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I Christiew handle order Identify a communicable disease research.
(i.e HIV, Herpes) Communicable diseases rely fluid exchange, contaminated substances, close contact travel infected carrier a healthy individual.
Communicable diseases are also known as infectious diseases, contagious diseases or transmissible disease. They arise from an infection which is the presence and growth of pathogenic agents in a host organism. These pathogenic agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, some parasites, and some deviant proteins known as prions. These agents cause disease epidemics, and if the pathogen is eliminated, the epidemic does not occur.
Transmission of communicable diseases occurs in many ways including physical contact, contaminated food, body fluids, infected objects, airborne inhalation, through vector organisms. Examples of Communicable diseases are Herpes and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
HIV is a member of the retrovirus family. It causes a condition known as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.
Corey L, Wald A, Patel R, & et al. (2004). Once-daily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes. New England Journal of Medicine 350, 11-20.
Gupta R, Warren T, & Wald A. (2007). 'Genital herpes'. The Lancet, 370, 2127-2137.
Nichols L, Tchounwou PB, Mena L, Sarpong D, Source, &, Jackson, MS, . [email protected] (2009). The effects of environmental factors on persons living with HIV / AIDS. Int J. Environ Res Public Health. 2009, 6(7), 2041-2054.
Communicable Disease/Community Nursing
2003 SAS Outbreak
In November 2002, the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SAS) was reported in the Guangdong Province in China (Lau and Peiris, 2005). Over the next few months, SAS cases were reported in over two dozen countries in Asia, South America, Europe, and North America (CDC, 2004a). The biggest concentration of SAS cases appeared in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Canada (Totura and Baric, 2012). By July of 2003 the epidemic had been controlled through health measures. Overall, there were 8,096 confirmed SAS cases with a mortality rate of 9.6%.
SAS Etiology and Clinical Presentation
SAS is a respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus infection, a virus consisting of a protein capsule containing an NA viral genome (Totura and Baric, 2012). Believed to transmissible between humans through respiratory aerosols and physical contact, the febrile disease initially presents with a cough and sore throat.…
Abelsohn, Abe and Stieb, D.M. (2011). Health effects of outdoor air pollution: Approach to counseling patients using the Air Quality Health Index. Canadian Family Physician, 57(8), e280-e287.
CDC. (2004a). Fact sheet: Basic information about SARS. CDC.gov. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/about/fs-SARS.pdf .
CDC. (2004b). In the absence of SARS-CoV transmission worldwide: Guidance for surveillance, clinical and laboratory evaluation, and Reporting Version 2. CDC.gov. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/Surveillance/absence.pdf .
CDC. (2004c). Supplement B: SARS Surveillance. V. Reporting of cases of SARS-CoV disease. CDC.gov. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/guidance/B-surveillance/reporting.pdf .
The MM vaccine is an immunization against measles, mumps and ubella. ecently there has been increased media coverage that there is a link between the combined MM immunization and autism (NHS choices, 2012).This MM vaccine controversy was a case of scientific misconduct that triggered a health Scare among many communities all over the world. Though there has been extensive research worldwide that has shown no link between MM vaccines and autism. These speculations have had a great impact on parents and the community at large. First this has led to a sharp decrease of parents taking their children for vaccination. This is due to the fact that parents remain skeptical when it comes to the vaccines and they think by abstaining from the vaccine they are helping their children but in the real sense they are actually causing harm to their children. The decreased number of children receiving…
NHS choices. (2012).MMR. Retrieved December 16, 2012 from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/mmr/pages/introduction.aspx?WT.mc_id=010902
Med, J.W. (2001).Is the MMR vaccine safe. Retrieved December 16, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071313/
Centre for disease control.(2012).Botulism. Retrieved deember16, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/
Epidemiological knowledge. (2010).levels of prevention. Retrieved December 16, 2012 from http://gwxy.sysu.edu.cn/lxbx/english/epidemiologic%20knowledge/Selected%20Disease%20Concepts%20in%20Epidemiology/Level.html#
Epidemiology and Breaking Communicable Diseases at a Link Within the Communicable Disease Chain
The objective of this study is to answer as to how demographic factors affect health status, health-related behavior, or the use of health care services. ace is one demographic factor that affects health status, health-related behavior and the use of health services. For example, African-Americans "can expect to live an average of five fewer years than whites. When sex is included in the analysis, white women have the longest life span of 80.3 years, while African-American men have the shortest of 68.8 years." (Sidney S. Spivak Program in Applied Social esearch and Social Policy, 2005, p.2) Striking differences are also noted in the racial and ethnic differences in infant mortality rates in that African-American infants are reported to have the highest of all mortality rates and are "more than twice as likely as white infants to die…
Introduction to Disease Transmission and Epidemiology (2013) Principles of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Nursing411.org. Retrieved from: http://nursing411.org/Courses/MD0151_Principals_Epidem_Micro/1-11_Principals_Epidem_Micro.html
Race, Ethnicity, and the Health of Americans (2005) ASA Series on How Race and Ethnicity Matter. Sydney S. Spivak Program in Applied Social Research and Social Policy. Jul 2005. Retrieved from: http://www2.asanet.org/centennial/race_ethnicity_health.pdf
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
Communicable Disease - HIV
Since its discovery as a wasting disease, "gay-related immune deficiency" and "slim" in the mid-1980's, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. hrough the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. oday, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.
History of HIV
According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940's and that HIV-1 -- the most common viral strain -- was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980's medical professionals noticed that a "wasting disease"…
The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).
Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups
As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco's large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
individual with a communicable disease that is a disability is other wise qualified for the job?
Individuals with disease can be judged for qualifications in the same way as any other individual applying for a job. Communicable or infectious diseases are considered to constitute a disability when the disease is impairing to such a degree that it "limits one or more major life activities" (Human Resources UNC). In these cases, individuals with communicable disease should be treated like any other disability. When judging whether a disabled individual is qualified for a job, it must be determined if they can perform the specific job with reasonable accomodations. If a communicable disease does not result in disability, then the individual should be judged as a nondisabled person. Additionally, law generally "permits an employer to fail to hire, transfer, promote, or to discharge a disabled person if the person has a communicable disease…
Choose Charity. "How to Run a Business Without Hiding Your Faith." http://choosecharity.org/titlevii_information.htm#_edn1
Cohen, Michael. "As Freely As Everyone Else" Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Home& ; CONTENTID=25218& TEMPLATE=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm
Human Resources UNC. "Summary of Applicable Laws and Policy Guidelines." Human Resources University of North Carolina. http://hr.unc.edu/Data/SPA/employeerelations/summary-of-laws
Rochelle, Dudley. "Ten Tips for Employers to Avoid Religious Discrimination" Marketplace Leaders. http://marketplaceleaders.org/articles_view.asp?articleid=5623& ; columnid=743
One of the tope 10 global health issues identified by Intra-Health International in 2013 is: Helping even more children to live longer. According to the 2012 UNICEF report,
Committing to Child Survival: A Promise enewed, the number of child deaths has decreased in many countries across the globe ("Intra-Health," 2013). Indeed, child mortality rates have decreased nearly 50% from a 1990 figure of 12 million under-five deaths to a 2011 figure of 6.9 million. In absolute terms, if the child mortality rate could be reduced to just 20 child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035, a minimum of 45 million children saved ("Intra-Health," 2013). ecommendations from the Child Survival Call to Action hosted by USAID point to the need for better and more systematic collection of health sector data, as well as better implementation of high-impact interventions to tackle the major causes of newborn…
Mitku, K., Bedada, T., Masresha, B., Wenemagegn, K., Nafo-Traore, F., Tesfaye, N., and Beyene, B. (2011). The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(1), S239-S242. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir120. Retreived from http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/204/suppl_1/S239.full.pdf+html
____. (2013, January 15). The top 10 global health issues to watch in 2013. Intra-Health International. Retrieved from http://www.intrahealth.org/page/the-top-10-global-health-issues-to-watch-in-2013
The risk of a pandemic disease spreading throughout the globe is higher than it has ever been in the history of the world. The massive population boom and rapid travel methods have combined to demonstrate that germs and diseases are potential weapons against the health and welfare of the population. To help remedy this cause, technology has shown us that, with its proper implementation, it can have a great benefit to those who are designated to protect the population from such threats.
The purpose of this essay is to highlight the importance of surveillance in the fight against such communicable disease outbreaks. To accomplish this task, this essay will detail the benefits and limitations of the surveillance system HealthMap. This essay will discuss how this particular piece of technology contributes to minimizing and eliminating potential threats.
The HealthMap system is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (nd). Appendix D; The HealthMap System. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/appendices/appendix-d-the-healthmap-system
HealthMap.org. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://healthmap.org/en/
Schlipkoter U, Flahault A. Communicable diseases: achievements and challenges for public health. Public Health Reviews 2010;32:90-119. Retrieved from http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/show/f/33
The case study centers mainly on analyzing the symptoms of an unknown disease experienced by students at one of the universities in Central South Texas. The students were suffering from nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. The two students reported the food they had taken in one of the local pizzerias had caused the illness. Other analyses on the 23 students seek to investigate the illness whose symptoms are described in the study. In order to do this, tests on the existence of certain disease-causing agents such as Listeria, Vibrio, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Escherichia Coli will be undertaken. The presence or absence of these organisms will aid the identification of the disease ailing the students. Besides, the case study describes the locality of the university succinctly and a place where it gets its water services. Analytically, the case study relates the unknown illness that the students suffer from to…
Committee on Communicable Diseases Affecting Man, Food Subcommittee (1988). Procedures
to Investigate Foodborne Illness. Fourth Edition, Des Moines, Iowa: International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc.
Community and Public Health Online. Epidemiological Case Study 1. Gastroenteritis at a
From the Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Act (Section 27), venereal diseases refer to ailments like gonorrhoea, granuloma, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis, lymphopathia venereum and inguinale (Public Health Law Research, 2014). Established by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the California Regulations and Reportable Disease Information Exchange refer to a safe system used for automated disease diagnosis and monitoring. A number of certain conditions and diseases are authorized by State regulations and rules to be stated by laboratories and healthcare providers to the state healthcare agencies. The mission CPDH pursues is the enhancement of the efficacy of surveillance exercises as well as the quick identification of health occurrences amid public via the gathering of timely and up-to-date surveillance information across the State. This provides a platform for reporting as well as collection of health conditions in real time throughout the year. CPDHs and LHDs (or Local Health Departments) are both…
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…
Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827
The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf
Vaccinations in disaster situations: Recommendations of the PAHO/WHO special program for vaccines and immunization (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.paho.org/English/PED/te_vacc.htm
communicable disease for discussion is HIV. HIV is the precursor to AIDS and is a virus with possible origins within the monkeys and chimp population of Africa. Some humans in certain areas of Africa ate these animals and may have been exposed to the virus where it transformed into aids. Because of HIV's ability to destroy CD4 cells, a particular kind of white blood cell, which plays a big part in aiding the body fight illness, it severely weakens a person's immune system. Eventually, it can progress to AIDS. This happens when an individual's CD4 count goes below 200 or experience complications that define AIDS like tuberculosis.
Transmission of HIV comes from infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions that must enter a person's body. Ordinary contact does not result in infection like hugging, dancing, or kissing a person with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through water, insect bites, or air.…
Aids.gov,. (2015). Presidential Advisory Council on HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 1 April 2015, from https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/pacha/about-pacha/
Layzell, S., & McCarthy, M. (1993). Specialist or generic community nursing care for HIV / AIDS patients?. J Adv Nurs, 18(4), 531-537. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18040531.x
Hispanics Living in Alabama
The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.
Of all industries…
Spread of Measles Globally
Community Health Nursing: Environmental and Global Health Issues and How Communities Are Affected by Environmental and Global Health Issues
This study intends to examine the impact of increased mobility of the human population, the spread of disease, changes in vaccination patterns and the global issues for health community health professionals. This study intends to analyze the communicable disease outbreak of measles and to discuss the route of transmission of measles. In addition, this work will create a graphic representation of the outbreak's international pattern of movement or possible movement.
Measles Outbreaks In Europe
It is reported that measles outbreaks in Europe served to contribute to a global rise in the number of reported measles cases between 2009 and 2010 stated at 7,499 and 30,625 cases respectively. The outbreaks in Africa over the same time period are reported as representative of a "widespread resurgence of measles that…
Global Measles and Rubella: Strategic Plan 2012-2020. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/Measles_Rubella_StrategicPlan_2012_2020.pdf
Human life could not exist without their basic needs being met. Humans need water, air, food, adequate space, and shelter to survive. However, humans need these things to be clean and safe. Today, emphasis is on protecting the environment. Many times focus is on protecting a certain plant or animal species, but protecting the environment does not stop there. Many things can threaten the human environment and endanger human ability to survive. This essay will explore the need to protect the environment so that it can sustain human life.
Humans face many threats to their environment that can have a significant impact on its ability to sustain life, or to maintain the quality of life for people within it. Waste Management is an essential part of maintaining an environment that is safe for humans. Humans must be protected from biological agents that can harm or kill them. Controlling…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d.). Avian Influenza (Bird Flu). U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian / .
Routt, D. (2008, July 20) The Economic Impact of the Black Death. EH.Net Encyclopedia,
edited by Robert Whaples. Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/Routt.Black.Death
WHERE THE UCK STOPS
This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…
CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical
Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf
Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107
# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.
The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…
Baker, J.E.L. (1992). Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Reducing Pesticide-Related Illness in Farmers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 245-254. doi: 10.2307/3427201
Flaskerud, J.H. (1992). HIV Disease and Levels of Prevention. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 137-150. doi: 10.2307/3427251
Green, M.M. (1971). The Expanded Role of the Public Health Nurse. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, 62(2), 147-152. doi: 10.2307/41984635
Ureda, J., & Yates, S. (2005). A SYSTEMS VIEW of HEALTH PROMOTION. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 28(1), 5-38. doi: 10.2307/41288055
Healthy People 2020
eview of Three Articles from Healthy People 2020
The goal of improved global health is to strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies. Threats to health in one part of the world may have far reaching consequences that impact public health across the globe. The 2003 SAS epidemic and the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak are recent examples. Furthermore, improving the health of the global population promotes political stability, diplomacy, and economic growth worldwide.
The world and its economies are increasingly interdependent and international travel and commerce is becoming more prevalent. Expanding international trade introduces new health risks. A complex international distribution chain has resulted in potential international outbreaks due to food borne infections, poor quality pharmaceuticals, and contaminated consumer goods. Since the 1970s one or more new diseases have been identified annually. apid identification and control of emerging infectious…
"Early and middle childhood." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=10
"Global health." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=16
"Immunization and infectiuos diseases." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicId=23
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1
Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO
Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.
Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)
Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…
1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004,
2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…
Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/
Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2
Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.
CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf
More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.
On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…
China. World Health Organization. http://www.wpro.who.int/chips/chip01/chn.htm . Accessed 16 November 2004 review of evidence: China's path to better health and development. World Health
Organization. http://www.google.com/u/who?q=cache:dMwKxNx4q4YJ:www.who.int/entity/macrohealth/action/en/ShanghaiPaperRevJuly2004.pdf+china's+health+care+system&hl=en&ie=UTF-8. Accessed 16 November 2004
The Specter of SARS: China's failure to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome has economic causes and consequences. World and I. 01 July 2003; Pp.
Rask, Kolleen J. Healthcare Reform in Transitional China: Its Impact on Accounting and Financial Management. Research in Healthcare Financial Management. 01 January 2001; Pp.
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…
Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03 #S2X
____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/
____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Retreived from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/index.html
She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.
The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.
It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…
Barroni & Lemer, (1993). Temporarily Detained: Tuberculous Alcoholics in Seattle: 1949
through 1960. Public Health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 86 No. 2. http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/257.pdf
Elizabeth & Daniel M., (1988). AIDS: The Burdens of History. PP 151-152. London: University
of California Press Ltd. retrieved on May 17, 2010 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=z6NTN5uYOEAC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=the+most+concerted+attack+on+civil+liberties+in+the+name+of+public+health+in+American+history.%22&source=bl&ots=ex3b2rbZNW&sig=A0oWLrxni6iipuMdeUwT5jiCzEI&hl=en&ei=jvXyS6jkJZGnsAazg8HrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=the%20most%20concerted%20attack%20on%20civil%20liberties%20in%20the%20name%20of%20public%20health%20in%20American%20history.%22&f=false
Summarize briefly the organization's background / history.
The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1948. This was in response to the need for an entity which could address issues impacting various countries and their overall quality of health. They began cataloguing and analyzing how communicable diseases can be prevented over the long-term through effective coordination. Since this time, they have achieved a number of milestones through this approach to include: working to develop a vaccine for polio, helping to conduct the first heart transplant, focusing on effective vaccinations (in order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases), providing essential drugs to over 156 countries, the eradication of small pox and working to coordinate with various stakeholders around the globe. ("An Introduction to the World Health Organization," 2007)
Its primary mission is continuing to evolve with a focus on a number of objectives. The most notable include:
An Introduction to the World Health Organization. (2007). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/about/brochure_en.pdf
Health Ethics. (2011). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/ethics/publications/ETX_Newsletter_May2011.pdf
How Culture Influences Health Beliefs. (2012). Euro Med Info. Retrieved from: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/how-culture-influences-health-beliefs.html/
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…
Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus
SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.
Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients
with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
6). What doctors do know is that the young, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are far more likely to suffer adverse effects or become contaminated should an epidemic break out. These populations are also far more likely to develop the disease or suffer from side effects of vaccination which may include a heart attack (Annas, 2003).
Many suggest the risk is unknown, because the disease is nearly eradicated, it would take a modern outbreak to ascertain the prognosis of individuals with the disease in modern times. Many feel however, that discourse on the subject is best left unsaid, because the more people discuss the disease, the more likely it is that someone will inadvertently get hold of the disease and attempt to use it.
Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the isk," the Hastings Center eport, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.…
Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the Risk," the Hastings Center Report, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002) Smallpox fact sheet, smallpox overview. Retrieved December 7, 2007: http://www.cdc.gov/smallpox
Giblin, James C. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. New York:
Harper Collins, 1995.
When they enter the gallbladder and lymphatic tissue they multiply in enormous numbers. It is when they re-enter the intestinal tract that the disease can be diagnosed from stool samples.
The first symptoms are usually headache, muscle pain and a fairly high fever. The problem is that these symptoms only occur about ten days after infection. It isn't until four to five days later that a rash occurs. The rash takes on the appearance of small, flat, red spots. A week after that those spots darken and look like bruises. If the disease has progressed this far, the patient begins to have short periods of unconsciousness, then the kidneys fail, a cough begins, and the rash turns to gangrene in the extremities. If no treatment has been given at this point, up to 50 per cent of patients die. It is possible to survive without treatment, with luck, but…
CBWInfo.com. "Typhoid Fever: essential data." 1999. cbwinfo.com. 18 February 2010 .
Encyclopedia of Health. "Typhoid Fever." Encyclopedia of Health, Volume 17. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. 1052.
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "Typhoid Fever." 24 October 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 February 2010 .
The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)
Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…
Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN
Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.
DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's
Sons: New York.
The text identifies one practical reason that this is the case, indicating that "One of the particularly threatening aspects of this compression of time is that people can now cross continents in periods of time shorter than the incubation periods of most diseases. This means that, in some cases, travelers can depart from their point of origin, arrive at their destination, and begin infecting people without even knowing that they are sick." (3) This means that an epidemic can be spread from multiple "ground zero" locations before it is even clear that the condition in question has come to reflect so significant a threat of proliferation. To the practical interests of preventing the disease's further spread, this denotes a real and substantial challenge to public health and safety administrators in the developed world. Quite to this point, the text reveals that the United States has experienced a greater level of…
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
Lifebuoy saves the Day": The importance of hand-washing
There is an old nursery rhyme: "for want of a nail, the shoe was lost, for want of a shoe, the horse was lost, for want of a rider, the horse was lost." This rhyme's meaning is simple: seemingly inconsequential carelessness can be very significant and ignoring proper precautions can have grave consequences. This principle can clearly be seen in the importance of hand-washing with soap. Soap is a simple, everyday commodity but it is vitally necessary to remove the dirt, oils, and residue that carry viruses and bacteria from the outside environment into our bodies.
Nurses, doctors, and food service personnel are all required to wash their hands by law, to avoid spreading communicable diseases. Diseases spread due to a lack of proper sanitation span from influenza to E. coli and salmonella poisoning to drug-resistant bacteria. The consequences of not washing…
goal of their ethical calling, physicians, nurses and other health care workers are obliged to treat the sick and potentially infectious patients and, in so doing, they are to take some personal risk (Murray 2003). This was the bottom line of the assessment and stand made by Dr. Henry Masur and his colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), particularly during the outbreak of dread global SARS in Canada and Hong Kong last year. They also referred to other epidemics, such as the HIV / AIDS.
Masur emphasized that this primary goal and obligation is voluntary and sets the medical profession apart from other professions, precisely because of the involvement of some personal risk in fulfilling that obligation. esides physicians, medical professionals are nurses, dentists and health workers. Records of the first SARS outbreaks in Toronto and Hong Kong showed that a huge 50% of those…
Katz, Laura L. And Marshall B. Paul. When a Physician May Refuse to Treat a Patient. Physician's News Digest, 2000. http://www.physiciansnews.com/law.202.html
Levin, Aaron. Doctors Willing But Not Ready to Treat Deadly Bio-terror Agents. Health Behavior News Service: Center for the Advancement of Health, 2003. http://www.cfah.org/ubns/news/bioterror09-17-03.cfm
Murray, Terry. Health Care Staff Have a Duty to Treat. The Medical Post: Rogers Media, 2003. http://www.medicalpost.com/mpcontent/article.jsp.jsessionid=NJCJNDCEAGHH?content=20020515_09
Schulman, David I. The Dentist, HIV and the Law: Duty to Treat, Need to Understand. Dental Treatment Consideration, 2000. http://www.hivdent.org/dtcblaa082001.htm
Psychological Influence of Diabetes
The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.
Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…
Penckofer, S., Ferrans, C.E., Velsor-Friedrich, B., & Savoy, S. (2007). The psychological impact of living with diabetes women's day-to-day experiences. The Diabetes
Educator, 33(4), 680-690.
Sepa, A., Frodi, A., Vaarala, O., & Ludvigsson, J. (2005). Diabetes-related autoimmunity in infancy Psychological stress . Diabetes care, 28(2), 290-295.
Funnell, M.M., Brown, T.L., Childs, B.P., Haas, L.B., Hosey, G.M., Jensen, B., ... & Weiss, M.A. (2009). Self-management education and National standards for diabetes. Diabetes care, 32 (1), 87-94.
Public health as a discipline is really both the science and art of preventing disease, improving health, and prolonging the quality of life within a given society by use of public and private organizations. Overall, it is concerned with threats that are the type that may hurt society as a whole -- epidemics, dangers, social and mental well-being, etc. Modern public health is a multi-disciplinary field that includes medical professionals, statisticians, biologists, ecological and environmental professionals, dental professionals, nutritional experts, veterinarians, engineers, lawyers, sociologists, anthropologists, academics, and the political process itself (Rosen, 1993).
Historically, disease vectors, polluted water and pathogens, and lack of sewage without any scientific basis for control or actual understanding of pathogens created public health problems. In the modern world, public health focuses on several levels of health: local/regional, state, national and global -- typically based upon population statistics, demographics and the analysis of disease. Even in…
Breslow, L. (Ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Public Health. New York: Macmillan.
Centers for Disease Control. (2012, April). National Public Health Performance Standards - Local Public Health Systems. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/od/ocphp/nphpsp/documents/Local_v_1_OMB_0920-0555.pdf
National Association of County and City Health Officials. (2011, February). Programs and Information. Retrieved from Naccho.org: http://www.naccho.org/
Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…
A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.
Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.
Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896
City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
Global health issue exploration
As obesity becomes an increasingly serious problem worldwide, diabetes has likewise become equally problematic, given that the two conditions are interrelated. "Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity" (Hu 2011). Unless the chronic disease of type II diabetes can be better managed and contained, there are potentially severe and long-lasting consequences for the world as a whole. It is of particular concern that diabetes is becoming a health issue in the developing world, an area where under-nutrition (versus over-nutrition) was once considered to be of greater concern. The purpose of this paper will be to give an overview of the condition and its consequences for sufferers and for healthcare providers on a global level, as well as suggest possible sources of treatment
Diabetes is no longer a disease of affluence.…
Global status report on NCDs. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:
Hu, F. (2011). Globalization of diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34 (6)1249-1257. Retrieved from:
Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999).
The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in the least developed countries will be caused by the so called non-communicable diseases, WHO, (1997). In this regard, a major mind blowing public health problem in the developing world may the reality of increasing obesity in children populations which might result to major social and economic burdens on these developing nations in the coming years, (Freedman et al., 2001).
This health care problem is present in almost all parts of the world and the Arabian Gulf region is not exempted.…
Ali, H,2010.Major characteristics of Saudi hospitals http://bit.ly/kdNzPX
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M.2001. Current concepts in the management of obesity. An evidenced-based review. Saudi Med J. 2001; 22: 20
Amin, T.T.,Al-Sultan.,A.I.,Ali.,A, 2008.Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Baum, F. 2008 The new public health (3rd Edition) Oxford University Press, Melbourne
Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).
The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…
obesity and diabetes increased?
In spite of the fact that technology and medical science have experienced significant success in the recent decades, maladies like diabetes and obesity are increasing in prevalence in developed countries. This provides society with a dilemma, considering that most people fail to understand that they are actually exposed to these diseases. Moreover, these individuals are unacquainted with basic actions that they can perform in order to prevent diabetes and obesity. Even if people have access to information that can assist them in combating a great deal of diseases, the fact that they express indifference in regard to particular aspects of their health reflects negatively on their condition.
hen considering that diabetes and obesity occur more frequently in developed countries makes it possible for the masses to comprehend that certain lifestyles promoted in these areas are essential in increasing the number of individuals who suffer. hat is…
Akabas, Sharon, "Textbook of Obesity: Biological, Psychological and Cultural Influences," (John Wiley & Sons, 2012)
Hossain, Parvez M.D., Kawar, Bisher M.D., and El Nahas, Meguid M.D., Ph.D "Obesity and Diabetes in the Developing World -- A Growing Challenge," Retrieved August 5, 2012, from the New England Journal of Medicine Website: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp068177
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Health Committee, "Obesity: Oral and written evidence," (The Stationery Office, 2004)
"Obesity? Diabetes? We've been set up," Retrieved August 5, 2012, from the Harvard Gazette Website: http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/03/the-big-setup/
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…
CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014
from http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm .
Gorin, S. (2000, February). A 'society for all ages': Saving Social Security and Medicare. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 69.
Israel, B.A. & Parker, E.A. (2006, October). Community-based participatory research: Lessons
Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology
How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy
Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).
Review of the…
Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"
Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692
Health, Culture & Globalization
Health, Culture and Globalization
Culture plays an integral role in the lives of societies and individuals all over the world. Across countries and societies, different kinds of culture exist and govern the daily lives of people. Defined technically, culture is the system of beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that a specific group of people perceives and considers as their worldview. Countries have different cultures, and within each culture exists sub-cultures, created because of the diversity/differences existing from even the same group of people with the same nationality, race, or ethnic membership.
Culture inadvertently affects every aspect of an individual's life. Its influence could be as mundane as deciding what to wear and eat for the day, or as critical and important not only to the individual but also to the society, such as deciding who to vote for depending on the candidate's similarities in beliefs and…
Eckersley, R. (2007). "Culture, spirituality, religion and health: looking at the big picture." The Medical Journal of Australia, (186)10 Suppl.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. Available at: http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/
Huynen, M., P. Martens and H. Hilderink. (2005). "The health impacts of globalization: a conceptual framework." Globalization and Health, (1)14.
The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)
Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…
Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.
Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps
management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness. Br J. Nurs 18(2), pp. 92 -- 8
Blenkharn, J. 2009. Sharps management and the disposal of clincal waste. British Journal of Nursing, 18 (14).
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…
Bluejay, M. (n.d.). What's Wrong with Bicycle Helmets? Retrieved from Bicycle Safe: http://bicyclesafe.com/helmets.html
Bowser, B. (2003, April 2). On the Homefront: The Airline Industry. Retrieved from Pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/transportation/jan-june03/airlines_04-02.html
News, A. (2003, April 4). SARS Spread Leads to Fear, Questions. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ColdandFluNews/story?id=116751&page=1#.UKa064dZWSo
Pilarski, A. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington: Ashgate.
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…
Arora, N., Banerjee, A.K., (2010) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Prospects in Healthcare in India. Electronic Journal of Biology, 6(2), 24-25
Berman, P., Ahuja, R., Bhandari, L. (2010) The Impoverishing Effect of Healthcare Payments in India: New Methodology and Findings. Economic & Political Weekly, 45(16), 65-71.
Ma, S., & Neeraj, S. (2008) A Comparison of the Health Systems of China and India. RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2008/RAND_OP212.pdf
Manchikanti, L., Caraway, D.L., Parr, A.T., Fellows, B., Hirsch, J.A. (2011) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade. Pain Physician, 14(1), 35-67.
Library- Health Literacy and Communication Skills
Wurz, A., Nurm, U. K., & Ekdahl, K. (2013).Enhancing the Role of Health Communication in the Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 1566-1571.
In spite of awareness of health communication's significance in preventing disease, there was a clear knowledge gap in terms of nature and extent of its utilization in Europe for supporting infectious disease control and prevention. The ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) decided to bridge this gap by commissioning a group of universities, in the year 2009, to perform a research project, Translating Health Communications, lasting 3 years. Project outcomes comprise two key areas: (a) preliminary information collection for providing insights into current application of health communication tasks for preventing communicable disease in the EEA (European Economic Area) and European Union and (b) knowledge synthesis evidenced by applying and using health communication techniques. This article…
Heldman, A. B., Schindler, J., & Weaver, J. (n.d.). Social Media Engagement and Public Health Communication: Implications for Public Health Organizations Being Truly "Social." Public Health Reviews, 1-18.
Infanti, J., Sixsmith, J., Barry, M., Nunez-Cordoba, J., Oroviogoicoechea-Ortega, C., & Guillen-Grima, F. (2013). . A literature review on effective risk communication for the prevention and control of communicable diseases in. Stockholm: ECDC.
Maniou, T. (2015 ). Reporting on Health Issues: Communicating Public Health through the Press in Time of Crisis. The International Journal of Communication Health, 36-43 .
Oliveira, M. d. (2013). Multicultural Environments and Their Challenges to Crisis Communication. Journal of Business Communication, 2538-277.
IDSA lecture, Finch (2006) offers seven arguments against mandatory influenza vaccinations for health care workers. The reasons are primarily philosophical, political, and ethical in nature. Although Finch (2006) substantiates his primary claims with references to literature and historical precedent, none of the claims refer to the ultimate goal of vaccination programs: reducing rates of serious illness or death resulting from influenza. Finch's (2006) arguments are sound and tight, but would be enhanced greatly by references to the role mandatory vaccination might play in reducing the spread of highly communicable diseases. Likewise, the author does not provide sufficient counterpoints to the core arguments and does not entertain the opposing viewpoint. There is no mention of influenza rates, the potential for disease proliferation among at-risk communities, or the role mandatory vaccinations may play in diseases other than influenza, such as Ebola.
In spite of the weaknesses in the Finch (2006) argument, the…
Whether or not mandatory vaccine programs are effective in achieving health care goals is the core point. The issue of civil liberties infractions is a serious one, as health care workers do have the right to self-determination. However, it can also be said that health care workers are a special community of individuals exposed on a regular basis to infectious diseases. Given this fact, health care workers may need to occasionally sacrifice their civil liberties for the common good to which their profession is pledged: to uphold and promote public health.
Finch, M. (2006). Point: Mandatory influenza vaccination for all health care workers? Seven reasons to say no. IDSA Lecture. In Clinical Infectious Diseases 42, 1141-1143.
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…
History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink
Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)
Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
Still other states, such as Nevada and North Carolina, require four weeks or more for eligibility for home instruction (See Appendix C).
In terms of providing instruction, the states vary greatly in their requirements. In some states, such as Alaska and Hawaii, the homebound or hospital instructors are not required to hold certified teaching certificates, but act as tutors alone. They obtain regular classroom materials from the student's regular instructor, and act as a tutor, delivering assignments and assisting the student in learning the material. In other states, such as New York and Texas, the individual responsible for providing instruction to the disabled student is required to hold a valid certified teaching certificate in the state of the services, and in some states, is even required to hold special education training certification (See Appendix C).
In terms of hours per week required for instruction, the states again vary greatly. In…
AL - Clarksville County School System. (2004). Requesting and Receiving Homebound Instruction Procedure. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.cmcss.net/iso9000/sts-p002.pdf .
AK - Lathrop School District. (2006). Homebound Instruction. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.northstar.k12.ak.us/schools/lth/doc/handbook/Page14.html.
AZ - Arizona Dept of Special Education. (2006). Homebound Instruction Procedures. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://specialed.peoriaud.k12.az.us/manual6c.htm.
AR - North little Rock School District. (2005). Instruction (Section D). Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.nlrsd.k12.ar.us/NLRSD%20Policy/instruction.htm#INSTRUCTIONAL%20ARRANGEMENTS.
New York and the Zika Virus
Description and Controlling Efforts
The communicable disease researched within this document is the Zika virus. This is a virus which is primarily transmitted to humans from mosquitoes. The mosquito which is known to carry this virus is the Aedes Eegypti mosquito which is natively found in South America and Central America (New York State, 2016). An initial Zika outbreak in the U.S. took place in the summer of 2016. The state of New York is attempting to prevent the virus from spreading to it with a proactive plan involving several measures.
There are myriad environmental factors related to this disease. The most salient is the presence of standing water, which naturally attracts mosquitoes. It is necessary to protect all water which is not running from the presence of mosquitoes which could potentially transmit the Zika virus. The other environmental factors pertain to…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Zika overview. www.cdc.gov Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/zika/about/overview.html
New York State. (2016). 6-step New York state action plan. www.ny.gov Retrieved from https://www.ny.gov/6-step-new-york-state-zika-action-plan/6-step-new-york-state-zika-action-plan
New York State. (2016). Share Zika information. www.ny.gov Retrieved from https://www.ny.gov/programs/6-step-new-york-state-zika-action-plan
As of May 2, 2009, CNN has reported there are 160 confirmed cases of swine flu across the United States of America and about 108 cases throughout the rest of the world.
Although the swine flu (H1N1) strain's discovery in the 1930s has shown not so much an aggressive spread of the disease through the years worldwide, a flaccid approach to the prevention and eradication of any communicable pathogen could result into a catastrophe worldwide, as transmission methods are numerous and casual like mere sneezing, coughing, and usual human activities, like handshakes, kissing and talking with an infected or healthy pathogen carrier.
Preventive measures include keeping one's self healthy by having a well-balanced diet, taking in ample or optimal amounts of water (8 glasses of water for normal individuals) to keep one normally hydrated, getting enough quality sleep and rest (normally 8 hours of sleep) with some stress relieving naps,…
Black, Richard. Global Warming risk 'much higher'. BBC NEWS. 23 May 2006.
Food should be banned from the New York City subway system. There are a few reasons why the food ban should be enacted, chief among them are the health concerns cited by state senators. Proponents of eating food on the subway system generally have weak arguments based around their own personal desire to eat food on the subway, rather than any coherent responses to the central sanitation and public nuisance argument.
According to the text of the bill (S6312), the purpose of the bill is to "mitigate the growing rat infestation in the NYC subway system." The bill would establish fines and other punishments for eating food on the subway system. There are a number of problems with the rat issue in the subway system. In general, people experience a sense of revulsion at the sight of rats, in particular the large, greasy variety found in the subway…
AP. (2012). MTA chief says he opposes subway food ban. ABC News. Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/story?section=resources/traffic&id=8543501
Prendergast, D. & Buiso, G. (2012). Pol push to ban eating in the subway. New York Post. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/pol_push_to_ban_eating_in_the_subway_ZvKq3qRxecSkAMTWoE6wmJ
S6312-2011: Prohibits the consumption of food in New York City subways. New York Senate.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://open.nysenate.gov/legislation/bill/S6312-2011
There is confusion about laws which are subject to different interpretations and this result in critical information not being made available. This is caused by such laws like the "Educational ights and Privacy Act -- FEPA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -- HIPAA and a number of legislations that seek to protect the privacy of the family." ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) Many state laws are also interpreted in such a way that they retard the work of agencies involved in monitoring health and safety issues. ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) the complex nature of the law and the state laws, with a small percent of the laws applicable in a federal scale, it is not possible to enforce uniform standards.
It is to be concluded that the federal laws must be…
Billi, John E; Agrawal, Gail Bopp. (2001) "The Challenge of Regulating Managed Care"
Gostin, Larry Ogalthorpe. (2002) "Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader" University of California Press.
Grim, Charles W. (2005, Jan) "IHS Focuses on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention"
Retrieved 11 February, 2008 at http://www.usmedicine.com/column.cfm?columnID=193&issueID=70
Migrant Health Problem
Presently, access to social and health services for most migrants is determined by their legal status. Undocumented migrants have least possible access to health services. Legal status is one of the preconditions for ability involved in receiving adequate care. Further, the availability, acceptability, quality and accessibility of such services is dependent on different influences such as cultural, social, linguistic, structural, gender, geographical and financial factors. From this, different knowledge and beliefs about ill health and healthy status deter migrants from engaging national health services.
Health literacy within such awareness senses entitlements individuals to availability and care services that pose barriers to using similar services (Becker, 2003). The situation also shows dependence on various migrants irrespective of the existing legal or socio-economic statuses. The nature of mobility makes it difficult to establish the available providers of health care service. Temporary and seasonal workers prefer delaying care until there…
Becker, G. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and Dissatisfaction with Health Care among Chronically Ill African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 93(5), 742.
Carrasquillo, O., Carrasquillo, A. & Shea, S. (2000). Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States: Differences by Citizenship Status and Country of Origin. American Journal of Public Health 90 (6): 917 -- 923.
Huang, J., Yu, S. & Ledsky, R. (2006). Health Status and Health Service Access and Use among Children in U.S. Immigrant Families. American Journal of Public Health 96 (4): 634 -- 640.
Okie, S. (2007). Immigrants and Health Care -- At the Intersection of Two broken Systems. The New England Journal of Medicine: 525 -- 529.