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The first thing that can be concluded is that Spain has an absolute competitive advantage in both boats and trucks. Spain's comparative advantage in boats is 3:2 but its comparative advantage in trucks is 2:1. Therefore, Spain should produce trucks and Portugal should produce boats. This is because when a country has absolute advantage in two goods, then comparative advantage is in the good where it has the greater advantage. The other country has comparative advantage in the other good.
If the table illustrates what the productive capacity of the country is where these two goods are produced as a trade-off, then the following conditions exist:
With the new plan, Spain doing trucks and Portugal doing boats, the outputs are as follows:
The total economic output is greater. There are fewer boats -- hopefully these countries didn't need…
Investopedia (2015). Comparative advantage. Investopedia. Retrieved December 12, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/comparativeadvantage.asp
Investopedia (2015). Opportunity cost. Investopedia Retrieved December 12, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/opportunitycost.asp
The measurement error may come from any number of omitted variables.
esearchers also found that when the dependent variable is relative exports, productivity shows slightly better results than unit labor costs, but the reverse is the case when the dependent variable is bilateral trade balances.
In other words, the authors discovered 'fairly strong [empirical] support" for the icardian model despite the intense difficulties in structuring international comparisons between productivity and labor compensation (although the authors found their PPP approach valuable). The authors concluded that:
in the vast majority of cases, relative productivity and unit labor cost help to explain U.S. bilateral trade pattern, particularly when sector-specific purchasing-power-parity exchange rates are used. In most cases, only a small part of the variation of trade patterns is explained by the model, but this is common in cross-sectional analysis (Golub & Hseih (2000), p.231).
They concluded that "despite its extreme simplicity, the icardian…
Ashenfelter, O. & Jurajda, a (2001). Cross-country comparisons of wage rates, http://www.crei.cat/activities/sc_conferences/12/ashenfe.pdf
Costinot, a., D. Donaldson and I. Komunjer (2011) What Goods Do Countries Trade?
A Quantitative Exploration of Ricardo's Ideas, Review of Economic Studies, forthcom-
Ricardo's Theory Of Competitive Advantage
Ricardo's Competitive Advantage Theory in international trade is as valid today as when it was first proclaimed. Ricardo's theory holds that every country should engage in free trade, just as Adam Smith alleged that all individuals should engage in free and fair trade. Smith stated that all human beings specialize, produce goods or service in excess of what they need, and thus can barter or exchange for monetary value for those goods in a national marketplace. (Smith, 1776) Ricardo agreed with this is also applicable in the international marketplace. (Ricardo, 1817)
The principle of comparative advantage for nations may seem "clearly counter-intuitive. Many results from the formal model may seem contrary to simple logic." (Suranovic, 2003) However, Ricardo's commodity exchange example demonstrated numerically that if England specialized in producing one of the two goods, and if Portugal produced the other, then total world output of…
Mill, John Stuart (1848) Principles of Political Economy.
Porter, Michael. (2004) "Competitive Strategy Framework (porter)." Value-Based Management.net. Last updated: August 5, 2004. http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_competitive_strategy.html
Smith, Adam (1776) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
Ricardo, David (1817). On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation.
International Trade Concepts
Absolute and Comparative Advantage
An absolute advantage is achieved when one country can produce a product at a lower cost than any other country, potentially gaining absolute control of the market for that good or service. Absolute advantage provides a country with leverage in international trade as it builds assets or wealth. Absolute advantage's can have a finite life as circumstances change. In the past French wine held absolute advantage, but recently, U.S., Australian, and New Zealand wines have started to become very competitive relative to French wines. In the United States, Ford Motor Company held absolute advantage, then General Motors, and finally other U.S. companies and foreign imports moved into the market. Absolute advantages are rare today, however some countries manage to approximate absolute advantages in some products. Climate differences can give some nations or regions an advantage in growing certain plants. Saffron is…
Kurtz, D.L. (2010). Contemporary Business. 13th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
National American University (2009, November 11). International business instructional materials. Version 3. Rapid City, SD: National American University.
Say's law is that "production is the source of demand" (Investopedia, 2015). The idea is that when an individual produces a work, they receive payment for it, and then use that payment to purchase other goods and services. Say's law conveniently ignores savings, but even more importantly assumes that all goods have equal demand, and that demand will arise from nowhere for any good on the basis that it has been produced.
Say's law would fail to hold on these accounts. While there is some argument that Say's law may hold in the long run, in the short run there are all kinds of issues with its logic (EconLib, 2015). In a monetary economy, savings is certainly going to be one of those problems. Savings represent a drain on the economy, in that money is not being put into productive use. In the modern era, savings might be…
EconLib (2015). Jean-Baptiste Say. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved May 14, 2015 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Say.html
Investopedia (2015). Say's law of markets. Investopedia. Retrieved May 14, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/says-law.asp
International Trade and Comparative Advantage
Because trade between nations is as ancient as mankind itself, there have been a number of theories advanced over the years to help account for why some countries seem to benefit more than others in the process. To this end, this paper provides an overview of trade theories according to Adam Smith and Ricardo to determine how free trade has adversely affected developing countries in general and Egypt and the Middle East in particular. An examination of different trade policies in developing countries and how these policies assisted some countries but not others is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
Background and Overview of Trade Theories. Early on, David Ricardo examined the laws that seemed to control the distribution of everything that could be produced by the "three classes of the community" (e.g., the landlords, the workers, and the owners of…
"Dividends of Fear: America's $94 Billion Arab Market Export Loss." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 22(6):IM.
Egypt. (2005). U.S. Government: CIA World Factbook. Available: http://www.cia.gov / cia/publications/factbook/geos/eg.html.
Frieden, Jeffry A. And David A. Lake. International Political Economy: Perspectives on Global
Power and Wealth. London: Routledge, 2000.
DuPont usiness Strategy: Competitive Advantage and Comparative Advantage
Matching Company Capabilities and the External Environment
DuPont's Competitive Position
SWOT Analysis and Mann's Country Profile
Discussion, Conclusion, and Recommendations
Matching Company Capabilities and the External Environment
DuPont's Competitive Position
SWOT Analysis and Mann's Country Profile
Discussion, Conclusion, and Recommendations
The DuPont Company is renowned as one of the best known manufacturing facilities in the International community. It was started in 1802 by the French Immigrant Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de Nemours and later became known as the E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company1. The company has several brands that have become household named such as Teflon®, Sliverstone®, Kevlar® fiber, and Mylar® polyester films. DuPont is an International giant, operating in 70 countries with nearly 175 manufacturing and processing facilities. The facilities manufacture a number of products including 140 chemical and specialty plants,…
BASF Corporation. (2003) "Fortune Rating Puts BASF Number One in the Global Chemical Industry." February 26, 2003.. http://dai.multexinvestor.com/MGI/news.asp?target=stocks%2Fcompanyinformation%2Fnews&Ticker=BF&TEXT=CMTX:20030226:057p8840 Accessed march, 2003.
Best Me.(2003) "Strategy for the 1990s and Beyond. http://best.me.berkeley.edu/~pps/pps/dupont_strategy.html. Accessed March, 2003.
Carruthers, N. And Wozniak, M.(2002) "DuPont." Krause Fund Research. Fall, 2002. http://www.biz.uiowa.edu/krause/DuPont_F02.pdf . Accessed March, 2003.
Ding, H. And Peters, L. (2003)"Leveraging Knowledge in Discontinuous Innovation through Strategic Alliances. Lally School of Management and Technology." Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. http://mint.mcmaster.ca/nbc/ding.htm. Accessed March, 2003.
Free trade, based on the theory of comparative advantage, is a textbook ideal that does not exist in the real world. Free trade would be entirely uninhibited. When icardo imagined the idea, just to make the concept work he had to ignore things like transaction costs, transportation costs and other real life variables. Thus, today, where such variables exist in near-infinite complexity, free trade would be impossible, and the best we can do is to work toward it, which is the objective of modern trade agreements.
The basic principle of free trade via comparative advantage is that two countries can trade with each other in the goods/services in which they have comparative advantage. Even at the time the idea was proposed, it would have been evident that free trade was only an ideal, and could not exist in perfect form in the real world. First, different nations trade…
Readings in Economic Issues & Public Policy" ISBN 13-978-1-256-58979-2 (Pearson)
country has absolute advantage over other countries in producing a certain line of goods if it can produce those goods at a higher productivity level or a lower cost (Suranovic, 2015; Kilic, 2002). In contrast, a country has comparative advantage if it can produce the same goods at a lower opportunity cost than other countries (Suranovic, Kilic). These are the brief meanings of these two terms.
A country possesses absolute advantage if it is more efficient than other countries in producing a good (Kilic, 2002). It possesses comparative advantage if it is relatively more efficient in producing that good than other countries. Efficiency is relatively measured in a country with comparative advantage. Some countries possess only comparative advantage because their resources and technological level are limited. Their trading advantage rests in opportunity cost in relation to the production of a certain good in comparison with another country. This leads countries…
Kilic, R. (2002). Absikyte abd cinoaratuve advantage: ricardian Model. Lecture 3. Michigan
State University. Retrieved on June 23, 2015 from http://www.msu.edu/course/ec/340/snapshot.afs/Kilic/lecture3.pdf
Suranovic, S. (2015). International trade theory and policy. Chapter 40. Retrieved on June 23, 2015 from http://www.internationalecon.com/Trade/Tch40/T40-0.php
Economics of nations
Absolute advantage in trade and specifically production is when a given country has the best and most efficient way of producing the goods than any other country involved in that given trade. On the other hand, the comparative advantage focuses on a single country producing say two products and the same products being produced by another country. If country X can produce product A at cheaper economic sacrifice and cost than they produce product B, yet country Y can produce product B at a cheaper economic sacrifice and cost than A, it can then be said that country X has a comparative advantage in product A as compared to country Y and the same applied to country Y on product B.
The country in consideration here is Brazil, its top major exports are sugarcane, beef, motor vehicles and spare parts, textiles and steel. On the beef, textile…
CIA, (2018). World Factbook: US. Retrieved May 18, 2018 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Lore Central, (2018). Advantages and Disadvantages of Protectionism. Retrieved May 18, 2018 from https://www.lorecentral.org/2017/11/advantage-disadvantage-protectionism.html
US Debt Clock, (2018).US National Debt. Retrieved May 18, 2018 from http://www.usdebtclock.org/
1. The question of whether agreements like OPT should be restricted and apparel retailers be allowed to import from the most cost-effective countries is a false dichotomy. The two are not mutually exclusive. If there is an OPT agreement within the EU, that does not force H&M to buy from EU nations; it simply gives them an incentive to do so. H&M can still trade with other nations, under whatever trade agreements exist between the EU and those nations. If India and China have competitive advantage in textiles, then they will win the trade. But by no means is H&M forced to trade within the EU.
The reality that even with an OPT agreement, EU producers still do not have competitive advantage – that India and China exist as lower-cost producers – certainly calls into question the value of having the OPT agreements at all. The agreements probably…
A worker has an absolute advantage in the production of a good relative to another if it can produce the good at lower cost or with higher productivity (Armington, 1969). In this model we would say that worker 1 has an absolute advantage in both plumbing and masonry when compared to the worker 2. It is because worker 1 takes less number of hours in both of the activities: plumbing and masonry. In other words:
4< 5, therefore in each of the case worker 1 has an absolute advantage.
A worker has a comparative advantage over the other worker when he/she can produce that good at a lower opportunity cost relative to another worker (Arrow, 1974). Opportunity cost is defined generally as the value of the next best opportunity. In the context of the workers, workers have the opportunities either to work in masonry or plumbing…
Armington, P. "A Theory of Demand for Products Distinguished by Place of Production." IMF Staff Papers, 16, 1969, 159-78.
Arrow, K.J. "The Theory of Discrimination," in Discrimination in Labor Markets, edited by 0. Ashenfelter and A. Rees. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974.
Chiang. S., and R. Masson. "Domestic Industrial Structure and Export Quality." International Economic Review, 29, 1988, 261-70.
"A basic principle Economics comparative advantage: a country produces goods producing, bad. The traditional story includes relative endowments capital labor, capital intensity goods matters. Now add environmental externalities.
Comparative advantage in emissions trading: The environment and economics
Although it was not signed by the United States, at the time of its drafting, the Kyoto Protocol was considered a major advancement in attempts to curb global warming by limiting emissions. However, the international agreement also brought the controversial practice of emissions trading of pollutions credits to the forefront of the concerns of the world environmental movement. "Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them but not 'used' - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets" (International emissions trading, 2013, Kyoto). In other words, 'cleaner' nations could sell their…
Emissions trading. (2013). ITEA. Retrieved from: http://www.ieta.org/emissions-trading
International emissions trading. (2013). Kyoto. Retrieved from:
Ramsey, M. (2013).Tesla earns $40 million selling pollution credits. The Wall Street Journal.
This virtually means that the international community could soon observe mutations in the type and nature of the outsourced processes.
In general terms, companies are looking to outsource growing numbers of more complex operations as they are not willing to assume the risks and make the necessary investments. In this order of ideas, they outsource the operations to firms which have already made the investments and assumed the risks. "Organizations are reluctant to invest in and maintain cutting-edge technology and technical specialists internally, when they know that similar assets exist externally, and were developed with others' investment and risk" (Greaver).
While the companies recognized and capitalized on the benefits of outsourcing, the communities identified the limitations of the processes. The most common dissatisfaction was linked to the fact that outsourcing took jobs away from national workers and gave them to foreigners. In 2003, over 300,000 jobs within the United States…
2009, International Association of Outsourcing Professionals Predicts Top 10 Outsourcing Trends to Watch for in 2010, International Association of Outsourcing Professionals, http://www.outsourcingprofessional.org/content/23/196/1967 / last accessed on March 15, 2010
2009, the benefits of outsourcing, Outsource2India, http://www.outsource2india.com/why_outsource/articles/benefit_outsourcing.asp last accessed on March 15, 2010
Benaud, C.L., Bordeianu, S., 1998, Outsourcing library operations in academic libraries: an overview of issues and outcomes, Libraries Unlimited, ISBN 1563085097
Bucki, J., 2010, Top 6 outsourcing disadvantages, About.com, http://operationstech.about.com/od/outsourcing/tp/OutSrcDisadv.htm last accessed on March 15, 2010
Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing
An increasingly popular commercial trend has been outsourcing. It has been estimated in 2011 alone more than 2.2 million jobs were outsourced by U.S. firms and 43% of IT services firms undertaking some type of outsourcing (Statistic Brain, 2012). For this level of outsourcing to exist there must be potentially significant advantages, however there are also likely to be disadvantages.
Key advantages may be summarized as gaining efficiencies while reducing both costs and some risks. Outsourcing services to a specialist firm may allow an organization to gain expertise that they may not be able to afford to bring in if recruiting for in-house staff (Kroenke, 2011). Experienced high level experts can be hired by outsourcing firm with the higher salaries associated with the expertise affordable as each client is only using the expertise for a limited number of hours (Kroenke, 2011). This not only…
Kroenke, David M, (2011), Using MIS, Prentice Hall
Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B. (2008), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall
Statistics Brian, (2011), Job Outsourcing Statistics, [online] http://www.statisticbrain.com/outsourcing-statistics-by-country accessed 26th May 2013
economic advantages for the U.S., Mexico, and Canada of signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
The most obvious, direct impact of NAFTA upon the three signatory nations is the liberalization of international trade between them all. By doing away with tariffs and other prohibitive trade restrictions, consumers in all three nations can more easily purchase one another's goods at lower prices. Not only was the U.S. able to purchase less expensive goods from Mexico: Mexico likewise experienced an increase in international trade, foreign direct investment, and labor productivity (Iyer 11-12). Canada also saw increased labor productivity and a greater free flow of trade between the two nations but both Mexico and Canada lost jobs in their agricultural sectors while they gained jobs in their manufacturing sectors (Iyer 13). The theory of comparative advantage in trade suggests that when a nation does or makes what it can do 'best,'…
Iyer, L. "To trade or not to trade?" HBS Case Study. 17 Nov 2005.
A Comparison of Online Learning and Campus-Based Learning
The development and growth of online learning has created opportunities for both students and academic institutions alike. The online learning environment may be argued as offering many benefits such increasing accessibility to education and support of diversity as well as providing a potentially lucrative revenue streams for the institutions. These benefits have driven the growth, but the benefits are not without drawbacks, with online courses reporting a higher attrition. The aim of the paper is to look at online learning, discussing the advantages and the disadvantages of the online environment comparing it to campus-based learning and the blending environment.
An online course has been defined as one where there is a minimum of 80% of the content is delivered through the online environment (Allen & Seaman, 2014). Online delivery may include a range of different mediums, including, but not necessarily limited…
Allen IE; Seaman J, (2014), Grade Change: Tracking Online Education in the United States, The Sloan Consortium
Bauman, P, (2002), Student Retention: What You Can Control, & How, Distance Education Report, 6(16), 41
Cluskey, G.R. Jr.; Ehlen, Craig R; Raiborn, Mitchell H, (2011), Thwarting online exam cheating without proctor supervision, Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 4, 1-7
Diaz, D.P. (2002), Online drop rates revisited, The Technology Source, accessed 11th March 2-014 at http://technologysource.org/article/online_drop_rates_revisited/
Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Assessments
Spinelli (101) explains that the United States is the most linguistically diverse nation in the world, with over 400 hundred languages spoken. The English language learner is the fastest growing student population, and is expected to make up 25% of students by 2025. Additionally, accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind legislation have brought the assessment of English language learners to the forefront of discussion. Schools who receive Title I funds must demonstrate that their students, including the subgroup of English language learner, are making Adequate Yearly Progress on high-stakes state assessments. According to Pappamihiel and alser (137), great controversy still exists as to the validity and reliability of high-stakes state assessments for English language learners. Spinelli (104) argues that many times children who are English language learners perform poorly on standardized assessments and are misidentified as having a learning disability.…
Arter, Judy. Northwest Regional Educational Lab. "Performance Assessment: What's Out There and How Useful Is It Really?." (1991): ERIC. EBSCO. Web. 6 May 2011.
Davis Lenski, Susan, Fabiola Ehlers-Zavala, Mayra C. Daniel, Xiaoquin Sun-Irminger. Assessing English-Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms. 60 Vol. Int Reading Association, 2006. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 6 May 2011.
Pappamihiel, N.E., and Tamara M. Walser. English Language Learners and Complexity Theory: Why Current Accountability Systems do Not Measure Up. 73 Vol. Kappa Delta Pi, 2009. ProQuest Education Journals. Web. 6 May 2011.
Spinelli, Cathleen G. "Addressing the Issue of Cultural and Linguistic Diversity and Assessment: Informal Evaluation Measures for English Language Learners." Reading & Writing Quarterly 24.1 (2008): 101-118. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 6 May 2011.
Personal Computers and Mainframes:
Ah, yes...the good, old mainframe. Although the days of whirring giant cabinets in the Six Million Dollar Man, or even the out of control "WHOPPER" computer in the classic cold war movie, War Games, have largely gone the way of the dinosaur, the mainframe computer is still in use today. Although the PC has become the modern definition of "the computer," both forms of the technology have specific uses, advantages and disadvantages.
In the early 1980's, the business world in particular was embracing computer technology at a rapid pace. Other technologies, including microfilm, microfiche, and hard copy records and documents began to be phased out by the mainframe. Indeed, companies quickly became aware of the tremendous power the mainframe computer could bring to their management of data and records (ennett, 2000), and set up systems at individual "work stations," allowing access to the information in…
Bennett, J. 2000. "Compuware sees the future, and it is the mainframe." Detroit Free Press. Retrieved from Web Site on March 28, 2004 http://www.freep.com/money/business/compu27_20000627.htm
Katnic, J., Nadel, D. 2000. "Is the mainframe just a high performance PC?" IBM Mainframe Newsgroup. Retrieved from Web Site on March 28, 2004 http://www.os390-mvs.freesurf.fr/mainpc.htm
The Benefits of Mutual Funds and Employers Matching Employees’ Pension Contributions
Investing in a mutual fund has major advantages compared with investing in the company stock. The first benefit is diversification of risk. Mutual funds invest in many different companies, often across different industries (Bogle, 2015). This means if the value on one share in the portfolio falls, or evens collapses, it will not result in a significant decline in portfolio value (Bogle, 2015). This reduces the risk when compared to any investment in a single stock, where a change in the share price will impact directly on the value of the investment (Bogle, 2015). The purchase price of the investment units in the mutual fund will also reflect market condition, as they are determines by the underlying asset prices (Howells & Bain, 2007). This is an advantage compared to the company stock, as the firm is currently…
European exploration the world was undertaken in the 1500's in an attempt to reach the markets of Asia. And once they reached the East, the Europeans quickly found that their technological superiority gave them a strategic advantage over the Asian countries they encountered. As a result, the West began a period of Colonial Imperialism whereby European nations, followed later by the Americans, occupied and administered entire regions of Asia as colonies to be economically exploited. The Asian countries of India, China, and Japan reacted differently in response to the predations of the West, with differing results. India was completely conquered, China ended up conquered to a degree, and Japan started conquering. These three different results were in due, partially because of the stability of their nations, and partially due to the ability of each to adapt and modernize.
The origins of British rule in India began with the British East…
Beeching, J. (1975). The Chinese Opium Wars. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Busch, N. (1972) The Horizon Concise History of Japan. New York: American Heritage Pub.
Danielou, A. (2003) A Brief History of India. Rochester, VT.: Inner Traditions.
Dugdale-Pointon, TDP. (2004, September 19), The Boxer Rebellion, 1900, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_boxer.html .
Psychodynamic Therapy vs Bowenian Therapy
Psychodynamic Vs Bowenian Therapist
Psychodynamic and Bowenian Therapist
ole of Psychodynamic Therapist to that of the Bowenian Therapist
ole of the Psychodynamic therapist
Family Systems Theory
Goals of the Therapy
ole of the Therapist
Psychodynamic therapy focuses on helping the patients to explore the feelings and emotions that are deep inside them. These are the emotions that they might not be aware of. Psychodynamic therapy helps the people to understand how these hidden feelings and emotions are effecting there moods and behavior without them knowing about it.
Psychodynamic therapy is also known as Insight-oriented therapy, which makes the people understand the reasons for their current behavior and mood swings which might be the outcome of some past relationships that have been a cause of constant pain for them.
Psychodynamic therapy is the oldest of all the…
Galica, J. (2013). Theravive . Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy.
Haggerty, J. (2013, april 3). Psych Central. Psychodynamic Therapy.
Mother and Father as Individuals and as Parents
Perhaps they are the most familiar person to you, the people you are most comfortable with. Sometimes you love them for bringing you into this world; sometimes you hate them for telling you this fact over and over again. The other may be lenient in disciplining you, while the other is too strict on you. Or sometimes, both exercise their right as your parent to impose rules that you must follow as their child.
These are the situations every child experiences with his/her parents: the people who you love to hate and hate to love, who can forsake you while at the same time care for you in times of trouble or crisis. Our parents, bound to duty and responsibility in the society as parents of their children, have the tremendous responsibility to rear their children properly in order for them to…
C# and Java have more similarities than differences, Java programmers my shun C# is situations where they require high-quality program design, cross-platform portability and runtime extensibility for remote applications. Developers that require a more expressive language than Java are likely to appreciate Microsoft's many expressive features such as metadata availability, event handling, and property access.
The most serious deficiency of C# is the lack of exception handling, meaning that the compiler will not notify the programmer if an exception occurs. Java, on the other hand, allows exception checking and the compiler will generate a compile-time error if the programmer hasn't specified how to handle the exception. The lack of checked exceptions in C# may lead to program designs which are flawed. C# developers must tale extra care to document all exceptions that callers should be aware of.
Java applications are portable across a number of operating systems and platforms. Sun…
Eaddy, Marc. "C# Versus Java." Dr. Dobb's Journal. Feb. 2001. Business Source Premier
Database (EBSCOhost) 3931159
Obasanjo, Dare. "A Comparison of Microsoft's C# Programming Language to Sun
Microsystems' Java Programming Language." Jonas Mockus 18 Feb. 2003. http://www.soften.ktu.lt/~mockus/gmcsharp/csharp/c-sharp-vs.-java.html#different
ADN vs. BSN
The ADN vs. The BSN:
A comparison of both nursing degrees
Students wishing to enter the profession of nursing are often faced with two clear choices: that of an ADN (associate degree in nursing) and a BSN (Bachelor of Science nursing degree). An ADN generally takes two years and is often offered by a community college or state school. As a result, it is substantially cheaper than a four-year BSN. Obtaining an ADN still allows a nurse to sit for the NCLEX-N. "The coursework of an associate's degree in nursing covers the following general subjects: fundamentals of nursing, infection control, nutrition and dietetics, basic microbiology, basic medical nursing, pediatric nursing, and more" ("What you need to know," 2014). It should be noted that an ADN does not have to be a terminal degree and there are ADN 'bridge' programs that allow practicing nurses currently possessing…
ADN vs. BSN: Which should you choose? (2014). Monster. Retrieved from:
The future of the associate degree in nursing program. (2014). Nursing Licensure.
Retrieved from: http://www.nursinglicensure.org/articles/adn-program-future.html
High Context And Low Context Cultures
High-context cultures are the type of cultures where their rules of communication are transmitted through the elements such as body language, the tone of voice and person's status. (Guffey, 2009). Contrarily, low context cultures communicate information through rules and languages, which are explicitly spelled out. However, no culture is entirely low context or high context, nevertheless, cultures contain some elements of low context and high context. In the United States, low context cultures are predominant in the American culture, however, family gathering tends to be characterized with high culture context.
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast high culture context and low culture context in term of verbal communication and individualism and collectivism.
High Culture Context vs. Low Culture Context with eference to Verbal Communication
One of the fundamental features of high culture context is its low level of verbal communication…
Guffey, M. E. (2009). Essentials of Business Communication. South-Western/ Cengage Learning.
Mesquita, B.(2001). Emotions in Collectivist and Individualist Contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001, 80 (1): 68-74.
Samovar, L. A. & Richard E. (2004). Porter. Communication Between Cultures. 5th Ed. Thompson and Wadsworth.
LEASING vs. PURCHASING COMPUTER EQUIPMENT?
Leasing and Purchasing Computer Equipment
Considerations for Lease Option 7-9
Advantages of Financial Leasing 9-12
GE Transportation plans to replace their computer equipment for the Human Resources and recruitment department having roughly 100 employees. This paper is based on researching what is the most economical way for the employer, GE, to outfit its office with computer. In this paper the pros and cons both of buying new equipment for the employees or leasing computers to use are analyzed. As per the results of the research, it was found that it is in the best interest of GE transportation to lease the computer equipment. Purchasing computer equipment will cost U.S. $88,461 and will have limited coverage for repairs. Renting computer equipment will cost 80,793 and will also come with a service contract for $500 annually.
Comparing Leasing vs. Purchasing Computer Equipment?
Alexander, P. (n.d.). business - Should You Lease or Buy Your Tech Equipment? | Entrepreneur.com. Business News & Strategy For Entrepreneurs | Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/80230#
Coastal Leasing, Inc., (n.d.). There are some distinct differences between lease and loan financing! . Retrieved from Coastal Leasing, Inc. website: http://www.coastalleasing.com/MediaZone/Differences Between A Loan & Lease.pdf
Erie, Pennsylvania, Computer, Laptop, Projector, and AV Rentals.(n.d.).Rentech Solutions Computer Rentals, Laptop Rentals, Lcd Projector Rentals. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.rentechsolutions.com/rentals/pennsylvania/erie/
Gale Group. (n.d.). Computer Rental and Leasing market report | HighBeam Business: Arrive Prepared. Business information, news, and reports | HighBeam Business: Arrive Prepared. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://business.highbeam.com/industry-reports/business/computer-rental-leasing
changing and competitive workplace and environment, it has become vital for the organizations to come up with effective strategies for maximum and efficient use of resources (eich, 1991). The most important and critical resource for any organization is the human resource or man power. It has become difficult to find and retain skilled and trained human resource. Organizations are facing increasing challenges in this regard and are striving to formulate effective and efficient human resource policy and practices. The role and importance of human resources and man power is being understood by the organizations in response to the altering and uncertain business landscape and environment.
It is necessary to have proper and well stated policies and standards for hiring, training, appraising, compensating, and utilizing human resources. Efficient human resources and employees facilitate the organization in achieving its strategic goals and objectives. For this reason it is necessary to have strong…
Arthur, J. (1992). The link between business strategy and industrial relations systems in American steel mini mills. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 45, 488-506.
Arthur, J. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 670-687.
Compton, F., & Nankervis, A. (1998). Effective Recruitment & Selection Practices. Australian Print Group: Australia.
Huselid, M. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 635-672.
The emergence of low cost carriers has marked a shift in the aircraft industry away from owning aircraft and towards leasing and subleasing of aircraft. National and legacy carriers have long struggled with profitability, and their business model is in part a reason for this. Low cost carriers have attempted to resolve the business issues of heavy debt burden and excess capacity by leasing aircraft rather than owning them. There are other advantages to aircraft leasing as well, including a reduction in maintenance costs. Aircraft leasing has become part of the low cost carrier business model. This paper will examine the issue of aircraft leasing, in particular with respect to the financial considerations. A conclusion will be drawn with respect to the leasing decision and whether or not it is recommended for airlines today.
Overview of the Industry
The aviation industry is one of the world's largest businesses,…
A.T. Kearney. (2010). Fast growing aircraft leasing industry A.T. Kearney. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.atkearney.com/index.php/Our-expertise/aerospace-a-defense-fast-growing-aircraft-leasing-industry.html
Hadhi, A. (2005). Aircraft shortage adds to low cost carrier woes in Asia. Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.pprune.org/dg-p-reporting-points/189041-aircraft-shortage-adds-low-cost-carrier-woes-asia.html
Investec. (2010). An introduction to aircraft leasing. Investec. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.investec.com.au/media/spool._2f_en_5f_au_2f_documents_2f_pdf_5f_s_23_0907_23_File-MediaFile.pdf
Jeremiah, D. (2011). Asia Pacific to lead the upward ride for aircraft leasing opportunities, says Frost & Sullivan. The Lessors Network. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.lessors.com/news11-Q2/allnews-110426b.html
College Students with Children (Parents) and without Children
The beneficial effects of acquiring formal education in college is one of the primary goals of many people nowadays, not only because of the financial gains that a college degree guarantees through employment, but also the personal fulfillment an individual gets from being able to achieve an important educational feat. This is the main reason why not only single individuals attend college schooling, but also single parents (even married ones) opt to continue their college education, so that the benefits of obtaining a degree will be a fulfillment, too. The primary focus of this paper is to differentiate and compare the advantages and disadvantages of single college students with that of single parent college students. The comparative analysis will cover important parts of the two groups' (which will be referred to in this paper as 'single student' and 'single parent') lifestyle at…
America's wars have historically been a reflection of America's very own cultural tendencies; they're usually enormous in scale, they traditionally consist of a colorful variety of fronts and they are most often regarded as a man's game. So it doesn't strike one as peculiar, perhaps, that the perpetually striking images of Vietnam are of camouflaged nineteen-year-old men enduring the graces and horrors hosted by Southeast Asia during the skirmish that lasted over a decade. It may seem more peculiar, however, when one considers that more than 15,000 women relocated from their American homes to the perilous, jungle canopied land. Vietnam's legacy of physical handicapping, psychological desecration and cultural rifting echoes in an innumerable collection of films, books, publications, organizations and documentation detailing the heroics, trials and disgraces of a generation of men. But the women that this nation sent off to serve in a countless number of indispensable capacities have…
2. Evans, Barbara. Caduceus in Saigon: A Medical Mission to South Viet-Nam. London: Hutchinson, 1968.
3. Youngstrom-Diebolt, Jean. Keynote Address. Women's Memorial. Austin, TX. 1993.
4. Wilson, Captain Barbara A. Vietnam Southeast Asia. Military Women in Vietnam, 1996.
Nietzsche often identified life itself with "will to power," that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche's contention "that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will -- that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names" (Kaufmann 1959). Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of estern civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche's concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him (Kaufmann 1959).
The insidious process by which we ascribe attributes to our fictitious consciousness has…
Call, L. Nietzsche as Critic and Captive of Enlightenment. 1995.
Descartes, R. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, 4th Ed. Translated by D. Cress. Hackett Publishing Company, 1999.
Berkeley, G. Principles of Human Knowledge / Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous.
USA: Penguin Classics, 1988.
Plato and Aristotle's political theories
The most capacious account of Plato's established philosophical views has been published in "The epublic" as a comprehensive handling of the most basic values for the behavior of human life. As it deals with a large number of matters, The epublic can be interpreted in a lot of diverse manner: as a discourse on political conjecture and observation, as an academic manual, or the manner in which to protect moral behavior for instance. (Plato: The State and the Soul) Politics written by Aristotle gives a substantial assessment of the beginning and configuration of the nation. (Theme Analysis: The Politics) A significant matter to keep in mind while taking into account the opinion and involvement of Aristotle in Philosophy is the fact that he was there 2000 years back. One of the early foundations done by him was Lykeion that was involved solely with pure sciences,…
Boeding, Ron. Ideals of Aristotle and Hayek: A Synthesis. Retrieved from http://nb.vse.cz/kfil/elogos/history/boeding.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Conceptions of Equality/Plato, Aristotle and additions. Retrieved from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~stanlick/equality1.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Irbe, George. Aristotle's Spurned Legacy. 23 October, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.interlog.com/~girbe/Aristotle's%20legacy.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Kemerling, Garth. Aristotle: Politics and Art. 27 October 2001. Retrieved from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2t.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Successful and Unsuccessful Leaders
Coach K. and John Stumpf are leaders that have used differing styles of leadership. On one hand, Coach K. uses a transformational leadership style whilst Stumpf uses an authoritative style of leadership. Stumpf employed a controlling and intimidating technique whilst Coach K. uses a more interactive and relational approach. Coach K. has been a successful mentor and coach over the years by having good and healthy relation with his subordinates. Employees in Wells Fargo had a poor relation to John Stumpf as he failed to consider the perspectives of the employees. John Stumpf utilized his power and influence within Wells Fargo to change the behavior of personnel to conform to his controlling and authoritative culture. Coach K. uses his influence to not only be a leadership teacher and also coach, but also in people development. Taking these aspects into consideration, Mr. Stumpf is considered to be…
Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2009). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. Simon and Schuster.
Davis, S. (2015). How did Mike Krzyzewski reach 1,000 wins? With a million small steps. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved from: http://www.si.com/college-basketball/2015/01/25/mike-krzyzewski-duke-blue-devils-1000-wins
Duran, D. (2015). Lessons from Duke's Coach K: 3 keys to leading an exceptional team. Investment News. Retrieved from: http://www.investmentnews.com/article/20150513/BLOG16/150519966/lessons-from-dukes-coach-k-3-keys-to-leading-an-exceptional-team
Egan, M. (2016). 5,300 Wells Fargo employees fired over 2 million phony accounts. CNN Money. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2016/09/08/investing/wells-fargo-created-phony-accounts-bank-fees/
Further, although whenever one device tries to accomplish more than one "thing," one of those "things" typically suffers; however, innovations in recent years have made these all-in-one approaches competitive with stand-alone units and occupy a concomitantly smaller footprint in a crowded law office but these devices will still likely underperform their separate unit counterparts. As one authority emphasizes, "All-in-one devices are typically smaller desktop units that have relatively low speed and volume capacity" (Need All in One Copiers?, 2008, p. 3).
Some popular major brand all-in-one machines are described further in Table 4 below.
Popular all-in-one copier/printer/scanner (fax) machines.
Sharp A-208D Copier / Printer/Scanner
Desktop model with 20-page-per-minute copying / printing and integrated color PC scanning; 50-sheet document feeder provides standard 2-sided scanning for extra efficiency, as well as duplex printing and copying. Converts black & white and color documents into digital files that…
Copystar CS-2550 copier/printer/scanner. (2008). Neximaging.com. [Online]. Available:
Dell Computer. (2008). [Online]. Available: http://accessories.us.dell.com/sna/category.aspx?c=us&category_id=4014&cs=04&l=en&navla=57351~0~897689&nf=57351~0~897689 & s=bsd&~ck=anav.
Direct Source Copiers. (2008). [Online]. Available: http://www.digitalsystemcopiers.com/.
Goal of Christian Counseling
Dr. Larry Crabb sees human problems through two lenses: the first category involves problems that result from "…natural or physical causes" (things the individual has little or no control over). Examples of those kinds of problems include learning disabilities, a chemical imbalance within the person, and other issues that result from "perceptual dysfunctions." Crabb's goal is to fill the basic needs of a person, and under Christian counseling he feels the basic need is for "personal worth," which can be satisfied through two important inputs. One is a kind of "longing for significance" -- that is, the person longs for a purpose, for importance, for a meaningful job that has a positive impact. The other is to have security through being accepted (p. 2).
Part ONE: Goal of Rogerian Theory of Counseling (Client-centered therapy)
The client-centered approach by Rogers is designed to allow the…
Andrews, Linda Wasmer. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Encyclopedia of Depression.
Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Client-Centered Therapy. About.com Psychology. Retrieved February
18, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com .
U.S. & Norway Healthcare Systems
healthcare system has many advantages and disadvantages which are most revealing when compared to the other health care systems of the world. An analysis between the U.S. healthcare system and a government run healthcare system of Norway provides a deeper understanding of the similarities and differences in the two systems.
Almost every other developed nation in the world has some form of universal coverage which reduces this disparity in care. However, many of these systems are purportedly ridden with their own issues such as high cost and long waiting times. By comparing the U.S. system with the universal system like that of Norway, I can investigate the effectiveness of each in terms of the quality of care provided and the equality of distribution of that care.
A Comparison and Analysis of Healthcare Systems in the United States and Norway
A. United States
The healthcare system…
Goldman, Dana P. And Elizabeth A. McGlynn. (2005). U.S. Healthcare Facts About Cost, Access and Quality [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/corporate_pubs/2005/RAND_CP484.1.pdf
Johnsen, Jan Roth. (2006). Health Systems in Transition: Norway. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/95144/E88821.pdf
Tanner, Michael D. (March, 18, 2008). Policy Analysis: The Grass is Not Always Greener: A Look at National Health Care Systems Around the World (policy number 613). Retrieved from http://lib.trinity.edu/research/citing/APAelectronicsources.pdf
The University of Maine. (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? [Online]. Retrieved from http://dll.umaine.edu/ble/U.S.%20HCweb.pdf
Israeli and U.S. Educational Systems
Comparison of the Educational Systems in the United States and Israel Today
Schools are unique in any society since they educate and mold the next generation who will then be in charge of how the world will shape up and how these schools will be run in the future. Educators in every country help shape the character and the morality of their students beyond the intellectual and physical instruction provided. An education today must prepare a person for the realities of life, including how to balance a checkbook, answer an employment ad, and how to comport oneself at a job interview. These fundamental skills are just part of a huge body of knowledge which includes everything about a given society and the world in which people live. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the respective educational systems employed by the United States…
Devitis, J. And P.A. Sola. Building Bridges for Educational Reform: New Approaches to Teacher Education. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1989.
Israel. 2003. CIA World Factbook. 28 March 2004. http://www.cia.gov /cia/publications/factbook/geos/is.html.
Kaminsky, John S. A New History of Educational Philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools. New York: Crown Publisher, Inc., 1991.
speech of Achilles to Agamemnon to the Speech of Hector to Andromache
The two speeches, of Achilles to Agamemnon and the one of Hector to Andromache, represent two different types of ethics in regards to rhetoric; this can be seen within the context of the speeches as well as the events. The speech of Achilles to Agamemnon is seen as a type base rhetoric, and the speech of Hector to Andromache is seen as philosophical rhetoric.
The base rhetoric is something which follows a direction of evil; it ends in exploitation and is something condemning. This type of rhetoric hates all which oppose it, and would rather that it were greater than everything else -- it despises anything equal or greater than it. The base rhetoric is something which tries to keep anything from achieving or receiving any types of support which can be seen in the form of noble…
Homer, Robert Fagles, and Bernard Knox. "The Iliad." (New York: Penguin, 1991). Print.
Online shopping is starting to replace traditional in-person shopping in many situations. Few stores can get away without an online presence of some sort, because consumers have come to expect the ability to shop from their own homes. Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving Thursday, is known in the retail sector as the biggest shopping day of the year But Black Friday has a competitor, thanks to the online shopping revolution. That competitor is Cyber Monday. Cyber Monday is the online shopping version of Black Friday, with big bargains that drive consumer spending practices. Cyber Monday is now as important as Black Friday, primarily because online shopping has become more common. However, there are many differences between online and traditional shopping that are important to keep in mind, from the retailer's and the consumer's standpoints. For one, online shopping is a completely different user experience than shopping in a…
Sullivan, L. (2012). Online content discovery heightens traditional shopping. Media Post. Retrieved online: http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/187303/online-content-discovery-heightens-traditional-sho.html#ixzz2EADiqYLX
Velasco, S. (2012). Cyber Monday, Black Friday sales strong. Do they matter? The Christian Science Monitor. 27 Nov, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/2012/1127/Cyber-Monday-Black-Friday-sales-strong.-Do-they-matter
Balanchine to Petipa
George Balanchine was born in the year 1904. He was invited to come over the United States of America by Lincoln Kirstein, in the year 1933, and subsequently, Balanchine arrived in America in the month of October 1933. One of the very first things that Balanchine is reputed to have done after his arrival in the United States, was to found the 'School of American Ballet', which opened in the year 1934, with a class of twenty five students. It must be stated here that although Balanchine and Kirstein made several attempts through many years to start a Company, they did not succeed in their endeavor, but the School of American Ballet, however, has endured and remains intact, to this day. This was the Scholl through which Balanchine was able to present his very first ballet to the entire world, in America, which was named the 'Serenade'.…
Ballet Training Techniques. Retrieved From
http://www.the-ballet.com/techniques.php Accessed 15 October, 2005
Balustrade. Retrieved From
Windows XP was introduced as a major upgrade to Windows 98 and Widows Millennium. After Microsoft released MS-DOS in the 1980's it developed its revolutionary operating system -- Windows. Newer versions of this operating system were developed over the years, including the release of Windows NT (New Technology) which was aimed at business users and computer servers. After various incarnations of the Windows OS, including Windows 95, 98 and the much criticized Windows Millennium, the XP system was released October 25, 2001
Technically Windows XP has much in common with the characteristics and architecture of Windows 2000. In essence XP was developed to'bridge the two architectures (NT and Windows 9x -- or DOS) into one common operating system." Windows 2000 was based on Windows NT technology; while Millennium (ME) was developed from Windows 9x technology. The NT operating system was much more reliable than the other previous versions of Windows…
DOMINICQUICK2004. June 8, 2005. http://www.dooyoo.co.uk/operating-systems/microsoft-windows-xp-professional-edition/435755/
Lanyon P. Microsoft Windows XP. 2001. Accessed June 11, 2005. http://www.onepc.net/index.php?view=docs& doc_id=97
Lewis B.K. NTFS vs. FAT 32 2. 2002. Accessed June 11, 2005. http://www.spcug.org/reviews/bl0203.htm
The Old and the Improved. June 10, 2005. http://www.onepc.net/index.php?view=docs& doc_id=97& page=3
Comparing and Contrasting Resource-Based Strategies with Competitive Positioning Strategies
Competitive Positioning Strategies
Strategies For-Profit in the 21st Century
There are two schools of thought regarding the composition of a competitive strategy. The first is resourced based. This approach identifies key resources and seeks to leverage these in order to provide value to the consumer and achieve a competitive advantage in the marketplace. The next strategy begins with identifying a niche or more general opportunity in the market and aligning resources within the organization to achieve a competitive position in regards to the competition. The former strategy can be generalized as more of a push strategy while the latter is more of a pull strategy. Both have advantages as well as disadvantages and fit certain circumstances better than others. In this research project, a brief literature review of both vantage points will be provided follow by a…
ARchpru, M., & Alden, D. (2010). Global brand positioning and perceptions. International Journal of Advertising, 37-56.
Berry-Stolzle, T., Altuntas, & M. (2010). A Resource-Based Perspective on Business Strategies of Newly Founded Subsidiaries: The Case of German Pensionsfonds. Risk Management & Insurance Review, 173-193.
Eschenfelder, B. (2010). USING COMMUNITY BASED ASSESSMENTS TO STRENGTHEN NONPROFIT-GOVERNMENT COLLABORATION AND SERVICE DELIVERY. Journal of Health & Human Services Administration, 405-446.
Fransico, G., & Vicenta, S. (2009). A political candidate's brand image scale: Are political candidates brands? Journal of Brand Management, 207-217.
SLP 5, Last Time Warp for the Clipboard Tablet Company
It is January 1st 2012 again, and the time warp has re-started. This time there is a difference, the results for the last time warp (SLP 4) have been reviewed and new strategies have been developed based on that last time warp based on the observations and the CVP calculations. The aim of this paper is to implement the predetermined strategies and compare the results with the last time warp.
There were several issues highlighted in the last time warp. The most significant were the issues associated with the X7, it was noted that in the last time warp, the performance compared to competing products was poor, and the price was high. Therefore, to make the product competitive using the CVP analysis would require a significant level of investment, along with the acceptance of a lower profit margin. Therefore,…
Chadwick L (2007), Essential Management Accounting, London, Routledge
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall
Sun, Q, (2014), Tablet Development Sim - View Summary. Retrieved https://forio.com/simulate/qin.sun/tablet-development-sim/simulation/#p=page4
Sun, Q, (2015), Tablet Development Sim - Introduction. Retrieved https://forio.com/simulate/qin.sun/tablet-development-sim/simulation/#p=page0
Business estructuring: the case study of IBM and HP
The word "restructuring" is interchangeably used as a whole and is a universal and broad world for all sorts of substantial changes and alterations that take place within an organization. Change management, restructuring as well as reorganization are all procedures and practices that are signified by the fact that they evaluate and assess the prevailing structures with the main intent of changing such processes by means of targeted and categorical interventions. This in particular takes place within the organization during its changing aspects. The decisions which are made are evaluated and assessed with mainly high doubts as a result of the scrutiny of procedures and structures. One distinguishing aspect of all kinds of organizational change processes is the directness and sincerity of the subsequent results. Even though, it is regarding purposely designed interventions, the intricacy and complication is very extreme to…
2012 Annual Report. (2012). Retrieved from http://h30261.www3.hp.com/~/media/Files/H/HP-IR/documents/reports/2013/hp-10-kar-searchable.pdf on March 17, 2015
Applegate, L.M., Austin, R.D., & Soule, D.L. (2009). Case I-1: IBM's decade of transformation: Turnaround to growth (pp.5-38). Corporate information strategy and management: Text and Cases (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Balogun, J. & Hailey, H. (2004). Exploring strategie change. London: Prentice Hall
Bohn, U. (2007). Vertrauen in Organisationen: Welchen Einfluss haben Reorganisationsmassnahmen auf Vertrauensprozesse? Eine Fallstudie
Terrorist Organization Comparison
Japanese Aum Shinrikyo and the Islamic State
The Japanese Aum Shinrikyo is a cult that is relatively low key when compared to the actions that have been take in recent years by groups such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). In March 1995, the Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth), was responsible for killing 13 and injuring over five thousand by using sarin gas on a subway in Tokyo, Japan which was order by the group's leader Shoko Asahara (Nadeau & Adelstein, 2016). hile the group has been quiet since this time, until recently in which they have become the center of some attention in the media. Despite the group's long stretch of inactivity, it is also important to note that this has still been the only terrorist group to actually use a sophisticated chemical compound, such…
Cole, B. (2014, April 6). Why have 30,000 Russians joined Japanese doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo? Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/why-have-30000-russians-joined-japanese-doomsday-cult-aum-shinrikyo-1553461
Nadeau, B., & Adelstein, J. (2016, April 1). Aum Shinrikyo: Japan's Death Cult Is Hiding In Europe. Retrieved from The Daily Beast: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/04/02/aum-shinrikyo-japan-s-death-cult-is-hiding-in-europe.html
The Atlantic. (2015, March). What ISIS Really Wants. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/03/what-isis-really-wants/384980/
Tomlinson, L. (2016, February 4). Size of ISIS army 'remains the same' since last year, U.S. official says. Retrieved from Fox News: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2016/02/04/size-isis-army-remains-same-since-last-year-us-official-says.html
Emirates Airlines and Etihad Airways
This paper discusses Etihad Airways, the number 2 airline of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and compares it to Emirates Airlines, the number 1 airline of the Middle East, and fourth largest airline in the world. The paper provides examples of the 7 P’s of the extended marketing mix for each airline, and provides a detailed marketing plan for Etihad Airways. The marketing plan includes how the plan will meet business objectives and marketing objectives of Etihad Airways as well as an Action Plan that can be used to to monitor and evaluate the company’s progress for meeting its business goals and objectives.
Etihad Airways is the 2nd largest airline in the UAE and the second flag carrier airline of the UAE with its HQ in Abu Dhabi and its main hub at Abu Dhabi International Airport. Founded in 2003, Etihad Airways…
Municipal i-Fi -- Hot or Not?
Many cities in the United States have used public funding to lay municipal wireless networks that allow anyone with a network capable device to connect to the internet. There are many advantages to offering iFi networks to everyone including factors such as reduced costs per user, increased benefits to the public, and even potential increases in overall economic activity. Citizens can seamlessly access the internet through all their devices while on the go in covered networks. The local government can also use the availability of a wireless network for things like traffic cameras and water and parking meters which are now capable of using smart networking systems.
These networks can allow local residents or visitors to connect to work, find restaurants or retail outlets, relay important public service announcements such as emergency information or traffic conditions, and many more potential applications are perpetually being…
Alleven, M. (2014, December 8). Muni Wi-Fi 2.0: This time, cities are getting smarter. Retrieved from Fierce Wireless: http://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/story/muni-wi-fi-20-time-cities-are-getting-smarter/2014-12-08
Gibson, C. (2015, March 6). How a Mid-Sized Tennessee Town Took on Comcast, Revived Its Economy, and Did It With Socialism. Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/carl-gibson/chattanooga-socialism_b_6812368.html
Kosoff, M. (2014, November 17). New York City Has A New Plan To Give Everyone High-Speed WiFi Internet Access For Free. Retrieved from Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/new-york-citys-linknyc-wifi-plan-2014-11
Springer, M. (2013, October 9). 57 Cities Now Have Free Wi-Fi, But They're Not Thinking Big Enough. Retrieved from Mic: http://mic.com/articles/66891/57-cities-now-have-free-wi-fi-but-they-re-not-thinking-big-enough
Right to Die Cases
The very public, legal and ultimately political saga of Terri Schiavo brought not only national but international attention to the right to die issues and echoed a similar battle which took place some fifteen years earlier concerning Nancy Cruzan.
In "Cruzan, by her Parents and Co-Guardians v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 497 U.S. 261,' the United States Supreme Court concurred with the lower court's ruling on June 25, 1990 (Cruzan pp).
Petitioner Nancy Beth Cruzan was rendered incompetent as a result of severe injuries sustained during an automobile accident on the night of January 11, 1983 (Cruzan pp). Paramedics restored her breathing and heartbeat at the accident site when she was discovered without detectable respiratory or cardiac function (Cruzan pp). She was transported to a hospital in an unconscious state where an attending neurosurgeon diagnosed her as having sustained probably cerebral contusions compounded by significant…
Cruzan, by her Parents and Co-Guardians v. Director, Missouri Department of Health.
The folkloric tradition was so popular because people were able to relate to it. Although Ferdowsi wrote his text with the intention that people of all backgrounds would be able to celebrate the history of the land, the folkloric tradition derived its appeal from the fact that everyone could relate with the characters in a very real, first-hand way. Most of the stories simply had stock characters, similar to the Commedia Del Arte theatrical tradition in Italy. These characters were archetypes rather than actual historical figures. Although the everyday events depicted in these stories were fictional and made up by the person who happened to be telling the story, the stories were used as a form of entertainment that would offer some form of momentary escape from the cares of their everyday lives. This context represents a major difference from the Shehmaneh, which generally attempts to represent history and actual…
Davis, Dick. "Introduction." The Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings. Trans. Dick Davis. Korea: Mage, 2004. 7-15.
Doostkhah, Jalil. "Shahnameh and the Oral Epic Traditions: A Brief Note." Iran and the Caucasus 5 (2001): 157-162.
Gay, David Elton. "The Oral Background of Persian Epics: Storytelling and Poetry, and: Sunset of Empire: Stories from the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. Vol. 3." Journal of American Folklore 119.472 (2006): 243-245.
Karaomerlioglu, Asim. "The Peasants in Early Turkish Literature." East European Quarterly 36.2 (2002): 127-154.
Creating Competitive Advantages
Through New Product Development
Creating Competitive Advantages Through New Product Development
The transformation of many diverse forms of customer, supplier, internal development, and research & development (&D) insights into a consistent and productive platform for product development is key to long-term competitive growth. The reliance on advanced frameworks for organizing these diverse sources of innovation into taxonomies that can eventually be used to fuel new products is often called the New Product Development (NPD) process. As every company has a unique, highly differentiated and often highly customized business model, the same holds true for the NPD process. Companies over time define the NPD process to align with their unique technological and market strengths. Comparing the NPD process at Salesforce, the leading provider of SaaS-based CM software vs. Apple makes this point clearly. Salesforce is known for very rapid product releases of the CM applications and exceptionally quick…
Bentley, James. (1992). New Product Introduction: Speed, Quality and Cost. Assembly Automation, 12(2), 3.
Lee G. Cooper. (2000). Strategic marketing planning for radically new products. Journal of Marketing, 64(1), 1-16.
Cusumano, M., MacCormack, A., Kemerer, C., & Crandall, W.. (2009). Critical Decisions in Software Development: Updating the State of the Practice. IEEE Software, 26(5), 84-87.
Kettunen, P.. (2009). Adopting key lessons from agile manufacturing to agile software product development -- A comparative study. Technovation, 29(6/7), 408.
Competitive Advantage Analysis: How well does the proposed service meet the demands of the market compared with the competition?
The proposed service meets the demands of customers by providing them with products that can be customized. This helps them to create procedures that are effectively monitoring their bottom line results and objectively analyzing the impact of various activities. The below product -- market matrix is illustrating how this can help to give the firm a competitive advantages over others inside the marketplace. ("Top 100 Accounting Firms," 2012) ("Home," 2012)
Product -- Market Matrix
Market Penetration: The market that will be penetrated is the various segments of individuals and businesses that need customizable solutions. The primary competitors in this segment include: Deloitte & Touche, KPMG, Price Waterhouse Cooper and Grant Thornton.
Market Development: Currently, competitors offer similar kinds of products and services to customers. This means that the firm…
Home. (2012). HCVT. Retrieved from: http://hcvt.com/
Top 100 Accounting Firms. (2012). Accounting Majors. Retrieved from: http://www.accountingmajors.com/accountingmajors/articles/top100.html
Sustained Competitive Advantage Using Human esources
Theoretical Critique essay format. Within a challenging economic environment role strategic human resource management insignificant. Do approaches strategic
There has been tremendous growth in the strategic management field, and this has made it more popular amongst the practitioners and academics in the previous twenty years. For research structuring, industrial organization strategist rely on the SWOT framework. This has been the case since strategy became a recognized area in the management field Oliver, 1997.
ecently there has been other contributions made to the literature strategy, and this has emphasized the external part of the SWOT framework. The external part focuses mostly on the environmental impacts of the firm's performance. Models that focus on the environmental impacts of the firm's performance have little use to the practitioners though they are well received. These models communicate little regarding the manager's influence.
In strategic management, there has been…
Cockburn, I.M., Henderson, R.M., & Stern, S. (2000). Untangling the Origins of Competitive Advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 21(10/11), 1123-1145.
Ferligoj, A., Prasnikar, J., & Jordan, V. (1997). Competitive Advantage and Human Resource Management in SMEs in a Transitional Economy. Small Business Economics, 9(6), 503-514.
Narasimha, S. (2000). Organizational Knowledge, Human Resource Management, and Sustained Competitive Advantage: Toward a Framework. [Article]. Competitiveness Review, 10(1), 123.
Newbert, S.L. (2008). Value, Rareness, Competitive Advantage, and Performance: A Conceptual-Level Empirical Investigation of the Resource-Based View of the Firm. Strategic Management Journal, 29(7), 745-768.
Xiameter Case Analysis
Advantages of Needs-Based vs. End User-Based Segmentation Strategies
Suggestions for Xiameter Product and Pricing Strategies
Advice and ecommendations
Xiameter's success as a subsidiary of Dow Corning is predicated on the successful differentiation of an entirely new business unit based on the concept of reducing operating expenses and passing on the savings to the customer. The Web-only, highly automated approach to order fulfillment, complemented by a reduced product lien footprint and terms of sale that stressed velocity over complexity were also what many customers of the company were looking for (Bloemhard, 2012). Where Dow Corning succeeded and others have failed with e-commerce strategies revolved around the key factors and decisions that shaped the business model and marketing strategy for Xiameter. The advantages of needs-based vs. end-user-based segmentation are evident in the success of the Xiameter e-commerce strategy. These advantages o being needs-based are analyzed in this paper as…
Bacheldor, B. 2005, "Innovation Engine: Dow Corning invests in change," InformationWeek,, no. 1047, pp. 36-36.
Bloemhard, J. 2012, "E-Commerce Efficiency," Adhesives & Sealants Industry, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 24-25.
Hunter, D. 2002, "Dow Corning launches bargain-basement market channel," Chemical Week, vol. 164, no. 11, pp. 7-7.
Levely, M.R. 2011, "Innovating Suppliers and Supply Chains," Supply Chain Europe, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 14-14,16.
Accounting and Finance
Comparison of Selected Financial Performance Data for WalMart and Target
WalMart and Target compete in very similar markets, competing in the supermarket segment of the retail industry, with some diversified interests. To assess the performance of these two firms, their results for the financial years ending January 2012 and 2013 may be examined and compared. This paper will look at the performance in terms of revenues, cost of goods, accounts receivable and payable and inventory management.
The performance of a firm often starts with an assessment of the revenue that is generated and the way in which this changes over time. The revenues for both WalMart and Target are shown in table 1.
Table 1; evenue for WalMart and Target 2012-2013
evenues ($ millions)
Change in revenues from previous year
The levels of revenues demonstrate that…
Target, (2013), 10k, retrieved https://corporate.target.com/_media/TargetCorp/annualreports/content/download/pdf/Annual-Report.pdf?ext=.pdf
WalMart, (2013), 10k, retrieved http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/104169/000010416913000011/wmt10-k.htm
Virtual management software extends the depth and breadth of an enterprise software application across a global enterprise more cost effectively than purchasing individual application licenses does. Virtualization continues to gain momentum in the market as the economics of enterprise software increasingly favor the return on investment (ROI) of the technologies that comprise this area of enterprise application management (Mansell, 2005). The intent of this analysis is to compare the two virtual management software applications Citrix XenServer Enterprise Edition and VMware vSphere Essentials.
Analysis of Virtual Management Software Solutions
As is the case with many virtual management software solutions today, both the Citrix XenServer Enterprise Edition and VMware vSphere Essentials can run on bare metal servers, or servers that have a Hypervisor optimized for hardware performance. This is the fastest growing area of virtual management software configuration and represents the future of virtual management software configuration. oth companies have presented their…
Burrus, D. (2010). Social networks in the workplace: The risk and opportunity of business 2.0. Strategy & Leadership, 38(4), 50-53.
Mansell, R. (2005). Social informatics and the political economy of communications. Information Technology & People, 18(1), 21-25.
This was portrayed at the very end when he got up and walked away from his own executioner, never knowing that the deed was complete. "Cincinnatus made his way in that direction where, to judge by the voices, stood beings akin to him." (pg 223)
At least 'Invitation' ended with some hope, which is more than the author of 'An Individual Assignment' provided. The theme in 'Individual' was much more dark and despairing than the one provided by 'Invitation'.
This portrayed darkness could be due to the eras and settings for each story. Dugaev seems to be a dissident struggling against a Communistic regime, probably Stalinistic in nature.
The author portrays the overwhelming sense of futile despair that many individuals probably felt at that time, since there were millions of people killed for daring to confront the atrocities of the time. Comparing this darkness to the state of fantasy and…
The State of Nevada and Clark County appear to have a different manner of meeting budget deficiencies. The Office of udget and Management has an amount of finances reserved for supplemental and emergency funding, at a total of $153.1 billion dollars. Neither Clark County nor the State of Nevada appears to have emergency or supplemental funding in their budgets.
State of Nevada
The budget for the State of Nevada is larger than Clark County. The total 2006 budget for the State of Nevada is reported to be $2,400 million dollars with a deficit of -2.3%. The state of Nevada's transportation budget for 2006 was $4.6 million dollars; agriculture $21.1 million; education $56.6 million; health and human services $69.2 million; and $21.0 million for justice programs. These amounts are considerably higher than Clark County in comparison. The State of Nevada's Department of usiness and Industry recently released a new prevailing wage…
Clark County (2006). Clark County. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from Nevada's Clark County
Website: http://www.co.clark.nv.us/ .
Office of Budget and Management. (2006). The White House's Office of Budget and Management.
Retrieved September 22, 2006, from the Office of Budget and Management's Website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/ .
As a result, economic development was redefined in terms of reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality, and unemployment within the perspective of a growing economy (Mamede & Davidsson, 2003).
Research indicates that entreprenuership can be both the cause and effect of economic development in the sense of wealth distribution. Countries in which wealth is concentrated in the hands of a small fraction of the population face greater difficulties in coordinating the major components of progress (Mamede & Davidsson, 2003). hese three components are labor, capital, resources and innovation. According to Mamede and Davidsson (2003), considering that the three driving forces of entrepreneurial success - founders, opportunity recognition, and resource requirements - are more likely to occur in a combined way, there are better chances to prosper in regions in which wealth is more equitably distributed. hese researchers have also observed that members of such societies are in a more favorable…
The 2002 GEM report also indicates the changes in the percentile of the growth of gross domestic products over a three-year period. Sweden's percentile of growth in gross domestic products for 1999 was 4.51%, in 2000, 3.61%, and in 2001, 1.21%. The change from the previous year for Sweden was -.90% from 1999 to 2000, and -2.40% from 2000 to 2001. Sweden's total entrepreneurial activity for 2001 was 6.68%, and for 2002, 4.00%. China's statistics were not located on the 2002 GEM report.
The GEM report also indicated a constantly negative relationship between the quality of the infrastructure and the level of necessity entreprenuership, as well as the lack of relationship between framework conditions (Reynolds et.al, 2002). Necessity entreprenuership was most prevalent in developing nations such as Thailand, India and China, where financial support, education, training, and infrastructure are clearly absent (Reynolds et.al, 2002). Entreprenuership-enhancing programs and policies implemented in a number of developed countries, principally in the European Union, have only resulted in modest levels of necessity entreprenuership (Reynolds et.al, 2002). This research indicates that there is substantial uniformity across the GEM countries with regard to the concepts, language, and judgments utilized. Additionally, it supports the notion that this uniformity is especially prominent among the more developed nations and may have evolved very similar infrastructures in support of entrepreneurial activity.
Most new firms receive their initial financial support from informal investments made by family, friends, and associates. An extremely small proportion of the most promising firms receive funding from venture capital firms, which are a specialized form of formal investment. Informal flows were estimated in the 2002 GEM report by means of asking all those in the adult population surveys if they had made an investment in a new firm, not their own, the past three years. The 2002 GEM report indicates the amount of venture capital invested as a percent of gross domestic product for each of the countries on the report. Nations that enjoyed year-to-year increases included Sweden, with a 101% increase. A large portion of all businesses are owned and managed by families or groups of relatives. Sweden was one of the 10 countries in which family owned businesses were started with family sponsored entreprenuership. In Sweden, the low estimate of family sponsored entrepreneurships was 26%, with the high estimate being 52%. Again, China was not included in these statistics.
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
Human esource Management Practices
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
HUMAN ESOUCE Management
Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).
With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…
Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.
Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.