemble other types of organized crime. National laws often tax either the import or export of precious metals, driving gold markets to the grey and black zones of the global economy. In a world in which international banking leaves a potentially dangerous paper trail, gold…… [Read More]

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Role That Bail Is Playing in the

Words: 2653 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45150292

role that bail is playing in the criminal justice system and how these amounts are determined. This is accomplished by looking at the Robert lake murder trial, the Roman Polanski rape case and the Carlos Lehder drug trial. Once this occurs, is when we can understand how and why this applied differently in a host of court cases.

One of the core elements of the criminal justice system is bail. This is when someone who stands accused of a crime can be released from police custody, under the promise that they will return to court on the specified date of their trial. In all cases, this involves the person providing some kind of monetary or physical assets in exchange for being released from jail. The basic idea behind granting bail is three fold to include:

It assures that the accused will make their court date.

It maintains the presumption of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Crock, J. (2010). Mixed Record on High Profile U.S. Extradition Requests. The American Journal of International Law, 104, (4), 673 -- 678.

Harr, S. (2008). Constitutional Law. Belmont, CA: Thomson.

Houck, R. (2006). Forensics. Scientific American, 295, 84 -- 89.

James, M. (2005). Celebrities and Juries. Journal of Criminal Law, 69, 365-372
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Argument for or Against the Debate on Ending or Continuing the War on Drugs

Words: 2198 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56994078

War on Drugs

The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.

Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…… [Read More]

References

Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.

Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.

Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm

Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.
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Jamaica Is an Independent State Within the

Words: 2052 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12631135

Jamaica is an independent state within the Commonwealth and is the largest island in the Caribbean. It is well-known for its fascinating blend of music and culture and the unique blend of ethnic traditions. Jamaica's history is a culmination of various cultural influences that are part of its history. The country has Arawak Indian, Spanish, African, Indian, Middle Eastern, Chinese and ritish influences that go to make up its unique heritage.

Early history

The history of Jamaica can be divided into four general areas. These are the Pre-Columbian, Columbian and Spanish eras; the period under English control and independence. During the Pre-Columbian period the inhabitants of the Island were the Arawaks, The Arawak Indians were also called Tainos. The Spanish were later to paint a picture of the Arawaks as a primitive and disorganized people. However, this perception has been proved incorrect by "recent studies that show their life style…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eisner, Gisela. Jamaica, 1830-1930 A Study in Economic Growth. Manchester, Eng.: Manchester University Press, 1961.

Feuer, Carl Henry. Jamaica and the Sugar Worker Cooperatives: The Politics of Reform. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984.

Johnson, Marlene L. "Besides Sun, Sand Jamaica Really Swings." The Washington Times 8 Jan. 2000: 2. Questia. 7 Feb. 2005.  http://www.questia.com 

Hudson Rex A., and Seyler.Daniel J. Jamaica: Chapter 1A. General Information, Countries of the World, January 1, 1991.
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Ethics and Stakeholder Management Chiquita

Words: 1629 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64076391

The most adequate course of action in achieving this desiderate is based on the following steps:

the full and sustained collaboration with the national and international authorities; this will not only gain the trust of the legal representatives, but will also improve the perception of Chiquita in the eyes of its stakeholders (employees, customer, business partners, governmental and non-governmental institutions and so on) the critical and objective analysis of the loses generated by the need to pay the fine and the closing of the Columbian plants communications with the stakeholders, official apologies and explanations for the decisions made; support to institutions striving to resolve the matters of political instability in Columbia and other global regions affected by the problem the search for more adequate locations which could support the development of Chiquita's operations, without placing its managerial team is so severe ethical dilemmas, in which it would have to choose…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, a.B., Buchholtz, a.K., 2008, Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management, 7th Edition, South Western Educ Pub.

June 7, 2007, Chiquita Faces Columbia Lawsuit, Al Jazeera,  http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2007/06/2008525121622267726.htmllastaccessedon  March 6, 2009
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Rise of the Aztec Society

Words: 2387 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87772109

A slave was similar to a paid servant. The children of the poor people could be sold as slaves, but it was usually for a determined period of time. The slaves had the right to buy their freedom.

War was a very important activity, because of their conquering ambition and also for religious reasons. Mexicas believed that the gods had sacrificed themselves for the people and their blood had given them life. They thought that the sun lived on blood from human hearts so the purpose of human blood was to feed the sun gods and ensure their continuity and the preserving of life. The sacrifice of animals and humans was part of Aztec religion. To warriors it was the maximum honor to be killed in battle or volunteer for a sacrifice. One main reason to make war on other tribes was to capture prisoners for sacrifice.

In Aztec religion…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1-Carrasco, David. Daily life of the Aztecs: people of the sun and earth. Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, 1998.

2-Coe, Michael D., Koontz, Rex. Mexico: from Olmecs to Aztecs, Thames and Hudson, New York, 2002.

3-Hooker, Richard, World Civilizations. Civilizations in America, the Toltecs. 1996

 http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/TOLTECS.HTM  (Accessed December 9, 2006)
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Mayan Lowlands and the Environmental Changes

Words: 3391 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69606458

lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change

Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times

. Analysis of…… [Read More]

References

Aimers, James J. "What Maya Collapse-Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands." Springer Science+Business Media (2007): 330-337.

Oldfield, F., ed. 1998. Past global changes (PAGES): Status reportand implementation plan. IGBP Report 45. Stockholm: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

Dunning, Nicholas, et al. Arising from the Bajos: The Evolution of a Neotropical Landscape and the Rise of Maya Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.

Chase, A.F., and Chase, D.Z. (1992). El norte y el sur: pol?'tica, dominios y evolucio'n cultural maya.Mayab 8: 134 -- 149
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Drug Use and Abuse

Words: 836 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71814595

health related risks in association with addiction, the two greatest risks for Heroin Injectors is the risk of acquiring HIV or any number of the deadly and permanent Hepatitis viruses. The risks associated with addiction, poor nutrition, dehydration, reduced kidney and liver function as well as a few others increases the risk of an individual acquiring, nearly any communicable disease, yet those who are injecting Heroin also repeatedly directly open their circulatory system to massive deadly diseases like HIV and Hepatitis. ("The Menace of Heroin," 1999, p. 2)

In many places needle sharing has been decreased with awareness and availability campaigns yet it is clear that the sharing of needles still occurs, as the reduced mental functioning of the user, at the height of addictive need and in the throws of the high have a reduced sense of judgment, just as can be said about any mind altering drug. Yet.…… [Read More]

References

Brown, B.S. & Beschner, G.M. (Eds.). (1993). Handbook on Risk of AIDS: Injection Drug Users and Sexual Partners. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

The Menace of Heroin in the U.S. . (1999, September 5). The Washington Times, p. 2. Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Questia database,  http://www.questia.com .

Riley, E.D., Wu, A.W., Junge, B., Marx, M., Strathdee, S.A., & Vlahov, D. (2002).

Health Services Utilization by Injection Drug Users Participating in a Needle
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Drug Trade

Words: 382 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43058166

Drug Trade

The international drug trade affects countless numbers of people personally, whether due to addiction or to organized crime-related death, or to imprisonment. How ever, the drug trade can also be placed in a broader social, political, and economic context. The international drug trade is a thriving black market industry. Its commodities are not exchanged on the New York Stock Exchange but in shady deals on darkened shipping docks. The international drug trade is, however, a lucrative industry, and its participants reap definite financial benefits.

The drug trade impacts the legitimate global economy by diverting funds towards policing, court costs, and other punitive procedures. Border patrols and other preventative measures also cost taxpayer money that could be diverted elsewhere.

Moreover, the thriving drug industry means that impoverished people are willing to risk the concurrent dangers associated with the trade in order to reap higher wages. For example, Afghani farmers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'Drug Programme." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/undcp.html

Yamane, Maki. "The Drug Trade." 18 Feb 1997. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from  http://www.chez.com/bibelec/publications/international/drugtrade.htm
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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

References

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.
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Chevron Corporation Nyse cvx Is One

Words: 4043 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 23286843

A. (RECOPE, S.A), based on Costa Rica. There is also the Columbian nationalized oil conglomerate operating under the name Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (ECOPETROL). oth of Chevron's largest global competitors are nationalized by the nations they operate in, which make pricing and market execution strategies in these specific countries difficult. In addition, there are significant cultural differences between the U.S. And these countries as well. As a result, there continues to be a strong push towards creating more co-ownership of oil refineries, production centers and operations between U.S..-based companies working in the area and national governments. In the case of the razilian government, who approached Chevron about such an arrangement in 2008 specifically for partnership with Petroleo rasileiro S.A., Chevron declined to enter into a nationalized-based alliance with the company and nation and instead sold the assets of their refineries to rasileiro S.A. instead (Wall Street Journal, 2008). In Mexico,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arun Agrawal, Maria Carmen Lemos. (2007). A Greener Revolution in the Making? Environmental Governance in the 21st Century. Environment, 49(5), 36,38-45. Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1286913401).

Chevron, (2008). SEC Filings by Chevron. Retrieved January 10, 2009, from Chevron Investor Relations Web site:  http://investor.chevron.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=130102&p=irol-sec&secCat01.1_rs=11&secCat01.1_rc=10 

Amber Corrin (2008, November). Chevron Sells Marketing Interests in Kenya, Uganda. Global Refining & Fuels Report, 12(22), Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1593172881).

Joanna Franco (2008, March). Chevron Sanctions Four Refinery Upgrade Projects. Octane Week, XXIII (11), Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1455081191).
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Roasting Coffee Is One of

Words: 2285 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82588838

The purpose of the bowl is to catch the chaff as the coffee begins to roast. In addition some coffee beans may shoot out of the popper and the bowl will catch those beans (Romanoff). It is important that the person doing the roasting does not touch any of the beans that come out of the chute during roasting as they are likely to get burned; coffee beans hold a great deal of heat.

The article further explains that once the machine is on and roasting has begun, the author points out that the individual doing the roasting may need to tilt the popper backwards to stop the beans form falling out of the popper and the hot air moves the beans around (Romanoff). The need to tilt the machine is dependent on the depth of the machine that is used.

It will take about 3 minutes before the beans…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clarence-Smith, William Gervase, and Steven Topik, eds. The Global Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Davids, Kenneth Home coffee Roasting: Romance and Revival. McMillan, 2003.

Hudson, Mark, and Ian Hudson. "Justice, Sustainability, and the Fair Trade Movement: A Case Study of Coffee Production in Chiapas." Social Justice 31.3 (2004): 130+.

Pendell, Dale. "Shaky Grounds: The Pharmacology of Coffee." Whole Earth Summer 2002: 32+.
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Iran and Their Nuclear Development

Words: 1953 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69946272

One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."

Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.

In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…… [Read More]

References

Editors. Q&a: Iran and the Nuclear Issue. BBC News. 3 Dec. 2007. Newspaper online. Available at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4031603.stm .Internet. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.

Sadjadpour, Karim. "The Nuclear Players." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 125+.

Sagan, Scott, Kenneth Waltz, and Richard K. Betts. "A Nuclear Iran: Promoting Stability or Courting Disaster?" Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 135+.

Schake, Kori. "Dealing with a Nuclear Iran." Policy Review, no. 142 (2007): 3+.
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Yanomamo People

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50174573

Yanomamo people of Central Brazil are one of the oldest examples of the classic pre-Columbian forest footmen. They are believed to be the most primitive, culturally intact people in existence in the world. They are literally a Stone Age tribe. Cataloged by anthropologists as Neo-Indians with cultural characteristics that date back more than 8000 years. They have never discovered the wheel and the only metal they use is what has been traded to them from the outside. Their numbering system is one, two, and more than two.

The Yanomamo live in almost complete seclusion in the Amazon rain forests of South America. Apart from their periodic warfare, they have managed to build and sustain their unique culture through adaptations to their environment for generations.

There are approximately 23,000 Yanomamo spread among roughly 225 villages in the Amazon Basin. Each village acts autonomously, but has alliances with other villages that carry…… [Read More]

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Threat Assessment

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53323341

Threat Assessment

South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)

Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.

a. Stated goals and…… [Read More]

Resources) Some medical care and advice is offered by Cuba. A court case is presently happening in Bogota to check whether three members of the Irish Republican Army, detained in Colombia in 2001 upon quitting the FARC-controlled demilitarized zone, supplies sophisticated explosives education to the FARC. The FARC and the Colombian National Liberation Army (ELN) frequently use the border area for cross border invasions and makes use of the Venezuelan territory near the border as a refuge. (Terrorist Group Profiles, 2003)

d. Spiritual or religious support.

Could not find any information.

e. Umbrella or cover organization, if any.

As per Colombian intelligence agencies, the FARC was implementing the techniques studied from a yet another terrorist cluster, namely, the Irish Republican Army. (One year after Sept. 11, U.S. And Colombia face parallel challenges)
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3511 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23289174

S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.

Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…… [Read More]

References

Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:

Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at  http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm 

Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at  http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html 

Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
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Chinese First Emperor as With the Egyptian

Words: 1431 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99027813

Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (awson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Burstein, S.M. (2009). Ancient African Civilization: Kush and Axum. Markus Wiener Publishers.

Krishan, Y. (1996). The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Dehli: Munshiran Manoharlal Publishers.

Mitchell, S. (ed). (2000). Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. NY: Three Rivers Press.

Rawson, J. (2007). "The First Emperor's Tomb: The Afterlife Universe" in Portal, J. (ed), The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. British Museum Press: 114-51.
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People Orientated Leadership

Words: 2223 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43741796

People-Oriented Leadership

In 1911, Frederick Taylor wrote Principles of Scientific Management and Shop Management, and became the first to clearly introduce the study of people management. Taylor theorized that companies should identify the most efficient way to accomplish a job, train workers to complete each separate task in a specific way and provide equitable rewards for productivity improvements. Although Taylor is often criticized for his scientific approach that emphasized a strict division of labor and repetitive tasks, he is also commended for recognizing the need for cooperation between management and employees, fair rewards for positive work results and training programs. Over the past century, as increased globalization and technology has placed an emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and a highly competitive customer-based service economy, a shift has occurred in organizations from task- to people-orientation. It is imperative for companies to meet the specific needs of their varied constituents --…… [Read More]

References:

Amabile, Teresa M. And Steven J. Kramer (2007). Inner Work Life: Understanding the Subtext of Business Performance, Harvard Business Review, 85 (5), 72-83.

Archer, C.A. (2009) Different Path, A Different Result: A New Consciousness Model for Businesses. New York: I Universe.

Bensimon, E.M., Neumann, A., & Birnbaum, R. (1989). Making sense of administrative leadership: The "L" word in higher education. ASHE-ERIC Higher education report. Washington: The George Washington UniversityGeorge Washington University, at Washington, D.C.; coeducational; chartered 1821 as Columbian College (one of the first nonsectarian colleges), opened 1822, became a university in 1873, renamed 1904.

.Click the link for more information..
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What Is the Day of the Dead

Words: 3003 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21314877

Dead (Dia de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday that is also celebrated around the world in other countries where Hispanics are located, such as North America, Brazil, Spain, etc. Its roots are located both in the oman Catholic observance of All Saints and All Souls Days in November and in the pagan customs of the Aztecs who celebrated worship of the Mictecacihuatl, the Queen of the Underworld. In recent times the Day of the Dead has taken on a more nationalistic meaning than the traditional associations of spirituality (Masses and prayers offered for the dead) of oman Catholicism. In fact, Day of the Dead celebrations were unheard of in Mexico before the 1900s. Prior to the evolution of the early 20th century, much of Mexico celebrated only the Catholic All Saints and All Souls Days and resisted any celebration by nationalistic or pagan sects of the Day of the Dead,…… [Read More]

References

Day, F.S. (2003). Latina and Latino Voices in Literature: Lives and Works. Westport,

CT: Greenwood.

Kanellos, N. (1994). Handbook of Hispanic Culture in the United States: Anthropology.

Houston, TX: Arte Publico Press.
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Mission and Silence Themes of

Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 503099



In both Silence and the Mission, violence breaks out among two types of European foreigners: those who would favor religious priorities over economic ones (the priests), and those who would favor economic priorities over religious ones (the European tradesmen in Silence and the Portuguese and Spanish bounty hunters in the Mission. Moreover, according to Pena, like the Jesuits in the Mission, who are alone, isolated, at odds with their church, and sometimes even each other, "Rodrigues' trials are exacerbated by his physical and cultural isolation... Culturally, he must confront being in a nation whose language and customs are mostly alien and threatening to him."

In the Mission, the story begins when a bounty-hunting Spaniard, Rodrigo, kills his younger brother Felipe over a woman they both love, but who loves only Felipe. Languishing in prison afterward, Rodrigo is certain that all is lost until he is visited in his prison cell…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Endo, Shusaku. Silence. London: Taplinger, 1980.

Joffe, Rolfe (Dir.). The Mission.

With Robert De Niro and Jeremy Irons.

United Kingdom. 1986.
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Illegal Immigrants in the U S

Words: 2196 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39582268



So who is an American and what an America can or cannot do are questions which are critical to the issue of legalizing immigrants. Does being an American mean you cannot show allegiance to any other country? The images of people raising and waving Mexican flag had enraged many but it need not have. It should be accepted that people who come from different countries would forever hold in their hearts a deep respect and love for their homeland. However to put the interests of home country ahead of your adopted country or to work in a way that benefits the home country but not the new country would definitely cause serious concern. It would be definitely foolish to direct or guide the behavior of illegal immigrants regarding countries and allegiance, but they should be expected to not work against the interests of their adopted land. That is fair and…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, Leahy Colleen. Growing Up and Old In Italian-American Families, page 223, 1985

Michael T. Lempres. "Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration." National Review 46.3 (1994): 52.

Ted Hayes. "Illegal Immigration Threatens U.S. Sovereignty, Economy and Culture." Insight on the News 16.36 (2000): 46.

Michelle Malkin. "Dismissing the Dangers of Illegal Immigration." Insight on the News 18.32 (2002): 46.