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Describe the gender-specific relationship between men, women and love. How is it different? hy? How does gender socialization contribute to these masculine and feminine roles in relationship to love and relationships in general?
In Communion, Hooks discusses a plethora of sometimes conflicting and contradictory gender roles. omen are "prophetesses," "advisors," wives, homemakers, mothers, nurses, nurturers, and teachers. The differences between gender roles in intimate heterosexual relationships can be traced to social construction, social learning, and socialization. hen the woman becomes the primary earner in a household, she subverts traditional gender norms and roles. Resentment might build within the man, who has no way of navigating his own role within the newly constructed and unconventional relationship. Hooks points out that males ascribing to traditional gender roles in relationships see themselves as patriarch; and that "power, not love" defines his role in the family (18).
omen are socialized to be supreme…
Hooks, Bell. Communion: The Female Search for Love. New York: Harper Collins, 2002.
To see the rites joined together as such challenges their understanding of these rites.
How the comparative method and/or other methodologies of liturgical inquiry are employed to address the problem;
Taft compares the function of the "Angel of Peace Biddings" to the "Inclination Prayer of CHR" as a prayer of conclusion sometimes added to the beginning of communion rites.
Taft has limited primary accounts of the precommunion rites and has to rely on inference from historical trends. He notes that the Inclination Prayer was added to communion rites at roughly the period when some of the faithful who felt unfit to receive the sacrament started leaving at the start of the communion period.
Taft observes that the Inclination Prayer of CHR, as a prayer of conclusion, also functions as a prayer of dismissal. He proposes that the Inclination Prayer of CHR, as a prayer of conclusion, was adapted for its…
Book Chapter: A Theology of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish
The study of ecclesiology is the study of how the Christian church, the ever-expanding body of believers, has evolved over time to respond to new political and social realities. Ecclesiology also takes into account the way organizational structures, hierarchies, and roles within the church have changed and reflect the nuances of a cultural milieu or historical epoch. In addition to all that, the study of ecclesiology also comprises the church’s relationship with surrounding community organizations. How the church forms strategic alliances with secular political, social, and economic institutions is also part of the complex array of issues that impact ecclesiology. Although some aspects of the church must remain stable over time to reflect scripture, church polity and organization remains one of the most dynamic aspects of Christianity and the role it plays in the world.
As MacDougall (2015)…
Culture & Religion
Roman Catholic: The Roman Catholic religion believes in the Holy Trinity of a creator God the Father; Jesus Christ, His Son; and the Holy Spirit. Other beliefs that characterize the religion are the original sin; the forgiveness of sin; the second coming of the Lord; and life after death (CIM, 49). Given its belief in sin, the religion offers the hope of salvation through its sacraments and baptism. Infant baptism is encouraged to erase the original sin and as a start to a spiritual life through the Church. In addition, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the mass is a continuation of the sacrifice made by Christ and thus teaches the doctrine of transubstantiation or that the bread and wine at communion actually become the body and blood of Christ (Biblical Discernment Ministries, 1997). Generally, the religion has no dietary restrictions. However, it advocates abstaining from meat…
Their template deals with subjects such as what women found satisfying and frustrating about work. Also the committee heard show do they balance home and work responsibilities and fit in volunteer activities, how do they find time for spiritual activities. In addition, how does the spirituality affect work and vice versa (Bishop's Committee on omen in Society and in the Church).
ith regard to birth control, more a more liberally minded Pope could base relaxation of birth control based upon the results of the 1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control. This Commission voted 30-5 to relax the concerns on birth control (1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control).
ith regard to priestly marriage, it would be well for the Church to examine the Eastern Orthodox Rite where marriage for priests is allowed. ith regard to poverty, the Church could build upon Rerum Novarum and a pile of Church encyclicals that deal…
"Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban." Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban. Papal Commission on Birth Control, 1966. Web. 20 Apr 2010.
Other theological beliefs rejected by the Anabaptists were the predestination theology of the Calvinists and the belief that Jesus was born of the flesh of Mary.
In England during the reign of Edward VI the Church of England was busily engaged in establishing itself as the official religion of the country. Edward VI followed Henry VIII, his father, as the King of England and was expected to continue the persecutions of the Anabaptists that his father had initiated. Edward continued the ban against the right of Anabaptists to practice their religion in England but he did not promote the physical persecutions that had been part of his father's reign.
It is highly significant to remember that Edward VI's influence was highly minimal. His advisors were determined to bring major changes to England's religion and because of their influence, major changes did occur.
During Edward VI's reign England's churches were made…
The modern Anglican Church is more specifically referred to as the Anglican Communion. It is an international association of national and regional Anglican Church, so instead of there being a single "Anglican" Church with universal authority and dominion over all Churches, each national or regional Church has full and complete autonomy. Historically, these Churches fall under full communion with the Church of England, or the Mother Church, and the specific titular head, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The status of "full communion" means, ideally that there is mutual agreement on several specific and basic doctrinal issues, and that full participation in each single Church's sacramental rubric is available and upheld by all Anglicans (The Anglican Communion Official Website, 2011).
Overall, the essential nature of the Anglican Communion is epitomized in the iblical passafe from John 1: This life is revealed, and we have seen it and testify to it,…
The Anglican Communion Official Website. (2011, March). Retrieved June 2011, from Anglicancommunion.org: http://www.anglicancommunion.org/
Anglicanorum Coetibus. (2009). Cited in Vatican.VA
Archbishop of York on being Anglican. (2011). The Church of England. Cited in:
" Communicants are also required to fast in preparation to receive Communion. Currently, this requirement is a fast of one hour prior to Communion of all food and drink other than water and medication. A longer fast of at least three hours, or from midnight, is preferred. Understanding the seriousness of these guidelines helps instill respect for taking Communion in students. This helps students understand that this isn't something that they just do at Mass without thought. Instead, they must prepare themselves physically and spiritually.
Lastly, students should be taught why Communion is taken so frequently. The Eucharist facilitates a union between Man and Christ. Through this lesson, students learn that Communion is a spiritually nourishing event, while also obeying the Lord's instructions to eat and drink His Body and Blood. Each time a communicant takes part in Holy Communion, this brings an increased level of sanctifying grace to their…
Eisner, E. (1985). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs (pp. 87-97). New York: Macmillan.
Peffley, Fr. (No date). The Catholic Church's teaching on the Eucharist. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://transporter.com/FatherPeffley/Spirituality/TeachEucharist.html.
Ryan, M. (2006). "Catholic traditions and the classroom religious education program." In Religious education in Catholic schools. (pp.169-196) Melbourne: David Lovell Press.
Rymartz, R. (2007). "At the coalface: Teaching about Jesus." Journal of Religious Education 55 (1) pp. 12-16.
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Realm of Legal Negotiation
DISTRIBUTIVE VS. INTEGRATIVE
Negotiation involves a dialogue of two or more parties or people with the intention to reach a favorable outcome. This favorable result can be for just one party or both parties involved. The integrative approach to negotiation tries to expand the "pie" to make sure everyone gets something. However, the distributive approach ensures one side "wins" and the other, "loses." The legal landscape of practicing lawyers today asks for a further analysis of what is effective and what is not. Meaning, the distributive method greatly outweighs the integrative method in terms of its utilization in lawyer-to-lawyer negotiations because of how it can be used to help one side get what it wants. That is what lawyers do, they try to get the best outcome for their client, not for both parties involved.
Negotiation is a difficult activity to learn and master. ADR or…
plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…
Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.
Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007
Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.
Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980
Claude Rawson is best known as a scholar of Jonathan Swift and the eighteenth century, but Rawson's has also used the savage irony of Swift's modest proposal for a series of essays which consider Swift's invocation of cannibalism in light of a longer tradition (in Anglo-Irish relations) of imputing cannibalism literally to the native Irish as a way of demonizing their "savagery" or else to implying a metaphorical cannibalism to describe the British Imperial exploitation of those native Irish. Rawson reapproaches these Swiftian subjects in a more recent essay entitled "Killing the Poor: An Anglo-Irish Theme" which examines what Rawson calls the "velleities of extermination" in a text like Swift's "Modest Proposal" (Rawson, 300). Rawson examines how Swift's ironic solution of what to do with the poor of Ireland (eat them as food) undergoes, in various later iterations by Anglo-Irish writers including Shaw and ilde, transformation into a…
Burgess, Anthony. ReJoyce. New York: W.W. Norton, 1965.
Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Henke, Suzette. James Joyce and the Politics of Desire. New York and London: Routledge, 1990.
Joyce, James. Ulysses. Ed. Hans Walter Gabler. New York: Vintage, 1986. Print.
..the devils were full of hatred for me, but they had to obey me at the command of God, What I have written is but a pale shadow of the things I saw. But I noticed one thing: That most of the souls there are those who disbelieved that there is a hell." "There are special Tortures destined for particular souls. These are the torments of the senses. Each soul undergoes terrible and indescribable sufferings related to the manner in which it has sinned." And also "There are caverns and pits of torture where one form of agony differs from another. I would have died at the very sight of these tortures if the omnipotence of God had not supported me." (Sister Faustina's Vision of Hell) The devoted Sister Faustina also said, "Let the sinner know that he will be tortured throughout all eternity, in those senses which he made…
Apparitions of Jesus and Mary, Devotion to the Divine Mercy. Retrieved at http://www.apparitions.org/faustina.html. Accessed 17 July, 2006
Apparitions of Jesus, Biography of Saint Faustina. Retrieved at http://www.apparitions.org/Faustina.bio.html. Accessed 16 July, 2006
Bastian, Lisa A. John Paul II and the Feast of Divine Mercy. Retrieved at http://www.americancatholic.org/Features/JohnPaulII/DivineMercy.asp . Accessed 17 July, 2006
Catholic Online, Sister Faustina. Retrieved at http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=510Accessed 16 July, 2006
o Vargo" (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005, p 27) that focuses on the life story of a young girl called o whose parent enrolls in a regular tradition school from kindergarten through college. The girl had some intellectual disability because she could not communicate properly with people. Despite her disability, her parent showered her a parental care and brought her up in a way they would have done if o were a normal child. The parent made an effort to ensure that o developed excellent psychological and educational developments. To assist o enjoying positive educational development, o's parents enrolled her in a kindergarten school, and showered her love to assist o enhancing positive psychological development.
Overview of the whole issue reveals that o's story is consistence with a developmental pathway of socio-cultural theory. Socio-cultural theory is an emerging theory that reveals the importance of the society to an individual…
Algozzine, B., Harris, M., Mutua, K., Obiakor, F., & Rotatori, A. (2012).Making inclusion work in the general education classrooms. Education & Treatment of Children, 35(3), 477-490. Retrieved from Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA301649979&v=2.1&u=vic_liberty&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=d0b2d044f01b621b6a2f4592c40addd8
Khudorenko, E.A. (2011). Problems of the education and inclusion of people with disabilities.Russian Education & Society, 53(12), 82-91.
Parritz, R.H., & Troy, M.F. (2014). Disorders of childhood: Development and psychopathology (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Polat, F. (2011). Inclusion in education: A step towards social justice. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(1), 50-58. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2010.06.009
Therefore, we may conclude that the speaker has some cognitive function from the structure of the speech, even if it is based on a very basic set of language rules (Samarin 1972 120).
Three major linguistic traits emerged from other research into the subjec. Regardless of the geographic area, educational level, or age of the individual, glossolalia consists of:
Verbal behavior that has a certain number of consanants and vowels.
There seem to be a limited number of syllables that are reorganized into larger units.
These units are then rearranged using variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity (e.g. A "word" group spoken with different inflections).
The "words" put together seem haphazard but emerge as word and sentence like because of the use of realistic timbre, rhythm, and melody (Samarin 1972).
Other research confims that glossolalia shows an oddly definitive syballant commonality with the particular spoken language of the speaker.…
Aquinas, T. "Summa Theologica Question 176." New Advent. March 2008. http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3176.htm (accessed September 2010).
Bock, D. Acts: Baker Exegetical Commentary. Ada, MI: Baker Academic, 2007.
Chavda, M. The Hidden Power of Speaking in Tongues. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, 2003.
Coffman, J. "Commentary on Mark 16." Abeline Christian University Press. 1999. http://www.searchgodsword.org/com/bcc/view.cgi?book=mr&chapter=016 (accessed September 2010).
The paper will focus on Luther and Zwingli and their views of the Lord's Supper. It will not cover the views of other reformers though they may be mentioned briefly because of their relationships to Luther and Zwingli. The Catholic Church's view of Transubstantiation will not be covered in depth though it must be discussed in relation to the theology of Luther and Zwingli.
Luther was and is to the Church of the Reformation: the great theologian of the Sacrament of the Altar"
Martin Luther's doctrine of the Lord's Supper was built on his strong belief in the Word of God. As a young man struggling with what today we would call depression, his professor directed him to an extensive study of Scripture. Luther began to study Augustine and the other church fathers, but once Luther moved beyond the writings and commentaries of others to the biblical text,…
.....sacrament of the Eucharist epitomizes the concept of transubstantiation, in which the spirit and presence of Christ is revealed to believers in the recognizable and tangible form. God's transcendence becomes God's immanence, thereby initiating a process of spiritual transformation. As Cooke (1994) points out, the Eucharist sacrament must also take place within a community, allowing each individual to perceive Christ through other believers. The importance of community is embedded within the ritual of the Eucharist because it is an act of sacred communion -- implying community, gathering, and communication. Therefore, the concept of the Eucharist is rooted in the act of sharing, on one level Jesus sharing His body with the people and on another level the community sharing the Word with each other. Moreover, the Eucharist represents "the message of human life redeemed and transformed by the power of God working through the death and resurrection of Jesus the…
The Pope and the leadership guide us in our interpretation of scripture and tradition.
As stated previously, Roman Catholicism is truly a lifetime experience. From cradle to grave, Holy Baptism to the Anointing of the Sick, we are surrounded by these life giving and soul building acts and rarely appreciate them fully. This investigation has not only, truly deepened the author's knowledge of the sacraments by choosing Holy Eucharist, Baptism and Penance. They are an organic whole that represent the totality of our lives and with the spread of the Church's doctrines will hopefully encompass humanity as a whole.
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & right, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved…
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & Wright, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_cclergy_doc_19770331_penance-communion_en.html
It can be presumed that in any dogmatic definition to come the pope will never act without the fullest consultation with the Church, as is seen to-day with regard to the Assumption of the Virgin. This however does not alter the fact that from 1854 as de facto date and from 1870 as the date de jure, the pope is the normal organ of dogmatic definition for the Church. (Miegge, 1955, p. 130)
Church doctrine as a bond of communion, as an expression of piety, as the development of a confession of faith, forms the conception of dogma in the history of religion. "It has been said with reason that the doctrine of the Last Judgment was at once "the care and also the consolation of the Middle Ages." (Petry, 1956, p. 334) Doctrine is the written expression and beliefs that as proposed in the Bible. One does not speak…
Chantepie De La Saussaye, P. (1891). Manual of the Science of Religion (Colyer-Fergusson, B.S. & Mudcller, M., Trans.). New York: Longmans Green.
Miegge, G. (1955). The Virgin Mary: The Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine (Smith, W., Trans.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
Petry, R.C. (1956). Christian Eschatology and Social Thought: A Historical Essay on the Social Implications of Some Selected Aspects in Christian Eschatology to a.D. 1500. New York: Abingdon Press.
Ethics - Deviance
"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by society and groups within it. The unique life-or-death situation of the Andes Mountain plane crash survivors shows how a group can be compelled to redefine deviant behavior to make it acceptable and even holy. By examining this group's situation, Henslin is able to define a number of lessons about social reality.
"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by examining a unique but disturbing situation. This situation, in which some humans survived a plane crash in the Andes Mountains, were stranded in the Mountains for more than 2 months and were literally starving to death with no food source except human corpses, gave Henslin a unique opportunity…
Sangster, DeLillo, Nature and God
hat is the opposite of Nature? There are a number of different answers we could give in playing the game of finding an antonym. e are accustomed to speaking of "nature vs. nurture," but "nature" here is a shorthand for the phrase "human nature." In referring to Nature in its environmental sense, we are more likely to speak of "nature vs. culture" or "nature vs. art" -- environment is defined as something which stands apart from human habitation or cultivation. In this sense, it is paradoxical to approach the subject of nature in a work of art -- the fact of its being art serves to remove us in some way from the realm of Nature. I would like to examine the treatment of Nature as a concept in two very different works: the nineteenth-century Canadian poem "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay" by Charles…
Bentley, DMR. The Gay[Grey Moose: Essays on the Ecologies and Mythologies of Canadian Poetry. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1992. Print.
Buell, Lawrence. "Toxic Discourse." Critical Inquiry 24 (3): 639-665. Web. Accessed online at: http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2637816/Buell_ToxicDiscourse.pdf?sequence=4
DeLillo, Don. White Noise. New York: Penguin, 1986. Print.
Sangster, Charles. "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay." Web. Accessed online at: http://canadianpoetry.org/longPoems/Sangster_Charles/St_Lawrence_and_Saguenay/The_St_Lawrence_and_Saguenay.html
As the Archbishop of Canterbury during the tumultuous reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was in an extraordinary position to effect changes in England's political and religious direction. Through his writings, Cranmer laid the foundations for establishing the Church of England and moved England into the path of the growing European Reformation Movement.
By facilitating the numerous divorces of Henry VIII, he helped to weaken the authority of the Pope in England and contributed to the greater hold of the King.
This paper examines the effects of Cranmer's developing theology on the history of Tudor England. The first part of the paper looks at the role Cranmer played in justifying the theological bases of Henry VIII's numerous divorces. The next part then examines Cranmer's religious convictions, as enshrined in the Ten Articles and later, in the two versions of the Book of Common Prayer.
In the last section,…
Cranmer, Thomas. "The Most Healthful Medicine." ca. 1540. reproduced in Christian History, 1995. 14(4): 34-37.
D'Aubigne, Merle. Reformation in England. 2 vols. London: Banner of Truth, 1991.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. "Cranmer's Ambitious Legacy." History Today, July 1996. 49(6): 23-32.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. Thomas Cranmer: A Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
The question of technology in modern life, according to Heidegger, is not so much a matter of technology taking over life, but rather the kind of interaction between mankind and technology which we allow. After all, technology had no soul, no independent mind of its own by which it seeks to take over, and dominate modern life. Technology is, at its core, our servant, and should remain our servant. The issue for Heidegger is our relationship to technology, and how we allow technology to present itself, and influence modern life.
As with many philosophers, the issue is one of causality. How technology shapes and frames human life is a causal relationship. Heidegger does not see this relationship as one of control. Rather Heidegger uses the illustration of a silver communion chalice in order to describe his perspective on the causal relationship. Heidegger is an etymologist. He loves to pursue…
Dreyfus, Hubert L. "Heidegger on the Connection between Nihilism, Art, Technology, and Politics," from The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger, edited by Charles Guignon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Pp. 289-316
Dreyfus, Hubert L. "Heidegger's History of the Being of Equipment" from Heidegger: A Critical Reader, edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus and Harrison Hall. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1992. Pp. 173-185.
Foucault, Michel. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Vintage Books, 1970. pp.46-76, 217-249
Heidegger, Martin. "The Age of the World Picture," from The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, Trans. William Lovitt (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1977).
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
It is not intended for the contemplation of the reserved sacrament. Under this new principle, Roman Catholic tabernacles are now set in separate chapels or other more appropriate places (ELCA).
Guidelines for Lutheran Churches
These Churches do not recommend the placement or use of eternal flame lamps in the worship area (ELCA 2011). Doing so will give the erroneous belief that God is present only because of the light or that He is absent if the light is off. Lutheran theology affirms the real presence of Christ in the sacrament and the maintenance of the elements for the sick and the homebound. Some Lutheran congregations keep a clear encased light near the elements to honor or indicate the area where these elements are kept but not to worship them (ELCA).
Symbols at the First Presbyterian Church
An acolyte carries a torch during a liturgical procession (FPCreidsville 2011). This light represents…
Anderson, Sherridan. The Use of Candles as a Symbol in Worship. Canadian Centre for Worship Studies: CCSW and Sherridan Anderson, 2003. Retrieved on May 19, 2011
Anderson, Todd D. The Lord be with You! Church of the Master United Methodist:
Otterbein University, 2011. Retrieved on May 19, 2011 from http://www.chmaster.org/education/articles/worship
John Knox, the Scottish Reformer, is hailed as one of the fathers of Protestant church reform. His undying passion for his beliefs as well as a strong bond of friendship with several religious women, sustained him in his work until he died. His work comprises a number of sermons and religious writings that carry on his legacy to this day. There is some disagreement regarding the year of his birth, but critics believe this event to be somewhere in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The Dictionary of National iography for example places Knox's birth at round about 15141, while Miles Hodges places it at 15052.
According to the Dictionary, Knox was born at Cliffordgate in Haddington. An interesting fact is that he occasionally adopted his mother's maiden name, Sinclair, as an alias when he found himself obliged to hide from persecutors. His father, William Knox came from…
Dawson, Jane E.A. 2004. 'Knox, John (c.1514 -- 1572)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press.
Hodges, Miles. 2001. John Knox. History: the Reformation
Grimm, Harold John. 1958. The reformation era, 1500-1650 New York: Macmillan
The Jews, of course, were as antagonistic to hearing Stephen preach the life of Christ as they were to Christ Himself -- ho is the way of salvation, and hom they have rejected. Stephen's speech is fiery and full of love and fury -- love for Christ, fury for the Jews who rejected Him: "You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised." (Here Stephen as much as says, "You are not real Jews. Real Jews would have recognized their Redeemer.) "You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" The reaction of the Jews is to stone Stephen to death. Stephen accepts his martyrdom and dies as Christ died, with a prayer for his persecutors -- and out of that prayer comes (through the mercy of God) the conversion of St. Paul.
In conclusion, "we may say that perseverance as a Christian is the only…
Fitzmyer, Joseph. The Gospel According to Luke (I-IX), vol. 28. Garden City, NY:
Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1981. Print.
Hamm, Dennis. "Are the Gospel Passion Accounts Anti-Jewish?" Journal of Religion
and Film vol. 8, no. 1 (Feb, 2004). Print.
The Bible is an interesting book when it comes to trying to explain the existence of beasts on the planet prior to the time of the making of all that is "very good," namely the shaping of Adam and Eve their role in shaping humanity's nature. Not surprisingly, some of that interest when it comes to the beasts that we know of as dinosaurs, real problems exist. Math problems exist, for example, as there seem to be many more numbers of types of such creatures than biblical translations account for. Science problems also exist, given the ways in which fossils are aged and time is documented. Medical problems exist, since the remains of the once living beings contain evidence of diseases and unhealthy biological designs, which weren't supposed to happen. And even logistical problems arise, such as whether dinosaurs could fit on the Ark.
Yet to at least…
Communion and Stewardship:: Human Persons Created in the Image of God. http://www.philvaz.com/apologetics/p80.htm (accessed October 21, 2011).
Dinosaurs, Free Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur (accessed October 20, 2011)
Dinosaurs and the Bible. Clarifying Christianity. http://www.clarifyingchristianity.com/dinos.shtml (accessed October 21, 2011).
Dinosaurs in the Bible. Genisis Park: Exhibit Hall 1. http://www.genesispark.com/genpark/bible/bible.htm (accessed October 21, 2011).
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…
Pena, M. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women Gender and Society, 9, 32-47.
Pena, M. & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 620-629
Pineda-Madrid, N. (March 2005). Interpreting Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mediating the Christian Mystery of Redemption. Graduate Theological Seminary, Berkeley, CA,
Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On Mysticism, Latinas/os, and the Journey: A Reflection in Conversation with Mary Engel, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24, 178-183.
Thoreau argues that his solitude does not equal loneliness. First, Thoreau describes the brilliance of his relationship with plants, animals, and the elements. Second, Thoreau comments on the connections he maintains with the world outside of Walden Pond, as visitors frequent the house to leave cards, flowers, and gifts in support of his endeavor. Finally, Thoreau feels paradoxically less lonely when he is alone: "I never found the companion that was so companionable as solitude."
In the opening chapter of Thoreau's conclusion to Walden Pond, the author notes, "The universe is wider than our views of it." One of the reasons Thoreau leaves Walden is because the experiment has increased his appreciation for the vastness and the beauty of the world. He leaves because Walden Pond has inspired him to go out into the world and apply what he learned during the experiment. He explicitly states…
In many ways, the Vietnam ar represented the height of Cold ar tensions in much the same way that the decade was giving way to an inevitable breaking point in environmental negligence. Though the years which would follow would see a gradual intensification of environmental protection laws, these have by and large been nullified by the impact of that for which Abbey offers the most criticism. ith both Vietnam and the destruction of many of America's richest points of flora and fauna diversity being the products of our ongoing 'evolution' toward technological, industrial and commercial advance, Abbey is persuasive in drawing a sympathetic mistrust of modernity from the reader. Ultimately, it produces a sense of loss for ildland Recreation opportunities while simultaneously reinforcing the primal importance of such experiences.
In this way, Desert Solitaire stands in 20th century environmental history as a guide to alternative living. hile he is unflinching…
Abbey, Edward. (1968). Desert Solitaire. McGraw-Hill Group.
Duryee, Kent. (1996). Edward Abbey: A Man Hard to Talk About. Desert USA. Online at http://www.desertusa.com/mag00/nov/papr/abbey.html
Temple, Eric. (1982). An Interview With Edward Abbey. Phoenix, AZ: KAET-TV
This made the religion even more appealing. For example, because Christianity was born from Jewish traditions, it could be accepted by Jews; because of it's mystical attributes, Greek and other Orientals found it attractive. As a philosophy, Christianity was appealing because it offered solutions to many of the problems that ailed the world. In addition, its monotheism gave not only God but also man a place in the universe. Its promise of an afterlife provided mysticism and answers to many of the fears and worries that plague mankind. People had a reason to believe in a good God. John Crossan asserts, "God will act to restore justice in an unjust world" (Crossan 283). Indeed, the mystical aspect of this religion was very appealing because it was good. Even faith - faith in God, Jesus, and one's fellow man - becomes a significant factor in Christianity.
Christianity was a movement that…
Crossan, John. The Birth of Christianity. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers. 1998.
Goodman, Martin. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.
Hastings, Adrian. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.
Stegemann, Ekkehard. The Jesus Movement. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1989.
), and the five gross elements which are said to proceed from the five subtle elements (ether or space from sound, air from touch, fire from sight, water from taste, earth from smell). (68) Nature is further divided into three essential gunas, sattva, rajas, and tamas or 'the quality of being, energy, and darkness'. These elements enumerated by the Samkhya will be considered fundamental in the later literature.
8. How does one attain the highest goal of Samadhi in Samkhya-Yoga?
The Samadhi or the state of absolute 'concentration' of the soul into the soul, or of the self in its own self, can be achieved by the Yogin under the direction of a competent Guru, as a state of pure isolation from everything in the world, and even from God himself. The complete detachment can lead to an isolation of the "I" or the individual consciousness in everything, and a…
It is this selfsame Holy Spirit that will serve to convict within the unbeliever and to work within that individual until that person comes to the point of opening the inner door for the Christ and then urging the same individual forth into fulfilling the 'Great Commission' of spreading Christ to the world. In the fulfillment of this commitment inclusive of "baptizing them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit" the three faces of God's person are revealed and authenticated. Just as when Jesus entered the waters to be baptized and entered into communion with God the Father and God the Son was baptized of the God the Holy Spirit in the Gospel of John is clearly characterized in the evidence provided by John of the words Jesus spoke.
This one book of the ible explains clearly to believers and followers of Christ that the…
Wintz, Jack (2003) the Work of Pentecost Continues. Friar Jack's E-spirations. American Catholic 26 June 2003. Online available at http://www.americancatholic.org/e-News/FriarJack/fj062603.asp
Piper, John (1981) That Which is Born of the Spirit is Spirit. The Role of the Holy Spirit in Conversion. 22 Feb 1981 Resource Library - desiring God. Online available at http://www.desiringgod.org/ResourceLibrary/Sermons/ByDate/1981/284_That_Which_Is_Born_of_the_Spirit_Is_Spirit/
Step-by-Step with the Bible (Nd) Online available at http://www.mbay.net/~jmejia/chapt32.htm .
Pentecost Sunday Gospel St. John 14: 23-31 (nd) Laselle.org Online available at http://www.lasalle.org/English/Resources/Publications/PDF/WritingsJBDLS/Med43.pdf .
Again, ichard will be on the outside during these celebrations, because the rest of the family will be attending mass and other ceremonies. Even if he chooses to go, his heart will not be in it, and he will not take part in many of the ceremonies, such as Communion. Thus, he will be an outcast and different, someone who does not fit into the culture and society, and those around him will never allow him to forget it. Some may make him feel guilty, and others may just ignore him, but he will never be free of the stigma of someone who no longer believes in God.
In addition, the Church is an important, even vital aspect of the Hispanic community. Church services are only a part of the ways the people interact with the Church. There are Catholic schools, charities and societies, and many families work as laypeople…
Villarreal, Jose Antonio. Pocho: A Novel about a Young Mexican-American Coming of Age in California. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1959.
Such a big funeral, so much crying, so much pain, and I buried nothing" (70). Esperanza is in a state of extreme grief, so she expresses her doubt at the ability of the rituals of the Catholic Church to heal her emotional wounds. She believes her daughter, against all physical odds and evidence is still alive, so the funeral seems futile -- hence the sense that she has buried nothing. There is a gentle humor in her frustration at the size of the funeral, as if the bigger the funeral and the more gaudy the accoutrements of mourning, the more effective it will be.
There is an evident sexual tension between Father Salvador and Esperanza, or at least, in Father Salvador's perception of the woman. Father Salvador is attempting to comfort the woman. His hand is "trembling" like "an adolescent boy "about to kiss a girl for the first…
Nuland suggests can be improved if people come to understand the inexorable processes that are involved and recognize that like countless billions of humans before them, the mystery begins when they die and there is absolutely nothing they can do to alter this ultimate outcome beyond achieving this level of acceptance and understanding.
The research showed that Dr. Sherwin B. Nuland has written extensively about the history of medicine and the centrality of the death experience to the human condition throughout the millennia. Dr. Nuland's other book was Doctors: The Biography of Medicine and The Origins of Anesthesia, but he is regular contributors to magazines such as The New Yorker, The New epublic and Discover as well as peer-reviewed journals such as American Scholar, the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences where he serves as chairman of managers as well as the literary editor for Connecticut…
Nuland, S.B. (1994). How we die: Reflections on life's final chapter. New York: Alfred A.
-. Prooemium. (1998, Spring). American Scholar, 67(2), 139-140.
An Analysis of the Problems Posed by the Donatists in the Early Catholic Church
Donatus Magnus represents a kind of Puritanism that has always existed in the Church. The Donatist movement of the early fourth century was a response to perceived laxity on the part of Church officials concerning Catholics who had lapsed out of fear under the persecutions of Diocletian. That was one side of the argument, at least. On the other side was the work of St. Optatus the African, ishop of Milevis, who authored a significant treatise concerning the schism of the Donatists. The problem, essentially, was one of Church politics, judgment and charity -- and it was a problem that eventually found itself coming before the throne of Emperor Constantine, who sent a group of bishops to hear the case and give a decision. This paper will analyze the problems the Donatists posed…
Augustine, 1872, On Baptism, [ed. Rev. Marcus Dods], Edinburgh: T&T Clark.
Aurelius of Utica [taken from Augustine, On Baptism], Book VII, Chap. V. Writings in Connection with the Donatist Controversy. [ed. Rev. Marcus Dods], Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1872.
Cyprian. 2007, On the Lapsed. IntraText Edition CT, Eulogos,
Returning to Nature
They looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.
The great Romantic bard illiam ordsworth loved nature. To him, nature was a place to return to, not just in a physical sense, as in a sojourn or expedition, but in an emotional and spiritual sense. Returning to nature meant to revitalize an essential part of one's humanity through the cathartic and transformative powers of nature. To help unpack this concept, this essay will analyze two of ordsworth's poems: "Nutting" and "The orld is Too Much ith Us."
"Nutting" is a Conversation poem, in the Coleridge tradition, between the Narrator and his Maiden (Rumens). Over the course of the poem, he's tells his Maiden about a day he spent gathering nuts in the forest and how, after gathering the nuts, he felt a sense of guilt for needlessly…
Cronon, William. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: W.W. Norton &, 1996. Print.
Rumens, Carol. "The Romantic Poets: Nutting by William Wordsworth." The Guardian.
Guardian News and Media, 28 June 0026. Web. 24 Feb. 2012.
..."(hite, p. 106). This goes beyond religion into metaphysics, but he brings it back to a more understandable realm, the realm of the church service arguably, by noting that those 'same' waitresses had begun washing their hair frequently, in imitation of things they had seen in the movies.
By the end of the page, hite has returned to the mystical, building an implied comparison to the entirety of Christianity to an almost musical crescendo: "Summertime, oh summertime, pattern of life indelible the fade proof lake, the woods unshatterable, the pasture with the sweet fern and the juniper forever and ever, summer without end...." (hite, p. 106).
On the following page, hite is immersed in memories of earlier times, times that bear a resemblance, in his retelling, of the early Christian ideas of community, everyone joyously committed to a single purpose, taking pleasure in seeing others of like mind, conducting the…
The only work cited was a version of E.B. White's "Once More to the Lake" provided by the customer.
Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.
Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ
However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.
In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…
Martin Luther's Life:
Martin Luther took his birth on November 10, 1483 in a peasant family in Eisleben in the Holy oman Empire, presently known as Eastern Germany. After the birth of Luther his family migrated from Eisleben to Mansfeld. His father was a comparatively effective miner and smelter and the Mansfeld was then a larger mining town. The Parents of Martin were Hans and Magarete Luther and he was their second child. Martin started his schooling in Mansfeld most probably around seven. The School emphasized Latin and a bit of logic and rhetoric. When Martin was 14 he was brought to Magdeburg for taking up his further studies. He resided there only of a year and then admitted into a Latin School in Eisenach till 1501. During 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt that was regarded as one of the oldest and best universities in Germany where he…
An Account of the Life and Persecutions of Martin Luther: 1483-1546. Retrieved from http://www.myfortress.org/MartinLuther.html Accessed on 25 April, 2005
Buckingham, Lizzy. Martin Luther Protestant Reformer. May 27, 1997. Retrieved from http://www.cpcug.org/user/billb/luther.html Accessed on 25 April, 2005
Frost, Ronald. N. Aristotle's Ethics: The Real Reason for Luther's Reformation? Trinity Journal. Fall, 1997. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3803/is_199710/ai_n8776993/pg_1 Accessed on 25 April, 2005
Martin Luther and the Reformation. Retrieved from http://www.redeemerdenver.org/reformation.html Accessed on 25 April, 2005
The first five books were separated from the whole about 400 B.C. As the Pentateuch. Jean Astruc in the eighteenth century noted that the Pentateuch is based on even earlier sources. The two chief sources have since been identified in Genesis on the basis of their respective uses of Yahweh or Elohim in referring to the deity. They are called J. For the Jehovistic or Yahwistic source and E. For the Elohistic source, and P. For the Priestly source was later separated from the E. source (Miller and Miller 698-699).
Consider just the complexities involved in the construction of the first book of the bible, Genesis, in its present form. It is believed that at an early time in human history, perhaps as early as the eleventh or tenth century B.C., someone put together the stories of God's dealing with the fathers from oral forms then in circulation. Such a…
Blair, Edward P. Abingdon Bible Handbook. New York: Abingdon Press, 1975.
BrJhier, Louis. "Crusades." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
Dimont, Max I. Jews, God and History. New York: Mentor, 1994.
Jomier, Jacques. How to Understand Islam. New York: Crossroad, 1991.
Before the Torah is replaced near the end of the service, it is carried throughout the assembled congregation. Worshippers may reach out and touch the Torah with prayer books (hands are not supposed to be used), then kiss the object that touched the Torah, a gesture of affection, respect, and loyalty to God. This ritual is (arguably) symbolically equivalent to Catholic Communion, where believers symbolically ingest the blood and the body of Christ (a sip of wine and a Communion wafer) thereby taking the Lord into themselves. Both practices reaffirm personal relationships to God. Such contemporary (and past) ceremonies and liturgical practices may or may not actually aid worshippers in understanding God (or on the other hand, provide roadblocks for interpretation of the sacred). However, both are powerful signs of a personal relationship between congregants and God.
Many sections of the Old Testament reaffirm monotheism. In Exodus 31-33, Moses leaves…
..the raving of...fools" which leads to "the suppression of Christian faith, the denying of the divine ord, and the blaspheming of the diving majesty." ere the world made up of "real Christians" (369), Luther points out, no "prince, king, lord, sword, or law" (written by men who govern the Catholic church) "would be needed." The Holy Spirit is the only law required for salvation, he said, often and in many ways. The Holy Spirit (369) simply asks no law, but leads followers of Christ down the path of doing "wrong to no one," loving "every one," and to "...willingly and cheerfully" suffer any injustice "...and even death from every one."
Luther ("Twenty-seven Proposals for Improving the State of Christendom") puts in writing his answer to the laws of the Roman church, and his "proposals" are profound and revolutionary. He calls for the separation of church and state, which was a…
Dillenberger, John. (1961). Martin Luther: Selections From His Writings. Chicago:
Quadrangle Books, Inc.
One of the main subjects taught by these qabbalists was "devequt," or the communion with God that stressed one's ability to be in constant contact with God.
Following this period, the leadership of the Hasidic movement was placed upon a disciple known as Dov er who often held meetings in his own home with young Jewish intellectuals and the common people. His "court" was referred to as the "maggid" and it was within this "court" that the Hasidic movement became wholly organized. The next period was dominated by the disciples of Dov er when the movement itself became a major influence in Judaism. Part of this influence was due to the Hasidic theory of the "tsaddig" which quickly began to shape and mold Hasidic thought and social organization.
Also during this period, Hasidic literature was published and one of the first works was that of Ya'aqov Yosef, the greatest disciple…
Schoenberg, Shira. "The Haskalah." Jewish Virtual Library. 2005. Internet. Accessed November 13, 2005. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Haskalah.html .
Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In uddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the uddha.
The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an…
Ames, Van Meter. "Zen." In Japan and Zen, Betty Ames and Van Meter Ames (Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 1961.
Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space under the Tree. St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House, 1989.
Gowans, Christopher W. Philosophy of the Buddha. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Griffiths, Paul J. On Being Buddha: The Classical Doctrine of Buddhahood. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Anabaptists / Mennonites / Amish
Anabaptists / Mennonites / Amish a theological perspective.
In this essay, the author explores the Anabaptists / Mennonites / Amish with a theological perspective. The author has discussed background and characteristics of all three Christian movements.
The term "Anabaptist" or Wiedertaufer," which means "rebaptizer," was first given to the Swiss rethren by Ulrich Zwingli. [footnoteRef:2] Above the past four hundred years, the term "Anabaptism" has obsessed several connotations. At first it was utilized as a term of ridicule by Reformers and Catholic authorities throughout the Protestant Reformation, Anabaptism initially supposed "re-baptizer" (Huxman & iesecker-Mast, 2004, p. 540). [2: William R. Estep, "The Reformation: Anabapist Style, "Criswell Theological Review 6 (Spring 1993): 199.]
"In the early seventeenth century, Menno Simmons's interpretation of Anabaptist convictions, which stressed separation from the world and non-resistance, gained a popular following." (Huxman & iesecker-Mast, 2004, p. 540).Scholars such as…
Donald Kraybill and Carl Bowman, On the Backroad to Heaven: Old Order Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish and Brethren, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 3. Printer, 2001.
Gordon D. Kaufman. "Some Theological Emphases of the Early Swiss Anabaptists," Mennonite Quarterly Review 25: 75-6, 1951.
Harry Loewen and Steven Nolt, Through Fire and Water: An Overview of Mennonite History, (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press) 85. Printer, 1996.
Huxman, S.S., & Biesecker-Mast, G. "In the world but not of it: Mennonite traditions as resources for rhetorical invention." Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7(4), 539-554, 2004.
The Holy Trinity is composed out of three divine individuals that work together in creating one essence. Many people think about this theory as being a paradox, but it is important to understand that one should not necessarily think about logics when considering religion. Science is not powerful enough to explain every unknown idea and religion thus intervenes at times and provides initiatives that are controversial (to say the least). Trying to understand the Holy Trinity by using conventional values is likely to make an individual even more confused about the concept.
Another divisive topic regarding the Trinity regards the idea that Christianity is a monotheistic religious ideology and yet promotes the idea that there are three distinct bodies governing over the world. hat people fail to understand is that the Church is not confused as a result of encountering mysterious ideas. It actually concentrates on trying to find a…
Blastares, Matthew, and Viscuso, Patrick, "Sexuality, marriage, and celibacy in Byzantine law: selections from a fourteenth-century encyclopedia of canon law and theology: the alphabetical collection of Matthew Blastares," (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 18.12.2008)
Lossky, Vladimir, "Orthodox Theology: An Introduction," (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1978)
2 Lossky Vladimir, "The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church," (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1976)
Saliba, Philip, "Orthodox Synthesis: The Unity of Theological Thought: an Anthology Published in Commemoration of the Fifteenth Anniversary of Metropolitan Philip as Primate of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America," (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1981)
The Evolution of Folk Music Vocals
By its definition, folk music technically refers to indigenous forms of music created by local, regional or native populations as a way of engaging in cultural expression. This means that at its core, folk music is not intended to command a commercial value nor is it necessarily folk music by definition once a form has been co-opted by an outside culture. However, this is also a definition for folk which has long been rendered obsolete by the aesthetic and vocal qualities that listeners tend to associate with the genre today. This is because the most historically significant instances in which folk music converged with the commercial zeitgeist would come to produce a highly distinctive set of sounds.
Indeed, when we think of folk music, one tends instantly to conjure image of a young Bob Dylan with harmonica rack and guitar, wheezing his…
EW. (2013). The Great Folk Rock Revival: how bands like Mumford & Sons and the Lumineers are leading a global phenomenon. Entertainment Weekly.
Holden, S. (2013). When They Hammered Out Justice in the '60s. The New York Times.
Jacobs, P. (2006). Bringing It All Back Home -- The Folk Music Revival. Rewind the Fifties.
McCormick, N. (2011). Folk Music: A Quiet Revolution. The Telegraph.
" (omans 12.6 and 1 Cor. 12) This includes the gift of spiritual direction. Therefore, it can be garnered that the Holy Spirit provides the contemporary Church "with forms other than those used by the ancient elder to achieve this same purpose." (2000) Allen writes that it would be erroneous to claim that the Holy Spirit "could not again, in any age, raise up the pater penumatikos (the spiritual father) for the continuing ministry of the Church." (2000) in fact, since the Holy Spirit abides in the Church, then according to Allen, it "follows that there will be an ever-renewing form of pneumatophoroi, or 'bearers' or 'carriers' of that Spirit.
II. The Central Task of Spiritual Direction
Allen writes that the central task of spiritual direction in terms of its goal and historical goals is the leading of individuals "deeper and deeper into the struggle for the Christian life, that…
Allen, J.J. (2000) Inner Way: Toward a Rebirth of Easter Christian Spiritual Direction. Holy Cross Orthodox Press.
Empereur, J. (1990) Ennagram and Spiritual Culture: Nine Paths to Spiritual Guidance. Continuum. 6 Jan. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=cW02lGhChlgC&dq=Allen:+Inner+Way:+Toward+a+Rebirth+of+Eastern+Christian+Spiritual+Direction&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Marital Intimacy Skills
This study examines marital intimacy skills and the impact that these skills have on the marriage in terms of marital failure or marital success. The work of Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) entitled "Transformative Processes in Marriage: An Analysis of Emerging Trends" reports that it has been argued by Stanley (2007) that we "are in a new stage of marital research that reflects a growing momentum toward larger meanings and deeper motivations about relationships, including a focus on constructs that are decidedly more positive." (p.276) Good marriage is noted as that which makes the provision to spouses of "a sense of meaning in their lives" and it is suggested by Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) that this momentum "has set the stage for examination of transformative, rather than merely incremental changes in relationships. (p.276)
What is Intimacy?
Linaman (2006) writes that intimacy is something that every individual…
Boa, Kenneth (nd) Marriage: Intimates or Inmates. Bible.org. Retrieved from: http://bible.org/article/marriage-intimates-or-inmates
Chia, Hans (nd) Importance of Fidelity in Marital Intimacy. Ezine. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Importance-of-Fidelity-in-Marital-Intimacy&id=3444329
Condie Joann (nd ) Nothing to Hide: Hope for Marraiges Hurt by Pornography and infidelity. Retrieved from: http://www.renewingintimacy.com/Nothing%20to%20Hide_simple.pdf
Cordova, JV, Gee, CB, and Warren, LZ (2005) Emotional Skillfulness in Marriage: Intimacy As a Mediator of the Relationship Between Emotional Skillfulness and Marital Satisfaction. Journal of Social Change and Clinical Psychology: Vol. 24, No. 2. Pp. 218-235. Retrieved from:
Etymology of a "Community"u
Community is a group of people that share similar values and interests, work towards similar goals and support each other. There are many different types or groups of people that qualify as a "community." A community does not have to be a particular size to qualify as a "community" although generally most communities consist of a group of people that is roughly a dozen or more (Smith, 2001). The neighborhood most people live in and work in is generally considered a community.
Smith (2001) quotes Hoggett (1997) in stating that since the late 19th century, the "use of the term community has remained to some extent associated with the hope and the wish of reviving once more the closer, warmer, more harmonious type of bonds between people vaguely attributed to past ages" (p. 5). Most people consider the term community a "positive" term, meaning they…
Cohen, A.P. (ed). 1982. Belonging. Identity and social organization in British rural cultures,
Manchester: University of Manchester Press. u
Lindeman, E.C. 1921. The Community. An introduction to the study of community leadership and organization. New York: Association Press.
Putnam, R.D. 2000. Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Hawthorne: My Kinsman, Goodman Brown
The United States experienced great political, social and economic change during the late 1700s and early 1800s. Breaking ties with Great Britain under the Declaration of Independence developed a unique American tradition. The major emphasis was placed on the individual, whose need to succeed would result in the best possible world for everyone concerned. In the two works "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" and "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorn, the main characters obin and Young Goodman Brown go on personal journeys to seek their individual goals. obin seeks a kinsman who can help him establish his future livelihood and Brown searches to restore his faith and the evil in his heart. They both each reach a goal, yet not the one expected.
In "My Kinsman," a naive and inexperienced youth named obin leaves his country home and travels to the city looking for his cousin…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" 1832.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown." 1835.
paganism and mystery religions influenced Christianity.
Paganism and mystery religions
Pagan Mystery religions have been associated with paving the way for Christianity presentation across the ancient and present world. They played the role of preparing the people emotionally and mentally in understanding the kind of religion which was represented by Christianity. They existed in varying degrees, examples was the Galilean cult which was to replace them. There encouragement was for a shift from the philosophical and state religion systems towards the craving for personal salvation as well as promise of immortality. It is believed that Christianity have been manifested through the paganism and mystery religions, since they were involved in doing the groundwork which paved the way for Christian missionary work. Most of the perception, as passed from paganism into Christianity got a highly insightful and spiritual meaning by Christianity.
The early church developed from the Greco-oman world which…
Angus, S., The Mystery Religions and Christianity, (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York: 1925),
Cumont, Franz, The Mysteries of Mithra, (The Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago: 1910).
Cumont, Franz, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, (The Open House Publishing Co., Chicago: 1911).
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847.
From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century.
Modern Portrait of Xuanzang.
From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels.
Revelation 20:1-6 (the Millenium)
The objective of this study is to examine the 1000 years of Revelation 20:1-6 (The Millennium) an exegetical and theological topic therefore the review will be extended beyond only the biblical in terms of research and will examine the views of other scholars in this area of inquiry.
The lue Letter ible states the following in the ook of Revelations, Chapter 20, Verses one through six:
"Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold of the dragon, the serpent of old, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he threw him into the abyss, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he would not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were completed; after these things…
Christianson, D. (2014) Revelation 20: 4-6. The Millennial Kingdom. Retrieved from: http://www.bibletrek.com/files/revelation20.pdf
Four Views on the Millennium (2014) the Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved from: https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/mill.cfm
The Millennium: Thousand Years Reign of Christ (2014) Apttoteach. Retrieved from: http://www.apttoteach.org/Theology/End%20times/pdf/908_Millennium.pdf
Thomas, Robert L. Revelation 8-22: an exegetical commentary. WEC. Chicago: Moody, 1992, 1995.
Theology: The aptism Debate
Peter's encouragement sermon on the Day of Pentecost -- "repent and let each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you shall receive the Holy Spirit" (Acts 2:38) has been the source of raging debate, marred by conflicting views on i) whether Peter was referring to spirit or water baptism; and ii) whether through the phrase 'be baptized…the forgiveness of sins', Peter was identifying baptism as a requirement for salvation[footnoteRef:1]. In other words, should Peter's exhortation be interpreted at face value, or should it be understood some other way? This text purposes to interact with the opposing views on these issues, examine their theological and syntactic viability, and then conclude with an interpretation that aligns with both the immediate and the larger contexts of the verse in question. [1: 1 ruce Compton, "Water aptism and the…
Beach, Mark. "Original Sin, Infant Salvation, and the Baptism of Infants," Mid-America Journal of Theology 12 (2001): 47-79.
Calvin, John. "Doctrine: John Calvin's Argument for Infant Baptism," The Theologian (n.d.), Accessed September 15, 2014, http://www.theologian.org.uk/doctrine/calvin-baptism.html
Campbell, Alexander. Christian Baptism: With its Antecedents and Consequents (1853), Google Ebook.
Compton, Bruce. "Water Baptism and the Forgiveness of Sins in Acts 2:38," Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 4 (Fall 1999): 3-32.