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Conformity and Obedience
EYOND CONSCIOUS AWARENESS
Influences of Conformity and Obedience
The Concepts of Conformity and Obedience Compared
Obedience is a form of social influence in which a person of authority makes a direct command to someone to perform something (McLeod, 2007). It involves changing one's behavior according to the commands of authority (rehm, Kassin & Fein, 1999 as qtd in Southerly, 2012). Conformity is another form of social influence brought about by social pressure or the norms of the majority. It means changing or adapting one's perception, opinion or behavior to that which is consistent with the norms of the group (rehm, Kassin & Fein, 1999 as qtd in Southerly, 2012). Key studies on conformity were conducted by Sherif in 1936, Asch in 1951 and by Fein, Goethals and Kassin in 1998. ickman and Milgram conducted the key studies on obedience in 1974 and 1963, respectively (Southerly).
Influencing Factors…… [Read More]
omen may be especially motivated to maintain the positive affect of others, or to at least limit the negative affect. (Daubman, and Sigail 75)
This tendency towards conforming to the group may also be the basis behind the psychology of eating disorder in young adolescent women attempting to conform to the norm. This normative social pressure may explain women attempting to attain Somme idealized ideal body type by extreme forms of diet and exercise creating such eating disorders as anorexia nervosa and bulimia. As early as the 1960's researchers found that 70% of the high school girls surveyed were unhappy with their bodies and wanted to lose weight:
It seems plausible that the forces that lead a woman to feel she must downplay her accomplishments and assets might contribute to her feeling inadequate in a number of domains, including her abilities to manage her life, her relationships, and even her…… [Read More]
Yet, if some players use them, others will feel the pressure to use them as well, in order to compete."
This peer pressure could begin in high school sports when teens are extremely interested in performing their best to compete for college scholarships. Because the big leaguers to it, they think it is OK to do it too, so the practice could start early for many athletes. If they give into the pressure in high school or college, chances are they will give into the same peer pressure in the big leagues, where the results are even more important to their lifestyles and careers.
There is another problem with the widespread steroid use in baseball. It is affecting the youth of the country because it seems to be swept under the rug by MLB. Another writer notes, "Because adolescents frequently idolize professional athletes, whom they observe earning millions of dollars…… [Read More]
Conformity and Rebellion in orks by Amy Tan, Martin Luther King Jr., Herman Melville, and Shirley Jackson
The dilemma of conformity vs. rebellion, to do something that is expected, or "has always been done," or to rebel against expectation or convention, is common in both life and literature. Three short stories, by Amy Tan; Herman Melville, and Shirley Jackson, and the essay "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr., express conflict between conformity and rebellion. I will analyze Tan's "Two Kinds"; King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"; Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener," and Jackson's "The Lottery," in that order, in terms of their themes of conformity vs. rebellion.
In Amy Tan's story "Two Kinds" (424-32) Jing-mei's Chinese mother wishes for her to conform to her own high standards of persistence and achievement in music, though Jing-mei lacks motivation. Her mother: "believed you could be anything you wanted to be in…… [Read More]
The amount of knowledge that we have (even setting aside the amount of wisdom that might accompany this) tends to make people more sure of themselves and thus less subject to want to change themselves to match others.
We determined to test the above ideas about a relationship between age and the urge to conform. Our hypothesis was the following: Older adults (40+ yrs) will conform less than younger adults (18-25 yrs) because older adults have greater self certainty and are less concerned with what others think of them.
Our research design was as follows. We first selected UIC students and faculty through a randomly process before categorizing them into two groups: Young adults (18-25) and middle-aged adults (40-60). The methodology was based on observations of the individuals. They were not aware of the fact that they were being observed. Because of this, we did not need to obtain their…… [Read More]
The anonymity of exile does not provide her with the conditions in which to live the purposeful life she intended for herself. Her spiritedness and independence of mind, which contributed to her erotic rebellion, are displaced, and in many respects irrelevant, away from this specific moral community of faith. She returns older and, it seems, less ambitious about radical reform of the community. Yet her return is an exceptional act of independence. Her penitence is unfinished because her sin and its punishment were never a matter of the actions of an isolated individual. Her return signals her recognition of the deep interdependence between her self understanding and Puritan Boston" (Taylor 2005).
Hester and Dimmesdale reveal the sad limits of the human mind, even while they exhibit the resistant nature of human passion to mortal laws. Their resistance is not willed -- they are only obeying their unconstrained natures, and because…… [Read More]
Meanwhile on the subject of obedience, an article in American Psychologist (written by the former research assistant to Milgram at Yale University) poses the following question: if Milgram's experiments / research were conducted today, in 2009, "would people still obey… " (Elms, 2009, p. 34). The answer given in most cases by Elms is that "…a current measure of obedience to destructive authority would find substantially less obedience than Milgram did" (Elms, p. 35). Elms backs up his assertion by pointing to the "important lessons" that "a large portion of our populace should have learned" by now (Elms, p. 35). Those lessons include the teachings of Dr. Martin Luther King and the wisdom "other social activists" (i.e., the "group" that has influence on the "self") who have raised legitimate issues like racial prejudice, government deception and corruption, and domestic violence. These leaders that Elms alludes to should be, Elms goes…… [Read More]
Two significant topics within the area of social influence include conformity and obedience: Stanley Milgram (1933 -- 1984) and Solomon Asch (1907 -- 1996). Please complete Parts I, II, and III.
According to the experiment, conformity is normally criticized basis of morality. Most human atrocities are categorized as obedience crimes. On the other hand, the experiments clarify that the conformity presents equal problematic issues on efficacy grounds. To achieve success, leaders and followers have to adhere rigidly to pre-determined laws and regulations. igidity does not pose more challenges due to their infinite tasks or insufficient creativity of opponents. These problems seem unfortunate in case human beings are programmed to conform. This is a perspective that is dominant within the recent past. The influence is traced to landmark literary programs between the 1960s and 1970s initiated by social psychologists. The approaches include Milgram's Authority Obedience concept and…… [Read More]
In highly-publicized criminal offenses and violations of international law, American servicemen in charge of the Abu Ghraib facility abused Iraqi prisoners by terrorizing them with military service dogs and the threat of electrical shocks. They also purposely humiliated them by dragging them around naked, forcing them to simulate homosexuality, and by various other degrading acts specifically intended to disgrace their religious beliefs and cultural values. In some cases, abusive conduct and other violations were precipitated by orders such as in connection with interrogating prisoners to recover usable military intelligence. However, in many other cases (such as those depicted in the photographs that appeared throughout the global media), the abuse represented loss of personal responsibility and moral judgment by virtue of the phenomena of conformity and groupthink.
In a much more benign way, social conformity is apparent throughout American society in clothing styles, the perpetual wave of social trends, and (of…… [Read More]
Totemic religion arose from the filial sense of guilt, in an attempt to allay that feeling and to appease the father by deferred obedience to him. All later religions are seen to be attempts at solving the same problem. & #8230; all have the same end in view and are reactions to the same great event with which civilization began and which since it occurred, has not allowed mankind a moment's rest. (Freud 145)
Furthermore, while it would seem that human beings would always seek out pleasure and avoid pain, even Freud discovered that this was not always the case. The events of the orld ars made Freud feel that there may be something else going on as well.
Freud's revisions to his theory were therefore partly carried out so that the fact that early twentieth-century history in Europe failed to follow the smooth pursuit of happiness promised by nineteenth-century…… [Read More]
Rebellion and Conformity in the Rhetoric of Swift and King
Introduction to the texts
Similarities and differences in use of indirect address
Jonathan Swift's 1729 "A Modest Proposal" and Martin Luther King's 1963 "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" are both works written in protest by authors who were social critics of the contemporary mores of their society. Swift used satire to condemn the callousness exhibited by English society towards the Irish and Irish children. Martin Luther King used direct and forceful polemical prose to attack the conformist ministers of the state of Birmingham where King had come to engage in acts of civil disobedience, in the name of advancing the larger cause of civil rights in America.
Both King and Swift wrote as outsiders to their respective societies. Swift took a negative view, personally and politically,…… [Read More]
By holding true to her own values, Parks became an example to other African-Americans in Montgomery, who may have been frightened to act in such an openly defiant manner. Her example touched the lives of others, without even her explicit intention. It is easy to remember Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. As an icon, as a man who was always great. But on 1955 King was only twenty-six years old, "the new pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery," and was then "drafted to head the Montgomery Improvement Association," the organization formed to direct the nascent civil rights struggle. As a result of his leadership during the boycott, he became a major civil rights leader. Parks actions touched King's life, Parks genius enabled King's emerging genius for leadership to be realized.
Parks did not seek the limelight. "I did not get on the bus to get arrested," she…… [Read More]
hinoceros, by Eugene Ionesco [...] theme of individuality vs. conformity and how it applies in today's world. Throughout history, individuals have felt torn between conforming to established tradition and social mores, and showing their individuality by rising up against conformity and tradition. In "hinoceros," Ionesco illustrates what can happen to a society that is so eager to conform; it cannot see a balance between the individual and the whole. Today, there is more acceptance of individuality in some areas, but in many, conformity is still the rule of the day, and individuality is seen as frightening and even unnatural.
Individuality and Conformity
In "hinoceros," Jean is the conformist, and Berenger is the non-conformist, and is clearly shown from their first entrance on the stage. Jean is perfectly groomed, and Berenger is a mess. At one point Jean says, "JEAN: [interrupting him] I'm just as good as you are; I think…… [Read More]
In the second phase, members previously identified based on their professional industry environment outlined in the Delimitations section of this proposal will be assigned to different groups and presented with situations requiring them either to express their personal beliefs, determinations, opinions, and decisions knowing that theirs differs substantially from the consensus of their groups' or to suppress their genuine reactions and adopt perceptions and positions with which they disagree for the sake of satisfying what they believe are their groups' beliefs and desires.
ubjects and ubject election
The subjects would all be selected from volunteers and from employees assigned by their organizations to a professional development seminar. Consent for psychological experimentation will not be required because the framework for this project is a purpose-designed professional development seminar that genuinely provides the training it proposes to offer, albeit through a deceptive means. The final phase of the seminar will be devoted…… [Read More]
FUNDRAISING: After two months, I had some excellent videos put together of Sunshine residents being active in their community with Down syndrome kids, helping older folks who were bedridden, and other heart-wrenching scenes (including the joy they were having going for "power" walks). I presented video programs to Lions, Kiwanis, the Chamber of Commerce monthly dinner and other civic groups, asking for donations for additional exercise equipment for the center, and was successful. e raised $11,390 dollars in our first year.
FOOT-in-the-DOOR STRATEGY (FITD): According to an article in the Journal of Consumer Research (Scott, 1977), just because a consumer knows something is good for them (in this case, seniors knew exercise was good, but didn't participate), doesn't mean they will buy it. The consumer needs first to comply with a small request by the manufacturer (FITD); and likewise with the Sunshine residents, they needed to see others walking and…… [Read More]
Lai massacre that occurred in March 1968 and led by Lieutenant William L. Calley took the lives of more than 500 Vietnamese civilians, including elderly men as well as women and children. This event fueled growing outrage in the United States over the war in Vietnam and contributed to the groundswell of calls for the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Vietnam altogether. This paper provides an examination of the social and psychological environmental influences for the My Lai massacre, a discussion concerning the development of attitudes in response to a passive environment as they relate to the massacre, a discussion concerning the implications of the My Lai massacre and its legacy. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the paper's conclusion.
In March 1968, soldiers from the U.S. Army's Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry egiment of the 11th Brigade,…… [Read More]
This is something that is clear and apparent, and with its correlation to the concluded question, the relevance of the risk involved with drunk driving can be negatively associated to the danger in both situations depicted. Utilizing the illustrations of a descending skydiver and a destroyed automobile below, the visual aspect of the poster will be more thoroughly identifiable. Following the heading previously mentioned and the visual illustrations, a concluding subheading will help to drive home the idea of nobility and intelligence of the targeted audience is such according to their adherence and acknowledgement of the intended message by implementing the influence used through the sociological ideas in reciprocation (Influence, the social psychologist Robert Cialdini, 2000). This subheading would read something along the lines of the following: "YOU'RE SMART ENOUGH to KNOW the DANGERS - SHOW it - DON'T DRINK & DRIVE!" Or "E a LEADER, and SHOW YOUR INTELLIGENCE…… [Read More]
it governs virtually everything important I do. If I spend time with friends, it is because I know them from school or school-related activities. If I have a part-time job, it has to conform to my school schedule. The truth is that I have never seriously questioned whether I want to be a student or not, so I must define being a student as conforming behavior. Society puts a high value on student behavior, and I must define myself as a conformist for accepting that societal value for myself without question.
For the most part I have been blind to this conformity. Perhaps that is the nature of conformity, that it requires that people do not make active choices. As I look at pictures of family members, I can see that all the young women in the 1970's had long straight hair, but all the young women in the early…… [Read More]
Society Deforms Our Psychical Self
Social expectations place stress on the human mind and body as the issue of conformity can become a struggle for some. Various theories, such as Strain Theory and Social Learning Theory, acknowledge that society has an impact on behavior (Akers, Jennings), but artists through their work can show how societal expectations can also have an impact on the psychical self. Values, constraints, norms and conventions are all issues that effect how individuals hold themselves, judge themselves, shape themselves and develop themselves. The social expectation, for instance, that persons should be fit (evidenced by the mass marketing of "fit watches" that monitor one's heart rate in today's marketplace) can cause some to feel insecure about their weight, to feel body shamed, to be depressed and to isolate themselves from the community. Degas' Girl Putting on Her Stockings (1876-1877) is one such example of artwork showing conveying…… [Read More]
One could make a connection between The Lottery and Fed Up. Fed Up is about the sugar industry, and the lobbying that goes on to ensure that the interests of the sugar growers are taken care of. We know that sugar growers receive trade protections, which have increased the price of sugar. When some companies substitute high fructose corn syrup, those companies also engage in extensive lobbying. Fast and processed food companies are in this system as well. The interesting thing is that when it comes to food, people choose what they eat. They do not have to eat sugar-laden junk food; this is just an American tendency. It is actually the tendency of a lot of wealthy countries, but Fed Up is partially about the way that regulators ignore and suppress efforts to regulate unnecessary sugars and other junk foods in our diet.
Where The Lottery comparison can…… [Read More]
society as we know exerts its influence on the affairs and behavior of human beings. Social influences encompass the changes that occur in attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that often result from interpersonal interactions. Conformity and obedience are key concepts that aid in explaining social influences. Concisely, conformity refers to the influence that the masses or the majority have over an individual (Collins, 2009). On the other hand, obedience is influence exerted by the state or an authority over its subjects. This essay will endeavor to compare and contrast these two forms of social influences and draw conclusions that will candidly show the difference between conformity and obedience.
Conformity and obedience bear some semblance with each other in the fact that they can both persuade, or inspire an individual to change one's behavior, actions and thoughts, as regards a specific situation. Another semblance between conformity and obedience lies in their ability…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]
conformity with marketing theory, the marketing plan will include a definition of the product (including price, target customers, distribution, etc.), general objectives, a communication and overall strategy, as well as a budget breakdown for the relevant elements of the marketing plan.
Defining the product refers not only to describing its main features and how it will work, but also what makes it different from the competitors' similar products, giving it a competitive advantage. Defining and describing the targeted customer segment is generally discussed separately, however, it is best we do it here so as to link it with the product's positioning on the market. The third part of the product definition phase is determined by the price, promotion and distribution aspects.
The product that the ritish Insurance Group is preparing for launch is called GapSure and is a new travel insurance product. This came as a reaction to…… [Read More]
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]
Furthermore, this brief introduction details the different types of legislation regarding men and women that Wollstonecraft supported. Next, this chapter moves onto Wollstonecraft's own life and actions, as well as a brief description of the time period in which she lived. These descriptions allow the reader to understand how Wollstonecraft was both revolutionary and conventional, in addition to how society encouraged and discouraged her various roles. Furthermore, I introduce these ideas to personify the struggle in which Wollstonecraft operated every day. It is this struggle that I emphasize during this chapter, giving the reader an idea of the challenging nature of Wollstonecraft's life because of it, in addition to its contribution to her struggle on paper. This chapter also introduces the reactions that others had to her work, as well as a tribute to its lasting contributions. I remark that Wollstonecraft is a strong voice among other female writers and…… [Read More]
Pressures to Conform or Obey
Western nations pride themselves on allowing their citizens freedom to choose for themselves their paths and destinies. However, psychological and sociological pressures often trump government-granted freedoms, especially in certain situations.
Sociology is the examination of the social lives of humans, groups, and societies, often defined as the study of social interactions. It is a relatively new academic discipline that evolved in the early 19th century throughout Europe and America. It deals with the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, and institutions.
In fact, sociology is concerned with our behavior as social beings; as a result the sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the examination of global social processes. In a broad sense, sociology manifests the scientific examination of social groups,…… [Read More]
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…… [Read More]
Some books are deceptive in terms of their subject matter. At first glance, for example, such books can appear simple, with a relatively straightforward story. Others are excessively uplifting or bleak, appearing to cater to only one single concept or emotion. Many times, however, the most apparently simple stories can hide deeper themes relating to the what we as human beings truly are. They contain important lessons or hold the capacity to change the lives of their readers. Indeed, as humanity, we are lucky to have the cognitive skills and understanding to enjoy such high-level works. Three prime examples of works that are deceptively simple and/or bleak include The oad by Cormac McCarthy, On the oad by Jack Kerouac, and Into the Wild by Jon Krakauer. Of the three, The oad Is probably the bleakest, while Into the Wild is the most straightforward, but each of the three works…… [Read More]
1. Deviance is relative, and refers to behavioral deviation from established social norms within a specific community (Schaefer, 2016). Therefore, what is deviant in one period of time will become normative in another and vice-versa. Likewise, what is deviant in one culture may not be considered deviant in another. Although deviance is typically framed as maladaptive behavior that either leads to or is categorized as criminal, deviance can also be constructive, productive, and “positive,” (Hughes & Coakley, 1991, p. 307). In fact, athletes engage in what is known as “positive deviance,” in that their behaviors constitute a cohesive “sport ethic” that includes taking risks, pushing past personal limits, and making sacrifices for the greater good of the game (Hughes & Coakley, 1991, p. 307). The 2010 documentary I Am Alive is about the Uruguayan rugby team’s remarkable survival in the Andes, and is a perfect example of positive deviance in…… [Read More]
Instead, it is increasingly evident that stark political conditions have weighed heavily on the nature of either side's identity, indicating that that conformity is a powerful force in the Islamic world.
Social Perception and Social Cognition:
Social perception and social cognition are rampantly distorted in many parts of the Middle East. For many Shiite and Sunni combatants, a lack of access to education, history or the ability to critically assess global events can elevate the ability of clerics, political leaders and tribal warlords to manipulate followers into perceiving this as a centuries-old conflict. This produces a pattern of social cognition for those on both sides which only understands the conflict as that which may be characterized as having roots with the will of Mohammed himself.
In reality, "if you read the newspapers in the 1950s and 1960s, you don't see anything about Sunni-Shiite riots. There were peasant/landlord struggles or communists…… [Read More]
team I was welcomed to observe contains divorced women of varying ages, from 30 to 40. The team members also had varying ethnic backgrounds. All of these women had different experiences with one thing in common; they had all had divorced and now desired a new life very free from that stress. The environment was relaxed and welcoming. The team members were free to sit where they felt comfortable, and the whole atmosphere was relaxing and calm. There were sofas placed around the table. It almost had an atmosphere like a get-together for log time friends.
The vision of the team is to help women divorcees in any situation restore their lives and stand on their feet. Depending on this, the mission describes what the group wants to do and how. This team seems to work to allow women that have experienced divorce to learn from one another's experiences. The…… [Read More]
Key Components of Japanese Culture
As with every culture, Japanese culture includes a number of elements which make the culture uniquely its own. Japan is a very homogeneous nation whose people place high value on the norms of acceptable behavior. The Japanese value harmony, conformity and predictability. Japanese cultural norms require people to go to great lengths to avoid actions that might disrupt the harmony of the group. Japanese people feel themselves to be accountable to the group, not the individual; in fact, individualistic behavior is frowned upon. The Japanese believe that conformity produces harmony, the supreme value (Denison, 2002).
While the Japanese people regard their culture as unique, they are actually very flexible and open to adapting to outside influences. Foreign sports and fashions as well as modern technology have gained wide acceptance and dissemination. Also, Japan's written language originated in China, while the Buddhist religion came…… [Read More]
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]
In the (control) group the professor wore the same shirt without any label attached. The shirt was unstained and fresh-looking but not new.
Finally, after the initial data collection, the subjects were advised of the genuine research topic and method in connection with a request for their consent to analyze the results participant-by-participant. Originally, they were assured of anonymity. All 20 participants granted consent to analyze their responses individually.
Experimental Hypothesis and Variables
Hypothesis #1 -- the control group will characterize the professor's attire as
"Casual" or "Unprofessional."
Hypothesis #2 -- the test group will characterize the professor's attire as
Hypothesis # 3 -- the control group will characterize the professor's style as
"Tries too hard."
Hypothesis # 4 -- the test group will characterize the professor's style as
"Probably quite well."
The independent variable is the presence or absence of the "DKNY" label on the…… [Read More]
German-Jews. The history of German-Jewish conflict is widely known but many might wonder why it started in the first place. Why would Germans show such extreme hatred for an ethnic group while the other did not seem to have threatened the latter? This question is certainly strange but answer is worth seeking which also helps us understand the concepts of conformity and social perception that affects global conflicts of such magnitude. The German-Jewish conflict is as much grounded in ugly realities of imperislaims and racism as any other. Arendt discovered two important innovations that were cultivated during the rise of modern imperialism i.e. "race as a principle of the body politic" and "bureaucracy as a principle of foreign domination." (Arendt, p. 185) While racism was seriously grounded in the fear of the white man, bureaucracy emerged as a result of over exaggerated and entirely false sense of protection that white…… [Read More]
On some level, all art tells the viewer something about its sociological context. A painting by Vermeer says much about gender roles and norms in Flemish society; just as a painting by arhol says much about consumerism in American society.
One irony that Bennett points out is, "Art collectors have paid millions of dollars for some of arhol's pieces, but shoppers at Target, where the limited-edition soup cans are on sale, will have to shell out only 75 cents for a 10.75-ounce can." arhol's art is the ideal bridge between "low" and "high" art, evidenced by this differential in pricing. The "authentic" painting by arhol is worth millions, but the authentic item that arhol depicted on the canvas is only worth 75 cents. Consumers place a high demand on something that is deemed valuable and irreplaceable, but not as high of a demand on food.
Andy arhol's "100 Cans" points…… [Read More]
Arabs/Tuareg vs. Africans
Arabs/Tuareg Ethnic Clash with Sub-Saharan Africans
Africa is a very tumultuous continent and for a number of reasons. hether it be fights relating to race, ethnic squabbles, religion or a combination of the three, wars and problems are not hard to find. North Africa in particular and its proximity to the Middle East makes an already hot situation all that much hotter. One particular conflict that is ongoing and protracted in nature is that which exists between the Tuareg Arabs and the blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. They occupy much of the same areas of Niger, Mali, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria…just to name a few. The problems between the two groups date back at least a thousand years and the wounds run deep for both sides. hile there perhaps may be chances for peaceful coexistence in the future, the last thousand years or so will probably prevent that…… [Read More]
Women in 20th Century Canadian Society: Social Conventions and Change
20th century society placed Canadian women within restrictive conventions and norms. There was a very pronounced domestic expectation placed upon women that they would have jobs or careers, but only until they married. Once married, the expectation was that they would abandon their careers to be housewives, working within the domestic sphere of the home, cooking and cleaning and tending to the general needs of the family. During this period, the expectation was that the husband and father was the man of the house and the sole financial provider or “breadwinner” for the family. Given the narrowness of existence for these women, and how limited their choices were, their reactions to this type of domestic captivity were all very diverse. Some women responded to the limiting social conventions by conforming to the expectations placed upon them, while others made great…… [Read More]
How do employees adjust and how might it affect their attitudes toward their jobs? Have you had this type of conversation with a supervisor, and if so, what was the outcome?
Because of the fear of not being hired, few employees (including myself) are willing to discuss initial expectations with a supervisor upon entry into a company. However, during performance reviews, provided the relationship with the supervisor is strong, the topic of opportunities regarding personal growth may be broached. There is always reluctance even then about making the discussion too 'personal.' In some instances, this discussion can be a positive experience for employees, as it can enable them to be more honest in a workplace context. Other employees, particularly if they are not a good fit with the organizational culture to begin with, or do not have warm relations with their supervisor, may feel uncomfortable with such a discussion.
Q3.…… [Read More]
How should one interpret the final escape attempt? There are definitely more sides to it. First of all, Luke is trying to escape his prison condition and, in conformity with everything that has been shown so far, battle authority and manifest his disobedience against rules and order. However, it is also an attempt to escape his own human condition, also a similar type of prison to the one he is experimenting in his real existence. Caught between a set of societal rules that need to be respected in order to be able to survive in society and his own fight against authority, corroborated with his desire to lead an existence without such boundaries, Luke attempts escapes from his own human condition, which is probably what increases the drama and tragedy of the movie, because we all know that is not possible except through death. This also anticipates the end of…… [Read More]
At the same time she strove to do well in her traditionally family role, while also attempting to prove herself as a worthy author.
Wollstonecraft also influenced other prominent female figures of her time, of which the most notable is Anna Letitia Barbauld. Although the latter firmly differed from Wollstonecraft in her ideas relating to women and their role in society as well as their rights to formal education, she was indeed inspired by the fervor with which Mary Wollstonecraft fought to bring her ideas to light.
Finally, the conclusion summarizes the fact that Wollstonecraft concerned herself not only with her career as writer, but also with the broader implications of such a career for the women of her time. She used the power of her words to pioneer the rights of women to lives of their own and to an education that would match their intelligence. This makes her…… [Read More]
Wallace x) Three psycho-sociological concepts which are well represented in the film are conformity of group behavior, gender roles in adolescents, especially boys and narrow tradition based attitudes about what is valuable in society.
The whole film is based upon conformity of behavior according to accepted traditions and accepted societal standards of the 1950s in America. Acting was not an accepted vocation, as accepted vocations were those which carried prestige and high salaries. Society's judgment of the value of a job was its monetary worth. The school and its teachers are bound by the traditional mode of teaching, which is largely stale drill and practice with attendant exams. The value is based upon the idea of education being based upon how much information a student can store and regurgitate. It is especially well illustrated by the scene with Keating where he has the students tear out the introduction in…… [Read More]
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]
This too is meaningless, a chasing after the wind."
8. Everything in life is a win-lose perspective.
Always play on level ground with peers. Each situation can be a win-win one when we respect other people. Philippians 2:3: "Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves."
9. People who believe differently are viewed as having moral inferiority's rather than merely differences in behavior.
People of different persuasions whether religious or behavioral are not morally inferior. Unfortunately even Jesus wanted to kill any non-believers. Luke 19:27: "But those enemies of mine who did not want me to be king over them -- bring them here and kill them in front of me."
10. ne has the right to be free from discomfort and to glide through life with only minimum frustration.
Suffering is a part of life; however, there is always relief…… [Read More]
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
oth novels…… [Read More]
This greater stress on order and discipline and fear of alternative influences is also reflected in the rise of anti-Semitism. The act of defining Christians against Jews, given that Judaism gave birth to Christianity is manifest in "The Life and Miracles of St. illiam of Norwich." Not only to the fictional Jews commit a ritualistic murder, typical of blood libel stories of the period, they also enact a crucifixion scene, underling the 'crime' of Jews of rejecting Christ, rather than the Judaic contribution to Christianity. Interestingly, however, the 'truth' of the blood libel myth was supposedly revealed by a former Jew who became a monk, thus showing a strange mix of hatred of Jews and Judaism, but also a kind of unstated admission that Jesus was Jewish and Christians consider the Torah as well as the Gospels holy documents.
The Life and Miracles of St. illiam of Norwich."…… [Read More]
Urban Outfitters Case Study
Urban Outfitters has defined a highly differentiated and unique shopping experience, supported by the eclectic and highly varied store layouts and merchandise strategy. This approach to retailing appeals to the individuality and uniqueness every consumer also sees in themselves, allowing the consumers to define themselves by what they like. INA actuality, Urban Outfitters is more aligned to key marketing concepts and strategies than its much larger and less differentiated competitors including Sears and Wal-Mart. Appearing non-conformist and counter-culture within its image, Urban Outfitters is actually providing an escape for consumers to use their purchases to define who they really are and what they actually care out. etailing that appeals to the values and individuality of a consumers are highly effective in creating loyalty and continued repurchase (Puccinelli, Goodstein, Grewal, Price, aghubir, Stewart, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to explain why Urban Outfitters continues to…… [Read More]
What is key about both of these quotations is the loss of identity that is endemic to both of them. The cadets who have survived the fourth-class system and who inflict ritualistic violence in the form of hazing on others have lost something of their true "selves," something that was stripped away to lead them to believe that they could rightfully engage in this sort of behavior to inflict pain upon others. Therefore, the cadets who are guilty of said violence are perpetuating it because they have lost their own identities through disassociation -- in much the same way that Seth lost most of the moments of his life to this same phenomenon.
In conclusion, several of Stout's ideas about disassociation both apply to and help explain the tradition of obedience in the violent, misogynistic rituals that take place at the Citadel. The similarities between the effects of disassociation and…… [Read More]
The tale of Chibana Shoichi's, the Okinawan supermarket owner, demonstrates how there is still a major segment of society that believes in the "emperor system," even in Okinawa. However, Field exposes how these people have been forced to conform with this system, though social pressure, threats, and even violence. But despite these obstacles, there are still people like Shoichi who will speak out against this system and its historical amnesia. However, this fight has only just begun and not all those who stand up against the system are successful. Mrs. Nakaya was unsuccessful in her attempt to stop the government from using her husband to reinforce a system that she felt was unjust and restricted her religious beliefs. The response by the government signifies how deeply ingrained into Japanese society is the "emperor system," and how many Japanese, including the Japanese Supreme Court, see no differentiation between tradition Shinto-based emperor…… [Read More]
" This temporary lesson actually applies on a wider scale to life. Clothing, in our society, is closely integrated with sexuality and gender definition. Men often determine who they will have a sexual interest in based on the clothing of the person in question. A woman in a housecoat is not generally seen as a sexual target in the same way that a woman in a leather miniskirt is. ecause women are seen as weaker than men and as belonging to them sexually based on the gender roles of our society, men tend to think they have power over people wearing women's clothes, whether that person be a boy or a girl. This is a power they would not assume that they have over boys, and it is the association with femininity and the stereotypes that are perpetrated about females in general that causes this.
A reflection of how gender…… [Read More]
Individual and Society
Relationship between Individual and Society
As the world has penetrated into the age of advancements, numerous facets have been changed over time, and the relationship between the individual and society is one of the elements that have also changed over the course of period, which cannot be overlooked. Conformity and traditional values were considered the most significant aspect for the people in the earlier times, however, currently; individualization has been witnessed as the latest attempt that defines the current nature of this relationship.
Numerous investigations from the post modern, modern and late modern eras have been carried out in order to identify and determine the root cause of the changes in the relationship over time. However, amongst the numerous researches, few of it are highlighted that can measure the reasons behind the changing forms of integration and differentiation amongst the people and society.
From one…… [Read More]
director of the Boy in the Striped Pajamas about conformity and the development of prejudice
The Boy in the Striped Pajamas by John Boyne
The Boy in the Striped Pajamas (2008) details the adventures of a young German boy named Bruno during orld ar II. The movie uses the naive perspective of a child to critique the prejudice and discrimination practiced by the Nazis during the war and also to critique prejudiced attitudes in general. The novel suggests that Bruno's pure, childish perspective is free of hatred, compared with those of adults and his older sister Greta. It advocates the point-of-view that human beings are essentially 'the same' and that perceived differences of race, religion, and class are socially-constructed and not innate to humanity.
The beginning of the film details the move of Bruno's family to a concentration camp to live, where his father will work as an officer. To…… [Read More]
The Conformist, which was directed by the noteworthy Italian filmmaker Bernardo Bertolucci, is a notable film on two fairly exceptional accounts. Not only does it manage to combine a meaningful plot with elements of psychology, politics, and social issues, but it also is visually entrancing and features astute cinematography and sumptuous scenes. At the heart of the issue that the film evaluates is the need and actual effect of conforming. The conclusion hints that there is a degree of futility in human lives, and that regardless of how much one chooses to conform or to not conform, he or she only has limited influence on the world around him or her.
Set during the turbulent years preceding and encompassing the Second World War, The Conformist depicts the journey of its protagonist, Marcello Clerici, through the various stages of his life in a series of flashbacks that regularly…… [Read More]
Basic Concepts of Human Interaction
Conformity & Obedience
Human interaction is the phenomenon which takes place when two humans have a tendency to have an effect over one another. Individuals are mainly unaware of the fact that they are responding to the external factors and are adapting to the surroundings. Every situation requires the humans to react differently and thus demands a different mannerism altogether. A simple example of such behavior is individual's behavior which shows professionalism in the work-related settings whereas the same individual will exhibit different behavior when found with friends or family. Hence, every situation requires individual to consider the external factors requiring thorough analysis of what to say and how to respond. The two fundamental examples of such behavior are conformity and obedience. These two terms may sound the same however individuals exhibit these two sets of behavior differently in different situations.
Human behavior…… [Read More]
I. The dangers of conformity is the main theme of both D.H. Lawrence’s short story “The Rocking-Horse Winner” and Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery.”
A. Although these stories were written in different times and places and describe different characters and events, they converge on the main theme of conformity to irrelevant or harmful social norms.
B. Both Lawrence and Jackson use literary devices like symbolism, irony, and characterization to convey the theme of conformity.
II. Characterization is central to both of these short stories, helping to show how weakness and lack of self-awareness lead to blind conformity, causing suffering and even death.
A. The mother in “The Rocking Horse Winner” is like Bill Hutchinson in “The Lottery,” even though the latter could have prevented his wife’s death.
B. Tessie and Paul are both sacrificial lambs, although Tessie does realize the stupidity of the social rules governing the community.
III. The…… [Read More]
Rosewood is a film particularly suitable and interesting for the application of social psychology. It concerns the story of a black community in early 20th-century Florida. The community was rather a-typical of the time, since black people were wealthy landowners. The neighboring company town of Sumner on the other hand, was occupied by poor white people, who were jealous of the wealth they observed in Rosewood. This setting provides a backdrop for social psychological analysis concerning ingroups and outgroups, and how racism leads to escalating tension.
Prejudice and Racism
Prejudice, according to rehm, Kassin & Fein (147), can be unintentional. It also means the stereotyping of a certain group of people on the irrational grounds of a perceived threat, exacerbated by the fact that little personal information is available about the target of prejudice. In the film, prejudice against black people is a paradigm of the historical time. The likelihood…… [Read More]
While his loss of accent brought himself and his teachers a sense of pride, it brought sorrow to his parents, who saw the change, however gradual, in their child. The author furthermore admits that for children like him, from a non-white American background, the home and school environment are at cultural extremes. This creates conflict that the young Rodriguez handled by conforming to his school environment. In effect he replaced the importance and roles of his parents in his life with those of his teachers, and as such became an academic success.
The author however admits that this is a shameful and lonely type of success. Nonetheless, it is a success that the author has chosen to conform to. Instead of therefore being successful because he has been educated, Rodriguez emphasizes that his success was chosen. He worked towards academic success with great passion, because this is what he wanted.…… [Read More]
Events that led to implementation of various regulatory measures
The implementation of the 1984 Sentencing Reform Act called for the establishment of Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations (FSGO). The United States Sentencing Commission decided to come up with these guidelines targeted at individuals and firms. The key aim was crime prevention and decreasing disparities in sentencing. (Mercer, 2003). At first, in the year 1991, the idea of organizational punishment mitigation was introduced, for cooperation and effective adherence to the program.
The 2002 federal regulation, SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act), put extensive financial and auditing related regulations in place for publicly-traded organizations. The chief goal was regulation of corporate practices like financial reporting at such corporations.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), instituted as part of the 2010 Consumer Protection Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform, is responsible for the oversight of federal financial regulations expressly protecting consumers (i.e., individuals who store the money they own…… [Read More]