Communicable Diseases Essays (Examples)

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Communicable Disease

Words: 1456 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85009674

Communicable Disease: Influenza

Description of the Disease

Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…… [Read More]

References

Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.

Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.

Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.

Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
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Communicable Disease HIV

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90527718

Communicable Disease - HIV

Since its discovery as a wasting disease, "gay-related immune deficiency" and "slim" in the mid-1980's, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. hrough the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. oday, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.

History of HIV

According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940's and that HIV-1 -- the most common viral strain -- was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980's medical professionals noticed that a "wasting disease"…… [Read More]

The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).

Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups

As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco's large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San
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Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]

References

ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site:  http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ aboutDHAP.htm

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
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Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84094096

Communicable Disease: Measles

Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…… [Read More]

References

Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The

Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.

Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
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Individual With a Communicable Disease That Is

Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68800986

individual with a communicable disease that is a disability is other wise qualified for the job?

Individuals with disease can be judged for qualifications in the same way as any other individual applying for a job. Communicable or infectious diseases are considered to constitute a disability when the disease is impairing to such a degree that it "limits one or more major life activities" (Human Resources UNC). In these cases, individuals with communicable disease should be treated like any other disability. When judging whether a disabled individual is qualified for a job, it must be determined if they can perform the specific job with reasonable accomodations. If a communicable disease does not result in disability, then the individual should be judged as a nondisabled person. Additionally, law generally "permits an employer to fail to hire, transfer, promote, or to discharge a disabled person if the person has a communicable disease…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choose Charity. "How to Run a Business Without Hiding Your Faith." http://choosecharity.org/titlevii_information.htm#_edn1

Cohen, Michael. "As Freely As Everyone Else" Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Home& CONTENTID=25218& TEMPLATE=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm

Human Resources UNC. "Summary of Applicable Laws and Policy Guidelines." Human Resources University of North Carolina. http://hr.unc.edu/Data/SPA/employeerelations/summary-of-laws

Rochelle, Dudley. "Ten Tips for Employers to Avoid Religious Discrimination" Marketplace Leaders. http://marketplaceleaders.org/articles_view.asp?articleid=5623& columnid=743
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Addressing Childhood Communicable Disease

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93735020

Intra-Health International

One of the tope 10 global health issues identified by Intra-Health International in 2013 is: Helping even more children to live longer. According to the 2012 UNICEF report,

Committing to Child Survival: A Promise enewed, the number of child deaths has decreased in many countries across the globe ("Intra-Health," 2013). Indeed, child mortality rates have decreased nearly 50% from a 1990 figure of 12 million under-five deaths to a 2011 figure of 6.9 million. In absolute terms, if the child mortality rate could be reduced to just 20 child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035, a minimum of 45 million children saved ("Intra-Health," 2013). ecommendations from the Child Survival Call to Action hosted by USAID point to the need for better and more systematic collection of health sector data, as well as better implementation of high-impact interventions to tackle the major causes of newborn…… [Read More]

References

Mitku, K., Bedada, T., Masresha, B., Wenemagegn, K., Nafo-Traore, F., Tesfaye, N., and Beyene, B. (2011). The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(1), S239-S242. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir120. Retreived from  http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/204/suppl_1/S239.full.pdf+html 

____. (2013, January 15). The top 10 global health issues to watch in 2013. Intra-Health International. Retrieved from  http://www.intrahealth.org/page/the-top-10-global-health-issues-to-watch-in-2013
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Preventing Disease

Words: 757 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16905925

Health Map

The risk of a pandemic disease spreading throughout the globe is higher than it has ever been in the history of the world. The massive population boom and rapid travel methods have combined to demonstrate that germs and diseases are potential weapons against the health and welfare of the population. To help remedy this cause, technology has shown us that, with its proper implementation, it can have a great benefit to those who are designated to protect the population from such threats.

The purpose of this essay is to highlight the importance of surveillance in the fight against such communicable disease outbreaks. To accomplish this task, this essay will detail the benefits and limitations of the surveillance system HealthMap. This essay will discuss how this particular piece of technology contributes to minimizing and eliminating potential threats.

HealthMap

The HealthMap system is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (nd). Appendix D; The HealthMap System. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/appendices/appendix-d-the-healthmap-system

HealthMap.org. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://healthmap.org/en/

Schlipkoter U, Flahault A. Communicable diseases: achievements and challenges for public health. Public Health Reviews 2010;32:90-119. Retrieved from  http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/show/f/33
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Strategies of Containing Contagious Diseases

Words: 1241 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90531639

Applying Epidemiology

The case study centers mainly on analyzing the symptoms of an unknown disease experienced by students at one of the universities in Central South Texas. The students were suffering from nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. The two students reported the food they had taken in one of the local pizzerias had caused the illness. Other analyses on the 23 students seek to investigate the illness whose symptoms are described in the study. In order to do this, tests on the existence of certain disease-causing agents such as Listeria, Vibrio, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Escherichia Coli will be undertaken. The presence or absence of these organisms will aid the identification of the disease ailing the students. Besides, the case study describes the locality of the university succinctly and a place where it gets its water services. Analytically, the case study relates the unknown illness that the students suffer from to…… [Read More]

References

Committee on Communicable Diseases Affecting Man, Food Subcommittee (1988). Procedures

to Investigate Foodborne Illness. Fourth Edition, Des Moines, Iowa: International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc.

Community and Public Health Online. Epidemiological Case Study 1. Gastroenteritis at a
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Response Team Problems

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91489947

Cholera

The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.

This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.

Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks

It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…… [Read More]

References

Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827

The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from  http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf 

Vaccinations in disaster situations: Recommendations of the PAHO/WHO special program for vaccines and immunization (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.paho.org/English/PED/te_vacc.htm
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HIV Management

Words: 1538 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30136805

communicable disease for discussion is HIV. HIV is the precursor to AIDS and is a virus with possible origins within the monkeys and chimp population of Africa. Some humans in certain areas of Africa ate these animals and may have been exposed to the virus where it transformed into aids. Because of HIV's ability to destroy CD4 cells, a particular kind of white blood cell, which plays a big part in aiding the body fight illness, it severely weakens a person's immune system. Eventually, it can progress to AIDS. This happens when an individual's CD4 count goes below 200 or experience complications that define AIDS like tuberculosis.

Transmission of HIV comes from infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions that must enter a person's body. Ordinary contact does not result in infection like hugging, dancing, or kissing a person with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through water, insect bites, or air.…… [Read More]

References

Aids.gov,. (2015). Presidential Advisory Council on HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 1 April 2015, from https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/pacha/about-pacha/

Layzell, S., & McCarthy, M. (1993). Specialist or generic community nursing care for HIV / AIDS patients?. J Adv Nurs, 18(4), 531-537. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18040531.x
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Role of Public Health Nurses in HIV Prevention

Words: 1868 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14200387

Epidemiology of Communicable Disease - HIV

Epidemiology of Communicable Disease

Description of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that can lead to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, in susceptible people. Although the human body can eliminate some types of viruses, it cannot eliminate HIV, so once a person get HIV, they have the virus for life.

Within an organism, the HIV virus spreads via body fluids, affecting certain cells of the immune system. These cells are referred to as T cells or CD4 cells. As HIV moves through the body, such a massive number of T cells are destroyed that the body can no longer effectively fight off infections and other diseases. This is the point at which an HIV infection results in full-blown AIDS.

Although…… [Read More]

References:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC) Retrieved  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ 

Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. AIDS.gov. Retreived http://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/

Control of Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: Public Health Guide for Emergencies. The Johns Hopkins and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retreived  http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-refugee-and-disaster-response/publications_tools/publications/_CRDR_ICRC_Public_Health_Guide_Book/Pages_from_Chapter_7_.pdf
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Hispanics Living in Alabama

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92063692

Hispanics Living in Alabama

The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.

Of all industries…… [Read More]

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International Transmission of Measles

Words: 464 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15694688

Spread of Measles Globally

Community Health Nursing: Environmental and Global Health Issues and How Communities Are Affected by Environmental and Global Health Issues

This study intends to examine the impact of increased mobility of the human population, the spread of disease, changes in vaccination patterns and the global issues for health community health professionals. This study intends to analyze the communicable disease outbreak of measles and to discuss the route of transmission of measles. In addition, this work will create a graphic representation of the outbreak's international pattern of movement or possible movement.

Measles Outbreaks In Europe

It is reported that measles outbreaks in Europe served to contribute to a global rise in the number of reported measles cases between 2009 and 2010 stated at 7,499 and 30,625 cases respectively. The outbreaks in Africa over the same time period are reported as representative of a "widespread resurgence of measles that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Global Measles and Rubella: Strategic Plan 2012-2020. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/Measles_Rubella_StrategicPlan_2012_2020.pdf
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Importance of Environmental Planning

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33079229

Environmental Planning

Human life could not exist without their basic needs being met. Humans need water, air, food, adequate space, and shelter to survive. However, humans need these things to be clean and safe. Today, emphasis is on protecting the environment. Many times focus is on protecting a certain plant or animal species, but protecting the environment does not stop there. Many things can threaten the human environment and endanger human ability to survive. This essay will explore the need to protect the environment so that it can sustain human life.

Humans face many threats to their environment that can have a significant impact on its ability to sustain life, or to maintain the quality of life for people within it. Waste Management is an essential part of maintaining an environment that is safe for humans. Humans must be protected from biological agents that can harm or kill them. Controlling…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d.). Avian Influenza (Bird Flu). U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian / .

Routt, D. (2008, July 20) The Economic Impact of the Black Death. EH.Net Encyclopedia,

edited by Robert Whaples. Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/Routt.Black.Death
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Genetics Technology

Words: 2679 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77976389

Genetics Technology

WHERE THE UCK STOPS

Interdisciplinary Team

This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical

Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf

Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107

# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
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Levels of Prevention

Words: 794 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40241845

Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.

The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…… [Read More]

References

Baker, J.E.L. (1992). Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Reducing Pesticide-Related Illness in Farmers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 245-254. doi: 10.2307/3427201

Flaskerud, J.H. (1992). HIV Disease and Levels of Prevention. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 137-150. doi: 10.2307/3427251

Green, M.M. (1971). The Expanded Role of the Public Health Nurse. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, 62(2), 147-152. doi: 10.2307/41984635

Ureda, J., & Yates, S. (2005). A SYSTEMS VIEW of HEALTH PROMOTION. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 28(1), 5-38. doi: 10.2307/41288055
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Influenza Pandemics Past and Future

Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80600468

Future:

For many centuries, the influenza virus has been a threat to the health of humans as strains of this virus continue to spread quickly worldwide, especially during the flu season i.e. from late fall through winter. It's estimated that between 5% to 20% of America's population contact the flu and exhibit symptoms like headaches, digestive and breathing difficulties, muscle aches, and high fever. As a result, an estimated 36,000 people in America die from influenza annually because of the high rate of infections. Therefore, the virus has continued to be a major health challenge to many people to an extent that its one of the major pandemics throughout the world.

Human Activities Contributing to Environmental Problems:

Similar to other communicable diseases, many people continue to suffer from the devastating effects of the influenza virus. In the past few years, numerous attempts have been made to understand the science underlying…… [Read More]

References:

"Chapter One: Unintended Consequences." (n.d.). Department of Health and Ageing. Retrieved from Australian Government website: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/62447BB3FD99D740CA256F1900041F2D/$File/chapter1.pdf

"Research: The Scientific Method." (n.d.). Small Island Environmental Management. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from  http://islands.unep.ch/siemh1.htm
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Healthy People 2020 Review of Three Articles

Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38801242

Healthy People 2020

eview of Three Articles from Healthy People 2020

Global Health

The goal of improved global health is to strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies. Threats to health in one part of the world may have far reaching consequences that impact public health across the globe. The 2003 SAS epidemic and the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak are recent examples. Furthermore, improving the health of the global population promotes political stability, diplomacy, and economic growth worldwide.

The world and its economies are increasingly interdependent and international travel and commerce is becoming more prevalent. Expanding international trade introduces new health risks. A complex international distribution chain has resulted in potential international outbreaks due to food borne infections, poor quality pharmaceuticals, and contaminated consumer goods. Since the 1970s one or more new diseases have been identified annually. apid identification and control of emerging infectious…… [Read More]

References

"Early and middle childhood." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=10

"Global health." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=16

"Immunization and infectiuos diseases." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicId=23
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Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

elative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]

References

Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]

References

Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.

Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO

Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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Chlamydia Trachomatis

Words: 1117 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83474203

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.

Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)

Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004,

http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact330/lecturechlamydia

2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,

 http://www.cdc.gov/std/Chlamydia/STDFact-Chlamydia.htm
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Jacme D Agramont Regimen of Protection Against Epidemics

Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17853793

Jacme d'Agramont: Regimen of Protection against Epidemics

The objective of this study is to answer the following questions: (1) According to Jacme, what is the "pestilence"? How does his definition of pestilence fit into the "Western traditional medicine" framework? (2) How does Jacme explain how plague is caused? What is the "Western traditional medicine" rationale behind his explanation of the plague causation? (3) What is the "Western traditional medicine" rationale behind Jacme's explanation of the symptoms of the plague? And (4) What is the "Western traditional medicine" rationale behind Jacme's advice for avoiding (or surviving) the plague?

Pestilence

Jacme states that pestilence arises from diverse changes in the air "as well as in its qualities as in its substance causing diverse properties from which arise "diverse consequences." Jacme writes that pestilence is a "contra-natural change of the air in its qualities or in its substance; from which arise in living…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wallis, Faith (2010) Two Case Studies in Medieval Medicalization: Leprosy and Plague. Health and the Healer in Western History. Medicine and Medieval Science.

Duran-Reynals, ML and Winslow, CE (1949) Regiment de preservacio an epidimia o pestilencis e mortaldats. Epistole de Maestre Jacme d'Agramont als honrats e discrets seynnors pahers e conseyll de la Ciutat le leyda 1348. Regimen of Protections against Epidemics or Pestilence and Mortality." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 23 (1949): 57-89.

Vaugh, M. in: Loudon, K. (2002) Western Medicine: An Illustrated History. Oxford University Press.
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H5N1 Avian Influenza Much Like

Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50652036

, 1378).

Much like other influenza a viruses, the virion of the H5N1 virus is enveloped and is either spherical or filamentous as to its formation and in clinical isolates, the virus has been shown to be more filamentous, while in some laboratory strains, it appears more spherical (eigel, et al., 1379). As to the genome of the H5N1 virus, this is composed of eight single non-paired RNA strands, containing a code with eleven specific proteins; the overall size is estimated at 13,588 bases (eigel, et al., 1379). According to Wang and Jiang, the entry of the H5N1 virus into a host cell is mediated by hemagglutinin, "a virus surface glycoprotein that can bind terminal sialic acid residues on host cell glycoproteins and glycolipids (2009, Internet).

In most cases, treatment of the H5N1 influenza virus includes immediate hospitalization in the intensive care unit and being placed on a ventilator, along…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Avian Influenza -- Bird Flu." CDC. 2009. Internet. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian.

Beigel, John H., et al. "Avian Influenza (H5N1) Infection in Humans." New England

Journal of Medicine. Vol. 353 (September 29, 2005): 1374-1385.

"History of Avian Flu." 2009. Internet. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://www.
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HIV Infection and Its Implications

Words: 2318 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8730084

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Description of the communicable disease

Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…… [Read More]

References

Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/

Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2

Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.

CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf
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Global Health Vast Differences Exist Between Developed

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33808165

Global Health

Vast differences exist between developed and developing countries with regard to mortality, chronic diseases, and communicable diseases. Lack of adequate healthcare, poorer living conditions, and lack of health-related education all contribute to the poorer health experienced in developing countries. Factors such as population aging, the persistent spread of HIV / AIDS, and increased disease burden are also present in developing countries (Mathers, 2006). The following discussion presents the disparity in global health between poorer, developing countries and countries in the developed world.

One of the most prominent causes of death in developing countries with low incomes is mortality due to communicable diseases. Impoverished countries are more vulnerable to deaths from communicable diseases that are more successfully treated and prevented in wealthier, developed countries (Mathers et al., 2009). In particular, deaths among children under the age of five in developing countries, which account for seven out of 10 deaths…… [Read More]

References

Mathers, C., Boerma, T. Ma Fat, D. (2009). Global and regional causes of death. British Medical Bulletin, 92, 7-32. Retrieved 7 September 2012, from  http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/1/7.full.pdf+html .

Mathers, C., Loncar, D. (2006). Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Medicine, 3(11), e442. Retrieived 7 September, 2012 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1664601/pdf/pmed.0030442.pdf .
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Avian Flu Avian Influenza If

Words: 8056 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63286298



In the event of such an epidemic, it is reasonable to assume that public health departments will be pressed to find ways to maintain their services even when employees are ill, normal supply chains are disrupted, and the nation's infrastructure is inoperative; furthermore, the traditional roles of environmental health professionals can also be expected to change in dramatic ways during a period of pandemic influenza (Fabian, 2006). As U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Secretary Leavitt has noted, states and local jurisdictions will be in the vanguard of the battle that has 5,000 fronts. According to the secretary, "A lot is going to be expected of us. Fortunately, a great deal of the preparation activities laid out below have already become part of our awareness and skill set as a result of some of the terrorism and emergency response planning that public health has recently experienced" (Fabian, 2006, p.…… [Read More]

References

Aguirre, A.A., House, C., Ostfeld, R.S., Pearl, M.C., & Tabor, G.M. (2002). Conservation medicine: Ecological health in practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235

Chikombero, P.M., Haridakis, P.M., Hullman, G.A., Pornsakulvanich, V., & Sun, S. (2003). Television exposure not predictive of terrorism fear. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 128.

Executive Order. (April 1, 2005). Amendment to E.O. 13295 relating to certain influenza v iruses and quarantinable communicable diseases.
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Department of Health and Human

Words: 3373 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58176948

In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).

This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Definition of HHS. (2008). Medicine Net. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10710

DeNoon, Daniel. (2008). Controversy over new 'conscience' rule. Medicine Net.

Retrieved January 2, 2009 at  http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=95180 

Dowshen, Steven. (2008, August). CDC: Measles outbreaks may be tied to parents' choice not to vaccinate. The Children's Hospital. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.thechildrenshospital.org/wellness/info/news/62622.aspx
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China's Healthcare System China Is

Words: 2216 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41770052

"

More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.

On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

China. World Health Organization. http://www.wpro.who.int/chips/chip01/chn.htm. Accessed 16 November 2004 review of evidence: China's path to better health and development. World Health

Organization. http://www.google.com/u/who?q=cache:dMwKxNx4q4YJ:www.who.int/entity/macrohealth/action/en/ShanghaiPaperRevJuly2004.pdf+china's+health+care+system&hl=en&ie=UTF-8. Accessed 16 November 2004

The Specter of SARS: China's failure to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome has economic causes and consequences. World and I. 01 July 2003; Pp.

Rask, Kolleen J. Healthcare Reform in Transitional China: Its Impact on Accounting and Financial Management. Research in Healthcare Financial Management. 01 January 2001; Pp.
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Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About HIV in the USA

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83204211

Epidemiology of HIV

Epidemiology & Communicable Disease

Description of HIV

HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).

HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…… [Read More]

References

Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from  http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03 #S2X

____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from  http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/ 

____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Retreived from  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ basics/index.html
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History of Quarantine in the

Words: 3672 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17203367

She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.

The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.

It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…… [Read More]

References

Barroni & Lemer, (1993). Temporarily Detained: Tuberculous Alcoholics in Seattle: 1949

through 1960. Public Health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 86 No. 2. http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/257.pdf

Elizabeth & Daniel M., (1988). AIDS: The Burdens of History. PP 151-152. London: University

of California Press Ltd. retrieved on May 17, 2010 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=z6NTN5uYOEAC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=the+most+concerted+attack+on+civil+liberties+in+the+name+of+public+health+in+American+history.%22&source=bl&ots=ex3b2rbZNW&sig=A0oWLrxni6iipuMdeUwT5jiCzEI&hl=en&ei=jvXyS6jkJZGnsAazg8HrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=the%20most%20concerted%20attack%20on%20civil%20liberties%20in%20the%20name%20of%20public%20health%20in%20American%20history.%22&f=false
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Immunization of Children in the United States

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68898787

Immunization of children in the United States [...] full detail why the immunization rate of children in the U.S. is high, and the validity of the reasons why some parents choose not to immunize their children. It will also explain if those children will be protected by "herd immunity." Most children in the United States receive immunization from a variety of diseases when they are toddlers. Yet, some parents choose not to immunize their children for a variety of reasons. The question remains, are these children protected adequately, and do they pose a danger to other, already immunized children?

IMMUNIZATION IN THE U.S.

Most people take immunization of children in the United States for granted. Everyone immunizes his or her children, right? Well, not exactly. In the United States, laws in all 50 states require child immunization before a child can enter school. Vaccinations may include:

vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "Immunization Laws." Center for Disease Control. 2003. 3 April 2003. http://www.cdc.gov/od/nvpo/law.htm

Horner, Sharon D., and Linda Murphy. "Creating Alternative Immunization Clinics to Maintain and Improve Community Immunization Rates." Journal of Community Health Nursing 16.2 (1999): 121-132.

James, Walene. Immunization: The Reality behind the Myth. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1995.
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Ethical Perspectives Summarize Briefly the Organization's Background

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46607580

Ethical Perspectives

Summarize briefly the organization's background / history.

The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1948. This was in response to the need for an entity which could address issues impacting various countries and their overall quality of health. They began cataloguing and analyzing how communicable diseases can be prevented over the long-term through effective coordination. Since this time, they have achieved a number of milestones through this approach to include: working to develop a vaccine for polio, helping to conduct the first heart transplant, focusing on effective vaccinations (in order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases), providing essential drugs to over 156 countries, the eradication of small pox and working to coordinate with various stakeholders around the globe. ("An Introduction to the World Health Organization," 2007)

Its primary mission is continuing to evolve with a focus on a number of objectives. The most notable include:

Providing…… [Read More]

References

An Introduction to the World Health Organization. (2007). WHO. Retrieved from:  http://www.who.int/about/brochure_en.pdf 

Health Ethics. (2011). WHO. Retrieved from:  http://www.who.int/ethics/publications/ETX_Newsletter_May2011.pdf 

How Culture Influences Health Beliefs. (2012). Euro Med Info. Retrieved from:  http://www.euromedinfo.eu/how-culture-influences-health-beliefs.html/
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Origin of HIV the Mystery of HIV

Words: 6006 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35184502

Origin of HIV

The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus

SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.

Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients

with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
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Smallpox Medical - Epidemiology Smallpox

Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59654184

6). What doctors do know is that the young, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are far more likely to suffer adverse effects or become contaminated should an epidemic break out. These populations are also far more likely to develop the disease or suffer from side effects of vaccination which may include a heart attack (Annas, 2003).

Many suggest the risk is unknown, because the disease is nearly eradicated, it would take a modern outbreak to ascertain the prognosis of individuals with the disease in modern times. Many feel however, that discourse on the subject is best left unsaid, because the more people discuss the disease, the more likely it is that someone will inadvertently get hold of the disease and attempt to use it.

eferences

Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the isk," the Hastings Center eport, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.…… [Read More]

References

Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the Risk," the Hastings Center Report, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002) Smallpox fact sheet, smallpox overview. Retrieved December 7, 2007: http://www.cdc.gov/smallpox

Giblin, James C. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. New York:

Harper Collins, 1995.
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Typhoid Fever About 400 Cases

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28254775

When they enter the gallbladder and lymphatic tissue they multiply in enormous numbers. It is when they re-enter the intestinal tract that the disease can be diagnosed from stool samples.

Symptoms

The first symptoms are usually headache, muscle pain and a fairly high fever. The problem is that these symptoms only occur about ten days after infection. It isn't until four to five days later that a rash occurs. The rash takes on the appearance of small, flat, red spots. A week after that those spots darken and look like bruises. If the disease has progressed this far, the patient begins to have short periods of unconsciousness, then the kidneys fail, a cough begins, and the rash turns to gangrene in the extremities. If no treatment has been given at this point, up to 50 per cent of patients die. It is possible to survive without treatment, with luck, but…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CBWInfo.com. "Typhoid Fever: essential data." 1999. cbwinfo.com. 18 February 2010 .

Encyclopedia of Health. "Typhoid Fever." Encyclopedia of Health, Volume 17. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. 1052.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "Typhoid Fever." 24 October 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 February 2010 .
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World Health and Globalization the

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86771706

The text identifies one practical reason that this is the case, indicating that "One of the particularly threatening aspects of this compression of time is that people can now cross continents in periods of time shorter than the incubation periods of most diseases. This means that, in some cases, travelers can depart from their point of origin, arrive at their destination, and begin infecting people without even knowing that they are sick." (3) This means that an epidemic can be spread from multiple "ground zero" locations before it is even clear that the condition in question has come to reflect so significant a threat of proliferation. To the practical interests of preventing the disease's further spread, this denotes a real and substantial challenge to public health and safety administrators in the developed world. Quite to this point, the text reveals that the United States has experienced a greater level of…… [Read More]

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Plagues and People By William

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70139894

Regardless, it is important to remember that disease and widespread outbreaks cause existential crises within the population, often just as much as political and economic instability, and as well as the fact that disease itself is a cause of political and economic instability. This is not simply true of the estern tradition, but also true in China, where Buddhism took root in conservative, Confucian China after a plague wiped out nearly half of the population. And disease can also give rise to a lack of faith -- McNeill suggests that the 18th century Enlightenment was spawned partly because industrialization and urbanization created fetid cities with poor sanitation, which gave rise to epidemics that caused people to doubt the existence of a caring God.

The discovery of the sources of diseases, like insects and rats, were undoubtedly a boon to mankind. ithout the delousing of during orld ar I many soldiers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McNeill, William H. Plagues and People. Anchor Press, 1976.
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Funding for AIDS in Africa

Words: 3546 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1779188

The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)

Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…… [Read More]

References

Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN

Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.

DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's

Sons: New York.
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Impact of AIDS on African Development

Words: 2794 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39638956

AIDS on South African Development

Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS

Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.

Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:

Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
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Global Health the World Is an Increasingly

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58393819

Global Health

The world is an increasingly shrinking place. Globalization has interconnected countries through trade and technology (De Cock, Simone, Davison, Slutsker, 2010). Today's economic turmoil is a great example of how is essentially one big web: one country's economic downturn has a domino effect on others. Globalization has other consequences, such as the migration of people from areas of low economic development to those of growing economies. Also with the rise of powerful multinational corporations with global interests, they need a mobile international workforce. Essentially, the world is becoming one big community. In respect to global health this has certain implications. Events such as an epidemic in Ghana or an outbreak of tuberculosis in China are no longer isolated events. What happens in one corner in the world has the capability of being felt all over. If there is war and disease, this creates refugee populations that can unbalance…… [Read More]

References

De Cock, K.M., Simone, P.M., Davison, V., & Slutsker, L. (2013). The New Global Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(8), 1192-1197. doi:10.3201/eid1908.130121

Requejo Harris, J., Merialdi, M., Merzagora, F., Aureli, F., & Bustreo, F. (2010). The World Health Organization Policy on Global Women's Health: New Frontiers. Journal Of Women's Health (15409996), 19(11), 2115-2118. doi:10.1089/jwh.2010.2101

Stambos, V., Leydon, J., Riddell, M., Clothier, H., Catton, M., Featherstone, D., & Kelly, H. (2011). Evaluation of the World Health Organization Global Measles and Rubella Quality Assurance Program, 2001-2008. Journal Of Infectious Diseases, 204S499-S505. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir128
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Occupational Health and Safety There

Words: 4258 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39413158

Combined with the human development index these studies showed that using parameters that affect the standards like education, longevity, and standard of living it is possible to predict the environmental health factors, and find the actual health indicators. (Corvalan; Briggs; Zielhuis, 2000, p. 159)

The first problem is the distinguishing between health promotion and health education. Work place health actions tend to be concerned about disease prevention. So far it was up to the institutions to take care of workplace hazards. There were no proper evaluation methods. In Britain safety and health was not given any importance and this trend is changing with the claims filed by employees for damage. Today employers are more concerned with health issues, and health promotion has gone beyond occupational health promotion. (Wilkinson, 2001, p. 50) the management of risk begins with the evaluation of the risk qualitatively and quantitatively. The quantitative analysis of risks…… [Read More]

References

Boyd, Carol. (2003) Human Resource Management and Occupational Health and Safety. Routledge. New York.

Brune, Dag; Edling, Christer. (1989) Occupational Hazard in the Health Professions. CRC Press.

Corvalan, C; Briggs, D; Zielhuis, G. (2000) Decision-Making in Environmental Health From evidence to action. E&FN Spon. London.

N.A. (1995) Occupational Hazards for Hospital Workers. MFL Occupational Health Centre, Inc., http://www.mflohc.mb.ca/fact_sheets_folder/hospital_work-occupational%20hazards.html. Date accessed 11/3/08.
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Pandemic Flu Impact on Ethics in Nursing Practice

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59587575

Pandemic Flu Impact on Ethics in Nursing Practice

Pandemic flu: A literature review

The dire scenario of a pandemic flu is likely to strike fear in the heart of many healthcare workers, regardless of the level of their experience and knowledge. The 2009-2010 flu season brought additional attention to the issue. 208 countries "had confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 and [stated] that over 13,000 people had died as a direct result" (Stroschein 2010). Although the death toll was not as great as feared, issues regarding how to cope with a pandemic and the need for immunization were brought to the forefront of the public consciousness and the concerns of healthcare workers.

Fears of a pandemic are not limited to the general public at large. In fact, "one of the ethical issues identified in response to a possible pandemic is healthcare workers' duty to provide care during a communicable…… [Read More]

References

Goldenberg, S. (2009). The swine flu pandemic. Journal of Continuing Education Topics & Issues, 11(3), 108-111

Manos, J. (2009). Lessons learned from the first wave of the swine flu pandemic. Occupational Health, 61(11), 30-30.

Santibanez, S., Fiore, Anthony E., Merlin, T.L., & Redd, S. (2009). A

primer on strategies for prevention and control of seasonal and pandemic influenza. American Journal of Public Health, 99, S216-24.
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Lifebuoy Saves the Day The Importance of

Words: 313 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79951148

Lifebuoy saves the Day": The importance of hand-washing

There is an old nursery rhyme: "for want of a nail, the shoe was lost, for want of a shoe, the horse was lost, for want of a rider, the horse was lost." This rhyme's meaning is simple: seemingly inconsequential carelessness can be very significant and ignoring proper precautions can have grave consequences. This principle can clearly be seen in the importance of hand-washing with soap. Soap is a simple, everyday commodity but it is vitally necessary to remove the dirt, oils, and residue that carry viruses and bacteria from the outside environment into our bodies.

Nurses, doctors, and food service personnel are all required to wash their hands by law, to avoid spreading communicable diseases. Diseases spread due to a lack of proper sanitation span from influenza to E. coli and salmonella poisoning to drug-resistant bacteria. The consequences of not washing…… [Read More]

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Air Traffic

Words: 28110 Length: 110 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54322150

air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).

In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]

References

Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
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Duty to Treat

Words: 2350 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68550476

goal of their ethical calling, physicians, nurses and other health care workers are obliged to treat the sick and potentially infectious patients and, in so doing, they are to take some personal risk (Murray 2003). This was the bottom line of the assessment and stand made by Dr. Henry Masur and his colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), particularly during the outbreak of dread global SARS in Canada and Hong Kong last year. They also referred to other epidemics, such as the HIV / AIDS.

Masur emphasized that this primary goal and obligation is voluntary and sets the medical profession apart from other professions, precisely because of the involvement of some personal risk in fulfilling that obligation. esides physicians, medical professionals are nurses, dentists and health workers. Records of the first SARS outbreaks in Toronto and Hong Kong showed that a huge 50% of those…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Katz, Laura L. And Marshall B. Paul. When a Physician May Refuse to Treat a Patient. Physician's News Digest, 2000. http://www.physiciansnews.com/law.202.html

Levin, Aaron. Doctors Willing But Not Ready to Treat Deadly Bio-terror Agents. Health Behavior News Service: Center for the Advancement of Health, 2003. http://www.cfah.org/ubns/news/bioterror09-17-03.cfm

Murray, Terry. Health Care Staff Have a Duty to Treat. The Medical Post: Rogers Media, 2003. http://www.medicalpost.com/mpcontent/article.jsp.jsessionid=NJCJNDCEAGHH?content=20020515_09

Schulman, David I. The Dentist, HIV and the Law: Duty to Treat, Need to Understand. Dental Treatment Consideration, 2000. http://www.hivdent.org/dtcblaa082001.htm
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Psychological Influence of Diabetes the National Diabetes

Words: 1779 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66212281

Psychological Influence of Diabetes

Diabetes

The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.

Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…… [Read More]

References

Penckofer, S., Ferrans, C.E., Velsor-Friedrich, B., & Savoy, S. (2007). The psychological impact of living with diabetes women's day-to-day experiences. The Diabetes

Educator, 33(4), 680-690.

Sepa, A., Frodi, A., Vaarala, O., & Ludvigsson, J. (2005). Diabetes-related autoimmunity in infancy Psychological stress . Diabetes care, 28(2), 290-295.

Funnell, M.M., Brown, T.L., Childs, B.P., Haas, L.B., Hosey, G.M., Jensen, B., ... & Weiss, M.A. (2009). Self-management education and National standards for diabetes. Diabetes care, 32 (1), 87-94.
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Structure and Responsibility of Public Health

Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21567072

Public health as a discipline is really both the science and art of preventing disease, improving health, and prolonging the quality of life within a given society by use of public and private organizations. Overall, it is concerned with threats that are the type that may hurt society as a whole -- epidemics, dangers, social and mental well-being, etc. Modern public health is a multi-disciplinary field that includes medical professionals, statisticians, biologists, ecological and environmental professionals, dental professionals, nutritional experts, veterinarians, engineers, lawyers, sociologists, anthropologists, academics, and the political process itself (Rosen, 1993).

Historically, disease vectors, polluted water and pathogens, and lack of sewage without any scientific basis for control or actual understanding of pathogens created public health problems. In the modern world, public health focuses on several levels of health: local/regional, state, national and global -- typically based upon population statistics, demographics and the analysis of disease. Even in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Breslow, L. (Ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Public Health. New York: Macmillan.

Centers for Disease Control. (2012, April). National Public Health Performance Standards - Local Public Health Systems. Retrieved from cdc.gov:  http://www.cdc.gov/od/ocphp/nphpsp/documents/Local_v_1_OMB_0920-0555.pdf 

National Association of County and City Health Officials. (2011, February). Programs and Information. Retrieved from Naccho.org:  http://www.naccho.org/ 

Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
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UK Urban Health Issue

Words: 3578 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9138501

incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.

First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…… [Read More]

References

A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.

Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.

Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896

City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
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Diabetes Around the Globe

Words: 1205 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89282983

DIABETES

Global health issue exploration

As obesity becomes an increasingly serious problem worldwide, diabetes has likewise become equally problematic, given that the two conditions are interrelated. "Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity" (Hu 2011). Unless the chronic disease of type II diabetes can be better managed and contained, there are potentially severe and long-lasting consequences for the world as a whole. It is of particular concern that diabetes is becoming a health issue in the developing world, an area where under-nutrition (versus over-nutrition) was once considered to be of greater concern. The purpose of this paper will be to give an overview of the condition and its consequences for sufferers and for healthcare providers on a global level, as well as suggest possible sources of treatment

Diabetes is no longer a disease of affluence.…… [Read More]

References

Global status report on NCDs. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:

 http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd_report_chapter1.pdf?ua=1 

Hu, F. (2011). Globalization of diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34 (6)1249-1257. Retrieved from:

 http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/34/6/1249.full
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Social Determinants of Health Which

Words: 4083 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62544992

Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999).

The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in the least developed countries will be caused by the so called non-communicable diseases, WHO, (1997). In this regard, a major mind blowing public health problem in the developing world may the reality of increasing obesity in children populations which might result to major social and economic burdens on these developing nations in the coming years, (Freedman et al., 2001).

This health care problem is present in almost all parts of the world and the Arabian Gulf region is not exempted.…… [Read More]

References

Ali, H,2010.Major characteristics of Saudi hospitals http://bit.ly/kdNzPX

Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M.2001. Current concepts in the management of obesity. An evidenced-based review. Saudi Med J. 2001; 22: 20

Amin, T.T.,Al-Sultan.,A.I.,Ali.,A, 2008.Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Baum, F. 2008 The new public health (3rd Edition) Oxford University Press, Melbourne
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Why as Obesity and Diabetes Increased

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96431021

obesity and diabetes increased?

In spite of the fact that technology and medical science have experienced significant success in the recent decades, maladies like diabetes and obesity are increasing in prevalence in developed countries. This provides society with a dilemma, considering that most people fail to understand that they are actually exposed to these diseases. Moreover, these individuals are unacquainted with basic actions that they can perform in order to prevent diabetes and obesity. Even if people have access to information that can assist them in combating a great deal of diseases, the fact that they express indifference in regard to particular aspects of their health reflects negatively on their condition.

hen considering that diabetes and obesity occur more frequently in developed countries makes it possible for the masses to comprehend that certain lifestyles promoted in these areas are essential in increasing the number of individuals who suffer. hat is…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Akabas, Sharon, "Textbook of Obesity: Biological, Psychological and Cultural Influences," (John Wiley & Sons, 2012)

Hossain, Parvez M.D., Kawar, Bisher M.D., and El Nahas, Meguid M.D., Ph.D "Obesity and Diabetes in the Developing World -- A Growing Challenge," Retrieved August 5, 2012, from the New England Journal of Medicine Website: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp068177

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Health Committee, "Obesity: Oral and written evidence," (The Stationery Office, 2004)

"Obesity? Diabetes? We've been set up," Retrieved August 5, 2012, from the Harvard Gazette Website:  http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/03/the-big-setup/
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Public Health Threats in the 21st Century

Words: 1571 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69466037



Conclusion

This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…… [Read More]

References

CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014

from  http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm .

Gorin, S. (2000, February). A 'society for all ages': Saving Social Security and Medicare. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 69.

Israel, B.A. & Parker, E.A. (2006, October). Community-based participatory research: Lessons
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Women's Biology Review and Critique of a

Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43259632

Women's Biology

Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology

How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy

Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).

Review of the…… [Read More]

From: http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/population-groups/women/reviews/our-review

Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"

Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692
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Health Culture & Globalization Health Culture and

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47542333

Health, Culture & Globalization

Health, Culture and Globalization

Culture plays an integral role in the lives of societies and individuals all over the world. Across countries and societies, different kinds of culture exist and govern the daily lives of people. Defined technically, culture is the system of beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that a specific group of people perceives and considers as their worldview. Countries have different cultures, and within each culture exists sub-cultures, created because of the diversity/differences existing from even the same group of people with the same nationality, race, or ethnic membership.

Culture inadvertently affects every aspect of an individual's life. Its influence could be as mundane as deciding what to wear and eat for the day, or as critical and important not only to the individual but also to the society, such as deciding who to vote for depending on the candidate's similarities in beliefs and…… [Read More]

References

Eckersley, R. (2007). "Culture, spirituality, religion and health: looking at the big picture." The Medical Journal of Australia, (186)10 Suppl.

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. Available at:  http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/ 

Huynen, M., P. Martens and H. Hilderink. (2005). "The health impacts of globalization: a conceptual framework." Globalization and Health, (1)14.
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Stick Injury Means That the

Words: 2478 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27188220

The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)

Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…… [Read More]

References

Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.

Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps

management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness. Br J. Nurs 18(2), pp. 92 -- 8

Blenkharn, J. 2009. Sharps management and the disposal of clincal waste. British Journal of Nursing, 18 (14).
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Incidence and Morbidity of Unprotected Sexual Behavior

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98106939

risky behavior, unprotected sex can lead to serious health consequences. isky sexual behaviors include having sex frequently with strangers or multiple partners, particularly without the use of condoms. Similarly, avoiding birth control can be considered a risky sexual behavior. Physiological consequences of unprotected sex include the contraction of a sexually-transmitted infection, many of which can lead to fatal illnesses like HIV / AIDS or Hepatitis. Gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections present serious health consequences even when they are not life-threatening. In the United States, about 15 million people are infected every year with a sexually transmitted illness (SIU School of Medicine, 2010). Morbidity rates for sexually transmitted illnesses are high overall, and in fact, STIs are the most commonly reported of all communicable diseases in some states (Washington State Department of Health, 2014). Common sexually transmitted illnesses include chlamydia and herpes. Chlamydia morbidity rates are far higher for women…… [Read More]

References

Healthwise (2015). High risk sexual behavior. http://www.webmd.com/sex/tc/high-risk-sexual-behavior-topic-overview

SIU School of Medicine (2010). Sexual behavior. Retrieved online: http://www.siumed.edu/medicine/gim/sexual_behavior.htm

Washington State Department of Health (2014). STI Fast Facts. Retrieved online: http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/347-350-FastFacts2013.pdf