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History Of Condoms
While many people believe that condoms are a relatively new form of contraceptive, created not so long ago, this is far from true. Many historians believe that, in ancient Egypt, pharaohs used papyrus reeds to cover their penises during sex. Ancient Roman soldiers are believed to have used dried sheep intestines as condoms, as well (Parisot, 1987, pp. 4-6). In the East, the Chinese used oiled silk paper, and the Japanese had two versions of a condom: the Kawagata, which used thin leather, and Kabutogata, which used thin tortoise shells or horns.
While it is unknown whether condoms in these early days were used more to prevent disease, as contraceptive devices or for ritualistic purposes, we do know that by the 16th century, the emphasis was on the prophylactic function of the condom. Today, condoms have evolved in many ways, and are now available and appealing to…
Board refuses restriction on sex education in schools. (February, 1996). Associated Press. Online.
Douglas, Emily Taft. Margaret Sanger: Pioneer of The Future. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.
Eros UK. (2003). A bit of condom history, and how Safex condoms are made. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.eros-uk.co.uk/History_of_Condoms.html.
Ferriss, Lloyd. (February 2, 1992). The Case For Abstinence. Maine Telegram.
These are called killjoy laws, and have been on the books for some time. Kansas, Colorado, and Alabama are three of these states, and there are five others (Koerner, 2006). However, the culture and beliefs of the Trojan brand have really not changed that much since Youngs started the brand. The desire was for a quality product that would be appropriate for its use and properly designed, and that is what was created (Koerner, 2006). Since it has remained that way for so long, Trojan is still a very trusted brand that most people recognize throughout the world.
The Church & Dwight primary SIC code is 2840, and the company seems to be doing quite well (EDGAR, 2007). From September of 2006 to June of 2008, the P/E ratio of the company went from 19.95 to 21.10 (EDGAR, 2007). Given what the market has been doing during that time, the…
Condom essential wear. (2008). National Health Services. http://www.condomessentialwear.co.uk/
EDGAR Online. (2007). Stock Reports. Company Information. http://stockreports.nasdaq.edgar-online.com/CHD.html
Koerner, Brendan I. (2006). The other Trojan war. Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2150552/
Safe sex and condoms. (2008). Royal Adelaide Hospital. Sexually transmitted diseases services clinic. http://www.stdservices.on.net/std/prevention/
" (Female, Age 23)
Women still believe in this day and age, that would be considered "cheap or trashy" if they were to demand their partner use a condom.
It has been reported that women are traditionally seen as the "gatekeepers of sexual morality but have a lack of assertion. (The
Condom, Page 232) It seems that men are still seen as being entitled to pressure women with regard to sexual practices, example of having sex without a condom. (The Condom,
What I have found to be very startling are women who are married. Some women who know their spouse is having extra marital affairs refuse to address the issue of using condom. They do not want to address the issue of the affair so they say nothing and take the risk of jeopardizing themselves. For some fear of abuse or rejection from their spouse was worse than the fear…
Australian Federation of AIDS Organization
The Condom: Why People Don't Put It On Jan Browne and Victor Minichiello
John Hopkins School of Public Health,
, 2005). Second, since they found that objective and perceived knowledge are not always concordant, they suggest that further studies in this vein measure objective and perceived knowledge, rather than only objective knowledge (ock et al., 2005). Third, they surmise that "an illusion of knowing can act as a barrier to low-risk behavior" (ock et al., 2005, p. 670), and further, that a high perceived knowledge, if inaccurate, can prevent one from learning accurate information, as it causes one to be less receptive and to forego learning opportunities (ock et al., 2005). Finally, ock et al.'s (2005) results identify a group who is at a higher risk than others, and serves as a guide for possible sexual education focus in the future.
Eisenberg et al.'s (2004) study, which focuses on the accuracy of parents' beliefs about sex, can be used in concordance with ock et al.'s (2005) study to address…
Ali, Mohammed M., Cleland, John, & Shah, Iqbal H. (2004) "Condom Use Within Marriage: A
Neglected HIV Intervention." Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82(3), 180-186.
Eisenberg et al. (2004). "Parents' Beliefs About Condoms and Oral Contraceptives: Are They
Medically Accurate?" Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36(2), 50-57.
One survey at a college also contemplating condom dispensers arrived at this surprising finding: 41% of students "said that they would have sex without a condom if one was not immediately available" (Cooper 2006, p.2). hen condoms were left out for free at the health center, noted one nurse, the students took them by the handful. "Condom dispensers are a good, consistent source," of condoms for students, in other words, students do not need to do a great deal of pre-planning to use them, which lessens the chance they will accidentally find themselves unprepared. "They ensure that condoms are both affordable and available to students" (Cooper 2006, p.2).
Regarding the cost, most universities that have implemented the plan have found the machines extremely cost-efficient: "One benefit of condom dispensers is that they would pay for themselves…The money placed into the machines would be used to purchase more condoms" (Cooper 2006,…
Cooper, Adra. "Condom dispensers proposed to help CAP STDs." The Guilfordian.
September 26, 2006. May 20, 2009. http://media.www.guilfordian.com/media/storage/paper281/news/2006/09/29/News/Condom.Dispensers.Proposed.To.Help.Cap.Stds-2318180.shtml
Wexler, Kimberly. "South Carolina Students' Demand for Condom Dispensers Denied."
University Wire. February 20, 2008. May 20, 2009.
Visual impairment (including blindness);
9. Multiple disabilities;
12. Autism; and,
13. Traumatic brain injury (Evanciew, 2003).
In order to overcome the current constraints to learning about proper condom use by this wide range of special needs college students who may have individualized constraints to learning, an appropriate approach must be developed that can adequately communicate the importance of the practice as well as the mechanics that are involved. To this end, Evanciew (2003) reports that, "esearch suggests that students with special needs benefit from experiences that involve functional, hands-on learning" (p. 7). Therefore, the approach described further below can help special needs college students learn both the importance of proper condom use as well as the mechanics that are involved in applying them.
The objectives of this initiative are two-fold as follows:
1. To promote a greater understanding of the importance of proper condom use…
Avert: International HIV & AIDS Charity. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.avert.org / photo_library/images/normal_photo_no_3217.jpg.
Beh, H.G. & Diamond, M. (2006). The failure of abstinence-only education: Minors have a right to honest talk about sex. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 15(1), 12-13.
Bisol, C.A., Sperb, T.M., Brewer, T.H., Kato, S.K. & Shor-Posner, G. (2008). HIV / AIDS
knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil. American Annals of the Deaf, 153(4), 349-351.
An unplanned pregnancy is traumatic for any woman, and especially teenagers who completely unprepared or unwilling to carry a child to term. The United States leads all other developed, wealthy, industrialized nations in prevalence of teen pregnancies: with the UK in a fairly distant second place (Kmietowicz, 2002). About 52 out of every 1000 teenagers aged 15-19 in the United States give birth, compared with less than seven per 1000 teenagers in other countries including Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Korea (Kmietowicz, 2002). Teen pregnancy is a problem because it ruins young lives. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012), "only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, versus approximately 90% of women who had not given birth during adolescence." A high rate of high school drop out among teen mothers is not the only…
CDC (2012). About Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov /TeenPregnancy/AboutTeenPreg.htm
Kmietowicz, Z. (2002). U.S. And UK are top in teen pregnancy rates. BMJ. 2002 June 8; 324(7350): 1354
Sexually Active Teenagers:
The Use of Theory to Protect America's Youth
In 2003, sixty two percent of American high school seniors admitted to being sexually active. The use of condoms in the high school population has increased over the last decade; however, not all teenagers are using any form of contraception (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). In order to protect against unwanted pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and infections, the public health department must influence the use of condoms to sexually active teenagers. To best assist with this task, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen's Theories of easoned Action and Planned Behavior will be a most valuable resource in forming a thoroughly strong campaign.
In the mid- to late 1970s, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen proposed the Theory of easoned Action, which began as solely a study of attitude. It later developed into including behavior as…
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bozionelos, G. & Bennet, P. (1999). The theory of planned behavior as predictor of exercise:
The moderating influence of beliefs and personality variables. Retrieved May 21, 2011
Condoms are effective against the spread of AIDS as transmitted through sexual activity. The condom prevents the transmission of fluids between individuals during sexual activity. It is that transmission of fluids that can result in the transmission of the AIDS virus between people. In many poorer communities and countries, condoms have proven effective in reducing the rate of AIDS and HIV transmission between individuals. Condoms do not, of course, affect the rate of transmission by other means, such as intravenous drug use or transfusions. But they do lower the rate of transmission because a lot of AIDS and HIV transmission does occur through sexual activity. Education plays an important role because in many communities and countries, condoms are a novel idea, and people are unaccustomed to using them. There also has to be a certain degree of female empowerment to insist on condoms as a means of protection,…
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…
Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.
CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm
CDC Fact sheet. (2011, September). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Retrieved from
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…
Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.
Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.
Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.
Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
Edward Green, a senior research scientist at Harvard and the director of the Aids Prevention Research Project states "the safer people feel when engaging in risky behavior, the more likely they are to increase that behavior" (Gross & Looby, 2010, p. 64). These conflicting results, from two purported experts, presents the dilemma faced by parents and administrators. Neither side can justify (on science alone) their side, and so the rhetoric continues, with neither side winning. The Looby and Gross report does state "Though it seems counterintuitive, the countries that have seen continued increases in the rate of AIDS infection are the ones that have adopted the most aggressive condom distribution campaigns" (p. 64).
If that is true then a program designed to curb teenage sexual activities may, as parents often assert, be promoting additional risky behavior. The question then remains as to how to confront the problem.
This author believes…
Edwards, G.L. & Barber, B.L.; (2010) Women may underestimate their partner's desire to use condoms: Possible implications for behavior, Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 47, Issue 1, pp. 59-65
Gross, C. & Looby, P.; (2010) It's a dogma eat dogma world, USA Today Magazine, Vol. 138, Issue 2778, pp. 64 -- 65
Jemmott III, J.B.; Jemmott, L.S.; Fong, G.T.; Morales, K.H.; (2010) Effectiveness of an HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention for adolescents when implemented by community-based organizations: A cluster-randomized controlled trial, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 100, Issue 4, pp. 720 -- 726
Identify and Describe the Aggregate
This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.
In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…
Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.
Avert.org. (2014). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved from Avert:
Program Development and Evaluation
The proposed program is intended for, and targets the students of both secondary and tertiary institutions. The program is known as "MSM Initiative for Colleges." "
The ability of this program to use ICT as a way of helping the aggregate is one important technique that will give the program a new edge. This is to help develop an effective combination of avoidance intervention that will be able to deliver BCC-behavioral change in communication. These behavioral changes in communication can be in the form of products, services, messages, as well as referrals, as a way of promoting and improving the use of condoms and condom-compatible lubricants, HIV tests, reporting cases of violence, and using complementary services. This inventive online 'cyber educator' MSM intervention, virtually provides a one-on-one HIV and BCC counseling, and test referrals (Adams, Klindera, Walsh, & Wold, 2014).
Interventions for the Aggregate
Adam, D., kinder., K., Walsh, C.S., & Wold, R.C (2014), November 14). Innovative programmatic approaches to HIV prevention and care services for gay men, other men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons using information and communication technology (ICT). Digital Culture & Education (DCE). Retrieved from Digital Culture and Education: http://www.digitalcultureandeducation.com/uncategorized/v6_i3_editorial_html/
Cohen, L. M., & Gelbrich, J. (2015, October 16). Sample Educational Philosophy Statements . Retrieved from Oregun State University: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/sample.html
PEPFAR (2011).Technical Guidance on Combination HIV Prevention. The U.S. President's Emergency plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
health issues facing the differed populations of the United States today, and these health concerns differ between males and females, income levels, and races. As such, it is important, prior to discussing any particular health concern, to first establish the target age cohort for which information is to be presented. Once this cohort is established, creating programs targeted to a specific population becomes a much simpler task.
This paper discusses the top five leading causes of death for African-American women age 25 to 44 in the United States in the year 2001. Additionally, this paper will focus on one particular cause of death for this population, and will outline an existing prevention program, aimed at this target age cohort. Finally, this paper will present data from studies on this prevention effort, to determine if the effort is succeeding.
As stated, the age cohort to be analyzed in this paper is…
Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2004). LCWK3: Percent of total deaths; and death rates for the 15 leading causes of death in selected age groups, by race and sex; United States, 2001. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Lauby, J, Smith, P, and Stark, M. (2000, Feb,). A community level HIV prevention intervention for inner city women: results of the Women and Infants Demonstration Project. American Journal of Public Health, 90(2): 216-220.
Liebman, T, Bond, P, Smith, D, and Tunstall, C. (1999, April). The Women and Infants Demonstration Project: an integrated approach to AIDS prevention and research. AIDS Education and Prevention, 2(107): 107-121.
O'Leary, A. (2005). HIV-risk reduction interventions for women: how far have we come? New York, NY: American Foundation for AIDS Research.
Health and Social Justice Issue in Saharan Country
Mali occupies the fourth position among the poorest nations of the world. Mali is still plagued by a multitude of financial tribulations with an economy in shambles, the country's liability approximately equivalent to its GDP, at the mercy of the international donor groups, insufficient revenues of the state exchequer and pressure from various coterie groups voicing their demands. (Mali Human ights Practices: U.S. Department of State, 1994) However, at the same time it a nation that boasts of a rich and hoary tradition. It is popular as a country marked by its multihued varied populace and harmonic tunes. Currently, it is confronted with a massive menace like AIDS, Noma and a host of tropical diseases. Mali has the world's lowest adult literacy rate of less than 25%. The country's education system is inadequately formed, especially at the primary stage. A United Nations…
Condom Vending Machine. (March 01, 2004) "Mali, AIDS and Condoms" Initial Research Report. Retrieved at http://dtm.media.mit.edu/dtm/dtm04/projects/condom/archives/000145.html. Accessed on 11 July, 2004
Dao, S. (Jan 7-8, 2004) "HIV Treatment in Mali, PNLS/GAIA" AIDS Vaccine Conference, Bamako, Mali.
Johnston, Timothy; Faure, Sheila Dohoo; Raney, Laura. (June 1998) "The World Bank and the Health Sector in Mali" Report No. 18112.
Mahe A; Prual A; Konate M; Bobin P. (Sep-Oct, 1995) "Skin Diseases of Children in Mali: A Public Health Problem" Tropical Medical Hygiene. Volume: 89: No: 5; pp: 467-70
In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.
An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…
Bakalar, Nicholas. "Adolescence: Abstinence-Only Programs Not found to Prevent HIV." The New York Times 14 August 2007: Retrieved Dec. 3, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com .
Garrett, Robert T. "Texas teens lead nation in birth rate." The Dallas Morning News 5 November 2007: Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at http://www.dallasnews.com .
Green, Tanya L. "Parents Have the Right to Know when their Children Receive Family
Planning Services at School." Opposing Viewpoints: Students' rights. Greenhaven Press,
For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.
In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.
Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…
References (March 18, 1998). The Untold Story: AIDS and Black American: A Briefing on the Crisis of AIDS among African-Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of African-Americans on HIV / AIDS.
Andriote, John-Manuel. (2005). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans: A 'State of Emergency. Population Reference Bureau.
CDC. (2003) Late vs. early testing of HIV -- 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 581-86.
A de la Vega, Ernesto. (March, 1990). Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population With Sexuality and HIV / AIDS Information and Education. SIECUS Report 18 (3), p.3.
Essien et al. (2005). Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health: 5: 3.
EJAF or the Elton John AIDS Foundation has a mission statement centered on eradicating AIDS from the Americas and the Caribbean. They raise funds for evidence-based policies and programs and speak out openly about the harsh reality of those suffering with AIDS and HIV. Becoming the world's biggest HIV grant-makers, it holds to main offices in London and New York. EJAF has raised over $349 million for the prevention and treatment of AIDS/HIV ever since it was founded in 1992. With an estimated $7 million invested in the Americas spread across 120 organizations each year, half of this effort is focused on the Caribbean and the Southern U.S.
The agency in addition to its fundraising efforts, offers a unique perspective on issues, tackling the most difficult problems those with HIV / AIDS face. The organization focuses on sustainability and innovation, communicating regularly to allies and their grantees about any…
4. "Making condoms work for HIV prevention," UNAIDS/04.2E (English original, June 2004), ISBN 92 9 1745 8
5. "The Philippines - Unprotected: Sex, Condoms, and the Human Right to Health," (Human Rights Watch, 2004)
1. Burhans, Dirk, E., "Crunch!: A History of the Great American Potato Chip," (Terrace Books, 08.10.2008)
2. Kops, Deborah, and Thompson Collin, W., "Were Potato Chips Really Invented by an Angry Chef?: And Other Questions About Food," (Lerner Publications, 01.01.2011)
. "Snack Chip Deep Fat Frying," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Website: http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch09/final/c9s1-.pdf
4. "Potato Chip," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Website: http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/crum.html
1. Antensteiner, Martin, "Super Glue: The Superman of the Adhesive World," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the PennState Website: http://www.ems.psu.edu/sites/default/files/u5/students/Martin%20Antensteiner%20Paper_Third.pdf
2. Brubaker, Carrie, "The Chemistry of Superglue," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the UCLA Website: http://voh.chem.ucla.edu/vohtar/spring00/0H/pdf/Brubaker.pdf
3. Pendergrast, Mark, "For God, Country, and Coca Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That Makes it," (Basic Books, 16.03.2000)
4. Schildt, a. And Siegfried, Detlef, "Between Marx and Coca-Cola: Youth Cultures in Changing European Societies, 1960-1980," (Berghahn Books, 01.12.2006)
5. Wagenknecht, Edward, "American Profile: 1900-1909," (Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1982)
threats to validity in an experimental design. Your response should include an evaluation of the choice of design, the author's rationale for the design choice, the types of validity presented and the critical differences among them, the author's performance in explaining them, and how you would assess the study's validity and the information you would require to do so.
Choice of research design:
The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women
andomized clinical trials are often considered the 'gold standard' of good medical research. This is because randomized trials make use of an experimental and control group and the randomization process is designed to eliminate possible selection bias, which causes correlative rather than correlative factors to potentially skew results. In the case of Choi (et al. 2008) according to the study "The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women" a…
Choi, K. (et al. 2008).The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public
Health, 98 (10):1841-1848
The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.
Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…
Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.
Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.
Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.
Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…
Hell Is for Other People
Me: Boy, you're here a lot earlier than usual.
Stranger: Yeah, I have a hot date tonight: hopefully, tonight's the night, if you know what I mean (Winks).
Me: You're sexually active?
Stranger: What do you mean by that? Of course I'm sexually active, why do you ask.
Me: Oh. Well, because the other day you mentioned going to church ... you said you were Catholic, right?
Stranger: (Laughs) Yes, I am...but that doesn't mean I can't have a little fun, you know? (Winks again).
Me: Aren't all unmarried Christians supposed to be celibate though? I thought premarital sex was a mortal sin ... "fornication," right?
Stranger: Yes, it is, but we all sin because human beings weren't created perfectly; only God is perfect.
Me: I'm sorry, but I don't really understand...as a Christian, aren't you supposed to refrain from all sexual activity except in…
colleagues have pointed out, the most important feature of a research design becomes the question of internal validity and external validity. How can the researchers best design a study to test the hypothesis, while also maintaining internal and external validity? And given there are no perfectly designed experiments or research designs, which features are easiest to sacrifice? The issues that can be sacrificed depend on the nature of the study. In this case, the authors are interested not necessarily in the end result of reducing STDs as much as increasing usage of the female condom. The research ends up simply showing what pedagogical or intervention methods are most effective at increasing female condom use in a specific community, and have little bearing otherwise.
Share an insight from having read your colleague's posting.
One colleague stated, "The author should have used a facility where less than 25% of women have used…
Choi, K.H., et al. (2008). The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women. American Journal of Public Health 98(10).
Seddon, T. (2005). Paying drug users to take part in research. Addiction Research and Theory 13(2): 101-109.
Health Campaigns in Thailand
Today, Thailand is a Southeast Asia nation of 68 million people, most of whom are Buddhists (93.6%) who enjoy a strong free market economy, a modern infrastructure and an enviable average life expectancy of 74.5 years (Thailand, 2016). Nevertheless, Thailand is also ranked 15th in the world the prevalence of AIDS, and there were 18,400 AIDS-related deaths in 2014 (Thailand, 2016). Although this rate is a significant decrease from the 55,000 AIDS-related deaths experienced in 2001, Thailand still faces a serious AIDS problem that defies easy solutions given the country's high levels of sex workers and human trafficking (Kobutani & Engstrom, 2009). To help address this serious public health issue, this paper proposes a slogan and associated health message for use in the development of an AIDS health campaign in Thailand together with supporting rationale and an explanation concerning the factors and considerations that most influenced…
Kubotani, T. & Engstrom, D. (2009, December). The roles of Buddhist temples in the treatment of HIV / AIDS in Thailand. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 32(4), 5-7.
Thailand. (2016). CIA world factsbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/th.html.
Treerutkuarkul, A. (2010, June). Thailand's new condom crusade: Thailand's first free condom campaign in the early nineties was so successful that it was widely copied. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(6), 404-406..
teenage AIDS. The writer explores the topic and presents some of the statistics as well as programs in the fight against teenage AIDS in the U.S. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
The AIDS epidemic continues to ravage the nation though the targeted growth areas are shifting. At one time it was considered a gay man's disease, then it shifted to be an adult disease. Today there is a growing teen population contacting the disease and efforts are underway to educate and eradicate the disease among the youth of the nation.
The incidence of teen AIDS is growing. The median period for the disease to incubate before showing itself is 10 years, which means there are many more infected that the medical community is aware of. In many teens and young adults it will not produce symptoms until the person is in their adult life, and have…
BOB GROVES, Staff Writer, MORE HIV TESTING URGED FOR TEENAGERS., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 06-25-1998, pp a01.
Author not available, The growing specter of AIDS in the young.. Vol. 17, Medical Update, 03-01-1994, pp 3(1).
Michelle B. Mueller; Special To The Post-Dispatch, TEEN-AGERS TEACH FACTS, DISPELL MYTHS ABOUT HIV AND AIDS., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 12-11-2000, pp 6.
According to Tamara Kreinin, president of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S., "Manipulating facts about condoms is using a scare tactic to try and get kids not to be sexually active" (Morse, 2002).
One of the consequences of a lack of full and complete information to youth actually causes self-imposed ignorance of their own safety. If adolescents do not get the proper education on protecting themselves from STDs, it is unlikely they will get much beyond playground rumor. In several reviews conducted by the U.S. Surgeon General and by the Committee of HIV Prevention, abstinence only programs have little to no effect on the sexual behavior of adolescents ("Abstinence"). Further, denying young people full and accurate information about sex, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases puts them at needless health risks. The reality is that teens will talk about sex, will experiment, and will likely have…
Boston:Economy. (2009, March). Retrieved December 2010, from City-Data.com: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-Economy.html
Health and Social Disparities. (2010, March). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://sph.bu.edu/Maternal-a-Child-Health/department-of-community-health-sciences/menu-id-617096.html
Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social Issues. (2010, March). Retrieved November 2010, from the Namtional Campaign: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/why-it-matters/pdf/introduction.pdf
Medical Research in Boston. (2010, February). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://www.bumc.bu.edu/
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their families at night. Women who try to maintain legitimate relationships with men find more and more that their partners are visiting these brothels and sex establishments (aymond, 2003).
Legalization Does Not Protect Women's Health
The legalization of prostitution mandates that the women submit to health checks and certifications, but does not require this from male consumers. This makes no sense at all since women oftentimes contract the disease from the men. The women are not protected from contracting HIV, AIDS, or other STDs. This is not to support that both the prostitutes and male consumers be checked -- it simply points out the ridiculousness that the policy implies. "A regulated and decriminalized system of prostitution will promote safer sex and HIV…
Gerdes, L. (2007). Policies favoring legalization encourage prostitution and sex trafficking. At Issue: What are the causes of Prostitution? Detroit: Greenhaven Press. Opposing Viewpoints Resource.
Raymond, J. (2003). Ten Reasons for not Legalizing Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice. Haworth Press, Inc.
Roleff, T.L. (2006). Legalization and decriminalization of prostitution would not help prostitutes. Contemporary Issues Companion: Prostitution. Greenhaven Press. From Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center.
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
Since the beginning of time the male species has had an obsession with that part of the personal anatomy known by its Latin root as the "tail"; or today known as one's pecker, "wankie," monkey, and a host of other rather humorous titles. Somewhere, however, in creating the world God must have became confused when creating man as, and being politically correct, he/she placed the tail on the man's front side and on the animals' rear side -- or maybe God just had a bad day on his/her day of creation. Regardless of what one wants to call his penis or tail, history has proven that man's obsession with the penis is ever ending. Simply consider the folklore surrounding John Dillinger whose penis was reportedly over 20 inches. If medical science were correct it would likely have taken Dillinger 20 minutes to get enough blood circulating in his penis…
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…
Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7
Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.
Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23
Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008).
Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV /…
Arreola, S.G., Neilands, T.B., & Diaz, R. (2009). "Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men." American journal of public health,2(99).
Brooks, R.A., Etzel, M.A., Hinojos, E., Henry, C.L., & Perez, M. (2005). "Preventing HIV
among Latino and African-American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. AIDS patient care
Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all four HPV types that are targeted by the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more HPV types would still get protection from the vaccine types they have not yet been exposed to. At the present time there is no test available for clinical use to determine whether a female has had any or all of the four HPV types targeted by the vaccine (HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians, 2008).
The only way to prevent the spread of HPV and reduce the amount of cervical cancer cases that exist is to make the HPV vaccination mandatory. Those who argue against making the vaccination mandatory often claim that providing the vaccine will encourage promiscuity. This was the same argument…
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). Should States Be Allowed to Mandate the HPV Vaccine? Retrieved
November 2, 2009, from About.com Web site:
HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians. (2008). Retrieved November 2, 2009, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.
Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.
Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…
Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.
Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.
Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…
Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill
Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical
Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide
Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/Racial Homogeneity Sexually ransmitted Disease: A Study 77 Chicago Community Areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.
Knowledge of SDs around the world
Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/racial homogeneity and Sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.
he article "Ethnic/racial homogeneity and sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas" by Kaplan (et al. 2009) examined the association between SDs, race, and poverty in America. Americans of color have historically manifested higher rates of SDs. o shed further light upon this phenomenon, the researchers studied 77 enclosed neighborhoods in Chicago. he findings were that communities that were majority African-American (60% or more of residents) had higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea than communities that were majority Hispanic, even when other influential socio-demographic variables were controlled. Overall, regardless…
The article "Apprentices' knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted disease" by Oncel (2012) was a study of 'apprentices' in Turkey, or students who did not go on to higher education but instead entered a trade (apprenticeship) school. An in-class questionnaire was used to determine attitudes about STDs. While 60.9% of the apprentices recognized the name of at least one STDs, 83.6% of the participants did not know about the symptoms of any STDs and only 28.1% were knowledgeable about effective protection methods. A significant majority believed incorrect information about STDs, such as the idea that healthy-looking people could not have an STD (51.4% of the tested population). Chi-square and regression models were used to assess the data. Turkey is a conservative Muslim country and the results are troubling regarding the state of knowledge of STDs amongst young people.
Which research studies seems to yield the most meaningful and valid results, and which seems to be the weakest or most questionable
The most comprehensive study was that of Adebowale (2013), using large scale numbers based upon statistical analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. However, the idea that poverty and ignorance increases one's risk of STDs is not a novel one, and no data was used to determine if the same predictors were true of males, and how male attitudes towards condom use might differ amongst various socio-economic groups, which could affect public education campaigns: if men are unwilling to use condoms, focusing on educating women might be less effective. The Kaplan (et al. 2009) study of Chicago residents was valuable in its contrast of African-American and Latino populations of similar demographic characteristics in terms of STD rates, although for all persons regardless of race, poverty and lower education levels were strongly associated with higher rates of STDs. Although it took the form of a relatively narrowly-based questionnaire, the Oncel (2012) offers interesting preliminary research about a failure to educate the majority of working-class Turkish youths about STDs. More demographic data on the participants would have been helpful to fully contextualize the results. Given that men, persons specializing in hygiene education, and graduates from STD education programs had higher rates of accurate knowledge, this suggests that religious and cultural attitudes may impede the dissemination of accurate information.
Ibsen / Public Health
Write about the Public Health ethical issues involved in the play
An Enemy of the People is a play in five acts, which depicts a public health crisis in a small Norwegian town. The protagonist is Dr. Stockmann -- he is a physician in this town, and his brother Peter Stockmann is the mayor. As the first act begins, we hear the mayor talking with the newspaper editor Hovstad about the new "baths" which are nearly complete and which promise to attract a large tourist trade to the town. Meanwhile we learn that Dr. Stockmann has suspected these baths of being polluted -- he receives a letter with the results of laboratory analysis, confirming his suspicion. We also learn that Stockmann's own motivation here may come from a lingering resentment -- he reminds the mayor and the others that he himself had proposed a different drainage…
Becker, M.H.,Radius, S.M., & Rosenstock, I.M. (1978). Compliance with a medical regimen for asthma: a test of the health belief model, Public Health Reports, 93, 268-77.
Conner, M. & Norman, P. (1996). Predicting Health Behavior. Search and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Open University Press: Ballmore: Buckingham.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons.
Glanz, K., Marcus Lewis, F. & Rimer, B.K. (1997). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. National Institute of Health.
Teenage Girls Involved in Abusive Dating elationships
Aggression in teenage dating leading to physical, emotional and psychological damage is a social problem not only because of its effects on the teenagers but also because of its prevalence.
Howard and Qi Wang (2003) report figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showing that overall the prevalence of non-sexual courtship violence ranges from 9% to 65%, depending on the definitions and research methods used. Howard and Qi Wang's study reported "almost one in ten of the 9th- through 12th-grade females who participated in the 1999 Youth isk Behavior Survey reported being a victim of physical dating violence (i.e., had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose) within the past year." Further studies and figures report that about one in five of adolescent girls has experienced dating violence. Some of the physically abusive behaviors perpetrated in dating include being scratched,…
Bush, Vanessa. (2002). A thin line between love and hate: dating violence strikes one in every five teenage girls. Essence November 2002. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1264/7_33/96384286/print.jhtml.
Gillies-Bradley & Wagner Tammy L. (2003). When love hurts. Briarpatch, 32(2), 18-19.
Howard, Donna E. & Qi Wang, Min. (2003). Risk profiles of adolescent girls who were victims of dating violence. Adolescence Spring 2003. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/149_38/103381757/print.jhtml.
James, William H., West, Carolyn, Deters, Karla Ezrre, Amigo, Eduardo. (2000). Youth dating violence. Adolescence Fall 2000. Retrieved November 7th, 2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/139_35/68535843/print.jhtml
According to Fulbright (2010), parents are the people best qualified to teach their children about sex and intimate relationships. The theory behind Fulbright's (2010) proposition is that parents and their children gain a more honest and open relationship, which fosters healthier identity and sexual development than if parents shun their children's questions or avoid discussing sensitive matters like these. Moreover, children will receive incorrect, patchy, and conflicting information when they rely only on friends, rumors, and formal sex education in schools. Parents teach from their own experience, and can confer not only values but also valuable practical information. In many cases, the child's experiences in terms of biology and social interactions will parallel those of the parents, which allows for more intimate and meaningful discussions than what would take place in the more generalized setting of a school. While I still believe in the importance of formal sex education…
Living with the genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) creates several problems for the herpes sufferer. This paper delves into the emotional, physical, and social stressors that a person with genital herpes is subjected to, and it suggests a research project based on several scenarios, including the male college student who has herpes and how he approaches his health issue when it comes to intimacy with a girlfriend. In other words, there are ethical issues involved. Should a man tell his girlfriend that he has herpes, or should he just be sure not to become intimate with her when he is having an outbreak? Which decision is the most ethical?
Social Science Research on Herpes and Dating - ackground
Genital herpes causes periodic physical discomfort but it also causes "recurrent emotional distress" because one never knows when an outbreak will occur, and certainly the male in this research does…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. 'What is genital herpes?' Retrieved January 16, 2015, from http://m.cdc.gov.
Dunphy, K. 2014. 'Herpes genitalis and the philosopher's stance.' Journal of Medical Ethics. Volume 12, 793-97.
Informed Consent pdf:
Partners You Would Work With to Improve the Health Status of Your Aggregate
The South Side Help Center
South Side Help Centre (SSHC), established in June 1987, is intended to assist individuals of all age groups adopt a lifestyle of avoidance of mental, social as well as physical ills through the provision of positive, healthy choices that allow the community inhabitants to lead useful lives. SSHC objective and legacy is in serving the community residents. We realize our task of "Providing people with positive and healthy alternatives" via the help of several services and programs (South Side Help Center, 2015). Examples of these programs and services are
Youth Programs like Male/Female Mentoring, Youth Self-Enhancement Program (YSEP), After School Program, Substance Abuse Prevention, School-based Violence Prevention Programs, and Valerie Smith eid Scholarship Fund.
Community Outreach Programs like Substance Abuse Prevention, HIV Prevention Programs, entailing HIV testing, Young Men Community Action Program…
AIDS Foundation Houston. (2015, October 7). Retrieved from AIDS Foundation Houston: http://www.aidshelp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=cms.page&id=1007
AIDS Project for the East Bay. (2015, October 7). Retrieved from AIDS Project for the East Bay: http://www.apeb.org/
AIDS Resource Center Ohio. (2015, October 7). Retrieved from AIDS Resource Center Ohio: http://www.arcohio.org/
Community Health Action of Staten Island . (2015, October 7). Who We Are. Retrieved from Community Health Action of Staten Island: http://chasiny.org/who-we-are/#
In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.
Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.
The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort…
For the health promotion to be successful, they must look at the broad spectrum facing both men and women when they become sexually active and the context in which young people conduct their sexual lives should be analyzed. These limitations on both men and women work to limit the powers of the gender in relation to various situational areas. For instance, the methods advocated for safe sex are usually out of reach for many people maybe due to the cost or their availability.
'A woman is limited in making influential and important decisions and so is the man.' (Tannen, 1996) For instance, the man cannot sometime make a decision on how many children they will have especially if they both do not make the decision together. This particular discourse around gender is mainly in the developing countries where safe sex is still being introduced and efforts are at their peak…
Baxter Judy. Positioning Gender in discourse: A feminist Methodology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2003. Web. 1 Mar 2010
Tannen Deborah. Gender and Discourse. USA: Oxford University Press 1996. 6 February, 2007
Shiach Moraq. Discourse on popular Culture. New York: Stanford University 1989. Web. 10 March 1992
End Poverty in 30 Years?
Ending extreme poverty seems as if it should be relatively easy. There is a tremendous amount of wealth in the world, and, even with the growing world population, redistributing only a small portion of the world's total wealth would result in the eradication of extreme poverty. However, history has repeatedly shown that people, regardless of religious affiliation or social orientation are not willing to simply allow for resource redistribution. Communist ideals have remained just that, ideals, as people have routinely used power positions to ensure wealth concentration, which has meant that prior attempts to forcefully redistribute wealth have been unsuccessful. Furthermore, while some people with wealth would be willing to give up some portion of their wealth in order to eradicate poverty, the reality is that charities are notoriously inefficient at asset relocation. Charities are fantastic for solving short-term problems, but poverty is a life-long…
5 mg of levonorgestrel each. The first dose is taken within 72 hours followed by the second dose 12 hours later. This method was first developed by Yuzpe and Lancee in 1977 and hence the name.
The most common problems associated with these pills are minor side effects such as nausea and vomiting reported in 50% and 20% of women respectively.  the long-term effects are unknown since not much data is available however it is believed that consistent long-term use may cause both arterial disease (myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident)  and venous disease (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). 
Emergency contraception pills are more widely available in developed countries compared to developing countries where access to these pills is still limited. Not all of these pills are yet licensed in the United States as well but the FDA approved the six common brands since they were found…
1] Van Look PFA, von Hertzen H. Induced abortion: a global perspective. in: Baird DT, Grimes DA, Van Look PFA, eds. Modern methods of inducing abortion. Oxford, England: Blackwell Science, 1995:1-24.
2] Trussell J, Stewart F. The effectiveness of postcoital contraception. Fam Plann Perspect 1992;24:262-264
3] "Interim Meeting (Access to Emergency Contraception)." ama-assn.org: December 2000. Accessed September 26, 2006.
4] Steiner M, Piedrahita C, Joanis C, Glover L, Spruyt a. Condom breakage and slippage rates among study participants in eight countries. Int Fam Plann Perspect 1994;20:55-8.
economic, social, and moral changes in America since the end of World War II
Since the end of World War II, the American people have seen an extraordinary change in the economic, social and moral priorities of the nation and its people. Three generations have grown up since the war, each positively and negatively influenced by their parents and social change.
Who They Are
The WWII generation represents the most affluent elderly generation that the United States will see in a long time. This generation benefited from an expanding economy and skyrocketing real estate prices. Its members were the beneficiaries of generous government programs, from the GI ill to government aid in buying their first home. (Wilkinson) high school education was sufficient to get well paying, secure jobs in their adult years. The lower level of education is one reason why members of this generation tend to see things differently…
Wilkinson, Ron. Boomers vs. Gen X Cooperation Clash. BCFM Human Resources Committee, 2002.
Chicowitz, Hershel. Defining G-X'ers. BBHQ, 2002.
Peppard, Nancy. Ties that Blind: Social Disconnects And The Shifting Generational Profiles That Cause Them.College of Law Practice Management, 2001.
International Association of Baby Boomers
Japanese Comfort Women
It is estimated that between one and two hundred thousand female sex slaves were forced to deliver sexual services to Japanese soldiers, both before and during World War II. These women were known as comfort women and the Imperial Conference, which was composed of the emperor, representatives from the armed forces and the main Cabinet ministers, approved their use by Japanese soldiers. (Walkom)
The term "comfort women" refers to the victims of a "premeditated systematic plan originated and implemented by the government of Japan to enslave women considered inferior and subject them to repeated mass rapes," said Michael D. ausefeld, one of over 35 lawyers in his firm representing the former sexual prisoners in a class action lawsuit currently pending against the Japanese government. (Eddy)
Since ancient times, prostitutes in Japan chose to sell their bodies either for family, poverty, or for saving her husband and her…
Henson, Maria. Comfort Woman: A Filipina's Story of Prostitution and Slavery Under the Japanese Military. Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
Hicks, George. The comfort women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War," W.W. Norton, 1997.
The Comfort Women: Colonialism, War and Sex. Duke University, 1997.
African-Americans and AID Risk
The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…
Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.
Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1 (May - June 2002): S88-95.
Stoskopf, C.H., Richter, D.L., Kim Y.K. "Factors Affecting Health Status in African-Americans Living With HIV / AIDS." AIDS Patient Care and STDS 15.6 (June 2001): 331-8.
The young people of our species love to try new things. Being a teen or young adult means living in a world of endless possibilities. During high school and college, people try a variety of new experiences covering every possible facet of life. They will probably drink for the first time during this period, will probably become sexually active, and many will experiment at least once or twice with drugs. Fifty years ago, parents worried about these things on moral grounds. Today, both the young people and their parents must worry because these common experiences can kill: they can lead, directly or indirectly, to the acquisition of the AIDS virus.
AIDS presents American youth with a particularly cruel paradox: the very factors that encourage young people to try new experiences, learn new things and become the masters of their lives makes AIDS-risky behavior more attractive. Being a teen or…
Compared to only a few decades ago, American society has become more open and accepting of teenage pregnancy. Pregnant teens are no longer hidden away with relatives. More importantly, many school and community groups have adopted honest and aggressive strategies to address the growing incidences of teenage pregnancy.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of four different styles of programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage girls. These programs include sex education in schools, one-on-one conversations between patient and health care worker in a clinical setting, service learning programs and finally, youth development programs. Emphasis is given on the effectiveness of these programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage African-American girls.
The first part of this paper is an overview of teen pregnancy statistics, both throughout the United States and with African-American teenagers in particular. The next part of the paper then identifies the factors behind the rising rates of pregnancy…
Boekeloo, B.O., Schamus, L.A., Simmens, S.J., Cheng, T.L., O'Connor, K., & D'Angelo, L.J. 1999. "A STD/HIV prevention trial among adolescents in managed care." Pediatrics, 103, 107-115.
Harding, David. 2003. "Counterfactual Models of Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty on Dropping Out and Teenage Pregnancy." American Journal of Sociology. November.
Moore, Mignon R. And Lundsay P. Chase-Lansdale. 2001. "Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy Among African-American Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment." Journal of Marriage & the Family. November.
Napier, Kristine. 1999. "Abstinence-Only Programs Reduce Teen Pregnancy." Education. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press
Collaborative Learning Community on Issues elated to HIV / AIDS
Culture refers to a complex set of material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional characteristics that define a social group or a society. It comprises of fundamental rights, ways of life, traditional beliefs, and value systems in society. Some cultural beliefs, practices, and norms related to sexuality contribute to the spread and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Cultural beliefs such as negative attitudes towards the use of protective mechanisms such as condoms as well discussing its use among societies is one among the contributing factors. For example, men in some communities do not prefer using condoms because they consider flesh-flesh sex with masculinity and promotion of health.
Practices such as the male circumcision influence the risk of HIV disease. Studies show that the social practice significantly reduces the risks of HIV disease among them male during penile vaginal sex. Social practices embedded…
Hall, J.C., Hall, B.J., & Cockerell, C.J. (2011). HIV / AIDS in the post-HAART era: Manifestations, treatment, and epidemiology. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Pub. House- USA.
Jenkins, C.L. & Robalino, D.A. (2003). HIV / AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa: The costs of inaction. Washington, DC: World Bank
Stolley, K.S., & Glass, J.E. (2009). HIV / AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press
World Bank (2001). HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean: Issues and options. Washington, DC: World Bank
Public health services can produce a considerable impact in the delivery of health care under ideal circumstances. In order for such a synthesis between these two aspects of health care to actually take place in a meaningful way, it is necessary for public health services to receive support from the various models of health care delivery. Specifically, health care delivery models need to provide a base of action which can succor the situation which the general public obtains from the administering of public health services.
For instance, it is largely up to those involved in public health services to educate the populace about health issues that could adversely affect them. Furthermore, it is also necessary for various agents of public health services to promote a general atmosphere of wellness with which to envelop the general population. Doing so might take the form of any type of methodology including running television…
Prostitution: Causes and Consequences
Prostitution has been termed as one of the oldest professions, with its history going back to as early the ancient period. Indeed, records of most ancient societies -- from Greeks and omans to Jews, Hebrews, Asians, and Muslims -- point to the existence of prostitution several thousand years ago (Sanders, O'Neill & Pitcher, 2009). Today, though illegal in some jurisdictions, prostitution is a widespread practice, with virtually every major urban area across the globe having numerous brothels, escort services, and joints disguised as massage parlors. Prostitution is also practiced at the sex worker's or client's residence as well as in adult entertainment locations such as strip clubs. Emanating mainly from individual and socioeconomic factors, prostitution is associated with a number of dangers on the individuals involved, and may expose one to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This paper describes the causes and consequences of prostitution, clearly demonstrating…
Elmes, J., Skovdal, M., Nhongo, K., et al. (2017). A reconfiguration of the sex trade: how social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable. PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0171916
Farrell, A., & Cronin, S. (2015). Policing prostitution in an era of human trafficking enforcement. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 64(4-5): 211-228.
Gorkoff, K., & Runner, J. (2003). Being head: the experiences of young women in prostitution. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.
Jeffreys, S. (1997). The idea of prostitution. 1st ed. Melbourne: Spinifex Press.
That decision though is generally influenced by which methods are socially acceptable within an individual's community, and which methods are most completely understood. It is important, then, for educators and physicians to not only inform women that the pill exists, but they must also explain how it works and why it should be used.
Emergency contraception in pill form is a dose of estrogen and/or progestin, generally taken in two doses twelve hours apart following intercourse. Currently the IUD method of emergency contraception has been largely replaced by pill regimens either a combination of estrogen and progestin or progestin only (Grimes, & aymond 2002). Depending on the timing of administration the mode of action of these oral regimens differs. Taken before ovulation, emergency contraceptives prevent ovulation. There is also a possibility that the hormones affect the mucus of the cervix effectively trapping semen, or possibly even affecting the mode of…
1. Burton, R., & Savage, W. (1990). Knowledge and use of postcoital contraception: A survey among health professionals in Tower Hamlets. British Journal of General Practice, 326- 330.
2. Glasier, A. (1997). Emergency postcoital contraception. New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1058- 1064.
3. Glasier, A., airhurst, K., Wyke, S., Ziebland, s., Seaman, P, Walker, J., & Lakha, F. (2004). Advanced provision of emergency contraception does not reduce abortion rates. Contraception, 69, 361-366.
4. Grimes, D., & Raymond, E. (2002). Emergency Contraception. Annals of Internal Medicine, 180- 189.
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.